Drivers of Sustainable Supply Chain Management: Identification and Classification - MDPI
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sustainability Review Drivers of Sustainable Supply Chain Management: Identification and Classification Muhammad Amad Saeed * and Wolfgang Kersten Institute of Business Logistics and General Management, Hamburg University of Technology, Am Schwarzenberg-Campus 4, 21073 Hamburg, Germany; email@example.com * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org Received: 12 January 2019; Accepted: 19 February 2019; Published: 21 February 2019 Abstract: With the increase in awareness of environmental and social issues associated with the development and the use of products, stakeholders—especially consumers—are showing more concern regarding these issues. To address new developments and changing trends, organizations are now compelled to identify and implement innovative and sustainable solutions, not only within their organizations’ boundaries, but also across the whole supply chain network. The primary goal of this paper was to identify and analyze drivers of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) that influence or encourage organizations to undertake sustainability initiatives and implement sustainable solutions throughout their supply chains. For this purpose, a systematic literature review was conducted and 1559 drivers of SSCM were identified from 217 journal articles. Precise interpretation, clear definitions, restructuring, and classification into external and internal driver categories produced a list of 40 unique drivers of SSCM. The results revealed that regulatory and market pressures, with reference to the number of citations, are the most prevailing drivers of SSCM for the implementation of sustainability practices. Classification of the drivers of SSCM into primary and secondary driver categories may assist practitioners and decision makers in prioritizing sustainability-related initiatives and adopting sustainability practices across the whole supply chain network. Keywords: drivers of sustainable supply chain management; sustainable supply chain management; systematic literature review 1. Introduction Trends in supply chain management (SCM), such as the globalization of market economies, shorter product life cycles, digitalization, and multifaceted customer expectations, along with developments such as resource scarcity, stricter regulatory requirements, and a more long-term focus, have led to the evolution of highly complex supply chains. The incorporation of environmental and social responsibility issues into the management of supply chains is becoming increasingly relevant to the success of organizations and their supply chains. Organizations are considered accountable for their activities that affect the environment, society, and economy of their own businesses, as well as those of their supply chain participants . As a result, sustainability within the operations of organizations, as well as within the supply chain, has become a contemporary issue and an important area of research . The adoption of sustainability practices not only improves the environmental and social performance of organizations and their supply chains, but also provides an opportunity for organizations to acquire a new set of competencies, which can help them to achieve a competitive advantage by undertaking sustainability initiatives within and outside of the organizational boundaries . Sustainability 2019, 11, 1137; doi:10.3390/su11041137 www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability
Sustainability 2019, 11, 1137 2 of 23 However, taking sustainability-related initiatives and adopting sustainability practices are often influenced by various internal and external factors . In addition to the introduction of several new regulations pertaining to different sustainability dimensions, such as carbon discharges, greenhouse effects, carbon taxes, and anti-corruption, organizations and their supply chains are encouraged or even pressured—mostly by various stakeholders—to address sustainability issues caused by their operations . Therefore, responses to various stakeholders’ requirements can affect the relationship between adopting sustainability initiatives and their effectiveness on the sustainability performance of the supply chain . In turn, the focal organization within the supply chain network needs to give stakeholders value and extend its focus beyond conventional financial goals to the indispensable sustainability issues highlighted by different stakeholders to adopt sustainability practices across the whole supply chain. The inability to definitively identify important sustainability issues can lead to miscalculated recognition of supply chain risks and can shift top management attention to other non-priority issues. Hence, identification of the important sustainability issues emphasized by various internal and external factors to the supply chain (also described in the literature as the drivers of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM)) not only promotes extensive stakeholder engagement, but also contributes to the achievement of overall supply chain sustainability goals. In the literature, a multitude of drivers of SSCM are described. Despite the topic’s acknowledged relevance, a process for setting priority based on drivers’ importance in the supply chain, as well as their degree of influence across the supply chain, is still required. Why and how many drivers of SSCM exist have not been identified [1,4]. There is no clear set of listings, definitions, or ranking of drivers of SSCM in the literature that can help practitioners set their sustainability goals and focus their sustainability-related actions according to the priority established by different stakeholders and drivers of SSCM. A clear identification and classification of the drivers of SSCM may assist practitioners in understanding important sustainability issues, to identify difficulties, and to determine the improvements required. As not all drivers of SSCM pressure organizations in the same way , careful consideration of industrial priority is an important aspect for managers to consider. Therefore, the main objective of this research paper was to identify and define the drivers of SSCM, as well as categorize them according to their degree of importance and value contribution. For this purpose, a detailed analysis of the drivers of SSCM was conducted to understand the current landscape of drivers of SSCM and their roles in the implementation of sustainability initiatives. Institutional and stakeholder theories were adopted to examine and understand the various drivers of SSCM. This study makes the following contributions to the SSCM literature. We categorize the drivers of SSCM based on their access to supply chain knowledge, degree of importance, and value contribution. We define the drivers of SSCM using easy-to-understand and clear language for all stakeholders. We also searched for either internal or external factors that influence organizations and supply chains to help those implementing sustainable supply chain initiatives. The objectives of this research work were achieved by conducting a literature review regarding the drivers of SSCM. In Section 2, the emergence of the concept of sustainability in SSCM is presented. Definitions and summaries of the drivers of SSCM, and their categorization, are described. Section 3 presents the two-step research methodology adopted to conduct this systematic literature review, and Section 4 provides a detailed analysis of the results and findings of the research work. Finally, conclusions and future outlook are presented in Section 5. 2. Research Background The basic terminologies related to the topic of sustainability, SSCM, drivers of SSCM, and classification of the drivers of SSCM are presented below in detail. 2.1. Sustainable Supply Chain Management A shift from the one-dimensional perspective of sustainable development toward an integrated three-dimensional concept of sustainability (i.e., environmental, social, and economic) has been
Sustainability 2019, 11, 1137 3 of 23 observed. This three-dimensional concept is also known as the triple bottom line (TBL), which aims to decrease harmful ecological impacts and increase positive social impacts while achieving economic sustainability. The integration of the sustainability concept into the context of SCM has been widely discussed in academics and in practice. A number of literature reviews regarding establishing a relationship between the conventional supply chain and sustainability dimensions have been published. Although no single agreement exists on a universal definition of SSCM, the definition proposed by Carter and Rogers  is well accepted so far: “the strategic, transparent integration and achievement of an organization’s social, environmental, and economic goals in the systemic coordination of key inter-organizational business processes for improving the long-term economic performance of the individual organization and its supply chains”. They emphasized the importance of the integration of the sustainability concept into business processes throughout the supply chain to achieve long-term economic advantages. Hence, in a sustainable supply chain, sustainability-related managerial actions are tasked with accomplishing economic as well as non-economic (social and environmental) performance goals [6,7]. However, wider supply chain sustainability can only be achieved if each participant in the supply chain works together to achieve overall strategic sustainability goals, while simultaneously fulfilling customers’ and other stakeholders’ requirements. Organizations should provide value to stakeholders and accommodate their needs, as every stakeholder in a supply chain has its own stakes and sustainability-related concerns [8,9]. For example, regulatory authorities are more concerned about the efficient use of natural resources, and employees are more interested in work-related health and safety situations. Consumers are concerned more about the emission of harmful gases and the release of effluent during development, as well as the use of the end products. Hence, the goals of SSCM are to “provide maximum value to all stakeholders, and to fulfill customers’ requirements by achieving sustainable flow of products, services, information, and capital, as well as enabling cooperation among different supply chain participants” . Accordingly, collaboration among different internal and external stakeholders can result in increased pressure on the focal organization as well as on other supply chain partners for the adoption of sustainability practices within their business operations . 2.2. Drivers for Sustainable Supply Chain Management Organizations are influenced by both internal and external factors (such as government, community, investors, customers, suppliers, and employees) to adopt sustainable supply chain initiatives [1,12,13]. These influencing factors are defined synonymously in the literature as pressures, triggers, enablers, and drivers [1,14,15]. Caniato et al.  defined drivers of SSCM as pressures that push organizations toward the implementation of specific sustainability initiatives. Köksal et al.  defined drivers of SSCM as “external factors that initiate and motivate focal organizations in implementing SSCM practices”. Hence, drivers for SSCM can be defined here as “motivators or influencers that encourage or push organizations to implement sustainability initiatives throughout the supply chain” . However, different drivers affect supply chain decisions to different extents . For example, media can influence purchasing decisions, and shareholders have more impact on logistics-related supply chain decisions. Similarly, employees and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have more influence on decisions concerning the social dimension, whereas regulatory bodies are more influential in the environmental dimension of the TBL [16,17]. In the literature, institutional theory is used to explain how drivers of SSCM affects decisions regarding sustainable actions, with the overarching theme as to how firms better secure their social fitness and legitimacy by conforming to the rules and norms within their operating sphere [1,17]. To categorize drivers, we first analyzed the institutional theory approach to understand the drivers of SSCM as three institutional pressures: coercive pressures, normative pressures, and mimetic pressures [1,4,17]. Coercive pressures are considered the most influential type of pressure, and include pressures from the government, regulatory bodies, or authorities. Normative pressures originate from
Sustainability 2019, 11, 1137 4 of 23 Sustainability social 2019, 11, and obligations x FORare PEER REVIEW exerted by NGOs, trade unions, and society. Mimetic pressures arise 4when of 23 competitors adopt sustainability practices and organizations are, in turn, asked to undertake these to undertake these sustainable actions [1,17,18]. All institutional pressures have the ability to sustainable actions [1,17,18]. All institutional pressures have the ability to influence organizations in influence organizations in the adoption of sustainability initiatives . However, these three the adoption of sustainability initiatives . However, these three institutional pressures have been institutional pressures have been revealed to be theoretically distinct but not necessarily empirically revealed to be theoretically distinct but not necessarily empirically distinguishable . To clearly distinguishable . To clearly define and set their goals, drivers of SSCM—based on their degree of define and set their goals, drivers of SSCM—based on their degree of influence—are categorized in influence—are categorized in this research work as internal and external drivers (Figure 1) this research work as internal and external drivers (Figure 1) [1,9,14,17,19–21]. [1,9,14,17,19–21]. External Drivers Internal Drivers Market Pressures Corporate Strategy Societal Pressures Organization’s Culture Regulatory Pressures Organization's Resources Organization’s Characteristics Figure 1. Classification of the drivers of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). Figure 1. Classification of the drivers of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). However, not all the internal and external influencing factors have a similar level of access to However, notknowledge the organizational all the internal and external and level of value influencing contributionfactors withinhave a similar the supply level chain. In of access this regard,to the organizational knowledge and level of value contribution within the supply stakeholder theory explains the role of pressure (direct or indirect) exerted by different stakeholders chain. In this regard, stakeholder in theory explains the implementation of the role of pressure sustainability (direct[13,22]. initiatives or indirect) Basedexerted on the bylevel different stakeholders of access to supply in the implementation chain knowledge and of sustainability value-contribution,initiatives [13,22]. drivers Based are of SSCM on the alsolevel of access as categorized to primary supply chainand knowledge and value-contribution, drivers of SSCM are also categorized secondary drivers . The more knowledge they have about the supply chain, and the as primary and secondary greater drivers the value . The more and contribution, knowledge the greatertheythehave about theofsupply importance chain,group the pressure and the .greater Primary thedrivers value contribution, and the greater the importance of the pressure group . Primary have a direct influence on organizations as well as their supply chains, and include pressure from drivers have a direct influence on organizations shareholders, as well as suppliers, employees, their supply unions, chains, and include customers/consumers, pressure financial from shareholders, institutions, regulatory suppliers, employees, unions, customers/consumers, financial agents, competitors, and top management commitments [1,4,23–25]. Secondary drivers have institutions, regulatory agents, an competitors, and top management commitments [1,4,23–25]. Secondary indirect influence on organizations as well as their supply chains, and include pressures such as drivers have an indirect influence on reputation andorganizations image, media asand wellpress, as their NGOs,supply chains, andand communities, include socialpressures such as reputation groups [1,4,24,25]. and image, media and press, NGOs, communities, and social groups [1,4,24,25]. 3. Research Methodology 3. Research Methodology In accordance with the objectives of this research paper, a systematic literature review was In accordance conducted to identify with thethe objectives drivers of this of SSCM. A research paper, high quality a systematic literature reviewliterature follows areview was multi-step conducted to identify the drivers of SSCM. A high quality literature methodology [26–28]. Accordingly, a two-phase approach was adapted from Tranfield et al. , review follows a multi-step methodology as shown in2019, [26–28]. Figure 2. Accordingly, a two-phase approach was adapted from Tranfield et al. , as Sustainability 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 5 of 23 shown in Figure 2. Material collection 3.1. Material Collection Scope of the research work The material collection phase was usedGeneration to identify and select literature relevant to the drivers of of keywords SSCM. It included four steps: defining the scope of the research work, generation of keywords, Database selection selection of databases, and sample selection. We decided, in defining the scope of the research work, to consider scientific literature articles in the field of drivers of SSCM published until the year 2016. Sample selection As a result of rigorous trials and test searches for specific terminologies in different databases, two combinations of search keywords related to the subject area of drivers of SSCM were finalized, as Content analysis outlined in Table 1. The first keyword (K1),Preparation which isofaanalysis combination of two terms (sustainab* AND “supply chain"), helped to identify literature in the field of SSCM. To ensure the selected articles dealt Specification of categories with the topic, the second set (K2) of keywords (Trigg* OR pressur* OR driv*) was used to identify articles that only deal with drivers of SSCM in that sample. These keywords (K1 and K2) were Data collection and analysis searched in two well-renowned scientific databases, Elsevier’s Science Direct and Web of Science, to identify relevant articles. In the final step of sample selection, only peer-reviewed journal articles Figure 2. Research methodology. methodology. published in the English language were selected by excluding every other literature source such as conference papers, books, and working papers. By following the aforementioned screening procedure, 618 scientific articles were initially identified from two databases. After cleaning and removing 115 duplications, 503 unique articles were selected for further analysis. The selected articles were subsequently processed carefully to ensure the high quality of results and to validate that the identified articles actually addressed the
Sustainability 2019, 11, 1137 5 of 23 3.1. Material Collection The material collection phase was used to identify and select literature relevant to the drivers of SSCM. It included four steps: defining the scope of the research work, generation of keywords, selection of databases, and sample selection. We decided, in defining the scope of the research work, to consider scientific literature articles in the field of drivers of SSCM published until the year 2016. As a result of rigorous trials and test searches for specific terminologies in different databases, two combinations of search keywords related to the subject area of drivers of SSCM were finalized, as outlined in Table 1. The first keyword (K1), which is a combination of two terms (sustainab* AND “supply chain”), helped to identify literature in the field of SSCM. To ensure the selected articles dealt with the topic, the second set (K2) of keywords (Trigg* OR pressur* OR driv*) was used to identify articles that only deal with drivers of SSCM in that sample. These keywords (K1 and K2) were searched in two well-renowned scientific databases, Elsevier’s Science Direct and Web of Science, to identify relevant articles. In the final step of sample selection, only peer-reviewed journal articles published in the English language were selected by excluding every other literature source such as conference papers, books, and working papers. By following the aforementioned screening procedure, 618 scientific articles were initially identified from two databases. After cleaning and removing 115 duplications, 503 unique articles were selected for further analysis. The selected articles were subsequently processed carefully to ensure the high quality of results and to validate that the identified articles actually addressed the topic under study. Journal articles were selected for the purpose of content analysis only if drivers of SSCM were mentioned, discussed, defined, or explained anywhere within the text of the publications. Hence, detailed reading and establishment of an understanding of each article resulted in 217 relevant articles for further analysis. Table 1. Drivers of SSCM-related keyword combinations and number of outcomes. Data Articles with Unique Full-Text Relevant (R)/ K1 K2 Source 1 Repetition Articles Available Irrelevant (IR) Science Sustainab* Trigg* 160 Direct 217 (R) AND OR pressur* 503 462 Web of 245 (IR) “supply chain” OR driv* 458 Science 1 Text search categories were ‘Title’, ‘Abstract’, and ‘Keyword’. 3.2. Content Analysis To analyze the selected articles for obtaining and understanding the required data, a three-step content analysis approach  was adopted: preparation of analysis, specification of categories, and data collection and analysis. These are described below in detail. We decided, in the preparation of analysis step, to restrict this research to scientific literature only. However, the entire sample was selected as the projection of the population was not necessarily required. In the specification of categories step, a single categorization scheme was used in which a driver of SSCM could be related to only one category. Afterward, pilot classification was used to test the categorization of the drivers and the overall coding process. The weaknesses in the coding process, identified during the pilot classification, were removed to attain higher levels of reliability and validity. In the data collection and analysis step, instances of related information in the selected sample given in the form of tables, figures, appendices, lists, or found anywhere in the content of the articles, were identified. The exact wording of each driver, as mentioned in its respective source, was documented for the whole sample, along with its page number for the purpose of transparency and replicability. Data collection here, however, involved a two-phase coding process: initial coding and focused coding. At first, drivers of SSCM were documented as mentioned in the literature, resulting in a total of 1559 drivers. In the initial coding process, drivers with similar meanings were
Sustainability 2019, 11, 1137 6 of 23 combined, such as “government regulations”, “government pressure”, or “government legislation. Sustainability 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 23 In focused coding, the drivers that were coded initially were reviewed and classified according to the driver suchcategories as “governmentmentioned in Section regulations”, 2.2. The precise “government interpretation, pressure”, clear definition, or “government legislation.restructuring, In focused and classification into external and internal driver categories produced a list of coding, the drivers that were coded initially were reviewed and classified according to the driver 40 unique drivers of SSCM. categories mentioned in Section 2.2. The precise interpretation, clear definition, restructuring, and Hence, theinto classification drivers of SSCM external were identified and internal and selected driver categories produced carefully a list ofand the content 40 unique driversofofthe SSCM. information obtained was restructured to effectively represent the data in the form of a standardized text. TheHence, the drivers reliability of SSCMcollection of the material were identified step was and selected ensured by carefully and the the systematic usecontent of the of the keyword information search and theobtained was restructured documentation to effectively of each process represent step. The the of validity data theincoding the form of a standardized process was ensured bytext. The reliability involving two coders of the material from collection the start of thestep was ensured research by the systematic and differing judgmentsuse of the were keyword resolved after search and the detailed discussion. documentation of each process step. The validity of the coding process was ensured by involving two coders from the start of the research and differing judgments were resolved after detailed and 4. Results discussion. Findings This section 4. Results describes the results in detail and discusses the findings to provide practical guidance and Findings for researchers and practitioners in the field of SSCM. The first subsection discusses several descriptive featuresThis section of the describes selected journalthe resultsthe articles: in year detailofand discussescited publication, the journals, findings to provide practical publications’ authors, guidance for researchers and practitioners in the field of SSCM. The first subsection discusses several publications’ geographical origin, the methodology applied, the addressed sustainability dimensions, descriptive features of the selected journal articles: the year of publication, cited journals, and the addressed industrial sectors. In the second subsection, the driver identification in the literature publications’ authors, publications’ geographical origin, the methodology applied, the addressed is analyzed. Finally, analysis regarding the number of occurrences of drivers of SSCM in the literature sustainability dimensions, and the addressed industrial sectors. In the second subsection, the driver is reviewed within the third subsection. identification in the literature is analyzed. Finally, analysis regarding the number of occurrences of 4.1.drivers of SSCM in the literature is reviewed within the third subsection. Descriptive Analysis of Research Articles in the Selected Sample 4.1.The Descriptive yearly Analysis of Research distribution Articles in of research the Selected articles Samplefrom the two data sources, without retrieved considering repetition and for the purpose of analysis of progression and importance of the research The yearly distribution of research articles retrieved from the two data sources, without area over time, is shownand considering repetition in Figure for the3. A continuous purpose increase of analysis in the number of progression of articlesofpublished and importance until the research thearea yearover2016 is apparent. Although the number of articles published before 2012 was time, is shown in Figure 3. A continuous increase in the number of articles published until small, a sharp risethe inyear the number of articles 2016 is apparent. was noted Although the after number theofyear 2011, articles with 85% published of the before total 2012 wasarticles small,published a sharp after 2011. This rapid increase is a direct indication of the growing attention of the scientific rise in the number of articles was noted after the year 2011, with 85% of the total articles published community in the afterresearch fieldrapid 2011. This of SSCM. As stated increase in the indication is a direct literature, the number of the of articles growing doubles attention of the over the span scientific of community 10 to 20 years once in the a research research fieldarea receives of SSCM. acknowledgment As stated from in the literature, the the scientific number community of articles doubles . In over this respect, the spanthe of number 10 to 20 of articles years once identified a researchin thisreceives area systematic literature review acknowledgment fromincreased more the scientific thancommunity twofold in . theIn thisfew past respect, years.the number of articles identified in this systematic literature review increased more than twofold in the past few years. 50 OF PUBLICATIONS 40 30 20 NUMBER 10 0 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Figure3.3.Distribution Figure Distributionof of scientific scientific literature articlesby literature articles bypublication publicationyear. year. Academic Academic journals journalsrepresent representpriorities priorities in in aa specific researcharea, specific research area,and andare areconsidered considered toto play play anan essential essentialrole inin role the thedevelopment developmentof ofaagiven given discipline. discipline. InIn this this regard, regard,7979journals journalspublished published articles articles related relatedto to drivers driversofofSSCM. SSCM.However, However,18 18 journals journals published published moremorethan thanthree threearticles, articles,asas shown shown in in Table 2. In Table thethe 2. In selected selectedsample, theJournal sample,the Journalofof Cleaner Cleaner Production leadwith Production lead with3939articles. articles.The The International International Journal Journal of Production of Production Economicspublished Economics published1515articles. articles. Supply Supply Chain ChainManagement: Management:An AnInternational Journal International Journal published 15 articles. The International Journal of Operations and Production Management (13 articles)
Sustainability 2019, 11, 1137 7 of 23 Sustainability 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 23 published 15 articles. The International Journal of Operations and Production Management (13 articles) andand Business Business Strategyand Strategy andthe theEnvironment Environment (12 (12 articles) articles) are are the theother othertwo twojournals journalsamong among thethe toptop five five influential journals (in terms of number of articles) in the selected sample. These findings also influential journals (in terms of number of articles) in the selected sample. These findings also highlight highlight the difficulty that authors in the field of SSCM are facing in publishing their research, as the difficulty that authors in the field of SSCM are facing in publishing their research, as not many not many journals are dedicated to the field of SSCM. The Journal of Cleaner Production, along with journals are dedicated to the field of SSCM. The Journal of Cleaner Production, along with the other the other top-five journals, can be considered as core journals in the area of SSCM. top-five journals, can be considered as core journals in the area of SSCM. Table 2. Distribution of selected articles per journal. Table 2. Distribution of selected articles per journal. Journal Name No. Articles Journal Name No. Articles Journal of Cleaner Production 39 Journal of Cleaner International Journal Production of Production Economics 3915 International Supply Journal of Production Chain Management: Economics Journal An International 1515 Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 15 International Journal of Operations and Production Management 13 International Journal of Operations and Production Management 13 Business Strategy and the Environment Business Strategy and the Environment 1212 Journal of Business Ethics Journal of Business Ethics 6 6 InternationalJournal International JournalofofPhysical Physical Distribution Distribution and andLogistics LogisticsManagement Management 5 5 Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management 5 5 Resources Conservation and Recycling Resources Conservation and Recycling 5 5 Resources Policy 5 Resources Policy 5 Industrial Marketing Management 4 Industrial Marketing Management International Journal of Production Research 4 4 International Benchmarking:Journal of Production An International Research Journal 3 4 Benchmarking: Corporate SocialAnResponsibility InternationalandJournal Environmental Management 3 3 Journal ofSocial Corporate Environmental Management Responsibility and Environmental Management 3 3 Journal of Operations Management Journal of Environmental Management 3 3 Journal of Supply Chain Management 3 Journal of Operations Management 3 Sustainability 3 Journal of Supply Chain Management 3 Sustainability 3 The development and the shape of a research field depend on authors working in that research area. TheThe investigation development and the shape of a research of co-authorship revealedfieldthatdepend JosephonSarkis authors working in published thethat research most articles (14, or 6.5% of 217 articles) in the field of SSCM. Figure 4 presents the list of authors who(14, area. The investigation of co-authorship revealed that Joseph Sarkis published the most articles have or 6.5% ofeither published, 217 articles) in the field individually of SSCM. or together Figure with 4 presents a research the list group, at of authors least four who have articles inpublished, the research either individually or together with a research group, at least four articles in the research area of the area of the drivers of SSCM. We found that 90% of the articles in the selected sample were from two drivers of SSCM. We found that 90% of the articles in the selected sample were from two or more or more authors, whereas 64% of the articles in the selected sample were from three or more authors. authors, whereas 64% of the articles in the selected sample were from three or more authors. The The average number of authors per article in the selected sample was 2.48 until the end of the year average number of authors per article in the selected sample was 2.48 until the end of the year 2011. 2011. However, this increased to 2.93 from 2012 to 2016. The overall average number of authors per However, this increased to 2.93 from 2012 to 2016. The overall average number of authors per article article is 2.86. This is far above the average authorship across all other research disciplines of 1.45 . is 2.86. This is far above the average authorship across all other research disciplines of 1.45 . The The higher average higher average of the of the number number of authors of authors in SSCM in SSCM is either is either due toduethetointerdisciplinary the interdisciplinary naturenature of the of theresearch researchfield fieldorordue duetotothe theinvolvement involvementand andinteraction interaction ofof different different research research groups groups within within this this research field. research field. 15 Number of Publications 12 9 6 As 4th Author As 3rd Author 3 As 2nd Author 0 As 1st Author Figure 4. Distribution of authors who have published four or more SSCM-related articles.
Sustainability 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 23 Sustainability 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 23 Sustainability 2019, 11, 1137 8 of 23 Figure 4. Figure 4. Distribution Distribution of of authors authors who who have have published published four four or or more more SSCM-related SSCM-related articles. articles. In the context of the methodology applied, the content analysis of the selected journal articles In the In the context context of of the methodology methodology applied, the the content content analysis analysis of the the selected selected journal journal articles articles helped to identify thatthe a diverse range ofapplied, methodologies were applied ofby different authors to address helped helped to identify toresearch that a identify questionsdiverse that a diverse range range of methodologies of methodologies were applied were applied by different by different authors to address different in their research work. We revealed that surveys wereauthors used asto oneaddress of the different research different research questions questions in in their their research research work. work. We We revealed revealed that that surveys surveys were were used used as as one one ofof the the leading methodologies to collect data in the field of SSCM. However, many authors applied multiple leading methodologies leading methodologies to to collect collect data data in in the the field field of of SSCM. SSCM. However, However, many many authors authors applied applied multiple multiple methods, and combined literature reviews with other methodologies. In this systematic literature methods, methods, and combined and combined literature literature reviews with other methodologies. In this systematic literature review, multiple methodologies werereviews countedwith other methodologies. individually and results forInthe this topsystematic literature four methodologies review, multiple review, multiple methodologies methodologies were were counted counted individually individually and and results results for for the the top top four four are presented in Figure 5. methodologies are methodologies are presented presented in in Figure Figure 5.5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Distribution of research methodologies 5. Distribution in methodologies in selected in selected journal selected journal articles. journal articles. articles. Figure of research methodologies Our systematic Our systematic literature systematic literature review literature review revealed review revealed revealed thatthat not that not all not all articles all articles in articles in the the selected in the sample selected sample addressed sample addressed addressed Our selected the the three three sustainability sustainability dimensions dimensions (i.e., (i.e., environmental, environmental, social, social, and and economic) economic) of the of the TBL. TBL. Figure Figure 666 the three sustainability dimensions (i.e., environmental, social, and economic) of the TBL. Figure depicts the depicts the findings the findings findings and and distribution and distribution distribution of of selected of selected scientific selected scientific journal scientific journal articles journal articles articles in in accordance in accordance accordance with with with the the the three three depicts three sustainability sustainability dimensions dimensions dimensions of of the of the TBL. the TBL. Of TBL. Of the Of the the articles, articles, articles, 67 67 (31%) 67 (31%) (31%) addressed addressed theaddressed the TBL the TBL approach. TBL approach. approach. However, However, sustainability However, the majority the majority of majority of articles of articles (44 articles (44 out out of (44 of 67) out of 67) addressing 67) addressing theaddressing the TBL TBL werethe TBL were were published published inpublished in recent in recent years recent years years (between (between the (between 2014 and 2014 and 2016). and 2016). This 2016). This indicatesThis indicates indicates increasing increasing increasing interest interest in interest in the the holistic in the holistic holistic sustainability sustainability sustainability approach approach in approach in the the context context 2014 in of the SCM.context We of SCM. further We further revealed that revealed 69% of that the 69% of articles the articles addressed at addressed least one or attwo least one or two sustainability of SCM. We further revealed that 69% of the articles addressed at least one or two sustainability sustainability dimensions of ofdimensions the TBL. of the TBL. Environmental TBL. Environmental Environmental sustainability has sustainability has been the has of the center center been the center attention of attention in many many articles, dimensions the sustainability been of attention in articles, in andmany here,articles, the and here, environmental the environmental sustainability sustainability dimension has dimension been the has most been popularthe most popular sustainability and here, the environmental sustainability dimension has been the most popular sustainability sustainability dimension so so dimension far: 95% 95% of ofso thefar: 95% ofarticles research the research articles addressed addressed the the environmental environmental sustainability sustainability dimension, dimension far: the research articles addressed the environmental sustainability dimension, dimension, either either individually individually or individually or together or together with together with other with other other sustainability sustainability sustainability dimensions. dimensions. dimensions. either Environmental Environmental 12 12 Social Social 123 123 12 12 67 67 Economic Economic 11 Figure 6. Figure 6. Distribution 6. Distribution of Distribution of selected of selected journal selected journal articles journal articles across articles across the across the triple the triple bottom triple bottom line bottom line (TBL). line (TBL). (TBL). Figure The analysis The analysis of analysis of the of the geographical the geographical origin geographical origin of origin of the of the data the data sources data sources identified sources identified that identified that the that the majority the majority of majority of the of the the The research research articles articleswere were from fromdeveloped countries. developed Out countries. of Out 217 of articles, 217 as articles,presented as in presentedFigure in 7, 129 Figure (59%) 7, 129 research articles were from developed countries. Out of 217 articles, as presented in Figure 7, 129
countries, whereas 88 (41%) were from non-OECD member countries. In terms of the number of research articles addressing sustainability issues from a specific country, developing countries such as India (26) and China (21) were among the overall top five countries. In addition, 67 research articles were from European Union (EU) member states, and 26 research articles were from the U.K., which Sustainability composed 11, 1137 2019,72% 9 of from of the total research articles from OECD member countries. Research articles 23 India, China, and Brazil contributed 63% of the total research articles from non-OECD member states. Of the research articles from developing countries, 85% were published between 2012 and 2016, were from Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) member countries, which indicates that researchers have recently started focusing on sustainability issues in developing whereas 88 (41%) were from non-OECD member countries. In terms of the number of research articles countries. Despite this increasing trend in addressing sustainability issues in developing countries, a addressing sustainability issues from a specific country, developing countries such as India (26) and clear gap still exists between developing and developed countries. The current research in SSCM is China (21) were among the overall top five countries. In addition, 67 research articles were from centered either around developed countries or a few developing countries like China, India, and European Union (EU) member states, and 26 research articles were from the U.K., which composed Brazil. Therefore, to identify country-specific drivers of SSCM and to understand the importance of 72% of the total research articles from OECD member countries. Research articles from India, China, sustainability issues in the case of developing countries, further research is required from developing and Brazil contributed 63% of the total research articles from non-OECD member states. countries other than China, India, and Brazil. Malaysia Non-OECD OECD Others Taiwan Others 8% 6% 23% 15% Brazil 10% 41% EU 52% 20% UK 59% 24% 29% 13% China India USA Figure 7. Geographical origin of research articles. Figure 7. Geographical origin of research articles. Of the research articles from developing countries, 85% were published between 2012 and 2016, An inquiry which indicates thatinto the industrial researchers sector considered have recently withinon started focusing thesustainability research articles issuesindicated that 19% in developing of the selected research articles addressed more than one industrial sector. The content countries. Despite this increasing trend in addressing sustainability issues in developing countries, analysis also revealed a clear thatexists gap still both between the manufacturing developingandandautomotive sectors areThe developed countries. experiencing more pressure, current research in SSCM in general, to is centered implement either aroundsustainability initiativesorthan developed countries a fewothers. We identified developing thatlike countries 18%China, of the India, selected and Brazil. Therefore, to identify country-specific drivers of SSCM and to understand the importancethe research articles addressed the manufacturing sector, and 8% of the research articles addressed automotive sector, of sustainability issues as presented in the in Figure 8.countries, case of developing In the food-related industry, further research sustainability- is required and food- from developing safety-related countries issues other than are attracting China, India, andmore attention , and 9% of the research articles addressed the Brazil. food An industrial inquiry intosector. Other industries, the industrial such as textiles, sector considered withinelectronics, the researchservices, articlesand construction, indicated were that 19% alsoselected of the significantly addressed research articlesinaddressed the selected sample. more than one industrial sector. The content analysis also revealed that both the manufacturing and automotive sectors are experiencing more pressure, in general, to implement sustainability initiatives than others. We identified that 18% of the selected research articles addressed the manufacturing sector, and 8% of the research articles addressed the automotive sector, as presented in Figure 8. In the food-related industry, sustainability- and food-safety-related issues are attracting more attention , and 9% of the research articles addressed the food industrial sector. Other industries, such as textiles, electronics, services, and construction, were also significantly addressed in the selected sample.
Sustainability 2019, Sustainability 11, x 2019, 11, 1137 FOR PEER REVIEW 10of 10 of 23 23 Sustainability 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 10 of 23 Figure 8. Distribution of selected journal articles according to the industrial sector considered. Figure 8. Distribution of selected journal articles according to the industrial sector considered. 4.2. Identification of Drivers of SSCM from the Scientific Literature 4.2. Identification Drivers Figure of Drivers of SSCM of SSCM encourage 8. Distribution fromjournal and of selected the Scientific enable Literature organizations articles according to industrial to the introduce sustainability sector considered. initiatives into their operations. For the identification of drivers of SSCM from scientific research articles, Drivers of SSCM encourage and enable organizations to introduce sustainability initiatives into driver 4.2. Identification categories fromof Section Drivers of2.2. SSCM werefromfollowed. the Scientific Literature The literature analysis revealed that both internal their operations. For the identification of drivers of SSCM from scientific research articles, driver and external drivers of SSCM can collectively and enablemotivate organizations introducetosustainability adopt sustainable supply into chain categories Drivers of SSCM from Section encourage 2.2. were followed. organizations The literaturetoanalysis revealed thatinitiatives both internal and their operations. initiatives. However, For thisthe identification research attempts of drivers to createof SSCM a clearfrom scientific research categorization articles,ofdriver of drivers SSCM into external drivers of SSCM can collectively motivate organizations to adopt sustainable supply chain externalcategories from Section and internal drivers, 2.2.aswere wellfollowed. as primary The and literature analysisdrivers. secondary revealedAthat both clear internal and and understanding initiatives. However, external drivers of this SSCMresearch attemptsmotivate can collectively to create a clear categorization organizations of drivers to adopt sustainable supplyof chain SSCM into definition of each identified driver of SSCM is provided to address the research gap. This information external and internal initiatives. drivers, However, as well attempts this research as primary and asecondary to create drivers. of clear categorization A drivers clear understanding of SSCM into and can be used by practitioners to prioritize their sustainability initiatives and achieve supply chain definition of each external and identified driver internal drivers, asof SSCM well is provided as primary to address and secondary the research drivers. gap. This information A clear understanding and sustainability definitiongoals. of each identified driver of SSCM is provided to address the research gap. This information can be used by practitioners to prioritize their sustainability initiatives and achieve supply chain can be used by practitioners to prioritize their sustainability initiatives and achieve supply chain sustainability 4.2.1. Externalgoals. Drivers of SSCM sustainability goals. 4.2.1.As external External coercive, Drivers of SSCM normative, and socio-cultural pressures rise, organizations start 4.2.1. External Drivers of SSCM implementing sustainability initiatives [1,21] to avoid disadvantages or penalties . External As external coercive, Aspressures external normative, coercive, normative, and socio-cultural pressures rise, organizations start (exogenous) include aspects fromand socio-cultural outside pressures the organization butrise, have organizations a significantstart influence implementing implementingsustainability initiatives sustainability initiatives[1,21] [1,21] to to avoid disadvantages avoid disadvantages or penalties or penalties . External . External on the organizations’ internal actions. External drivers of SSCM initiate or motivate focal organizations (exogenous) (exogenous) pressures pressures include include aspects aspects fromoutside from outside the theorganization organization butbut have a significant have influence a significant influence in adopting on the sustainability organizations’ practices internal [4,15], actions. and are classified External drivers intoSSCM of three initiate clusters:or regulatory motivate pressures, focal on the organizations’ internal actions. External drivers of SSCM initiate or motivate focal societalorganizations pressures, and market sustainability in adopting pressures, aspractices described in Figure [4,15], 9.classified In the external driver category, organizations in adopting sustainability practices [4,15],and andareare into three classified clusters: into three clusters: the systematic literature review clarified five drivers for regulatory pressures, six for regulatory pressures, societal pressures, and market pressures, as described in Figure 9. In the societal pressures, regulatory pressures, societal pressures, and market pressures, as described in Figure 9. In the and eight for market external driver pressures. category, the systematic literature review clarified five drivers for regulatory external driver six pressures, category, for societalthe systematic pressures, literature and eight for marketreview clarified five drivers for regulatory pressures. pressures, six for societal pressures, and eight for market pressures. Regulatory Pressure Regulatory Pressure - Government legislation - Regional (e.g., the E.U.) or - Government international legislation regulators - Regional (e.g., the associations - Professional/trade E.U.) or - Financial benefits international regulators - - Certifications Professional/trade associations Market Pressure Societal Pressure - Financial benefits - Certifications - Competitive advantage Market Pressure - Competitors’ pressure - Societal Pressure NGO pressure - Shareholders’/investors’ pressure - Media/press - Competitive advantage - Institutional pressure - Value-based networks External Drivers - Suppliers’ pressure pressure - Competitors’ - Public pressure (societal group) - NGO pressure of SSCM - Customers’ pressure - Shareholders’/investors’ pressure - Consumer organizations - Media/press - Reputation/image - Institutional pressure - Social well-being/community focus - Value-based networks - Globalization External Drivers - Suppliers’ pressure - Public pressure (societal group) of SSCM - Customers’ pressure - Consumer organizations Figure9.9.External Figure driversofofSSCM. External drivers SSCM. - Reputation/image - Social well-being/community focus - Globalization Regulatory 184.108.40.206Pressures Regulatory Pressures Figure Regulatory pressures are crucial to 9.drive External drivers of SSCM. organizations to undertake sustainability initiatives. National, regional, or international regulators, as well trade associations and certification bodies, 220.127.116.11 Regulatory Pressures
Sustainability 2019, 11, 1137 11 of 23 exert pressure on organizations and their supply chains to adopt sustainability practices. The regulatory pressure category, as described in Table 3, includes pressures from government agencies, regional (e.g., the E.U.) or international regulators, certifications (e.g., ISO), trade/professional associations, and financial incentives . The literature review affirms that formal and informal requirements enforced by governments , professional or trade associations , and other regulatory bodies (e.g., the E.U.)  influence organizations to undertake sustainability initiatives . Government legislation is related to the needs of both existing and imminent regulations. Legislation helps to increase sustainability-related awareness, and influences organizations to adopt sustainability practices . Any non-adherence to regulations may result in fines and trade barriers. In addition, organizations operating in more than one country have to analyze and comply with regulations from each country or the region (e.g., E.U.) where they operate to maintain their market share. Different countries and/or regions may impose different regulations. Professional and trade associations play an important role in pressurizing organizations to adopt sustainability practices . This additional pressure helps organizations to improve their sustainability performance. Although direct economic performance gains will probably take longer to visualize, improvement in non-economic (social and environmental) performance can instigate improvement in economic performance . Some national and international standards and guidelines (e.g., International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS)) assist organizations to enact sustainability practices within their operations . Each standard is comprised of a set of procedures, and adherence to these procedures enables organizations to acquire certifications. The scientific literature states that certifications promote sustainable supply chain practices. Certified companies are more likely to adopt sustainability practices; for example, ISO 14001 certified companies are more concerned about their environmental sustainability performance . Certifications also help organizations in improving their operational performance, as well as in gaining a competitive advantage and increasing market share [19,33]. Organizations are also influenced by financial incentives offered by external institutions for proactively adopting sustainability practices, such as tax exemptions for ISO 14001 certification . However, some organizations undertake sustainability actions proactively, and exceed the regulatory requirements without considering financial incentives. Regulatory requirements for some industrial sectors are not yet stringent, and some organizations consider proactive behavior in adopting sustainability practices within their operations as their social responsibility . Table 3. Regulatory pressures. Regulatory Pressure Definition Government agencies are responsible for developing regulations related to labor relations, Government legislation employment conditions, and environmental management [9,34]. Noncompliance to these regulations result in fines, penalties, or legal costs for organizations [1,4,23,35]. Organizations operating in more than one country are influenced by national as well as Regional (e.g., the E.U.) or supranational (regional and international) regulations to adopt sustainability-related international regulators practices as proposed by legislators [4,9,32,34,35]. Organizations experience pressure from various sets of requirements proposed by trade/professional associations. Non-compliance can lead to penalties and exclusion of the Professional/trade associations organization from the members’ list. Compliance can lead to benefits such as access to international markets [4,25,34]. Various incentives are introduced by national and international institutions to stimulate organizations’ proactive behavior in adopting sustainability practices [1,24,36]. These are Financial benefits mostly in the form of financial incentives such as a tax exemption for obtaining ISO certification . Certifications such as ISO certificates are international voluntary standards designed to Certifications help organizations in achieving product- or service-related ecological and social requirements derived from the needs of customers and other stakeholders [4,19,24,33].
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