E-Leadership Skills for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Country Report Italy

 
E-Leadership Skills for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Country Report Italy
e-Leadership Skills for
Small and Medium Sized Enterprises
Country Report Italy
A Snapshot and Scoreboard of e-Leadership Skills in
Policy, Higher Education and the Labour Market

Authors:
Karsten Gareis
Philipp Markus
Eriona Dashja
Tobias Stabenow

Contact
For further information, please contact:
empirica Gesellschaft für Kommunikations- und
Technologieforschung mbH
Oxfordstr. 2, 53111 Bonn, Germany
Tel: (49-228) 98530-0 * e-Mail: info@empirica.com *
Web: www.empirica.com

Bonn and Brussels, March 2015
Country Report: Italy - e-Leadership Skills for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

Disclaimer                                                               kinds of leaders SMEs rely on to ensure they can use ICT to
                                                                         develop, grow and compete, how SMEs use ICT to develop, grow
The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do       and compete and what kind of e-leadership skills they need to
not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission. Neither        succeed.
the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the           This work represents an important step forward towards helping
Commission is responsible for the information provided in this           business schools and SMEs collaborate and develop insights and a
document.                                                                common language for SMEs to access and foster leaders who are
                                                                         both business and ICT-savvy (“e-leaders”) and who ensure SMEs
About this document                                                      use ICT effectively. It is laying the groundwork for the planning of
                                                                         targeted educational offers for SMEs and entrepreneurs by
This document is a Country Report produced in the course of the          business schools and universities, which will be demonstrated
service contract “e-Leadership Skills for Small and Medium Sized         within the project duration.
Enterprises”, or short "LEAD”. Services are provided under               LEAD also engages with other stakeholder groups from education
contract for the European Commission, DG Internal Market,                and the labour market, associations representing SMEs, start-ups
Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs – Unit H/3 - Key Enabling            and gazelles and others to take into account the target groups
Technologies      and    Digital     Economy,      Tender    No.         evolving requirements for e-leadership.
288/PP/ENT/CIP/13/C/N01C012
                                                                         LEAD aims to sharpen the e-leadership definitions and metrics,
                                                                         specify data requirements for establishing monitoring
                                                                         mechanisms which can be used as a basis for policy making and to
About LEAD
                                                                         improve monitoring of demand and supply of these skills.
LEAD develops targeted actions for start-ups and fast growing            Technology trends are analysed to understand their impact on
SMEs to provide them with relevant e-leadership skills and               new business models and organisation of companies and their e-
qualifications for entrepreneurs, managers and advanced ICT              leadership requirements. An overview of the present European e-
users that are recognized trans-nationally.                              leadership policy landscape for the different target groups is
The LEAD consortium includes the partners: empirica, INSEAD, IE          developed as well as an overview of the present European
Business School, Henley Business School, Aarhus University, New          landscape of
Bulgarian University, Antwerp Management School, European                e-Leadership courses and MOOCs. In addition a search and
Foundation for Management Development (EFMD), IDC Europe,                analysis of initiatives from industry, education and training
PIN-SME and CIONET.                                                      organisations is carried out.
LEAD analyses the role of e-leaders in SMEs and entrepreneurial
firms based on engagement with SMEs to gain insights into what

     Content
     1     e-Leadership Scoreboard                                                                                                   3
     2     Policies of relevance to e-Leadership skills development                                                                  5
     3     Stakeholder initiatives for the promotion of e-Leadership skills development                                              8
     4     Assessment of policies and stakeholder initiatives on development of skills in e-
           leadership and digital entrepreneurship                                                                                  11
     5     Best practice policy and stakeholder initiatives                                                                         12
     6     Examples of e-leadership education in Higher Education in Italy                                                          15
     Methodology                                                                                                                    17

                                                                2 / 23
Country Report: Italy - e-Leadership Scoreboard

                          1                      e-Leadership Scoreboard
                                                 The scoreboard offers an approach to monitoring and assessing issues related to e-leadership skills
                                                 development, such as: education offers, workforce potential, exploitation opportunities, and
                                                 enabling policies or other driving mechanisms. It compares European Member States, allowing for a
                                                 comparative assessment of e-leadership performance of Member states. Doing so, it showcases
                                                 relative strengths and weaknesses of national e-leadership ecosystems, thus informing and
                                                 enabling policy discussions.
                                                                                                                                                                The e-leadership scoreboard
                                                                                                              Rank:                                  27
                                                                  Italy                                       Index score:                          2.40
                                                                                                                                                                comprises four levels: 24
                                                                                                                                                                indicators, 7 building blocks, 4
                                                                                                                             Score
                                                                                                                Value
                                                                                                                             (0-10)
                                                                                                                                      EU 28 Rank   EU 28 avg.
                                                                                                                                                                dimensions to be further
                                        Education and training                                                                                                  aggregated to one overall e -
                                        Master/Exec Ed level programmes with a mix of ICT & business              57         2.84         7           40
     e-leadership skilling

                                        - per - per 100,000 population aged 20-59                                0.2         0.40         25           1
                                                                                                                                                                leadership Index (eLI).
                                        100,0
                                        E-leadership candidate programmes
                                        - per - per 100,000 of workforce with potential e-leadership skills
                                                                                                                  2          1.82
                                                                                                                                     The “e-leadership skilling”
                                                                                                                                          6            1
                                                                                                                 0.4         1.70         9           0.4
                                        100,0
                                        Enterprises that provided training to ICT/IT specialists               4%    1.33 26   9.6%  dimension consists of one
                                        -
                                        SMEs
                                                - SMEs that provided training to ICT/IT specialists            4%    2.14 25   8.4%  building block, “Education and
                                        Quality of management schools                                          5.0   5.83 14   4.81
                                                                                                                                     Training”. This building block
                                        e-leadership skilled professionals
                                                                                                                                     aims to capture e-leadership
     e-leadership workforce potential

                                        Line managers                                                        37,101  0.6  13 99,726
                                        Line - as % of total workforce                                        0.2%   0.0  28   1.3%  education and training through
                                        mana
                                        ICT managers, architects and analysts
                                        ICT - as % of total workforce
                                                                                                             89,996  2.1  5  63,021
                                                                                                                                     four indicators: The number of
                                                                                                              0.4%   1.3  23   0.8%
                                        mana
                                        e-leadership pipeline
                                                                                                                                     Master's/Exec Education level
                                        ICT practioners - professional level                                154,092  1.8  7  115,205 programmes with a mix of ICT &
                                        ICT - as % of total workforce                                         0.7%   0.2  27  1.48%
                                        practi
                                        ICT graduates (per 1000 population aged 20-24)                          1    0.0  28    3.5
                                                                                                                                     business (per population), the
                                        Business administration graduates (per 1000 population aged 20-24)      8    0.0  28  22.14  number         of      e-leadership
                                        Business environment                                                                         candidate programmes (per
                                        High growth enterprises in ICT sector                                  481   2.7  3    235
                                        %       - as % of total number of high growth enterprises             4.1%   2.7  13   4.7%
                                                                                                                                     population), the share of
                                        share
                                        High growth enterprises in ICT intensive sectors                      1,451  2.4  3    771   enterprises       that     provided
                                        %       - as % of total number of high growth enterprises            12.4%   5.2  14  13.3%
                                        share
                                        Employment in ICT sector                                            446,785  5.6  4  154,090
                                                                                                                                     training to  ICT/IT specialists and
                                        Empl - as % of total employment                                       3.0%   3.9  12   3.0%  quality of management schools.
     e-leadership skills exploitation

                                        oyme
                                        Employment     in ICT intensive sectors
                                        Empl - as % of total employment
                                                                                                           2,373,412 4.4  4  789,975
                                                                                                                                     In the second dimension, “e-
                                                                                                             15.9%   6.1  12  15.0%
                                        oyme
                                        Percentage of enterprises that employed ICT/IT specialists            14%    3.2  25  23.8%  leadership               workforce
                                        % of % of SMEs that employed ICT/IT specialists
                                        SMEs
                                                                                                              13%    3.0  24  22.4%  potential”,    the    e-Leadership
                                        Innovation opportunities
                                        State of cluster development                                           5.5   10.0 1    4.17
                                                                                                                                     Skilled Professionals and e-
                                        Capacity for innovation                                                4.2   4.4  14   4.22
                                                                                                                                     Leadership Pipeline building
                                        Firm-level technology absorption                                       4.2   0.5  26   5.18  blocks aim to gauge the extent
                                        Impact of ICT on new services and products                             4.1   1.8  24   4.88  of e-skills/ICT practitioners and
                                        Technology trends
                                                                                                                                     e-leadership in the workforce.
                                        Availability of latest technologies                                    5.0   3.2  23   5.65
                                        % of enterprises using social networks                                21%    2.1  22  29.8%  The expectation is that e-
                                        % of enterprises using RFID technologies                               3%    2.9  14  4.14%  leadership competences, as
e-leadership skills

                                        National policy and stakeholder initiatives                                                  defined in the context of this
    promoters

                                        ICT Practitioner Skills                                                2.5   2.9  13   2.87
                                                                                                                                     study, prevail in or recruit from
                                        e-Leadership education and training                                    3.5   7.1  3    2.25
                                                                                                                                     these two selected categories.
                                        Skills for digital entrepreneurship                                    2.0   2.0  16   2.45
                                                                                                                                     Overall this dimension of the
                                                    scoreboard looks to offer a proxy for the potential estimates of e-leaders in each country. A third
                                                    dimension is entitled “e-leadership skills exploitation” and attempts to assess the friendliness of a
                                                    country’s business framework and extent of its preparedness in exploiting opportunities provided
                                                    by ICT. It contains three building blocks capturing aspects from Business Environment, Innovation
                                                    Opportunities and Technology Trends in each country. The fourth dimension: “e-leadership skills
                                                    promoters” rests on the proposition that countries with efficient enabling mechanisms (policies,

                                                                                                                                3 / 23
Country Report: Italy - e-Leadership Scoreboard

        initiatives, etc.) are well positioned to produce the right mix of e-leadership skills in line with the
        dynamics of the job market demand and talent requirement. This dimension is composed of one
        building block which looks to capture insights on available programmes and initiatives focusing on
        e-leadership education and training targeting large companies as well as those targeting digital
        entrepreneurs and high-growth SMEs (gazelles).

                EU           IT                                        e-Leadership performance per indicator

                                                                        Master/Exec Ed level programmes with a mix of ICT & business

                 National policy &stakeholder initiatives on Skills for                                                        E-leadership candidate programmes
                              digital entrepreneurship

                                                                                                                                       Enterprises that provided training to ICT/IT specialists
            National policy and stakeholder initiatives on
                e-Leadership education and training
                                                                                                                                                      Quality of management schools
           National policy & stakeholder initiatives
                    ICT Practitioner Skills
                                                                                                                                                                Line managers
             % of enteprises using using RFID
                      technologies                                                                                                                            ICT managers, architects and
                                                                                                                                                                       analysts

               % of enteprises using social
                        networks                                                                                                                                 ICT core professionals

            Availability of latest technologies
                                                                                                                                                                     ICT graduates

               Impact of ICT on new services
                       and products                                                                                                                     Business administration graduates

                 Firm-level technology absorption
                                                                                                                                                   High growth enterprises in ICT sector

                                  Capacity for innovation
                                                                                                                                      High growth enterprises in ICT intensive sectors

                                         State of cluster development
                                                                                                                         Employment in ICT sector

                                       % of enterprises that employed ICT/IT specialists
                                                                                                             Employment in ICT intensive sectors

                                                                          Performance-based indicator ranking
                                                              State of cluster development
                            National policy and stakeholder initiatives e-Leadership skills
                                                     Employment in ICT intensive sectors
                                                           Quality of management schools
                                        High growth enterprises in ICT intensive sectors
                                                                     Capacity for innovation
                                                                  Employment in ICT sector
                                       % of enterprises that employed ICT/IT specialists
                                                          Availability of latest technologies
                        National policy and stakeholder initiatives ICT Practitioner Skills
                                               % of enterprises using RFID technologies
                                                    High growth enterprises in ICT sector
                                                   % of enterprises using social networks
             National policy and stakeholder initiatives Skills for digital entrepreneurship
                                             Impact of ICT on new services and products
                                                      E-leadership candidate programmes
                                   Enterprises that provided training to ICT/IT specialists
                                                    ICT managers, architects and analysts
                                                         Firm-level technology absorption
                         Master/Exec Ed level programmes with a mix of ICT & business
                                                        ICT practioners - professional level
                                                                              Line managers
                                                                                ICT graduates
                                                       Business administration graduates
                                                                                                0        1     2         3        4        5           6         7         8         9       10

                                                                                                    IT             EU

                                                                                                    4 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Policies of relevance to e-Leadership skills development

2        Policies of relevance to e-Leadership skills development
         The Agenda Digitale Italia (ADI) was launched on                      Policy & Stakeholder Activity
         March 1, 2012 by the Minister of Economic
         Development, in consultation with the Minister                             Summary Assessment
         for Public Administration and Simplification; the
                                                                         e-Leadership education and training:
         Minister for Territorial Cohesion; the Minister of
         Education, Universities and Research and the                    The new Italian Strategy for the Digital Agenda
         Ministry of Economy and Finance. The Agenda                     gives a prominent place to the e-leadership
         was prepared using a strongly participatory                     skills issue. It foresees measures for definition
         process using various tools of civic engagement:                of e-leadership skills with reference, were
         face to face interviews, a public consultation and              possible, to the European e-Competence
         an online forum on the social web. In this period               Framework (e-CF) and calls for e-leadership
         the opinions and suggestions of thousands of                    training programmes especially for public
         citizens and stakeholders have been received and                administration staff and SMEs. At the level of
         processed along six strategic goals (Infrastructure             the Italian regions, regional digital agendas are
         and Safety, E-Commerce, e-Gov/Open Data,                        currently being drafted. The available agenda
         Digital Skills, Research and innovation (R&I) and               for Lombardy also includes dedicated
         Smart Communities). The Agenda was published                    measures explicitly addressing the need for
         in Decree Law of 18 October 2012 "Further                       promoting e-leadership skills. Education and
         urgent measures for the growth of the country".                 training offers have been developed by a
         For putting the Digital Agenda into practice, the               number of higher educations providers both
         Agency for Digital Italy (AGID) was established in              from the public and private sector.
         the same year. The Agency is also responsible for
                                                                                                         Skills for digital
         periodic updating of the strategy.                                                             entrepreneurship
         An Expert Advisory Team was appointed by
         President Letta to explore the main challenges to                             Policies and
                                                                                       Stakeholder
         meeting the Digital Agenda's objectives. The                                   Activities
         team, lead by Francesco Caio, published its report                                               e-Leadership
         "Achieving the Objectives of the Digital Agenda                                                  education and
         for Europe (DAE) in Italy: Prospects and                                                            training
         Challenges" in early 2014.1
                                                                         Skills for digital entrepreneurship:
         Eventually the Italian Strategy for the Digital
         Agenda 2014-20202, containing dozens of                         The national Strategy for the Digital Agenda
         individual Actions, was published in April 2014.                and, in particular, the regional digital agendas
         One strategic goal is called Digital Competences                put some emphasis on the need to support
         and covers e-skills related policy objectives. In               digital entrepreneurship in the country, but
         addition to actions which seek to boost digital                 there are few concrete actions in operation or
         literacy and ICT user skills of the general                     planned.     Training     offers    on     digital
         population and within companies (e-learning) and                entrepreneurship come mainly from business
         public administration, the Digital Competences                  incubators and start-up accelerators focusing
         strategic goal also covers actions of immediate                 on the digital domain. Universities have set up
         relevance to the present study, including                       organisations to promote spin-offs and spin-
         Definition of e-leadership skills and provision of              outs that seek to exploit research outcomes
         e-leadership training courses to central and local              commercially.

         1
             http://de.slideshare.net/Palazzo_Chigi/achieving-the-objectives-of-the-digital-agenda-for-europe-dae-in-italy-
             prospects-and-challenges#
         2
             http://www.agid.gov.it/agenda-digitale/agenda-digitale-italiana

                                                                5 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Policies of relevance to e-Leadership skills development

         government staff.
         Based on the Digital Agenda, the Guidelines for a National Programme for Culture, Education and
         Digital Skills are currently being drafted in an open, participatory process coordinated online via
         the website http://culturadigitale.partecipa.gov.it.
         Regional Digital Agendas are being developed by AGID in cooperation with the regions. The work is
         coordinated by CISIS, the technical body of the regions for the themes of the Digital Agenda.
         Regional Agendas are available at the time of writing for:
             Lombardy: Digital Agenda Lombarda 2014-18 includes "digital competences" as a priority area
              of intervention. Starting from the observation that Lombardy lags behind the EU average in
              terms of e-skills development, the document calls for measures amongst others to boost e-
              leadership skills as a target for professional growth, in order to improve productivity and
              increase competitiveness of the business system. Concrete actions planned include: a) Set up
              of an observatory for monitoring and dissemination of professional e-skills standards, in order
              to observe a more precise pictures of the situation in Lombardy and the actual needs that
              must be met; b) Improvement of training provision to address identified shortcomings; c)
              Implementation of new tools and techniques training (including distance learning, discussion
              forums, "social" Wikis, "training pills" and other web 2.0 tools; d) Creating higher awareness
              about existing training offers e) Adjustment of professional knowledge, even for those who are
              already working professionally in the ICT area, in order to foster the development of new
              professional profiles required by the market.
             Veneto and Tuscany: Both the Agenda Digitale del Veneto and the Agenda Digitale Toscana
              seek to support establishment of new innovative companies in the region and strengthening
              use of digital technologies for improving internal efficiency of local enterprises; boosting ICT-
              enabled innovation in products, services, processes and business models; foster relationships
              between firms and actors in the value chain; enabling successful internationalization. With
              regard to the digital competence strategic goal, the Agendas do not address e-leadership skills
              but call for action to monitor and further develop knowledge and expertise in business
              applications of ICT with a clear focus on increasing the competitiveness of the local economy.
              The Veneto Agenda also mentions the need to attract ICT practitioners to the Veneto region.
              Tuscany has a powerful e-learning service in place, i.e. TRIO “the web learning system of the
              Region of Tuscany”, which is available completely free of charge and offers approximately
              1,700 courses and a range of training services. Some of these are of direct relevance to digital
              entrepreneurship and e-leadership.
             Umbria: Agenda digitale dell'Umbria focuses, as far as ICT related education and training is
              concerned, on measures to support the competitiveness of the region's SMEs, especially the
              large number of small manufacturing enterprises which form the bedrock of Umbria's
              economy. The focus here is on equipping companies with basic skills in strategic use of ICTs
              (e.g. e-commerce, process modernisation). An example of an action is the deployment of
              "Digital Angels", i.e. students with advanced ICT skills, to enterprises to contribute to a process
              of acculturation to operating in the digital sphere.
         Responsibility for support of (digital) entrepreneurship lies with the Ministry of Economic
         Development, complemented by the National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and
         Sustainable Economic Development. At regional (and municipal) level, Chambers of Commerce
         play an important role; they offer enterprises services to facilitate market intelligence and skill
         trainings, to stimulate companies and businesses in innovative efforts and to support
         internationalisation.
         As far as training and education in e-leadership is concerned, initiatives are seen in Italy as under
         the responsibility of the market itself. Namely, supply and demand (in terms of education and
         training, the school system, including university and vocational training, as well as ICT professionals

                                                            6 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Policies of relevance to e-Leadership skills development

         and enterprises) have to find common agreements locally to develop proper initiatives answering
         labour market requirements. Concerning secondary school, the school autonomy allows any of
         them to identify specific courses and initiatives meeting the companies’ needs, locally. The so called
         interprofessional funds support vocational continuous training according to companies’
         requirements. Recent legislation on apprenticeship regulates it at several proficiency and
         qualification levels, including the so called Alto Apprendistato (“high” apprenticeship) addressing
         postgraduate young people. At any levels, it is a two years programme of training and job very
         similar to the German “dual system”. The Alto Apprendistato is managed by universities together
         with enterprises and it is built according to the real needs perceived by the business.

                                                            7 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Stakeholder initiatives for the promotion of e-Leadership skills development

3       Stakeholder initiatives for the promotion of e-Leadership skills
        development

3.1     Initiatives within the established education system
        Several universities organize MBA and executive MBA addressing young people, professionals and
        young managers. ICT training initiatives related to the e-Leadership have been developed as part of
        MBA courses and in the form of some dedicated executive MBA courses; the “Politecnico di
        Milano” (the Polytechnic University of Milan) has also some specific courses on e-Leadership skills
        at Bachelor and Master degree levels. These university courses are included in the standard
        curricula subject to annual university enrolment fees; MBA and Executive MBA courses are private
        initiatives with quite expensive rates. The same for any further initiatives from private training
        institutions addressing professionals and managers.
        The University LUM Jean Monnet’s School of Management offers a higher education course
        (Information Systems – SME / IT4Business) that aims at managers and CIOs in SMEs that want to
        learn how to effectively implement, use and administer an up-to-date information systems. The
        course has been selected as Best Practice (see detailed description further below).
        The other Italian course selected as Best Practice is being offered at Polytechnic University of Milan.
        It is a general Master in Management that offers the possibility to specialize in ICT Management
        (see detailed description further below).
        Universities also offer e-leadership related training in the context of spin-off and incubator
        programmes. For example, I3P is a business incubator established at the Politecnico di Torino,
        ranked as first in Italy and fifth in Europe by the University Business Incubator Index (UBI), while the
        business incubator established at the Politecnico di Milano, managed by Fondazione Politecnico di
        Milano and supported by the Milan Municipality is called PoliHub. Both I3P and PoliHub offer an
        entrepreneurship empowerment programme, a business network for start-ups, dedicated
        workspaces and a set of value-added services for start-ups including training and consultancy.
        Initiatives from the business and start-up community PoliHub is based on the strong experience of
        Acceleratore d’Impresa del Politecnico di Milano, founded already in 2000 with the support of the
        Milan Municipality. Politecnico di Milano has been one among the first Italian institutions to
        support the creation and growth of high-potential technological start-ups, including such successful
        examples as Neptuny, Fluidmesh Networks and Khamsa.
        The CINI Consortium3, which involves 1,300+ professors of both Computer Science and Computer
        Engineering, belonging to 39 public universities and the Itais4, which involves the prominent Italian
        professors and researchers in the field of Business Information Systems are working to develop
        training curricula on e-leadership (applied to different sectors) at universitary level.
        The National School of Public Administration (SNA) and FORMEZ, in the context of the National
        coalition for digital competences, are cooperating with AgID and other Italian universities to define
        new curricula for public managers, to be officially presented by June 2015.

3.2     Initiatives from the business and start-up community
        Business sector initiatives striving to increase understanding of and awareness about e-leadership
        skills include the following:

        3
            http://www.consorzio-cini.it/
        4
            http://www.itais.org/

                                                           8 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Stakeholder initiatives for the promotion of e-Leadership skills development

             RETE Competenze per l’EconomiaDigitale translates ‘Italian Competence Network for the
              Digital Economy’. The network aims to raise awareness about e-competences and to
              disseminate the European Competence Framework. It also aims to develop and supply training
              programmes focused on the 36 e-competences to create e-leadership based culture among
              ICT-driven SMEs. The network is currently being supported by leading Italian employers'
              associations, ASSINTEL, Assinter Italy, CNA Communication, Digital and Unimatica
              Confindustria as well as the Fondazione Politecnico di Milano, through which Italian companies
              support research and education at the University in Milan.
             UNI/UNINFO national standard for ICT Professions is also based on the e-CF. UNI is the
              federal standardization body; its subsidiary UNINFO is responsible for developing standards in
              the ICT area. The objective of this initiative is to agree on a reference standard for developing a
              competence-based ICT culture within SMEs, focusing on e-Leadership skills and proficiency
              levels. The result is the UNI 11506:2013 that is a standard allowing the Certification of the
              Personnel based on the eCF professional profiles. The initiatives is related to UNINFO's
              participation in the CEN international working group "PC 428 - Professions for Information and
              Communication Technology (ICT)"5.
        Some of the industry's initiatives for the promotion of ICT career choices to young Italians have also
        started to put a special focus on e-leaders, such as Future IT Leaders, an Initiative by the AICA CIO
        Forum and the Fondazione Politecnico di Milano. The objective is to provide an integrated, very
        concrete, experience-based picture of the future IT leaders. This is meant to promote awareness
        about IT professionals and their growing role within Italy's economy. Furthermore the initiative is
        aimed at professional development of future IT leaders. The initiative started September 2012. Ten
        e-leadership webinars followed by conversations and discussions in the IT leaders’ web community
        have been held in 2013. The webinars addressed ICT practitioners aiming to grow and were held by
        CIOs of large ICT end-user companies in Italy. In 2014 the activities are being continued through
        four on-site meetings in Milan that, followed by another round of in-depth webinars.
        Beside Future IT Leaders, AICA (the Italian Association of ICT professionists) is offering and
        promoting ICT4jobs, a course oriented to students of high schools. The required skills are wholly e-
        CF compliant and are in line with the competences defined by the digital agency for the figure of e-
        leader. The activities carried out by two pilot schools intend to suggest the methodological model
        that could be used by any other educational institution. The elearning version of the course is
        actually available in TRIO (“the web learning system of the Region of Tuscany”).
        Other Research centres (i.e. Scuola di Robotica di Genova – School of Robotics6), universitary
        departments (i.e. University of Trento) and voluntary associations (i.e. Wister) are involved in
        “viral” training initiatives whose aims are to spread the spirit of e-leadership amongst girls and
        women.
        AgID, Assinfor, Assintel and Assinter are working on the second edition of the "Observatory on
        Digital Skills 2015". A chapter will be focused on e-leadership skills in Italian enterprises. Before
        summer 2015 the four partners are going to launch the initiative “we are looking for e-leaders!” on
        their web sites to find - with a bottom-up approach - stories and best practices which can represent
        models of competences for e-leadership in different economic and public sectors.

        5
            http://www.uninfo.it/index.php/partecipare/aree/category/attivita-professionali-non-regolamentate
        6
            http://www.scuoladirobotica.it/

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Country Report: Italy - Stakeholder initiatives for the promotion of e-Leadership skills development

3.3     e-Leadership training in the context of SME and entrepreneurship support
        Offers for training in digital entrepreneurship skills come mainly from business incubators and start-
        up accelerators focusing on the digital domain. Some of the more successful examples from Italy
        include:
             The Forum Ricerca Innovazione Imprenditorialita (Research Innovation Entrepreneurship
              Forum) is organizing several activities, forums, workshops, conferences and seminars to
              support entrepreneurs and promote the entrepreneurial spirit and research. The Forum has its
              roots as a department of the University of Padua which was set up to promote
              commercialization of research outcomes through spin-outs and spin-offs;
             We Tech Off was a project (2008-2013) that supported the creation of innovative companies
              through the provision of services and support in favour of business ideas and technology start-
              ups. It was sponsored by Aster, a consortium between the Region of Emilia-Romagna,
              universities, public research institutions CNR, ENEA and the regional system of Chambers of
              Commerce and the Italian Ministry of Economic Development;
             Campania In.Hub and its regional ecosystem for the promotion of innovative
              entrepreneurship support SMEs and entrepreneurs through funding and consultation in the
              Campania region in Italy. It also brings together incubators, accelerators and business experts
              to support start-ups and regional SMEs;
             Dinameeting 2010 caters to all the micro and small enterprises in Lombardy, belonging to
              manufacturing, business services, logistics, commerce and tourism who want to implement a
              growth path through information technology. Experienced professionals help SMEs to invest in
              ICT to fully exploit its potential;
             Polo Innovativo (Coalition for innovation) of Molise is a regional competence centre designed
              to support the creation of innovative start-ups and increase the technological competitiveness
              of existing businesses;
             PST Business Incubator based in Benevento aims to promote the creation of innovative
              businesses in the ICT sector. It also works on the development of business networks as well as
              innovation and technological improvement of the economic system.
        Providers of training programmes with an explicit focus on digital entrepreneurship include the
        Wwworkers Academy, the training school of the organisation of the same name. Wwworkers was
        established in 2010 by Giampaolo Colletti with the intention to provide a forum by and for people
        networking in the digital economy. Wwworkers are thus defined as ”those who work thanks to the
        network on their own farm, in an Italian SMEs, in public administration or in multinationals
        operating in Italy or abroad”7. The academy programme consists of a series of thematic modules
        and practical workshops, offered on demand as a service to companies and organisations. The
        courses are taught by experienced teaching staff for new technologies and are focusing on strategic
        use of ICT and e-leadership in organisations.
        Federmanager Academy8, the management school of the Association of around 31.000 Italian
        managers in Industry (Federmanager9) in 2014 organized seminars or courses for companies and
        SMEs, but also for unemployed managers, on issues such as Big Data, Intangible Assets, Smart
        Working supported by ICT, Demand Driven MRP, and eLearning blended courses in some Italian
        Regions. In 2013-2014 Federmanager Academy supported around 180 Italian unemployed
        managers to exploit Social Network and ICT to find a new job.

        7
            http://www.wwworkers.it/pagine/chi-siamo-cosa-facciamo [emphasis added]
        8
            http://www.federmanageracademy.it/
        9
            http://www.federmanager.it/

                                                           10 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Assessment of policies and stakeholder initiatives on development of skills in e-leadership and digital entrepreneurship

4          Assessment of policies and stakeholder initiatives on development of skills in e-leadership
           and digital entrepreneurship
        Exhibit 1: High-level assessment of policies and stakeholder initiatives on development of skills in e-leadership and digital entrepreneurship
                                                                                                               Stakeholders from:                                                           Assessment:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Continuity (0-2)
                                                                                                                                                                         Target fit (0-2)
                                                                                                                              Unions/ NGOs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Maturity (0-2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                Policy fit (0-2)
                                                                                                  Government

                                                                                                                                                         MSP fit (0-2)
No / Type      Title of policy / initiative        Main stakeholder(s)

                                                                                                                                             Education
                                                                                                                   Business

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Scope /
Policy 1       Agenda Digitale Italia (ADI)        Ministry of Economic Development               ---             ---         ---            ---         ---               1                    ---                       2                2
Policy 2       Italian Strategy for the Digital    L'Agenzia per l'Italia Digitale (AgID)
                                                                                                  ---             ---         ---            ---         ---               2                    ---                       2                1
               Agenda 2014-2020
Policy 3       Digital Lombarda 2014-18            Central Directorate Integrated Planning
                                                                                                  ---             ---         ---            ---         ---               2                    ---                       2           0-1
                                                   and Finance, Lombardy Region
Policy 4       Agenda Digitale del Veneto          Regione del Veneto                             ---             ---         ---            ---         ---               1                    ---                       2           0-1
Initiative 1   RETE Competenze per                 Assintel, Assinter Italia, CNA
               l’EconomiaDigitale translates       Comunicazioni, Confindustria Digitale,
               ‘Italian Competence Network         and Unimatica                                                                                   2                1                     2                        2                2
               for the Digital Economy’
Initiative 2   Future IT Leaders [2012-]           CIO AICA Forum                                                                                    1              1-2                     1                        1                1
Initiative 3   UNINFO National standard for        UNINFO
               ICT Professions                                                                                                                    2                1                     2                        1                2
Initiative 4   Wwworkers Academy                   Wwworkers                                                                                        1              1-2                     1                     0-1                 1

                                                           11 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Best practice policy and stakeholder initiatives

5        Best practice policy and stakeholder initiatives
         From the policies and initiatives mentioned above, the following has been selected as candidate for
         best practice.

5.1      Italian Strategy for the Digital Agenda 2014-2020
         The Italian Strategy for the Digital Agenda 2014-202010, containing dozens of individual Actions,
         was published in April 2014. One strategic goal is called Digital Competences and covers e-skills
         related policy objectives. In addition to actions which seek to boost digital literacy and ICT user
         skills of the general population and within companies (e-learning) and public administration, the
         Digital Competences strategic goal also covers actions of immediate relevance to the present study:
              Definition of ICT Professional skills that are emerging on the market, referring to the European
               e-Competence Framework (e-CF). This is expected to ensure recognition of professional
               profiles, e.g. in ICT related procurement contracts; better match between supply and demand
               for ICT skills on the labour market;
              Definition of the level of school, college and vocational education and training required to
               equip the newly emerging ICT professions with adequate skills;
              Definition of e-leadership skills, including ICT but also soft skills, which everybody who is
               responsible for "imagining, proposing, promoting, animating" digital innovation is required to
               have – in any organization, public and private, large and small. E-leadership skills are described
               as the expertise of that allows an individual employee to look ahead and to introduce digital
               innovation within the context in which they operate (marketing, finance, logistics, public
               administration, environment, tourism and cultural heritage);
              Provision of e-leadership training courses to central and local government staff;
              Following the example of the "Great Coalition for digital jobs" at EU level, constitution of a
               national coalition on digital competences, composed of the stakeholders already involved in
               the Digital Agenda for Italy, with the objective to set targets for the impacts of the Agenda on
               the labour market and in particular employability of young generations.
         Based on the Digital Agenda, the Guidelines for a National Programme for Culture, Education and
         Digital Skills are currently being drafted in an open, participatory process coordinated online via a
         dedicated the website http://culturadigitale.partecipa.gov.it.
         The objectives behind the Guidelines are to:
              Propose a shared definition of e-skills, including those related to ICT professionals;
              Initiate a mapping of already existing offers related to e-inclusion, digital literacy, ICT
               professional training in the country, and identify good practices;
              Define the objectives and modalities of implementation for a "National Program for Culture,
               Education and Digital Skills";
              Choose a method for a campaign to build upon and go beyond existing initiatives;
              Define how to promote and finance selected new initiatives;
              Initiate a multi-stakeholder discussion and collaboration on projects and initiatives to be driven
               forward;

         10
              http://www.agid.gov.it/agenda-digitale/agenda-digitale-italiana

                                                               12 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Best practice policy and stakeholder initiatives

              Ensure integration between the activities of the programme and the guidelines of the other
               strategic priorities of the Digital Agenda for Italy (e-commerce, e-government, open data,
               research and innovation, smart cities).
         The preparation of the Guidelines has been entrusted to five working groups:
              Digital literacy, e-inclusion and basic ICT user skills;
              ICT Professional skills;
              Horizontal digital skills required by all employees (non-professional ICT) and e-leadership skills;
              Digital skills in Public Administration;
              Communication and promotion of the Guidelines (e.g. through a series of online seminars
               (webinars) free and open to all, scheduled to take place at the time of writing.
         The working group on horizontal and e-leadership skills has published some first results11 according
         to which the policy objective should be to "develop a culture of e-leadership and spread it not only
         across the most advanced economic sectors, but also in central and local Public Administration".
         The working group also suggests seeking systematic ways in which to provide "the largest possible
         number of persons, at school or at work" with e-leadership skill, with the goal to generate new jobs
         through a combination of digital skills with competences for mastering change and pushing through
         innovation.

5.2      Digital Lombarda 2014-18
        Digital Agenda Lombarda is an initiative promoted by the region of Lombardia to direct and support
        the growth of technological innovation in Lombardy, as part of the European 2020 Strategy and the
        European Digital Agenda in particular. Lombardy region, first in Italy, adopted in late 2011 the
        Digital Agenda Lombarda 2012-2015 to promote, guide and support the growth of technological
        innovation in the Lombardy region, with the purpose to define a digital strategy in line with the
        European Union 2020 objectives and in particular the European Digital Agenda.
        In continuation of this path and within a policy framework consistent with the new EU programming
        2014- 2020, the new Digital Agenda 2014-2018 aims to address and best support digital growth in
        Lombardy, in close synergy with the regional strategy for smart specialization. Digital Lombarda
        aims to facilitate change and modernization of economy among sectors, from the most specialized
        to the more traditional ones and particularly in the manufacturing sector.
        Digital Agenda Lombarda 2014-18 includes "digital competences" as a priority area of intervention.
        Starting from the observation that Lombardy lags behind the EU average in terms of e-skills
        development. The document calls for measures amongst others to boost e-leadership skills as a
        target for professional growth, in order to improve productivity and increase competitiveness of the
        business system. Concrete actions planned include: a) Set up of an observatory for monitoring and
        dissemination of professional e-skills standards, in order to observe a more precise pictures of the
        situation in Lombardy and the actual needs that must be met; b) Improvement of training provision
        to address identified shortcomings; c) Implementation of new tools and techniques training
        (including distance learning, discussion forums, "social" Wikis, "training pills" and other web 2.0
        tools; d) Creating higher awareness about existing training offers e) Adjustment of professional
        knowledge, even for those who are already working professionally in the ICT area, in order to foster
        the development of new professional profiles required by the market.
        For collecting the actual needs regarding retraining and re-skilling, it is important to encourage the
        direct involvement of the companies and other employers. The Digital Agenda Lombarda represents
        a multi-stakeholder initiative with involvement and active participation of citizens, businesses,

         11
              http://commenta.formez.it/ch/PianoCulturaDigitale/?id_speech=73

                                                            13 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Best practice policy and stakeholder initiatives

        universities and research centres, schools, representatives of the productive sectors, consumer
        groups, and the third sector.

                                                            14 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Examples of e-leadership education in Higher Education in Italy

6       Examples of e-leadership education in Higher Education in Italy

Title of study Program      Information Systems – SME
Level of degree             Higher Education Course
Name of programme
                            School of Management
provider
Responsible
                            Università Lum Jean Monnet
institution
URL                         http://management.lum.it/corsi87f1.html?id=14
                                    CIOs
Target group
                                    Prospective systems managers
Payment / fees              2400 € plus VAT
                            3 years - 80 hours (meetings will be held on Friday from 14-18 and Saturday
Duration
                            from 9-13)
                            The aim is to update the knowledge of CIOs and those who want to approach
Learning outcomes           the role of systems manager in a scenario handled constantly changing and
                            subject to continuous specializations.

Title of study Program       Master in Management
Title of study degree        Master
Level of degree              Master
Name of programme
                             Polytechnic University of Milan
provider
Responsible institution      Polytechnic University of Milan
URL                          http://www.mip.polimi.it/mip/it/Master/Master-in-Management.html
                                  Managers who wish to broaden their education in the areas of
                                     competence typical of the General Management
                                  Professionals who wish to deepen their training on specific areas (for
                                     example, by dialling the Master Executive with a path in the first year
Target group                         and a management training on issues transversal the second year)
                                  Managers or entrepreneurs willing to hold positions of responsibility
                                     within their own company or who have the desire to "make the
                                     system" what they have learned during their professional career, or
                                     wish to build the skills to realize their entrepreneurial dream
Payment / fees               €16.500 (+ VAT)
Duration                     2 years, part-time (1-2 days per month)
                             22 Modules, each 1 to 3 days. The modules belong to the following thematic
                             areas:
                                     Corporate Strategy
                                     Energy Management
Learning outcomes                    Entrepreneurship
                                     Finance
                                     HR and Organization
                                     ICT Management
                                     Innovation and Project Management
                                     International Business

                                                          15 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Examples of e-leadership education in Higher Education in Italy

                                     Marketing and Sales
                                     Operations and Supply Chain Management
                                     Risk Management
ECTS credits / other
                             120 ECTS (60 ECTS are studied at a partner university
credits

                                                          16 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Methodology

Methodology

European e-Leadership Scoreboard
        The scoreboard attempts to offer an approach to monitoring and assessing issues related to e-
        leadership skills development, such as: education offers, workforce potential, exploitation
        opportunities, and enabling policies or other driving mechanisms. It compares at Member State
        level the e-leadership “performance” of EU28 Member states across several building blocks,
        thereby allowing for comparisons on relative strengths and weaknesses of e-leadership ecosystems
        between countries, with the major goal of informing and enabling policy discussions at national and
        EU level.
        The e-leadership scoreboard is an evolving model to be further refined through input from
        academic / experts debates and feedback from other interested parties. It comprises a series of
        indicators using data from both primary and secondary sources. It is based on a straightforward yet
        comprehensive framework for measuring determinants of demand and supply for e-leadership
        skills in each country. Conceptually, the e-leadership scoreboard comprises four levels, 28
        indicators; 8 building blocks; 4 dimensions, which can be aggregated to receive an overall e -
        leadership Index (eLI).
        The overall e-leadership performance in each of the country has been summarized into a
        scoreboard, and further on into a composite indicator (e-leadership index). These raised a number
        of challenges related to the quality of the data selected and to their combination into a single
        indicator. A number of steps were taken to assure the quality of the data and the reliability of the
        e-leadership index. The steps followed are explained in more details below:
        Step 1: Identifying and addressing outliers
        Mean and standard deviations have been calculated for all indicators among all countries included
        in the scoreboard. Outliers have been identified as the absolute z-values larger than 3. Relative to
        the case, the values distorting the variable distribution (positive/negative outliers) have been
        replaced by maximum/minimum values observed in each single indicator. Beforehand, some
        indicators have been standardized using population data in order to avoid any country-size effects
        in the dataset sample.
        Step 2: Setting reference year
        A reference year is set depending on the data availability of each indicator for each of the countries
        considered. Overall, for most of the indicators the reference year is lagging 1-3 years behind the
        timing the e-leadership scoreboard refers to. In this case, the reference year for most of the
        indicators of the 2014 e-leadership scoreboard will be lying between years 2011 to 2013.
        Step 3: Treatment of missing data
        When dealing with the missing values, we distinguish among two different cases which influence
        data imputation procedure:
            Missing at random: If data is not available for a year-in-between, we replace data using the
             value for the previous year / latest year available.
            Missing completely: For countries which data is completely missing for the entire time series,
             no imputation is effort carried out. In these cases the indicator is left empty, marked as not
             available (‘n/a’), and not considered in the calculation of the county scores.

                                                      17 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Methodology

                                                                      Table 1: e-Leadership scoreboard indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                Latest data
               Indicator                                                                       Definition and scope                                                                                               Source
                                                                                                                                                                                 available
                                                                                                                e-leadership skilling

                                       Definition: combination programmes that have as target group specialist or junior / middle management are professional-
Number of Master's or Exec Ed level
                                       oriented and have a mix of business and IT. Either at regular consecutive MSc level, or are aimed at specialist subjects only (e.g.
programmes with a mix of ICT and                                                                                                                                                   2013                           empirica
                                       new media, marketing, logistics, communications, e-health etc.
business
                                       Measure: per 100,000 population aged 20-59

                                       Definition: E-leadership candidate programmes - programmes that are clearly aimed at experienced professionals with leadership
E-leadership candidate programmes      roles, which usually already expect a high level of IT skills and significant business experience.                                          2014                           empirica
                                       Measure: per 100,000 of workforce with potential e-leadership skills

Enterprises that provided training to
                                      Definition: Enterprises who provided training to develop/upgrade ICT skills of their personnel: for ICT/IT specialists (NACE Rev. 2).                        Eurostat Information society statistics
ICT/IT specialists to develop/upgrade                                                                                                                                              2012
                                      Measure: % of enterprises                                                                                                                                            Code: isoc_ske_ittn2
their ICT skills

                                       Definition: In your country, how would you assess the quality of business schools
Quality of management schools                                                                                                                                                      2013       World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
                                       Measure: [1 = extremely poor—among the worst in the world; 7 = excellent—among the 2012–13 weighted average

                                                                                                         e-leadership skilled professionals
                                       Definition: ISCO-08 (1211, 1213,1219, 1221, 1222, 1223)
Line managers                                                                                                                                                                      2013                             LFS
                                       Measure: as % of total workforce
                                      Definition: ISCO-08 (1330, 2421, 2511)
ICT managers, architects and analysts                                                                                                                                              2013                             LFS
                                      Measure: as % of total workforce

                                                                                                                e-leadership pipeline

e-Leadership pipeline 1:ICT            Definition:ISCO-08 (2152, 2153, 5356, 2434, 5212, 2513, 2514, 2519, 2512, 2522, 2523, 2529)
                                                                                                                                                                                   2013                             LFS
practitioners - professional level     Measure: as % of total workforce

                                       Definition:Count of first degrees in ISCED 5A and first qualifications in 5B. The number of students entering the labour force in a
e-Leadership pipeline 2-1: ICT         given year does not equal but is approximated by this number of graduates, as many will go on to second or further degrees                                                Eusostat
                                                                                                                                                                                   2012
graduates                              (master, PhD).                                                                                                                                                       Code: [educ_grad5]
                                       Measure: per 1,000 population aged 20-24

e-Leadership pipeline 2-2: Business    Definition: Count of first degrees in ISCED 5A and first qualifications in 5B in business and administration.                                                            Erurostat
                                                                                                                                                                                   2012
administration graduates               Measure: per 1000 population aged 20-24                                                                                                                              Code: [educ_grad5]

                                                                                                              Business environment

                                       Definition: High growth enterprises (growth by 10% or more) and related employment by NACE Rev. 2 sectors: Information and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Eurostat
High growth enterprises n ICT sector   communication (J).                                                                                                                          2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Code: [bd_9pm_r2]
                                       Measure: Number of high growth enterprises measured in employment (growth by 10% or more)

                                       Definition: High growth enterprises (growth by 10% or more) and related employment by NACE Rev. 2 sectors: Manufacture of
                                       computer, electronic and optical products (C26), Manufacture of electrical equipment (C27), Manufacture of machinery and
High growth enterprises in ICT                                                                                                                                                                                  Eurostat
                                       equipment n.e.c. (C28), Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers (C29), Manufacture of other transport                     2012
intensive sectors                                                                                                                                                                                           Code: [bd_9pm_r2]
                                       equipment (C30), Professional, scientific and technical activities (M).
                                       Measure: Number of high growth enterprises measured in employment (growth by 10% or more)
                                       Definition: Number of persons employed in the following NACE Rev. 2 sectors: Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical
Employment in ICT sector               products (C26), Information and communication (J).                                                                                          2011                           Eruostat
                                       Measure: as % of total employment

                                       Definition: Number of persons employed in the following NACE Rev. 2 sectors: Manufacture of electrical equipment (C27),
                                       Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c. (C28), Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers (C29),
Employment in ICT intensive sectors                                                                                                                                                2011                           Eruostat
                                       Manufacture of other transport equipment (C30), Professional, scientific and technical activities (M).
                                       Measure: as % of total employment

Enterprises that employed ICT/IT       Definition: Enterprises that employed ICT/IT specialists (NACE Rev. 2)                                                                                                    Eurostat
                                                                                                                                                                                   2012
specialists                            Measure: % of enterprises                                                                                                                                         Code: [isoc_ske_itspen2]

                                                                                                            Innovation opportunities

                                       Definition: In your country, how widespread are well-developed and deep clusters (geographic concentrations of firms, suppliers,
State of cluster development           producers of related specialized institutions in a particular field)?                                                                       2013       World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
                                       Measure: [1 = nonexistent; 7 = widespread in many fields] | 2012–13 weighted average

                                       Definition:In your country, to what extent do companies have the capacity to innovate?
Capacity for innovation                                                                                                                                                            2013       World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
                                       Measure: [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent] |

                                       Definition: In your country, to what extent do businesses adopt new technology?
Firm-level technology absorption                                                                                                                                                   2013       World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
                                       Measure: [1 = not at all; 7 = adopt extensively] | 2012–13 weighted average

Impact of ICT on new services and      Definition: To what extent are ICTs creating new business models, services and products in your country?
                                                                                                                                                                                   2012       World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
products                               Measure: [1 = not at all; 7 = a significant extent] | 2011–2012 weighted average

                                                                                                                 Technology trends

                                       Definition: In your country, to what extent are the latest technologies available?
Availability of latest technologies                                                                                                                                                2013       World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
                                       Measure: [1 = not available at all; 7 = widely available] | 2012–13 weighted averageAvailability of latest technologies

                                       Definition: Use social networks (e.g. Facebook, LinkedIn, Xing, Viadeo, Yammer, etc.)                                                                                    Eurostat
Enterprises using social networks                                                                                                                                                  2013
                                       Measure: % of enterprises                                                                                                                                            Code: [isoc_cismt]

                                       Definition: Enterprises using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies                                                                                           Eurostat
Enterprises using RFID technologies                                                                                                                                                2011
                                       Measure: % of enterprises                                                                                                                                          Code: [isoc_ci_cd_en2]

                                                                                                  National policy and stakeholder initiatives

                                       Definition: Level of national policy and stakeholder activity on ICT Practitioner Skills
ICT Practitioner Skills                Measure: 1 - 5 (1 = "No relevant policy or stake-holder activities of significant scope and size have been identified."; 5 = "A master      2013                           empirica
                                       strategy is in place.)

                                    Definition: Level of national policy and stakeholder activity on e-Leadership education and training
e-Leadership e-Leadership education
                                    Measure: 1 - 5 (1 = "No relevant policy or stake-holder activities of significant scope and size have been identified."; 5 = "A master         2014                           empirica
and training
                                    strategy is in place.)

                                       Definition: Level of national policy and stakeholder activity on Skills for digital entrepreneurship
Skills for digital entrepreneurship    Measure: 1 - 5 (1 = "No relevant policy or stake-holder activities of significant scope and size have been identified."; 5 = "A master      2014                           empirica
                                       strategy is in place.)

                                                                                                                      18 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Methodology

        Step 4: Calculating re-scaled scores
        Min-max normalisation method was adopted to adjust for differences in terms of units of
        measurement and ranges of variation. All 28 variables have been normalised into the [0-10] range,
        with higher scores representing better performance for the indicators.
        The following normalisation formula has been applied:

        Where:
        Xi = country score
        XMin = sample minimum
        XMax = sample maximum
        Xi, 0 to 10 = the data point i normalized between 0 and 10
        Step 5: Calculating composite e-leadership index
        The e-leadership Index for each country is calculated as a weighted average of the rescaled scores
        for every indicator included in the scoreboard. The weighting approach used distributes different
        weights to each of the building blocks, based on the results obtained from a regression analysis
        which assesses relationships between each building block indicators’ (independent variable) and
        estimated number of e-leaders for each 28 Member States (dependent variable). The rationale
        behind this analysis is to explore and assess relationships between indicators’ performance and
        potential presence of e-Leaders.

Identification of policies and stakeholder initiatives on e-leadership skills
        To gather information on and evaluate the current e-leadership skills policy and initiative landscape
        and try to assess the impact of relevant policies at EU and national level, a significant amount of
        information needed to be systematically collected. The challenge has not only been that the
        information owners are heterogeneous (including actors in the public sector, the private sector, e.g.
        the IT industry, and educational organisations), but also the geographic scope of the exercise, as
        the study focused on activities in all 28 Member States (and major regions, if relevant). The
        collected information included, in particular, factual information about ongoing and completed
        activities at the European level and in EU Member States (e.g. information about the types of
        initiatives, the stakeholders involved and the governance model applied), as well as views of
        stakeholders and experts that have been involved in such activities regarding the outcome of these
        activities.
        Our activities consisted mainly of:
            a survey of relevant national policies in the e-leadership skills domain, and
            a survey of initiatives and multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) at Member State level in
             this domain, with the focus as before.
        The data was collected with the support, where found appropriate, of a network of national
        correspondents covering all 28 Member States of the EU.
        Information gathering using templates where appropriate is divided into three steps.
        In a first step it focused on the general policy context in the different countries. The aim has been
        to give a brief overview of the overall structure of the policy system and programmes and the key
        stakeholders active in this area. In this section, national correspondents were guided to refer to and

                                                      19 / 23
Country Report: Italy - Methodology

        mention the policy programmes of relevance for e-leadership skills and to provide an overview of
        how these are embedded and integrated in the overall policy context.
        The work built on already existing literature and studies available from previous projects, statistical
        sources and the proposers’ expertise and experiences gained in the precursor and previous projects
        and service contracts. The analysis was enhanced by most recent literature and studies.
        In a second step, more in-depth data has been gathered on the major policies and initiatives
        targeting creation of e-skills and e-leadership skills which had been identified in the previous step.
        The template was brief, with the following points to be addressed:
            Name of policy, programme, initiative
            Overall objectives
            Specific objectives
            Targets
            Main characteristics
            Policy evaluation: Monitoring and measurement system in place
            Results achieved (versus objectives and targets)
        The output of this activity included descriptions of the respective policies and initiatives on the
        basis of a standardised template, consisting of about 5 pages of text in tabular format and a
        preliminary assessment with regard to some benchmarking indicators (see below for a description
        of the benchmarking approach).
        At an early stage of the project (Phase I) empirica developed a data gathering guide and template
        for use by national correspondents to gather the relevant information. This was followed by
        contacting national correspondents and providing them with a Guide / Toolkit containing
        background information, guidelines and instructions for how to conduct the research, and the data
        capture instruments (description templates and questionnaires, as applicable). National
        correspondents in each Member State were asked to identify key actors and experts in the fields of
        e-skills and e-leadership skills and to interview them, as well as to undertake desk research.
        In order to avoid work duplication and to achieve best value for money, national correspondents
        were supplied with pre-filled data templates wherever available based on the instruments used for
        precursor studies, which they were then asked to validate, update and complement as appropriate.

Benchmarking and assessment of policies and stakeholder initiatives on e-
leadership skills
        Indices for Member States' level of policy activity
        National policy activity was explored through an investigation on national policy and stakeholder
        initiatives that have a bearing on skills development in the e-leadership and digital
        entrepreneurship area. Findings are summarised in the form of two indices for policies & initiatives
        addressing e-leadership skills of SMEs and skills for digital entrepreneurship, respectively. Index
        values have not been mechanistically derived using checklists but rather through a qualitative
        assessment of the significance and importance of each policy and activity.

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