BREXIT BRIEF BREXIT - The Institute of International and European Affairs

 
BREXIT BRIEF BREXIT - The Institute of International and European Affairs
BREXIT BRIEF
         BRIEF
                                       BREXIT

 Brexit Brief Issue 60: 22 March 2019

Introduction
The Brief seeks to provide up-to-date information on the progress and content of the UK-EU negotiations, and
bring together relevant statements and policy positions from key players in Ireland, the UK and EU.
The Brief is part of a wider communications programme covering the work of the IIEA’s UK Project Group –
involving commentaries, speeches, texts and event reports – which are highlighted on the Institute website.
(www.iiea.com)

Section One: State of Play                                   Commons voting to approve the Withdrawal Agreement
                                                             the following week. If the House of Commons fails to
European Council Conclusions                                 approve the deal, the Council will grant an extension
                                                             until 12 April 2019. By this date, the UK must indicate
The European Council met on 21 March 2019 to discuss
                                                             an alternative way forward for the Council to consider.
Prime Minister Theresa May’s formal request for an
extension to Article 50. The Prime Minister had written to   The Conclusions also confirmed that the Withdrawal
President Tusk on 20 March 2019 to request an extension      Agreement cannot be reopened and called for work to
until 30 June 2019, in order to allow time for the House     continue on preparations for a no-deal exit.
of Commons to ratify the Withdrawal Agreement and
Political Declaration on the Future Relationship. The        Shortly after the Council published its conclusions, the
Council Conclusions were published on the evening of         Prime Minister gave a statement in which she welcomed
21 March 2019 and stated that the Council approved the       the Council approval of the legally binding assurances
Instrument relating to the Withdrawal Agreement and          offered by the Commission the previous week. She
Joint Declaration supplementing the Political Declaration    welcomed the extension of Article 50 until 22 May and
agreed by negotiators on 11 March 2019.                      urged MPs to approve the deal next week, warning that if
                                                             MPs failed to approve the deal by the 12 April date, the
The Conclusions further stated that the Council would        UK could face a long extension, in which they would be
grant an extension of Article 50 until 22 May 2019 (before   required to participate in the European elections in May.
the European elections), conditional on the House of
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Speaker Rules Out Repeat Brexit Vote                             •    Declaration by Her Majesty’s Government of the
                                                                      United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Earlier in the week, the Speaker of the House of Commons,
                                                                      Ireland concerning the Northern Ireland Protocol
John Bercow, added to the confusion surrounding
Parliament’s approach to Brexit by ruling out another            •    Statement by the Prime Minister that political
vote on the Prime Minister’s exit deal unless the House is            agreement has been reached (for the purposes of the
given a new motion. In a surprise ruling, he said he would            European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018)
not allow a third ‘Meaningful Vote’ in the coming days
on “substantially the same” motion as MPs rejected last          The UK Declaration notes that the objective of the
week. Mr Bercow cited a convention dating back to 1604           Withdrawal Agreement is not to establish a permanent
that a defeated motion could not be brought back in the          relationship between the EU and the UK and that the
same form during the course of a Parliamentary session.          provisions of the Protocol are intended to apply only
He said the second vote on the Prime Minister’s deal last        temporarily. It further states that in certain circumstances
week was “in order” as it was substantially different to the     nothing in the Agreement would prevent the UK from
first, but any further votes must meet the conditions he         initiating measures that could ultimately lead to the
had laid down.                                                   disapplication of obligations under the Protocol.

Second Commons Defeat                                            A critical element in the Parliamentary consideration of
                                                                 the Prime Minister’s deal was the formal Legal Opinion
On 12 March 2019, the Prime Minister put the draft               on the Joint Instrument and Unilateral Declaration
Withdrawal Agreement and the Political Declaration to            concerning the Withdrawal Agreement, set out by the
the House of Commons for approval for the second time,           Attorney General, Geoffrey Cox, delivered in a letter on the
following its rejection on 15 January by a majority of           morning of 12 March. He had considered the documents
230, 432 votes to 202, the biggest margin of defeat of a         concluded with the EU in Strasbourg on 11 March: the
Government motion in Westminster history.                        Joint Instrument and the Unilateral Declaration which
                                                                 addressed issues related to the Northern Ireland Protocol
MPs were provided with a series of papers emerging from
                                                                 (The Backstop).
the Prime Minister’s engagement with the EU Negotiating
Task Force and Presidents Donald Tusk and Jean-Claude            He concluded that the Joint Instrument contained
Juncker. These included:                                         legally binding provisions which reduced the risk that the
                                                                 United Kingdom could be indefinitely and involuntarily
•    Joint Statement Supplementing the Political
                                                                 detained within the Protocol’s provisions but that the
     Declaration Setting Out the Framework for the
                                                                 legal risk remained that, “simply because of intractable
     Future Relationship Between the European Union
                                                                 differences” the United Kingdom “would have, at least
     and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
                                                                 while the fundamental circumstances remained the same,
     Northern Ireland
                                                                 no internationally lawful means of exiting the Protocol’s
•    Instrument relating to the Agreement on the                 arrangements, save by agreement”. This opinion led the
     Withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain           DUP and the European Research Group of Tory MPs to
     and Northern Ireland from the European Union and            indicate that they would vote against the Government
     the European Atomic Energy Community.                       Motion.

                                                                 The Government motion was rejected by a margin of

As an independent forum, the Institute does not express any opinions of its own. The views expressed in the article are the sole
responsibility of the author.
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149, 391 votes to 242, a better result than in January           symbol of Parliament’s collective political failure” if a
but the fourth largest defeat of a Government proposal           delay to Brexit meant the UK was forced to take part in
in Westminster history. While the margin of 149 was 80           the European Parliament elections in May, three years
less than the January result, it left the Prime Minister with    after voting to leave the EU. She made it clear that she had
the task of switching as many as 75 MPs to her side in any       much to do to convince Tory MPs who had twice voted
further vote on the deal.                                        against the deal to switch their votes and to convince the
                                                                 DUP to drop its opposition.
Immediately following the Speaker’s confirmation of the
vote, the Prime Minister expressed her profound regret           Discussions are taking place with the DUP on their
and reiterated her belief that “the best outcome is that         approach to a third vote on the exit deal. The Party
the UK leaves the EU in an orderly fashion with a deal           has welcomed the Government’s ‘renewed focus’ on
and that the deal we have negotiated is the best and             addressing its objections to the deal and indicated that it
indeed the only deal available”. She then outlined the           “wanted to get a deal but it had to be the right deal”.
Government’s intentions on how to proceed, beginning
with a Government Motion to test whether the House               PM in Strasbourg / Negotiations in Brussels
supports leaving the European Union without a deal on
                                                                 The supplemental Joint Statement and Interpretative
29 March. There would be a free vote for MPs on the
                                                                 Instrument were the product of a process of negotiation in
Government side of the House. She confirmed that, if the
                                                                 Brussels between a British team (led by the Brexit Secretary,
House declined to approve leaving without a deal on 29
                                                                 Steve Barclay, and involving the Attorney General,
March, there would be a motion on whether Parliament
                                                                 Geoffrey Cox, and Senior Advisor, Olly Robbins) and
wished to seek an extension to Article 50. The Prime
                                                                 the EU Task Force (led by the Chief Negotiator, Michel
Minister commented that “the EU will want to know
                                                                 Barnier, and his deputy, Sabine Weyand), following the
what use we mean to make of such an extension. The
                                                                 defeat of the deal in the House of Commons in January.
House will have to answer that question”.
                                                                 The EU position was made clear from the outset with
A Third Commons Vote                                             Michel Barnier telling the European Parliament that
The Prime Minister informed MPs that she would make a            the Withdrawal Agreement “is and will remain the only
third attempt to obtain approval for the withdrawal deal,        available treaty”. The initial discussions proved difficult
on 19 or 20 March, insisting that if the deal failed yet         as the UK side argued for changes in the text of the
again to get the backing of the Commons there may have           Agreement to provide safeguards on the Irish border
to be a lengthy delay to Brexit as alternatives are explored.    question. The UK suggestions of a unilateral exit clause
                                                                 from the backstop or an expiry date were rejected by
In an article in the Sunday Telegraph of 17 March, the           the EU side which then offered to draw up documents
Prime Minister argued that failure to support the deal           clarifying the terms of the Agreement.
would mean “we will not leave the EU for many months,
if ever”. She wrote that if Parliament votes for her             The EU side offered the UK a unilateral exit from the
withdrawal deal ahead of the European Council meeting            UK-wide parts of the backstop with other parts of the
on 21-22 March the UK will seek a short delay to Brexit          backstop continuing to apply to Northern Ireland. This
to facilitate passage of necessary legislation.                  offer was unacceptable to London as it could create a
                                                                 customs border along the Irish Sea, which had been ruled
The Prime Minister asserted that it would be a “potent           out by the UK in previous talks.

As an independent forum, the Institute does not express any opinions of its own. The views expressed in the article are the sole
responsibility of the author.
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Attention then centred on the search for a legally binding       reassurances on reassurances. It’s this deal or Brexit may
interpretation of the Agreement, which would underline           not happen at all”.
the temporary nature of the backstop. This approach
involves an arbitration panel which could suspend some           Further Commons Votes
of the UK obligations if the EU were found to have
                                                                 Following the second defeat of the Withdrawal Agreement
acted in bad faith. Legal weight was given to the content
                                                                 and Political Declaration the House of Commons voted
of the January letter from Presidents Tusk and Juncker,
                                                                 on a number of significant motions.
affirming that the EU did not want the backstop to take
effect and that every effort should be made to conclude a        On 13 March the Prime Minister suffered another defeat,
comprehensive long term agreement.                               this time on the issue of taking a no-deal outcome off the
                                                                 table. The Government tabled a motion rejecting the no-
The negotiators concluded two documents, the Joint
                                                                 deal option in respect of the 29 March deadline but the
Statement which supplemented the Political Declaration
                                                                 House passed an Amendment calling for the rejection of a
on the future relationship and the legally binding
                                                                 no-deal Brexit ‘at any time and under any circumstances’ by
Instrument. The package constituted real progress but
                                                                 the narrow margin of 312 votes to 308. The Government,
required political agreement at the highest level and,
                                                                 which had promised a free vote on its motion, then sought
for the UK, clearance by the Attorney General whose
                                                                 to impose a whip against the amended text. This resulted
legal opinion would carry great weight in the House of
                                                                 in a confused situation in which the amended motion was
Commons. The desirability of a Unilateral Declaration
                                                                 adopted by 322 votes to 278 with as many as 12 MPs
by the UK on the key issues was recognised and drafting
                                                                 defying the whip by abstaining.
began as decision time in the Commons drew near. It was
agreed that the Prime Minister would travel to Strasbourg        On the following day the House rejected a motion calling
on Monday 11 March to meet Commission President                  for a second referendum by a huge margin – 334 votes to
Juncker who was committed to European Parliament                 85. The Labour Party abstained, arguing that the proposal
business.                                                        was untimely.

The Prime Minister and the Commission President                  A motion tabled by the Labour Party’s Hilary Benn and
agreed the package of measures on the backstop late on           Yvette Cooper and the Tory MP Oliver Letwin - designed
11 March. The text of the UK Unilateral Declaration              to seize control of the Brexit process through a series of
was finally agreed following contact between Jean-Claude         indicative votes on alternative outcomes – was rejected by
Juncker and Taoiseach Leo Varadkar. The Prime Minister           314 votes to 312.
returned to London where the assessment by the Attorney
General would prove crucial. Before boarding her plane,          On 14 March, the Prime Minister succeeded in obtaining
Theresa May gave a brief press conference with Jean-             the support of the House for her motion on an extension
Claude Juncker. The Prime Minister said: “the deal that          of Article 50 if her deal is finally endorsed or a longer
MPs voted on in January was not strong enough […]                delay if the House voted ‘no’ a third time. The motion was
and legally binding changes were needed to set that right.       passed by 412 votes to 202. The Government published a
Today we have agreed them.” Jean-Claude Juncker told             factual note, entitled ‘EU Exit: Parameters of Extending
the press conference that this was the last chance for MPs       Article 50’ on the legal requirements, process, possible
to support the Brexit deal, and emphasised that “There           extension and the role of the European Parliament.
will be no further interpretations of interpretations or

As an independent forum, the Institute does not express any opinions of its own. The views expressed in the article are the sole
responsibility of the author.
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Irish Responses                                                  association, has called for Parliament to “stop playing
                                                                 games”, The British Chambers of Commerce have stated:
Taoiseach Leo Varadkar, in a statement on the latest
                                                                 “Once again, businesses are left waiting for Parliament to
developments on Brexit, addressed the outcome of
                                                                 reach a consensus on the way forward. In the meantime,
the May-Juncker meeting. He said that what had been
                                                                 firms are continuing to enact their contingency plans,
agreed did not undermine the backstop or reopen the
                                                                 anxiety amongst many businesses is rising and customers
Withdrawal Agreement.
                                                                 are being lost. Businesses, jobs, investment and our
He described the Instrument agreed in Strasbourg as              communities are still firmly in the danger zone”. The
putting assurances required by the UK on a legal footing         British Government has acknowledged that the tariff
and representing an unambiguous statement by both                regime it has announced will hurt Northern Irish business
parties of what has been agreed. He spoke of the various         but argued that the need to keep the border open trumps
elements of the agreement and concluded that “the                economic concerns.
options to ensure avoidance of a hard border continue to
                                                                 UK Tariff Plans
correspond to those agreed as far back as the Joint report
of December 2017 which envisaged this being achieved             On 13 March, the UK Government set out its pricing
by (1) a comprehensive future EU-UK relationship, (2)            regime in the event that the UK exits the EU on 29 March
specific solutions or (3) in the absence of agreed solutions,    without a deal. The regime envisages that tariffs will be
regulatory alignment, i.e. the backstop”.                        cut to zero on 87% of imports to the UK as part of a
                                                                 temporary no-deal plan but that duties and levies will be
The Taoiseach argued that “We now need to see the
                                                                 imposed on some imports, for example: beef, chicken and
Withdrawal Agreement ratified by Westminster and by
                                                                 pork, shoes and cars. The new system would apply for a
the European Parliament without further delay, so that
                                                                 period of 12 months after exit, while the UK Government
we can get on with the important work of building the
                                                                 consulted and negotiated on a new, permanent approach
closest possible relationship between the EU and the UK
                                                                 to tariffs.
and between the UK and Ireland, post Brexit.”
                                                                 The Government also announced that, in the event of a
The Government Omnibus Bill, in preparation for the
                                                                 no-deal exit, there would be no tariffs on goods moving
possibility of a no-deal outcome, was signed by President
                                                                 from Ireland into Northern Ireland. There would be new
Michael D. Higgins, after completing its passage through
                                                                 checks, away from the Irish border, to protect biosecurity
Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann. A list of 21 pieces of
                                                                 on the island of Ireland. The Government argued that
secondary legislation was published, covering issues such
                                                                 it was seeking to avoid a hard border on the island and
as health, social protection and VAT. The Government’s
                                                                 that there would be urgent discussions with the EU and
programme of Business Supports and Engagement and its
                                                                 Ireland about longer term border arrangements.
activities in respect of Agriculture continued together with
actions on issues related to Driving and Freight Transport.      The Director General of the CBI, Carolyn Fairbairn,
                                                                 responded that the announcement underlined the risks
Section Two: The Evolving Debate                                 inherent in a no-deal outcome. She stated that the change
                                                                 is the biggest in terms of trade faced by the country
Business Concerns                                                “since the mid-19th century […] with no consultation
The Chief Executive of Make UK, the UK manufacturing             with business, no time to prepare.” RTÉ correspondent,
                                                                 Sean Whelan, wrote that the tariff plan, and its timing,

As an independent forum, the Institute does not express any opinions of its own. The views expressed in the article are the sole
responsibility of the author.
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was designed to pressure the Irish into abandoning the           HM Government Prime Minister’s press statement in
backstop, but he suggested that it was not unreasonable          Strasbourg, 11 March 2019. www.gov.uk/government/
to assume the Irish Government have “war-gamed such a            speeches/prime-ministers-press-statemrent-in-strasbourg-
British tactic and have a plan to deal with it”.                 11-march-2019.

Northern Ireland Poll Results                                    HM Government Prime Minister’s Speech in Grimsby,
                                                                 8 March 2019. www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pm-
An Irish Times/Ipsos MRBI poll has produced results              speech-in-grimsby-8-march-2019
which show views in Northern Ireland on Brexit which
cross the community divide. For example, 85% of voters           HM Government Prime Minister: We can deliver the
from a Catholic background disapprove of the way the             change you voted for. Article in the Grimsby Telegraph,
Government is running the UK, while 72% of voters from           8 March 2019. www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pm-
a Protestant background agree. 67% of voters said that           we-can-deliver-the-change-you-voted-for
DUP MPs were doing a bad job representing Northern
Ireland at Westminster, with 83% of Catholics holding            Prime Minister Theresa May The patriotic thing for
that opinion and 52% of Protestants in agreement. 82%            MPs to do is vote for my Brexit deal. Telegraph, 17 March
of Catholics were dissatisfied with the performance of           2019. www.telegraph.co.uk/politics/2019/03/16/theresa-
Arlene Foster, as were 57% of Protestants. There is a high       may-patriotic-thing-mps-vote-deal
degree of cross-community agreement in preferring the
                                                                 HM Government EU Exit. Parameters of Extending
‘softest of soft’ version of Brexit.
                                                                 Article 50, 15 March 2019. www.gov.uk/government/
                                                                 publications/eu-exit-parameters-of-extending-article-50
Section Three: Background Material and Further
Reading
                                                                 UK Attorney General Legal Opinion on Joint Instrument
                                                                 and Unilateral Declaration concerning the Withdrawal
Background Material
                                                                 Agreement, 12 March 2019. www.gov.uk/ago
HM Government Prime Minister’s Letter to Donald Tusk,
20 March 2019. www.gov.uk/government/publications/               Department for Exiting the European Union. A
prime-ministers-letter-to-president-tusk-20-march-2019           Government statement confirming that political agreement
                                                                 has been reached on the withdrawal agreement, and the
HM Government Prime Minister’s Statement on Brexit,              framework for the future relationship between the UK
20 March 2019. www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pm-                and the EU, laying these documents before Parliament,
statemdent-on-brexit-20-martch-2019.                             12 March 2019. https://www.gov.uk/government/
                                                                 publications/11-march-withdrawal-agreement-and-
European Council Statement by President Donald Tusk              political-declaration-laid-before-parliament-following-
on Brexit, 20 March 2019. www.consilium.europa.eu/en/            political-agreement
press/press-releases/2019/03/20/statement-by-president-
donald-tusk-on-brexit                                            Department for Exiting the European Union. Letter
                                                                 from Secretary of State to Michel Barnier on ring-fencing
HM Government Prime Minister’s Statement in House                the citizens’ rights part of the Withdrawal Agreement
of Commons, 12 March 2019. www.gov.uk/government/                whatever the outcome of negotiations, 4 March 2019. www.
speeches/pm-statement-in-the-house-of-commons-12-                assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/
march-2019

As an independent forum, the Institute does not express any opinions of its own. The views expressed in the article are the sole
responsibility of the author.
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system/uploads/attachment_data/file/783570/2019-03-              March 2019. www.telegraph.co.uk/politics/2019/03/13/
02_Costa_letter_-_FINAL__3___1_.pdf                              brexit-has-shown-establishment-bunch-small-minded-
                                                                 mediocre-bullies
Financial Times May issues ultimatum after MPs ditch
no-deal Brexit,. FT, 15 March 2019. www.ft.com/                  RTÉ Last ditch EU-UK package agreed on Irish
content/2fc6b504-45c5-11e9-a965-23d669740bfb                     Backstop. RTE, 12 March 2019. www.rte.ie/news/
                                                                 brexit/2019/0312/1035805-brexit_new_measures
Financial Times UK Parliament votes overwhelmingly
to seek Brexit delay. FT, 15 March 2019. www.ft.com/             Financial Times May agrees revised Brexit deal
content/7d119ff8-4675-11e9-a965-23d669740bfb                     with Juncker. FT, 12 March 2019. www.ft.com/
                                                                 content/16f3d25a-444e-11e9-b168-96a37d002cd3
RTÉ Tusk to ask EU leaders to be open to long Brexit
extension. RTE, 14 March 2019. www.rte.ie/news/                  Independent.ie The price of Brexit –DUP makes final
brexit/2019/0314/1036289-brexit                                  demands over deal support. Independent, 16 March 2019.
                                                                 www.independent.ie/business/brexit/the-price-of-brexit-
The Guardian MPs back Brexit delay as votes lay bare             dup-makes-final-demands-over-deal-support-37919684.
cabinet divisions. Guardian,, 14 March 2019. www.                html
theguardian.com/politics/2019/mar/14/mps-vote-by-
majority-of-210-to-extend-article-50-and-delay-brexit            BBC Brexit: DUP welcomes ‘renewed focus’ on their
                                                                 concerns after talks. BBC, 15 March 2019. www.bbc.
Financial Times UK sets out trade plans to limit no-deal         com/news/uk-politics-47586694
Brexit damage. FT, 13 March 2019. www.ft.com/content/
d05189c8-455b-11e9-a965-23d669740bfb                             BBC Brexit: Will EU leaders agree to an extension?
                                                                 BBC, 15 March 2019. www.bbc.com/news/world-
The Guardian UK will cut most tariffs to zero in event           europe-47578449
of no-deal Brexit. Guardian, 13 March 2019. www.
theguardian.com/politics/2019/mar/13/brexit-tariffs-on-          Financial Times EU sets out July 1 Deadline in
87-of-uk-imports-cut-to-zero-in-temporary-no-deal-plan           Brexit delay plans. FT, 16 March 2019. www.ft.com/
                                                                 content/030dce3c-4749-11e9-a965-23d669740bfb
BBC Brexit: PM to bring third Brexit deal vote to
Commons. BBC, 14 March 2019. www.bbc.com/news/                   Irish Times British government acknowledges regime will
uk-politics-47564793                                             hurt North’s businesses. IT, 13 March 2019. www.irishtimes.
                                                                 com/news/politics/british-government-acknowledges-
RTÉ EU considers call for Brexit delay before summit. RTE,       regime-will-hurt-north-s-businesses-1.3824076
15 March 2019. www.rte.ie/brexit/2019/0315/1036524-
article-50-extension                                             RTÉ Barnier offers Britain unilateral exit from
                                                                 customs union. RTE, 8 March 2019. www.rte.ie/news/
RTÉ Withdrawal Agreement is only orderly way out for             brexit/2019/0308/1035221-brexit-barnier
UK, says Barnier. RTE, 13 March 2019. www.rte.ire/
news/brexit/2019/0313/1036070-brexit-europe                      Financial Times EU offers new Brexit backstop plan. FT,
                                                                 9 March 2019. www.ft.com/content/048107c6-41bc-
The Telegraph Brexit has shown up the Establishment as           11e9-b896-fe36ec32aece
a bunch of smallminded, mediocre bullies. Telegraph, 13

As an independent forum, the Institute does not express any opinions of its own. The views expressed in the article are the sole
responsibility of the author.
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BBC Brexit secretary accuses EU of trying to ‘rerun old          one option left: compromise. Guardian, 14 March 2019.
arguments.’ BBC, 9 March 2019. www.bbc.com/news/                 www.theguardian.com/comment-is-free/2019/mar/14/
uk-47506139                                                      brexit-option-compromise-referendum-vote-theresa-
                                                                 may-labour
The Telegraph Mrs May is responsible for losing control
of Brexit. Telegraph, 14 March 2019. www.telegraph.              The Guardian EU faces nationalist ‘nightmare’ in next
co.uk/politics/2019/03/13/mrs-may-responsible-losing-            five years, says Verhofstadt. Guardian, 5 March 2019.
control-brexit                                                   www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/05/eu-faces-
                                                                 nationalist-nightmare-in-next-five-years-says-verhofstadt
Observer The Observer view on the case for a second Brexit
vote remaining as strong as ever. Observer, 10 March 2019.       Financial Times Business highlights worries over Brexit
www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/mar/10/                   delay.   FT, 15 March 2019. www.ft.com/content/
observer-view-on-the-case-for-a-second-brexit-vote-              ce57c328-468f-11e9-b168-96a37d002cd3
remaining-as-strong-as-ever
                                                                 Government of Ireland Government Brexit Update, 8
Owen Paterson I still won’t back Mrs May’s deal –                March 2019. www.gov.ie/brexit
because it’s not Brexit. Telegraph, 16 March 2019. www.
telegraph.co.uk/politics/2019/03/16/still-wont-bavck-            Government of Ireland Government Brexit Update, 12
mrs-mays-deal-not-brexit                                         March 2019. www.gov.ie/brexit

The Guardian EU on no-deal Brexit motion: ‘Like                  Taoiseach Leo Varadkar Statement by An Taoiseach, Leo
Titanic voting for iceberg to move’. Guardian, 13 March          Varadkar, on latest developments on Brexit. Merrion Street,
2019. www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/mar/13/eu-               12 March 2019. www.merrionstreet.ie/en/News-Room/
extend-brexit-talks-complete-barnier-brussels-assurance          News/Statement_by_An_Taoiseach_Leo_Varadkar_on_
                                                                 latest_developments_on_Brexit_Government_Buildings
RTÉ History will judge UK, EU badly if they get Brexit
wrong, warns Hunt. RTE, 8 March 2019. www.rte.ie/                The Guardian Revised Brexit deal does not undermine
news/brexit/2019/0308/1035069-brexit                             backstop, says Irish PM. Guardian, 12 March 2019.
                                                                 www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/mar/12/revised-
Financial Times After Brexit, Britain will be a rule-taker.      brexit-deal-does-not-undermine-backstop-sayspirish-pm-
FT, 8 March 2019. www.ft.com/content/67701b76-                   leo-varadkar
4007-11e9-9bee-efab61506f44
                                                                 Tony Connelly How the backstop deal was done – and
Irish Times Ulster Unionist Party leader says NI will not be     why Cox blew it apart. RTE, 16 March 2019. www.rte.
EU ‘dowry’ for Brexit delivery. IT, 10 March 2019. www.          ie/news/analysis-and-comment/2019/0315/1036688-
irishtimes.com/politics/ulster-unionist-party-leader-says-       backstop-deal-cox
ni-will-not-be-eu-dowry-for-brexit-delivery-1.3820619
                                                                 Tony Connelly Brexit: The Cox Gambit, the
Tony Barber Brexit confusion has roots in decades of             Barnier Response, and the Blame Game begins.
mutual suspicion, FT, 15 March 2019. www.ft.com/                 RTE, 9 March 2019. www.rte.ie/news/analysis-and-
content/d473a4b6-4676-11e9-b168-96a37d002cd3                     comment/2019/0308/1035261-brexit-tony-connelly

Simon Jenkins With Brexit now on hold, there’s only              Irish Times Irish Times poll: DUP at odds with its base

As an independent forum, the Institute does not express any opinions of its own. The views expressed in the article are the sole
responsibility of the author.
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over Brexit approach, IT, 8 March 2019. www.irishtimes.
com/news/politics/irish-times-poll-dup-at-odds-with-its-
base-over-brexit-approach-1.3818272

Sean Whelan Tariff proposals designed to put pressure on
Irish Government. RTE, 13 March 2019. www.rt.ie/
news/brexit/2019/0313/1036097-sean-whelan-tariffs

Irish Times No new checks on goods moving across
Border to Northern Ireland in no-deal Brexit. IT, 13
March 2019. www.irishtimes.com/news/ireland/irish-
news/no-new-checks-on- goods-moving-across-border-
to-northern-irelnd-in-no-deal-brexit-1.3824065

Brigid Laffan UK realising EU is dominant power in
Europe and Brexit will be on its terms. IT, 8 March
2019. www.irishtimes.com/opinion/uk-realising-eu-is-
dominant-power-in-europe-and-brexit-will-be-on-its-
terms-1.3818132

Irish Times Ireland will soon have difficult decisions to
make on the Border. IT, 14 March 2019. www.irishtimes.
com/opinion/ireland-will-soon-have-difficult-decisions-
to-make-onthe-border-1.3824818

Fiona Mitchell The meaningful vote, once more,
with feeling. RTE, 11 March 2019. www.rte.ie/
news/2019/0310/1035560-fiona-mitchell

RTÉ UK seems to be reneging on Brexit deal –
Flanagan. RTE, 11 March 2019. www.rte.ie/news/
brexit/2019/0310/1035486-brexit-ireland

Fiona Mitchell Could it be third time lucky for May’s
Brexit deal? RTE, 14 March 2019, www.rte.ie/news/
brexit/2019/0314/1036328-fiona-mitchell-brexit

Further Reading

Bobby McDonagh Original Sin in a Brave New World.
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