Building a partnership - Paul Wall explains how a Sydney partnership continues to reduce construction waste - AWS

Building a partnership - Paul Wall explains how a Sydney partnership continues to reduce construction waste - AWS
APRIL 2018

Building a
Paul Wall explains how a
Sydney partnership continues
to reduce construction waste.

FEATURES                                                       PROUDLY SUPPORTED BY:
Tyre Stewardship Australia’s new market development strategy
Industry profiles: Mark Smith and Peter Schmigel
Container Deposit Scheme: lessons learnt in SA
The future of waste in metropolitan Melbourne
Building a partnership - Paul Wall explains how a Sydney partnership continues to reduce construction waste - AWS

“I’ve been using Iveco ACCOs for 15 years and I reckon they’re one of the best trucks you can get.
They do everything I ask of them and don’t cost much to run – they’re reliable, don’t give me grief
and have never broken down. Another great thing about the ACCO is that it’s Australian-made.”
It’s a decision all of us here at KADS Hire are pretty proud of.”
Don Emtsis, Proprietor – KADS Plant Hire

Building a partnership - Paul Wall explains how a Sydney partnership continues to reduce construction waste - AWS
                                                                               BUILDING THE
                                                                               FOUNDATIONS OF
                                                                               Sydney’s Better Buildings Partnership
                                                                               has helped significantly reduce waste
                                                                               in the building and construction sector,
                                                                               but just how problematic is waste in the
                                                                               sector as a whole?

                                                                               “TENS OF THOUSANDS OF NEW
                                                                               HOMES ARE BEING BUILT EVERY
                                                                               YEAR ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF CITIES

                                                                               LIKE MELBOURNE AND SYDNEY AND
                                                                               A FEW TONNES FOR EVERY HOME
                                                                               CREATED IS COSTING THE BUILDER
                                                                               MONEY, WHICH IS THEN PASSED ON
                                                                               TO THE PURCHASER. ONE OF THE
                                                                               REASONS WHY IT’S DIFFICULT TO
                                                                               RECYCLE IS THAT WASTE IS MOSTLY
                                                                               JUST DUMPED ON SITE IN A CAGE
                                                                               OR SKIP AND IT’S MIXED, WHICH
                                                                               IMPOSES ADDITIONAL COSTS IF IT IS
                                                                               TO BE RECYCLD.”
                                                                               –Stan Krpan, Chief Executive Officer of
                                                                                Sustainability Victoria

In this issue

      HAT SA CAN
           US                          42 MARKET RESOURCES
                                       	ResourceCo’s new Wetherill                    58 AINUSTRALIA’S FUTURE
                                                                                               THE UK’S PAST
	The South Australian                   Park facility has the capability to           	The United Kingdom has been
  Government implemented its             divert 250,000 tonnes of waste                  steadily investing in waste to
  container deposit legislation 40       per annum, reduce emissions and                 energy, but what lessons can
  years ago. Now other states are        save costs for businesses in the                Australia learn from their
  looking at one, so what lessons be     long-term.                                      experiences?
  learnt from SA?
                                       46 MARKET MAGIC                                 62 TWASTE
                                                                                             HE FUTURE OF
                                       	The South Melbourne Market’s
                                         innovation has led to a 90 per
                                         cent reduction in organic waste
                                                                                                  IN METRO
                                                                                       	Victorian Government statutory
 Waste Management Review
 speaks to Peter Schmigel, the new       volumes and more than 600                       authority Metropolitan Waste
 Chief Executive Officer of the          tonnes of organic waste per                     and Resource Recovery Group
 Australian Council of Recycling,        annum diverted from landfill.                   lays out its vision for the future
 about some of the key issues                                                            of alternative waste treatment in
 facing the recycling sector.
                                       56 CNATIONAL
                                             OULD CHINA’S
                                                     SWORD BE
                                                                                         Melbourne, providing updates on
                                                                                         its progress.

                                             OUR GREATEST GIFT?
                                       	China’s ban on waste imports
                                         offers challenges, but with every
	The release of the National            challenge comes opportunity,                    Regulars
  Market Development Strategy            writes Brooke Donnelly,
  for Used Tyres creates a strategic     Chief Executive Officer of the
                                         Australian Packaging Covenant                   6 NEWS
  framework for the market
  development of Australian tyre-        Organisation.                                   69 LAST WORD
  derived products.
                                                                               / WMR / 3
Building a partnership - Paul Wall explains how a Sydney partnership continues to reduce construction waste - AWS
                                                                                                              John Murphy

                                                                                                          MANAGING EDITOR
                                                                                                              Robbie Parkes
                                   From the Editor                                       

                                   Pushing on
                                                                                                            Toli Papadopoulos

                                                                                                              William Arnott

                                                                                                             ART DIRECTOR
IT’S BEEN A COUPLE OF DIFFICULT MONTHS FOR THE RECYCLING INDUSTRY                                            Michelle Weston
but, despite the hiccups, there may be opportunities.
   What started out as a customs inspection program in China soon escalated when its                             DESIGN
ban on 24 categories of solid waste with a contamination rate of more than 0.5 per cent           Blake Storey, James Finlay, Adam Finlay

was flagged to the industry in the middle of last year. Some in the industry, including      BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER
waste consultant Mike Haywood, said it was foreseeable in the Oct/Nov edition of Waste                     Chelsea Daniel-Young
Management Review – Transport’s Macroeconomic Headwind.
                                                                                                            p: +61 425 699 878
   Following the suspension of a number of Victorian council contracts, the state
                                                                                                    CLIENT SUCCESS MANAGER
government responded to the issue with a $13 million package to give councils and                             Justine Nardone
contractors time to develop long-term solutions, including renegotiating contracts. The 
state government also moved to establish a recycling taskforce to develop a plan for the              COVER PHOTOGRAPHER
transition. In southern central Australia, the SA Government allocated $300,000 in grant                          Liam Lim

funding to recycling businesses as part of its response.                                                     HEAD OFFICE
                                                                                                          Prime Creative Pty Ltd
   In February, the National Waste and Recycling Industry Council (NWRIC) also warned                    11-15 Buckhurst Street
that without urgent action to address market changes, Australian recycling contracts               South Melbourne VIC 3205 Australia
                                                                                                 p: +61 3 9690 8766 f: +61 3 9682 0044
could face default. On page 69, Alex Serpo, Policy Officer at NWRIC, explains five         
beneficial recycling programs that could be implemented at scale in response.            

   At this year’s Waste to Energy Forum in Ballarat, I had the pleasure of listening to                    SUBSCRIPTIONS
                                                                                                              +61 3 9690 8766
numerous inspiring talks on the future of waste to energy in Australia. As a result of
the China ban, some noted the potential that exists in Australia to embrace a circular           Waste Management Review is available by
                                                                                            subscription from the publisher. The rights of refusal
economy and local manufacturing. Others pointed out that China’s ban is not an                          are reserved by the publisher
“outright ban”, but rather a limit on contaminants, which should encourage cleaner
recycling processes.                                                                         All articles submitted for publication become the
   Off the back of Victoria’s recycling contracts impasse, I sat down with the new           property of the publisher. The Editor reserves the
                                                                                               right to adjust any article to conform with the
Chief Executive of the Victorian Waste Management Association, Mark Smith. On                                 magazine format.
page 26, Mark outlines some of the measures VWMA will be recommending to the
Victorian Government taskforce and how a collaborative approach between industry                 Waste Management Review is owned by Prime
                                                                                                 Creative Media and published by John Murphy.
and government needs to be prioritised, as the industry potentially faces a market reset.          All material in Waste Management Review is
Waste Management Review will continue to follow this issue in 2018 and speak to other        copyright and no part may be reproduced or copied
                                                                                                in any form or by any means (graphic, electronic
stakeholders as it evolves.                                                                    or mechanical including information and retrieval
   We also welcome a new journalist, William Arnott. On page 21, William’s report           systems) without written permission of the publisher.
                                                                                             The Editor welcomes contributions but reserves the
discusses the impact of the Container Deposit Scheme in South Australia over its more          right to accept or reject any material. While every
than 40-year history, lessons learnt and whether a similar scheme is long overdue in              effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of
                                                                                              information, Prime Creative Media will not accept
Victoria. William can be contacted via email at              responsibility for errors or omissions or for any
   For article ideas or general enquiries, you can contact me directly by email at            consequences arising from reliance on information
                                                                                                   published. The opinions expressed in Waste or phone (03) 9690 8766.                                    Management Review are not necessarily the
                                                                                                 opinions of, or endorsed by the publisher unless
                                                                                                                  otherwise stated.

                                                                                            Official media partners of

4 / WMR / April 2018
Building a partnership - Paul Wall explains how a Sydney partnership continues to reduce construction waste - AWS

Here at ResourceCo, we believe there’s no such thing
as waste. It can almost always be recycled, reused or
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  Commercial & Industrial Materials Recycling
  Aggregate, Screenings & Asphalt Based Product Supply
  Disposal, Treatment & Management of Waste Soils
  Mine and Quarry Rehabilitation
  Management of Project Specific waste
  Tyre and Conveyor Belt Recycling
  Renewable Energy
  Carbon Abatement Sales & Auditing
  End of Life Landfill

Call (08) 8406 0300 or visit             TOMORROW’S SOLUTIONS. TODAY
Building a partnership - Paul Wall explains how a Sydney partnership continues to reduce construction waste - AWS

NWRIC warns recycling contracts
could face default
The National Waste and Recycling           Re-negotiating contracts                Waste Contractors and Recyclers
Industry Council (NWRIC) has warned     between local governments and           Association of NSW Executive
that without urgent action to address   recycling providers, increasing         Director Tony Khoury said that
market changes, Australian recycling    stockpiling allowances where            thoroughly checking firefighting
contracts could face default.           environmentally safe, and assistance    and emergency equipment is
   It follows the controversial move    from the Federal Government were        vitally important.
by the Chinese government to ban        identified as strategies to help the       “In relation to unprocessed
the imports of 24 categories of         current market.                         stockpiles or bales of stored sorted
solid waste.                               The best long-term solution to       material, please ensure that you
   China’s National Sword initiative,   the problem is reinvigorating local     comply with your Environment
a continuation of its Green Fence       re-manufacturing capacity, according    Protection Authority (EPA) and
program, has also tightened standards   to NWRIC.                               development approval requirements,”
on import contamination by limiting        Recycling market shortfalls can      Mr Khoury said.
which businesses can obtain scrap       lead to large stockpiles of papers         “If you are approaching your
import licenses. The NWRIC explained    and plastics, which could lead to a     authorised, lawful stock pile limits,
this means lower contamination levels   fire hazard.                            please consider your options,
and fewer import licenses issued.          “The NWRIC is urging all             including negotiating with the EPA,
   Following their latest meeting,      customers, including local government   finding alternate drop-off facilities
the NWRIC believe that without          and commercial waste generators, to     and talking to your council or
significant changes to the current      meet with their recycling supplier to   commercial clients.”
market, kerbside and commercial         plan for these sudden and unforeseen       According to Mr Khoury, there is at
recycling contracts could be            changes,” said Chairman of the          least one fire per week at NSW waste
cancelled.                              NWRIC, Phil Richards.                   facilities.

   Glass is being stockpiled
   due to market issues.

6 / WMR / April 2018
Building a partnership - Paul Wall explains how a Sydney partnership continues to reduce construction waste - AWS
No-one in Australia
goes further in
recycling rubber.
Every year, thousands of tonnes of tyres are dumped illegally. This is a
major environmental and public health concern; but it needn’t be.

In Australia, Tyrecycle is the market leader in tyre recycling, with a
national network of collection and processing facilities.

Our recycled rubber is used for sporting and playground surfaces, tile
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towards our own goal of zero waste to landfill.

To learn more about us visit
call 1300 4 TYRECYCLE (1300 489 732)
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Building a partnership - Paul Wall explains how a Sydney partnership continues to reduce construction waste - AWS

Victorian Government responds to
China waste ban
In response to China’s National          Association (VWMA) called for a suite      importation of waste entirely, new
Sword decision, Victorian councils       of measures to improve the situation.      restrictions on the contamination rate
and industry will be provided a            In a statement, the VWMA                 means that they require a cleaner
$13 million package to support           welcomed the opportunity to                and more processed version of
the ongoing collection of                represent its member base on any           these materials.
household waste.                         proposed taskforce and said it has           “While recycling is ultimately
   The assistance will go towards        been assured by relevant government        a matter for local councils, we’re
helping councils and industries          agencies that it will have a seat at the   stepping in to help councils and
that have been affected by the           table. It advocated for the taskforce      industry affected by China’s new
Chinese policy, giving them and          to have fair representation of the         import rules,” said the Minister for
their contractors time to develop        waste and resource recovery sector,        Energy, Environment and Climate
longer-term solutions, including         including small and medium operators       Change Lily D’Ambrosio.
renegotiating contracts.                 and the waste transportation sector. It      “This is about protecting jobs and
   The Victorian Government has          said the taskforce should be steered       ensuring Victorians have confidence
also moved to establish a recycling      by principles such as a competitive        to continue recycling.”
industry taskforce to develop a plan     resource recovery sector and circular        Council assistance will be provided
for the industry’s transition.           economy principles that prioritise         until 30 June, though they will be
   The decision comes not long after     local jobs over exports or landfilling.    required to meet an increase in
the Victorian Waste Management             While China has not banned the           recycling costs from 1 July.

  Councils will be supported with the
  transition right through to June 30.

8 / WMR / April 2018
Building a partnership - Paul Wall explains how a Sydney partnership continues to reduce construction waste - AWS
There has to be
                                                                                                                                                       There is.
                a better way!

                                                                                                                                              Crumbed rubber asphalt using recycled tyres.

               Over 56 million used tyres are generated in Australia, each year.*
               Tyre Stewardship Australia accredited recyclers are committed to supporting sustainable
               outcomes for the 56 million used tyres generated every year in Australia*. TSA is a Federal and
               State Government supported industry initiative and is free to join. Reduce your fleet footprint and
               get behind the drive towards sustainable management of your customer’s waste tyre stream.
               Make your business part of the solution – not the problem.

               To join the drive for change contact:
TRP TSA 0198

               Volume based on Equivalent Passenger Units (EPUs). An EPU is standard passenger car tyre. Full EPU Ratio Tables available at
Building a partnership - Paul Wall explains how a Sydney partnership continues to reduce construction waste - AWS

New recycling technology
processes tyres into resources
Tyre processing company Pearl Global          products, according to the company.            reclaim and recover valuable products
has begun commissioning its first                Over 51 million used tyres get              for resale,” Mr Foster said.
production plant to recycle tyres into        discarded in Australia per year, but              “Our technology is a significant
valuable secondary products.                  only five per cent are recycled. Pearl’s       advancement on other methods of
    The technology uses an applied            technology focuses on extracting               processing waste tyres because it
heating process called thermal                the resources from tyres instead of            has low emissions, no hazardous
desorption, which converts waste tyres        using them for constructing children’s         by-products, requires no chemical
into liquid hydrocarbon, high tensile         playgrounds or exporting. Pearl                intervention and is the only process that
steel and carbon char, and can be sold        (formerly Citation Resources Limited)          meets the standard emissions criteria
separately or processed further.              in February rejoined the ASX following         set by the Australian regulators for this
    Pearl has constructed its first           a reconstruction and a $5 million              type of technology,” he said.
production plant, with two thermal            capital raising.                                  Mr Foster said the technology will
desorption units (TDUs) in Stapylton,            Pearl recently received planning            help Australia handle a serious global
Queensland and initial commissioning          approval from the Gold Coast                   environmental problem.
under way. The second TDU is owned            City Council and has approval                     “We believe there is great potential
by Pearl’s intellectual property licensor     from Queensland’s Department of                in Australia to immediately deploy our
and contracting partner Keshi, and            Environment and Heritage.                      technology at sites close to where tyres
will be purchased by Pearl as soon               It already holds an environmental           have been stockpiled,” Mr Foster said.
as practical.                                 licence from the Western Australian               “With governments seeking or
    Each TDU can process approximately        Government Department of                       mandating solutions for waste, Pearl
5000 tons (4536 tonnes) of shredded           Environment Regulation.                        is well placed to offer a solution that
rubber at full production, equivalent            “This is a turning point for used tyre      is both environmentally sound and
to 50,000 car tyres. On average, this         processing in Australia. We are the first      commercially viable.”
equates to a weekly output 1.5 million        company in Australia to receive licenses          Pearl has applied to be an accredited
litres of raw fuel.                           for the thermal treatment of rubber, to        member of Tyre Stewardship Australia.
    “This is the first plant of its type in
Australia and we expect to be ramping
up to full production over the coming
months,” Pearl Executive Chairman Gary
Foster said.
    The materials are being developed
into potential commercial products,
including a degreaser product.
    With assistance from the Centre for
Energy at the University of Western
Australia, Pearl’s degreaser products
have been tested and compared to
existing commercial degreasers and
surpassed the required standards,
with one of them showing the best               Pearl Global’s technology uses an applied heating
                                                process to convert end-of-life tyres into fuel.
performance of all the degreaser

10 / WMR / April 2018
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National Plan for PFAS released to
protect environment and health
The heads of all state and territory          The National Environment               pesticides, stain repellents and fire-
environmental protection authorities       Management Plan for PFAS describes        fighting foams.
(EPA) and the Federal Government           how to properly deal with and clean          “PFAS compounds have had a
have released a National Environment       up contaminated sites, how to best        wide range of uses because they
Management Plan for PFAS (per-             treat soil and waste, and methods for     resist heat, chemical and biological
and poly-fluoroalkyl substances) to        safely destroying the chemicals.          degradation and are very stable,” Mr
help protect the environment and              PFAS can make products heat            Eaton said.
human health.                              resistant, non-stick, water repellent,       “There is now growing concern
  PFAS are a group of manufactured         and weather and stain resistant.          worldwide about the effects
chemicals which have historically been        Prior to the plan, there was no        of PFAS on our health and on
used in firefighting foams and other       consistent guidance or direction for      animals and plants, because of that
industrial and consumer products for       communities that had been affected        chemical stability and the fact that
decades, according to EPA Victoria.        by PFAS.                                  they easily enter the environment,
PFAS can also be found in soil, surface       Environment Protection Authority       moving into soil, creeks, rivers
water and groundwater in urban areas,      Victoria’s Executive Director             and lakes. We know there are
and some are being phased out around       Assessments, Tim Eaton, said PFAS         sites with PFAS contamination,
the world as they may pose a risk to       chemicals have been used in a range       so we are working collectively to
human health and the environment.          of products in the past, including        manage them.”

More than 100 million containers
collected by NSW Return and Earn
More than 100 million containers           canteens, have been supporting the        BMX to help fundraise for the club
have been returned since the NSW           scheme and having a positive impact       and encourage locals to donate their
Return and Earn scheme began in            on the local community, according to      refunds to charities like the African
December last year, according to the       Environment Protection Authority NSW.     AIDS Foundation.
official website.                            In two months, Nepean Distributors
   Reverse vending machine technology,     has processed 133,034 containers,
alongside over-the-counter and             with over a record of 11,879 in a day.
automated depots have helped NSW             “It is making people, especially kids
reach this goal.                           and teenagers, think about recycling.
   NSW Minister for Environment,           We want to help change their mindset
Gabrielle Upton said more than five        to think about their environment and
million drink containers had been          cleaning up their local park,” Managing
returned over the second weekend of        Director of Nepean Distributors,
February.                                  Anthony Morrissey said.
   Nepean Distributors, a drinks product     They have also teamed up with local       Reverse vending machine technology
                                                                                       helped Return and Earn achieve its goals.
supplier to schools and sporting club      sports groups such as Macarthur

12 / WMR / April 2018
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                      TOLI PAPADOPOULOS REPORTS.

  n 2011, some of Sydney’s leading              commercial floor space in the city         to landfill due to contractual red tape.
  property owners and managers,                 centre. It’s worked with industry          Stripout waste refers to removing
  investment firms, peak bodies and             professionals to create and embed          all or part of a building’s internal
waste industry influencers formed a             best practice standards in key areas,      wall, flooring, ceiling and furnishing
partnership to reduce their waste.              including leasing, operational waste,      components when a tenant vacates
   Known as the Better Buildings                refurbishment waste, solar installations   a space.
Partnership (BBP), the efforts aimed            and optimising water use. The end             The initiative forms part of
to improve the performance and                  result has led to the creation of new      Sustainable Sydney 2030, which lays
sustainability of commercial buildings in       waste management guidelines for            out a vision for a green, global and
the City of Sydney and across Australia.        contracting and reporting and 60 per       connected city.
   According to the organisation’s most         cent resource recovery targets for            The BBP works by engaging the
recent annual report, the partnership           creating stripout waste. BBP estimates     building industry and government
represents more than half of Sydney’s           that 80 per cent of stripout waste goes    on key environmental policy and

    Sara Rathborne and Paul Wall work on a floor refurbishment
    at the Gateway building in Circular Quay, Sydney.

14 / WMR / April 2018
regulatory issues to enable markets,        guidelines for the procurement of            refurbishment project in Sydney’s
scale up sustainability and benchmark       waste management services, effective         Central Business District.
its progress. The leadership panel          waste diversion and reporting. BBP’s            In 2015, Edge Environment was
comprises senior representatives from       operational waste guidelines range from      commissioned to investigate resource
its member organisations, including         tips on the billing of waste management      recovery across several floors.
University of Technology Sydney, AMP        services, to more accurate waste data,       Using inputs from BBP members, it
Capital, Lendlease, Mirvac Group,           and established roles and responsibilities   was estimated that without careful
Investa Property Group, Dexus,              for cleaners and contractors in waste        planning, recycling rates in office
Brookfield, Stockland, ISPT, Frasers,       disposal.                                    strips can be as low as 20 per cent,
University of Sydney and the City of           Paul says it complements a new            and that every 1000 square metres
Sydney. Its 2017-18 annual report           certification introduced for waste           of office space generates around 63
indicates that during the financial year,   contractors by GECA (Good                    tonnes of waste during a stripout. It
BBP projects covered 54 per cent of         Environmental Choice Australia) which        found that high diversion rates could
commercial office space in the Sydney       BBP has recently worked collaboratively      be achieved at no extra cost. The trial
Commercial Business District, which         on. The new certification will be            helped inspire the Stripout Waste
includes 100 commercial buildings in        launched for use by contractors in           Guidelines, released in mid-2016.
that financial year.                        early 2018.                                  The guidelines are a practical tool
   Paul Wall, Head of Group                    “GECA has now developed a                 to help tenants, building owners and
Sustainability and Energy at Dexus and      certification process so that when           contractors reduce waste and improve
BBP Chair, says the BBP is a unique         building site managers go to tender          resource recovery through improved
initiative.                                 for various works, they can select the       stripout processes.
   “Once you start understanding waste      GECA certified waste contractors – this         A framework from learnings was
streams and documenting the process         improves supply chain governance,”           outlined for Governor Macquarie
you can create more markets for             he says.                                     Tower, which is jointly owned by
recycling,” Paul says.
   Paul says the BBP has provided more      PREVENTING STRIPOUT WASTE
certainty to business by opening up         The BBP’s recovery of waste
these markets, which will allow the cost    project focuses on maximising
                                                                                          Fast Fact
of recycling to reduce over time, adding    diversion from landfill from office
that it remains commercially viable due     tenancy stripout.                             10 steps to good practice in waste
                                                                                          management in construction:
to a higher landfill levy in Sydney.        According to the BBP website, Sydney’s
   The BBP has focused on a range           office tenancies are on average               • Specify your corporate outcomes

of sustainability projects, from            renewed every seven to 10 years, with         • Develop a waste management plan in
green leasing, to operational waste,        an estimated 25,000 tonnes of waste             collaboration with stakeholders

refurbishment waste and energy and          ending up in landfill each year. By           • Allocate clear roles and
water efficiency. Most relevant to          improving its processes, it’s estimated         responsibilities

the waste industry are its operational      the City of Sydney could divert 55,000        • Agree the fees per waste stream and
and refurbishment waste projects.           tonnes of strip out waste from landfill         the nominated facilities

Operational waste focuses on raising the    each year from the commercial office,         • Know your nominated facilities
bar on procurement and management           accommodation, entertainment and              • Use coloured translucent bags and
of waste contractors and services,          retail sectors.                                 onsite contamination checks to
                                                                                            minimise load rejection
which helps to contribute to the              Several research projects in this space
NSW Government’s target to increase         have been conducted with partners such        • Preference onsite weighing over lifts/
commercial recycling from its current       as the University of Technology Sydney,
rate of 51 per cent to 70 per cent by       GPT and Dexus.                                • Audit your current practice
2021-22.                                      One of the many case studies from           • Rate your data quality
   BBP’s aim is to improve the quality      the BBP included Sydney’s Governor            • Meet regularly to address challenges
and flow of information through set         Macquarie Tower, a substantial                  and make system improvements

                                                                                / WMR / 15

Dexus, GPT Group and Lendlease,                 “It is really a demonstration that        the tolerance for contamination is
to move the industry in the long term        if you plan well you can find an             extremely low, so we had a couple of
towards 80 per cent resource recovery        end market for 80 per cent of your           loads rejected. The waste industry just
in an office stripout and refurbishment.     materials,” he says.                         needs to learn how to manage this
Under the trial, an overall resource            “With materials such as plasterboard,     accordingly,” he says.
recovery rate of 61 per cent was             we found that instead of ripping it off         A large proportion of office furniture
achieved, with progress tracked              the wall and putting it into a skip, you     was also sent to charities to help find it
through receipts. Recycling alternatives     can place it on a pallet and send it off     a second home. He says office furniture
were also found to offer a lower gate        for re-processing.”                          is another challenging stream, and Edge
fee than landfill as they could monetise        He says companies such as Regyp           Environment is now working with the
on recycled product.                         were able to re-process the plasterboard     City of Sydney to help find new markets
   Tom Davies, Director of Edge              into a soil amendment. They can also         for items such as laminated desktop
Environment, the diversion manager           send it back to the manufacturer in a        chipboard and plastic.
throughout the process, says the firm        circular-economy approach.                      An issue, he says, is contractors
worked across the BBP with numerous                                                       and demolishers not having the time
commercial builders to help them find        FUTURE OPTIONS FOR RECOVERY                  and contractual incentive to take
ways to reduce their waste, including        Numerous lessons were learnt from the        responsibility for waste reduction and
GPT Group, one of Australia’s                trial, including that glass, plasterboard,   to better understand their roles. Tom
largest diversified property groups.         hard fill and metals were 100 per cent       says the BBP is now looking at a second
The company received a grant under           recyclable. It also noted take-back          round of funding to further develop
the NSW Government’s Waste Less,             schemes exist for some materials,            the resource recovery industry for the
Recycle More initiative to recover in        as some suppliers offer closed loop          building sector.
excess of 10,000 tonnes of material as       solutions. Onsite separation and removal        The BBP is working with its members
part of the BBP project.                     was also identified as a key factor in       to develop a register of upcoming
   Tom says that the Governor                ensuring clean material streams and an       stripout projects, ensuring more lead
Macquarie Tower trial looked at 1000         organised approach to material recovery.     time is given before contractors move
square metres of net lettable area on        Tom says one of the most challenging         on site. It is also looking at take-
five floors – a measurement of the total     waste streams was glass, which could be      back product stewardship schemes,
occupiable floor space and land area         made into insulated glass, but was often     in addition to new markets for re-
of a property, which assists in rental       at risk of contamination.                    processing and keeping a record of price
calculations and property market                “A high proportion of waste               fluctuations.
assessments.                                 transported included glass and                  Paul says once the 80 per cent
                                                                                          diversion of fitout waste target is
                                                                                          achieved, the next step will be to get
                                                                                          contractors to adopt a “business as
                                                                                          usual approach”, negating the need for
                                                                                          external managers.
                                                                                             “With Stripout Guidelines in place,
                                                                                          we think contractors will be able to
                                                                                          drive progress within this framework.
                                                                                          However, we will always support the
                                                                                          head contractor to educate the supply
                                                                                          chain and ensure it is aligned,” Paul says.
                                                                                             “We’re finding there’s a lot of
                                                                                          awareness and intent, but we still have
                                                                                          a way to go with educating contractors
                                                                                          across Sydney and the broader recycling
                                                                                             Paul says BBP members are now using
  Every 1000 square metres of office space generates about 63 tonnes
  of waste during a stripout, according to a BBP case study.
                                                                                          the Stripout Waste Guidelines in most
                                                                                          stripout projects.

16 / WMR / April 2018
Other areas of improvement being
looked at by the BBP include an online
marketplace and equipment inventory
to help find a new home for used
office furniture for other commercial
enterprises. Once launched, customers
and tenants will be able to purchase the
   The success of the project has led Paul
to believe that the building industry
can take the lead in reducing its waste,
and in time, reduce the need for
government-led product stewardship
   “I think the market will get there as
a lot of our research has proven that          BBP estimated that without careful planning, recycling
                                               rates for office stripouts can be as low as 20 per cent.
coordination is the key to securing
higher diversion rates,” he says.
                                                 In Australia, the same report                and then incorporating them into
HOW DOES BUILDING                            shows 64 per cent of C&D waste was               residential or commercial construction.
SUSTAINABILITY OPERATE                       recovered nationally, a figure which has         This reduces the amount of waste
ELSEWHERE?                                   fluctuated since 2006-07.                        on site and improves productivity by
Paul hopes the BPP model can be rolled          “We’re seeing new growth in                   reducing time that materials spend
out nationwide. Talks are underway           particular in infrastructure. We                 on site. Another technique is pre-
with statutory authority Sustainability      work closely with the Infrastructure             cutting individual housing components
Victoria to develop a similar program        Sustainability Council of Australia              including plaster, roofs and timber
in Victoria and a forum was held earlier     (ISCA) and have a strong relationship            offsite and then fitting them as the
this year in Melbourne to discuss the        with them. Most large government                 structure progresses. These practices
success of the BBP model.                    infrastructure projects in Victoria are          were used by companies such as
   It will build on past work to improve     now being rated with the ISCA tool.”             Burbank in pilot programs funded by
the NABERS waste rating tool and more           He says Sustainability Victoria is            Sustainability Victoria.
recent work looking at waste separation      partnering with ISCA to encourage the               In Victoria, home builders Burbank
in commercial buildings and shopping         use of recycled glass, plastic, tyres and a      partnered with the Housing Industry
centres.                                     number of problem waste streams and              Association, RMIT University and
   Stan Krpan, Sustainability Victoria’s     looking at their end destinations.               Sustainability Victoria in 2013 to
Chief Executive, says the building and          “One of the exciting developments             develop a Zero Waste Home, achieving
construction industry is leading the way     for me is around procurement. There’s            a 99 per cent reduction in waste going
in the area of using recycled parts in       a new international standard around              to landfill.
building projects.                           sustainable procurement – ISO 20400.                An investigation by RMIT University,
   “After research investment from           What we’re also seeing in the market             which audited and reviewed processes
Sustainability Victoria we’re seeing a       is people questioning how they can use           and the materials used, waste avoidance
lot of interest in low-carbon concrete,      finance to drive innovation and reduce           and working with suppliers, found
containing recycled glass for instance.      the environmental footprint of what              waste at the site was largely due to
Hazardous waste, including fly ash is        they’re buying.”                                 oversupplies of materials and material
also being used in concrete now, so                                                           offcuts.
I think the industry has been quite          TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE WASTE
innovative,” Stan says.                      ON SITE                                          CHALLENGES
   The Australian National Waste Report      Stan says a growing interest in building         According to Stan, state and local
2016 shows 76 per cent of construction       sustainability is the concept of lean            government procurement is the next
and demolition waste (C&D) in Victoria       manufacturing and pre-fabrication – the          area which Sustainability Victoria
was recovered.                               practice of making components offsite            wants to target, due to the size of their

                                                                                      / WMR / 17

spends and ability to stimulate markets       recycling sector for household,             out what they can share among them,
and innovation. Volume homes are              commercial, industrial and construction     particularly when it comes to spoil on
another priority area with room for           materials, but across the board there       infrastructure projects,” he says.
improvement, he adds.                         are many opportunities to expand this          “I’m confident that the private sector
   “Tens of thousands of new homes are        sector into new areas and capture more      is innovative to deliver, they just need
being built every year on the outskirts       of what now goes to landfill.”              the right market signals.”
of cities like Melbourne and Sydney and          Antony Sprigg, Chief Executive              Michael Roberts, Executive Director
a few tonnes for every home created is        Officer of ISCA, says the challenges        Planning & Development at Housing
costing the builder money, which is then      in Victoria include a lack of recycling     Industry Association (HIA), puts
passed on to the purchaser. One of the        targets in the state to send the right      the challenge of waste management
reasons why it’s difficult to recycle is      market signal to industry.                  in building down to three issues:
that waste is mostly just dumped on site         ISCA is working closely with             economies of scale for the quantity
in a cage or skip and it’s mixed, which       Sustainability Victoria to encourage the    of materials for smaller projects, site
imposes additional costs if it is to be       deployment of its IS v.2.0 rating scheme,   size and the practical challenges of
recycled,” Stan explains.                     which evaluates sustainability across the   sorting materials, and recycling options
   Working with sub-contractors               design, construction and operation of       within proximity to where construction
to reduce waste is another area               infrastructure.                             is occurring.
for improvement, Stan says, as all               Its latest rating scheme, which             “Waste management is a complex
stakeholders have a role to play.             includes a circular economy credit          issue for the housing industry as no
   “It’s an issue we all have to work on      within the resources category, has been     single waste management approach
in coming years. How are we training          reviewed and is expected to launch in       guarantees significant waste reduction.
and educating tradespeople such as            June of this year.                          Part of the challenge is in the fact that
electricians, carpenters, plasterers and         Overall in Australia, Antony says        quite different responses are required
sub-contractors more broadly?                 waste minimisation needs to be              to address the issues faced by the new
   “I think there are good business           prioritised prior to procurement, as the    home building sector as opposed to the
opportunities in this space and we’ve         sector often doesn’t have the contractual   renovation sector,” Michael says.
partnered with the Australian Supply          flexibility to help process unrecyclable       “Even within the new building sector,
Chain Sustainability School to promote        material due to regulatory and other        the challenges and options available
their educational resources and materials     constraints. He says government entities    vary significantly between for example
which include tips on waste reduction         in particular should make sustainability    the construction of a high-rise unit
and recycling.”                               a focus in their procurement strategy.      project and the construction of a one off
   The costly problem of mixed loads is          “It all comes back to planning. One of   designed house.”
one that needs to be reconsidered, he         the things we advocate with government         He says the residential construction
says, with additional work required.          procurers is how they can better work       sector is predominately dominated
   “Victoria already has a mature             among themselves to reduce and work         by small business, and reliant on
                                                                                          subcontractors as a result.
                                                                                             “On a single house site as many as
                                                                                          50 contractors can be involved in the
                                                                                          construction of the home. Getting buy
                                                                                          in from all contractors on any issue is a
                                                                                             The larger the project, and larger the
                                                                                          site size, the more opportunities there
                                                                                          are for a waste minimisation strategy,
                                                                                          he notes.
                                                                                             “The challenge for house builders
                                                                                          is that while they do generate waste
                                                                                          the amounts of individual products
                                                                                          (plaster board, timber, masonry
  ISCA’s Antony Sprigg says waste minimisation                                            products) generated on a single site is
  needs to be priorotised prior to procurement.
                                                                                          relatively small.”

18 / WMR / April 2018
Michael says the frustration then                                                    “Improvements in the quality of
  is that even if the material is able                                                 modular construction is also providing
  to be sorted onsite, which due to                                                    options in the construction of high-
  rapidly shrinking allotment sizes and                                                rise apartments. HIA is seeing the
  local government site management                                                     installation of elements such as
  requirements is a challenge in itself,                                               bathroom pods steadily growing in
  who will be interested in the relatively                                             popularity.”
  small quantities of each material?                                                      Michael says the construction
  What collection facilities are available                                             associated with boutique designs
  and what are the transport costs?                                                    or renovations creates a range of
     Michael says the biggest savings are                                              additional challenges. He says this
  delivered where a business is able to                                                can be exacerbated when you have
  develop a suite of designs that they                                                 local government planning provisions
  build on a repeat basis. Improvements                                                or developer covenants that require
  in software estimating packages helps                                                boutique designs or the use of particular
  volume builders know within a couple        Stan Krpan, Chief Executive              materials.
                                              Officer of Sustainability Victoria.
  of shovels of concrete how much of                                                      Despite these challenges, Paul remains
  these materials go into a standard                                                   optimistic about a waste free future.
  design, he adds.                              “Modular construction, particularly       “The better we are able to measure
     Equally, the improvements in            in relation to walling systems, is also   and manage our resources upstream,
  factory truss manufacturing has also       emerging as a legitimate option that      the more people can extract value from
  significantly reduced timber wastage,      provides a range of potential benefits,   them later. Its a win-win scenario, and
  he says.                                   including waste minimisation.             we’re pleased to be leading the way.”

    02:12 PM
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    20 / WMR / April 2018

                What SA CAN teach us
                            ARNOTT REPORTS.

   n 1977, the South Australian
   Government implemented a scheme
  with impacts that are still being
felt today. The container deposit
legislation (CDL) began as a way to
deal with single-use containers littering
streets and drains.
   The world has changed since then,
but South Australia adapted and has
worked with both the beverage and
waste industries to not get left behind.
Products changed and the packages
they came in have too. Reusable glass
bottles have become rarer and mixed
plastics are now the norm. Container
design also changed, with plastic
mixes becoming more common – a
drink bottle could be made of one
plastic, the lid another and the label
another variety.
   As packaging evolved, so did the
legislation, keeping up with the
changes in consumer behaviour.
Because the CDL was able to change
as the industries did, it was able
to adapt to new introductions as
they happened.
   In 2003, the SA Government
extended the legislation to keep up
with the changing packaging designs.
It now covers fruit juice, non-
carbonated soft drinks and flavoured
milk containers.
   Now in 2018, the CDL program is
still going strong. The return rate on
drink containers is reaching 80 per
cent. Since 2005, more than six billion     The CDS remains popular in SA, with 98 per cent of South Australians
                                            supporting the scheme, according to a 2012 report prepared for EPA SA.
containers have been diverted from

                                                                               / WMR / 21

                                          them to help raise funds. Over 2016-        who can hand it in later for cash.”
                                          2017, almost $60 million was returned          This kind of recycling is important,
                                          back into the community.                    not only for resource collection, but
                                             It still remains popular in the state,   also because cleaning up litter can
                                          with 98 per cent of South Australians       be costly.
                                          supporting the program, according              According to the Victorian Litter
                                          to the CDL Awareness & Support              Action Alliance, maintenance for litter
                                          Research Report, prepared for               bins, traps and clean-up costs just
                                          the South Australian Environment            under $28 million. Roadside litter
                                          Protection Authority (SA EPA). It was       and dumped rubbish ends up costing
                                          even listed as a state heritage icon in     Victorian councils nearly $22,000 a
                                          2006 as improving the quality of life       day to keep the street clean.
                                          in SA.                                         The CDL also makes a significant
                                             John Phillips, Executive Director        impact for people in lower socio-
                                          of Keep South Australia Beautiful           economic areas.
                                          (KESAB) believes that the legislation          It covers drink containers easily
                                          has helped South Australians reduce         available outside the home, specifically
                                          litter and encourage recycling.             lunchtime beverages.
  John Phillips is Executive
  Director of KESAB.
                                             “Ultimately, while it was originally        If the 10 cent refund was expanded
                                          a way to encourage people to think          to other recyclables like wine bottles,
landfill and returned for recycling.      about their litter, it has really helped    restaurants and hotels could also be
  The CDL in SA has helped to             the community. Depots have not only         encouraged to increase how much they
instil positive behavioural change        encouraged the resource recovery            recycle, John says.
when it comes to recycling. Beverage      of containers, but have become a
containers now only make up 2.9 per       place where people can easily recycle
cent of litter items. In comparison,      materials like cardboard, scrap metal,
Clean Up Australia’s 2017 Rubbish         or even car batteries.”
Report found that in Victoria,               KESAB began 50 years ago as a             Fast Fact
Tasmania, and Western Australia, the      litter reduction campaign and has            There are three main ways to return
percentage of beverage containers         since evolved into a non-governmental        items collected in the NSW Return and
ranged from 14 to 26 per cent.            organisation that works with its             earn scheme.
  The CDL is based around rewarding       stakeholders to reduce litter. It            The reverse vending machine system
consumers for recycling by providing      works with governments, recycling            accepts and scans barcodes of up to
                                                                                       500 items and are found often near
them with a financial incentive. When     companies and depots and schools to          shopping centres and major littering
a drink container is purchased in SA,     help educate people on sustainability.       locations. They can provide a refund
consumers are encouraged to visit a          What helps the CDL shine is the fact      in three ways: A voucher that can be
                                                                                       redeemed at a participating retailer, an
local depot to drop it off. Originally,   that it can encourage everyone to pitch
                                                                                       e-payment to a PayPal account via the
the refund was five cents, but was        in and clean up the streets, not just the    myTomra App, or donating the proceeds
changed to 10 cents in 2008 to            original consumer.                           to a consumer’s charity of choice. Some
encourage more South Australians to          “If we look closely, there are            reverse vending machines are set up
                                                                                       only for charities.
get involved.                             two segments that come into play,”
  Ten cents can add up fast and           says John. “You have the types of            Over-the-counter collection points allow
                                                                                       consumers to hand in around 50 to 100
organisations began jumping on board      consumers who will hold on to                containers per transaction. An operator
to collect litter from community          containers to give it in for recycling       will verify the eligibility of the container
members to fundraise money. These         later at a depot or community centre,        before providing the refund.
could be a local sporting club, a         and the consumers that buy a drink,          Automated depots accept up to 500 or
charity, school or a scout group, whose   finish it, then throw it out the window      more containers per transaction through
                                                                                       mechanical scanning or a counting
members donate their cans to the          as litter. Even if they do that, it will     system. Refunds are available through
organisation that are then recycled by    most likely get picked up by someone         cash or eftpos.

22 / WMR / April 2018
       LASER  IS IS
               Similarly, the legislation could be expanded to non-
            drink related containers that are recyclable.

 NKING. APPLIED“If we look at all the plastics we use in the kitchen
            or bathroom, there’s a lot that could be included, like

            shampoo bottles. These are all ways we can minimise
            the amount of waste that goes to landfill and have
            been proven before to have an extensive impact across
            the state.”
               A spokesperson for the South Australian Environment
            Protection Authority said the SA Government is not
            currently considering expanding the legislation to other
            beverages or packaged products.
               “However, with any future legislation amendment
            proposals there will be an opportunity to consult with the
            community and industry on whether the scheme should be
            expanded,” the spokesperson said.
               The impact of China’s waste restrictions has impacted
            Australian recyclers, according to John. The nation’s
            change in policy saw a crackdown on imports of 24
            different types of solid waste from Japan, USA, Australia
            and other source countries. Because SA has a clean waste
            stream, partially due to its CDL, it has avoided a lot of the
            stress, but there is still plenty of work to be done.
               “We need to be more innovative in looking after our
            waste and reduce the need to export it,” John says.
               “We’re at a knife’s edge at the moment based on how
            we progress. Rapid change is needed to address issues like
            climate change and resource recovery, and at the moment
 eme accuracy, speed and consistency of cut, combined with very low operating
            in the waste management industry, we have a perfect
       speed  HLF
                andfiber    laser is the
                       consistency           perfect
                                         of how
                                             cut,       way to take
                                                   combined          with veryyour low
                                                                                    business     to the next level.
            opportunity    to demonstrate         we   can perform.”
HLF fiber laserJohn is  the perfect
                     believes            wayistopositioned
                               that Australia       take your       business
                                                               perfectly    to    to the next level.
ollar, the new     HLF is in a league of its own, opening up possibilities for companies
            influence worldwide change.
 w laser
     HLF iscutting
             in“With sector;
                 a league     offrom    start-ups
                                  its own,
                       our innovative   minds,opening
                                                 we could up
                                                            use this      an
                                                                               production,      3-shift
                                                                                    for companies
 ting sector;    from start-ups
            opportunity                through
                           to set global  standardstoand
                                                                 influence 3-shift
            some of our northern neighbours.”
 ty German NSW built has
                          recently auto-focus
                                    begun its own cutting
                                                     recycling head,
                                                                 scheme IPG laser source, Siemens
ntroller  and
  built Preciteca fabricated,
            similar  to SA’s CDL.stress-relieved
                    auto-focus       cutting
                                    The   Returnhead,    fully
                                                  and Earn        annealed
                                                              scheme      source,
                                                                        began    frame     it really is a cut above
   a fabricated,   stress-relieved
            in December     of 2017, andfully    annealed
                                            has collected  moreframe
                                                                   than 100it really is a cut above
            million containers in the three months.
               Return and Earn is based around a similar 10c refund
            on beverage containers, but also relies on a system
  rmation: of reverse vending machines as well as a number of
 8066       automated and over the counter return depots.
               John says that the differences between Sydney and
            Adelaide aren’t that great when it comes to recycling. want to do the right thing, but infrastructure            is with us socially

            important to make sure that happens.      Connect with us socially
               “From the very beginning of the SA CDL, it was
            connected to the industry and a network of recyclers.                                                22/12/16   9:27 am

                                                                                                    22/12/16 9:27 am

Adjustments to the scheme have                  introducing their own in 2012.           on a recent trip to Melbourne, the
occurred, but it’s flowed on from there            Lily D’Ambrosio, Victorian            aesthetics were vastly different, with
and remained solid.”                            Minister for Energy, Environment         much more visible litter in the streets.
  “NSW doesn’t have that luxury. In             and Climate Change, says the State          “In South Australia, I don’t see any
Sydney, the infrastructure needs to             Government is “continuing to look        CDS-eligible cans lying around.
be built from the ground up. RVMs               at container deposit schemes in             “In Melbourne, I could see a lot of
can be quite slow when attempting               other jurisdictions to understand        these types of containers everywhere
to recycle 200 to 300 items and all of          the benefits and costs of various        on the streets. I think it would be
a sudden you’ve got a queue a mile              models, and how they might work          good to see [a CDS] implemented
long. It’s important to make sure that          in Victoria”.                            in Victoria, but there’s a lot of
they expand their local collection                 According to the Victorian            development that needs to occur.
points, because RVMs are not the                Government, litter levels in the state   There needs to be super collectors,
answer to everything,” John says.               have been decreasing for seven years     depots and co-operation with the
  A spokesperson from the NSW                   in a row, including an eight per cent    drink manufacturers themselves,”
Environment Protection Authority                decrease in beverage container litter    he says.
said the NSW community has                      over the past year.                         Other countries around the world
embraced the Return and Earn                       John says with the other states       have much different recycling
scheme, returning more than 100                 mounting pressure on the Victorian       standards. Philip explains that in
million containers in just 10 weeks.            Government, it could only be a           many countries the recycling culture
  The SA implementation of                      matter of time before it is available    is significantly different.
container deposit legislation and               nationwide.                                 “In Europe, there is even a similar
similar projects globally were also                “Wheels will begin to turn once       scheme for electronic waste. Certain
explored to help inform the design              all states and territories have come     items like phones and other mobile
of Return and Earn, according to the            on board. Common sense tells me          devices have 10, 20, or even $50
spokesperson.                                   that Victoria will be obliged to start   added onto their cost. When the
  Victoria is currently the only state          one up to keep up with the rest of       device reaches the end of its lifespan,
that has not started or begun to plan           the country.”                            you’re able to hand it in and get that
implementation of CDL. QLD, WA,                    Dr Philip Kwong, Senior Lecturer      money back.
and ACT have schemes planned to                 at the University of Adelaide’s School      “Japan in particular has a
begin in 2018 and 2019, with the NT             of Chemical Engineering, notes that      sophisticated household system. Each

                                                  John believes the CDL helped
                                                  encourage recycling in SA.

  Fast Fact
  Once a container is given into a
  recycling depot for a refund, the items
  are sent to a super collector. The super
  collector is a larger collection depot that
  handles and sorts through containers
  sent to them from smaller depots. They
  then sell the recyclable material to
  market. These super collectors have
  contracts with beverage suppliers such
  as Coca-Cola and Pepsi which help
  fund the cost of the beverage.
  Retailers purchase the beverages from
  the supplier which have a 10c refund
  and handling fee, which is added on to
  the final price of the beverage.

24 / WMR / April 2018
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