Canadian National Report 10th Meeting of WMO/UNEP Ozone Research Managers - Sum Chi Lee Air Quality Research Division Science and Technology ...

 
Canadian National Report 10th Meeting of WMO/UNEP Ozone Research Managers - Sum Chi Lee Air Quality Research Division Science and Technology ...
Canadian National Report
10th Meeting of WMO/UNEP
Ozone Research Managers
     Sum Chi Lee
     Air Quality Research Division
     Science and Technology Branch
     Environment and Climate Change Canada

     March 28 – 30, 2017, Geneva Switzerland
Canadian National Report 10th Meeting of WMO/UNEP Ozone Research Managers - Sum Chi Lee Air Quality Research Division Science and Technology ...
Outline

•   Current state of ozone and UV monitoring in Canada
•   Products and applications
•   WMO WOUDC
•   Research activities
•   International engagement
•   Future plans
•   Concluding remarks

                                Page 2 – March-25-17
Canadian National Report 10th Meeting of WMO/UNEP Ozone Research Managers - Sum Chi Lee Air Quality Research Division Science and Technology ...
Canada’s ozone and UV monitoring program
                                                               Alert
                                                                                                                 Brewers
                                                         Eureka                                                  • Total column ozone and
                                                                                                                      spectral UV; 8 sites with 2+
                                                                                                                      instruments, and one site
                                                                                                                      each in Hawaii (Mauna Loa)
                                                      Resolute Bay                                                    and Antarctica (South Pole);
                                                                                                                      42 instruments total
                                                                                                                      including 10 double Brewers

                                                                               Iqaluit
                                                                                                                 Ozonesondes
                                   Yellowknife
                                                                                                                 • Ozone profiles; weekly
                                                                                                                      launches; 8 sites

                                     Oil Sands          Churchill                                  Goose Bay
                                                                                                                 AEROCAN – Canadian part
                                                                           Kuujjuarapik
                               Edmonton                                                                          of AERONET
                        P P
                                           Waskesiu                                                              • Total column aerosol optical
               Kelowna
   P                                                         Pickle Lake             Chapais                          depth (AOD); 19 stations
       Saturna Island         Lethbridge                                                              Halifax

Pandora        Brewer
                                                                               Egbert
                                                                                          CARTEL   Yarmouth
                                                                                                                 Pandora spectrometers
In-situ          Ozonesonde                                                P
                                                                                   Downsview                     • Total column ozone, NO2,
       AEROCAN                   P - planned
                                                                                                                      SO2; 6 instruments

                                                                                               Page 3 – March-25-17
Canadian National Report 10th Meeting of WMO/UNEP Ozone Research Managers - Sum Chi Lee Air Quality Research Division Science and Technology ...
Brewer applications

• Real-time processed Brewer ozone and UV data
       Produce hourly bulletins for UV Index forecasts
       Used for satellite data validation
       Used in WMO Antarctic Ozone Bulletins
•   Brewer data used in NOAA Arctic Report Cards, BAMS
    State of the Climate reports, and other publications
•   Brewer UV data used for evaluation of new ECCC UV
    Index forecast

                                Page 4 – March-25-17
Canadian National Report 10th Meeting of WMO/UNEP Ozone Research Managers - Sum Chi Lee Air Quality Research Division Science and Technology ...
Near real-time monitoring

                          WMO Antarctic Ozone Bulletin No. 5/2015

                     Page 5 – March-25-17
Canadian National Report 10th Meeting of WMO/UNEP Ozone Research Managers - Sum Chi Lee Air Quality Research Division Science and Technology ...
Real-time ozone maps

                       Page 6 – March-25-17
Canadian National Report 10th Meeting of WMO/UNEP Ozone Research Managers - Sum Chi Lee Air Quality Research Division Science and Technology ...
Re-evaluating the ozonesonde record

Tropospheric changes: increases of up to 5% after 1979; up to 20% before
   1980 (Brewer-Mast sondes), reducing with altitude.
Stratospheric changes: decreases of up to 4% before 1980 at 25 km, smaller
   decreases above and below. Increases of ~1% in 1980s, ~2-3% in 1990s;
   little change in 2000s.
                                         Page 7 – March-25-17
Canadian National Report 10th Meeting of WMO/UNEP Ozone Research Managers - Sum Chi Lee Air Quality Research Division Science and Technology ...
WMO WOUDC

            Page 8 – March-25-17
Canadian National Report 10th Meeting of WMO/UNEP Ozone Research Managers - Sum Chi Lee Air Quality Research Division Science and Technology ...
WMO WOUDC: Key enhancements

•   Near real-time data
•   Validation services (formats, QA)
•   Self-serve metrics/reporting
•   New dataset: RocketSonde
•   NetCDF data delivery
•   Integrated distributed Data Centre search (NDACC,
    EUBrewNet)
•   Level 0 data archive
•   Standards (ISO, OGC)
•   Geospatial capabilities
•   WMO alignment (WIS, WIGOS)

                                   Page 9 – March-25-17
Canadian National Report 10th Meeting of WMO/UNEP Ozone Research Managers - Sum Chi Lee Air Quality Research Division Science and Technology ...
WMO WOUDC: Data updates (Mar. 2017)

                                                                     Change
                                Temporal          Number of
Dataset            Platforms                                        since May
                                 Range              Files
                                                                       2014

Total Column   303             1926-2017        ~76000             5%
(Daily)
Total Column   28              1984-2017        ~82000             16%
(Hourly)
Lidar          2               1991-1998        ~700               None
RocketSonde 12                 1965-1994        ~200               NA
OzoneSonde     146             1962-2017        ~85000             8%
Umkehr         65              1951-2017        ~11000             9%

                                           Page 10 – March-25-17
Research activities

• Pandora spectrometer and Brewer Triad
• UV index prediction project
• Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM)
    simulations
•   OSIRIS and ACE
•   Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory at
    Eureka (CANDAC)

                               Page 11 – March-25-17
Pandora spectrometer
                                                                  MAX-DOAS                       Direct Sun

•   Sun and sky spectrometer – measures solar spectra
•   Measurement modes:
      –   Direct Sun
      –   Sky (scattered) light – MAX-DOAS
      –   Direct Moon
•   Designed for satellite validation and pollution monitoring
•   Similar to Brewer spectrophotometer (commands, schedules)
•   Automated, established algorithms, data available in real time
•   Specifications:
                                                                           Fort McKay, Alberta
      –   Czerny-Turner spectrometer
      –   270-530 nm at 0.5 nm resolution,
      –
Pandora spectrometer and Brewer Triad

                                                  Percentage difference between Pandoras (#103
                                                  and #104) and Brewer single and double triads
                                                  (BrT and BrT-D) as a function of ozone air mass
                                                  factor. On each box, the central mark is the
                                                  median, the edges of the box are the 25th and
Time series of Brewer #014 – Pandora #103         75th percentiles, and the whiskers extend to the
total ozone difference colour-coded by ozone      most extreme data points not considered outliers.
effective temperature : (a) before applying the
temperature dependence correction and (b)                                         Zhao et al., AMT, 2016
after applying the correction.
                                                          Page 13 – March-25-17
UV Index forecast by Meteorological Services
of Canada in ECCC
                        • Environment and Climate
                           Change Canada (ECCC)
                           currently provides 1-day
                           forecasts consisting of the
                           midday UV index accounting
                           for average cloud conditions
                           from 10 am to 4 pm for over
                           900 locations in Canada
                        • UV Index forecast is available
                           in weather reports on
                           Canada.ca/weather, and
                           daily UV Index Forecast
                           bulletins

                        Page 14 – March-25-17
New UV index forecasts
                                                                Sample UVI forecast
                                                                map for 18 UTC
• Make direct use of
       ozone model forecasts (LINOZ) at NWP resolution
       satellite measurements of ozone through data assimilation
       solar UV fluxes at the surface provided by the GEM weather
          forecast model to calculate clear-sky and all-sky UV indices
• Will make available new UV index forecast products, e.g.,
         daily max
         daytime variation
         longer forecasts (e.g. 4 days or more)
         global, continental and regional maps
• Offers a UV index forecasting package tightly integrated to the
  current weather forecasting system
• Goal: operational implementation in 2018-2019

                                        Page 15 – March-25-17
Multi-sensor stratospheric ozone
assimilation
• As part of a new UV index forecasting and interactive ozone-radiation
  project, a multi-sensor ozone assimilation project with total column bias
  correction was undertaken
• Assimilated data sets: OMI, GOME2 of MetOp A&B, and OMPS-NM total
  column ozone retrieved from the TOMS algorithm and OMPS-NP and
  SBUV/2 partial column profiles.
• Selected standard: OMI with validation using Brewers
• Study to be completed in 2017
     Sample figure: Mean differences between (a) GOME-2A (b) GOME-2B and
                    OMI-TOMS for the period of July and August 2014

               Solar zenith angle                       Solar zenith angle

                                           Page 16 – March-25-17
UV index monitoring and forecasting during
the 2015 Pan Am and Para-Pan Am Games
• Summer Games in southern Ontario in July-August
  2015                                                         Sample
• New UV index forecasts and real-time UV index                sensor
                                                               report
  measurements were made available through a
  decision-support portal for public health units and
  Ontario UV stakeholder in the Games region
• Four UV sensors from Kipp & Zonen provided
  diurnal monitoring during the Games in
  addition to the available Brewers
Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM)
   simulations for CCMI
• Chemistry Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) providing new CCM
  simulations for the 2018 Scientific Assessment
   – improved representation of tropospheric chemistry
• Increased focus on future GHG scenarios
   – future evolution of total column heavily dependent on future CO2
       ▪ stratospheric cooling, Brewer-Dobson circulation
   – large increase in methane for RCP8.5 also has large impact on
     ozone in troposphere and lower stratosphere

                                          Page 18 – March-25-17
OSIRIS
• OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System), a Canadian
  instrument on Odin satellite since 2001, measures spectra of limb scattered
  sunlight from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared that are primarily used to
  retrieve ozone, NO2 and aerosol extinction.
    – Current PI: Prof. Doug Degenstein, University of Saskatchewan

• The instrument has 2-km vertical resolution and good accuracy and long-
  term stability with respect to altitude registration.

                                                       The stratospheric ozone
                                                       trend is determined using a
                                                       linear regression model that
                                                       accounts for other major
                                                       sources of ozone variability.

                                                                     Bourassa et al. 2014

                                             Page 19 – March-25-17
SCISAT / ACE
• The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission consists of
    an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and a UV-VIS-NIR
    grating spectrometer (MAESTRO) that have been measuring continuously
    since February 2004 (13 year data set) from the SCISAT platform
      – MAESTRO provides O3, NO2 and H2O
      – ACE-FTS measures more than 30 different species and nearly 20
         isotopologues – including O3, CFCs, HFCs, HCl, ClONO2, N2O, NOy…
•   Solar occultation technique used by ACE provides excellent long-term
    precision and accuracy for the measurement time series
                                                                    Recent validation
                                                                    comparisons for ozone
                                                                    time series show higher
                                                                    correlation and small
                                                                    bias for ACE-FTS.

                                                                         Sheese et al. 2017

                                            Page 20 – March-25-17
Polar Environment Atmospheric
      Research Laboratory (PEARL)
  • Located in Eureka, Nunavut, Canada (80N, 86W)
      on three sites                                              Zero-altitude PEARL Auxiliary
  •   Operating since 2005 with ~25 instruments                   Laboratory (OPAL)
  •   Goal of measurements is to characterize the Arctic
      atmosphere from ground level to 100 km as
      thoroughly as possible.
  •   Supported by ECCC, NSERC and CSA
      .

                                                           Surface and Atmospheric
                                                           Flux, Irradiance and Radiation
                                                           Extension (SAFIRE)
   PEARL Ridge Laboratory

Photos courtesy of Pierre Fogal                             Photos
                                                           Page 21 –courtesy of Paul Loewen
                                                                     March-25-17
International engagement

• Support WMO capacity building initiative with Brewer Trust Fund –
  Renewed for 2015-2020 (CAN$37,500 per year)
• Maintain WMO Brewer World Calibration Centre
• Maintain and provide the global Brewer travelling standard to WMO
• Operate WMO World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Centre
  (www.woudc.org)
• Provide experts to GAW Ozone and UV SAGs, and Expert Team on
  World Data Centres
• Contribute to 2018 UNEP/WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone
  Depletion

                                        Page 22 – March-25-17
Satellite validation activities (TROPOMI,
   TEMPO):
• Validation of NO2, SO2, HCHO, and perhaps other species using new
  Pandora instruments that assure the quality of satellite data over
  Canada
• Validation of ozone and UV index products using the Brewer network as
  well as ECCC ozone data assimilation output and UV index forecasts
• Validation of ozone profiles using ozonesonde measurements from
  Canadian stations to ensure satellite tropospheric ozone measurements
  are suitable for ECCC Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) applications
  (assimilation, validation, research, trend studies, etc.)
• Validation of AOD data products using Canadian AERONET
  measurements and possibly ECCC aerosol data assimilation output
  from the AQHI forecasting system

                                            Page 23 – March-25-17
The ECCC Remote Sensing Network
 (present and near future)
                                                               Alert
                                                                                                                  Brewers
                                                         Eureka                                                   • Total column ozone and
                                                                                                                       spectral UV; 8 sites with 2+
                                                                                                                       instruments, and one site
                                                                                                                       each in Hawaii (Mauna Loa)
                                                      Resolute Bay                                                     and Antarctica (South Pole);
                                                                                                                       42 instruments total
                                                                                                                       including 10 double Brewers

                                                                               Iqaluit
                                                                                                                  Ozonesondes
                                   Yellowknife
                                                                                                                  • Ozone profiles; weekly
                                                                                                                       launches; 8 sites

                                     Oil Sands          Churchill                                  Goose Bay
                                                                                                                  AEROCAN – Canadian part
                                                                           Kuujjuarapik
                               Edmonton                                                                           of AERONET
                        P P
                                           Waskesiu                                                               • Total column aerosol optical
               Kelowna
   P                                                         Pickle Lake             Chapais                           depth (AOD); 19 stations
       Saturna Island         Lethbridge                                                              Halifax

Pandora        Brewer
                                                                               Egbert
                                                                                          CARTEL   Yarmouth
                                                                                                                  Pandora spectrometers
In-situ          Ozonesonde                                                P
                                                                                   Downsview                      • Total column ozone, NO2,
       AEROCAN                   P - planned
                                                                                                                       SO2; 6 instruments

                                                                                               Page 24 – March-25-17
Concluding remarks
• Systematic observations are ongoing, especially ground-based sites
    with long records and in the Arctic region. All Dobson/Brewer and
    ozonesonde sites opened in the 1950s and 1960s are operational.
•   Near real-time data are available and new real-time products can be
    created when the necessary data and resources are available.
•   Pandora total column ozone seems promising when compared with
    Brewer spectrophotometer.
•   New UV Index forecast system based on ozone data assimilation is
    being tested and evaluated, with its implementation in the near
    future.
•   Modelling studies are ongoing to improve understanding of the
    relationship between ozone and climate.
•   Although Odin/OSIRIS and SCISAT/ACE are beyond their design
    life, they continue to operate successfully.

                                          Page 25 – March-25-17
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