Effectiveness of the Teaching Offered through Infographics in Teaching Traffic Rules to Students with Intellectual Disability

Effectiveness of the Teaching Offered through Infographics in Teaching Traffic Rules to Students with Intellectual Disability
Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica
2021, Vol. XXX, N°1, 41-50                                                                                                41
DOI: 10.24205/03276716.2020.2003

    Effectiveness of the Teaching Offered through
Infographics in Teaching Traffic Rules to Students with
                 Intellectual Disability
                     Meltem Haksiza, Gonul Akcameteb, Mukaddes Sakalli Demirokc,

              Individuals with special needs should live in a functional integrity with the society they
              live in. In this context, gaining individuals with special needs the skills to participate in the
              social process is of great importance for them to continue their lives independently. It is
              especially important for individuals with intellectual disabilities to gain social life skills in
              their education and enable them to live independently. The aim of this study is to
              determine the effectiveness of infographics presented with direct instruction method on
              teaching how to use traffic signs and pedestrian crossing to students with intellectual
              disabilities. In this research, multiple probe design across participants which is one of the
              single subject research designs was used. Three students diagnosed with intellectual
              disability, whose ages varied between 8-10, participated in the study. Infographics were
              prepared by visual designer according to the needs of the students and infographics were
              created. The validity and reliability of the created infographics were ensured after
              receiving opinions from 5 field experts. Tablets were used during teaching with
              infographics. Results of the study showed that all participants in the study gained the
              ability to use traffic signs and pedestrian crossings, infographics presented with direct
              teaching method are effective and the subjects can generalize and maintain the skill.
              Keywords: Intellectual disability, traffic rules, infographic, single subject research

Introduction                                                           can use in their daily lives and make their lives
    One of the most important conditions of human                      easier in preparation for society. Because education
life is participation and adaptation to social life.                   must provide the necessary knowledge and
From a social point of view, it is between the state                   experience for individuals in order for them to
of well-being and the health conditions. In short,                     continue without the need for someone else's help
social harmony is the most important indicator of                      through educational activities. Although this
being healthy. In addition to giving individuals how                   condition may not apply to all normal-developing
to use social life, it is necessary to gain appropriate                individuals, it is especially important for individuals
social behavior. It is required to have the necessary                  with intellectual disabilities. For this reason, among
spaces to ensure participation in social life and to                   the main goals of education of individuals with
have a level that can be used adequately (MEB,                         intellectual disabilities is to teach the necessary
2016).                                                                 vital functional knowledge and skills in society so
    In order to live independently in society, a                       that they can live independently (Kizilkaya, 2016).
certain level of knowledge and skills are essential. It                    From past to present, many definitions have
is the duty of families and teachers to teach                          been made on intellectual disability. According to
individuals these needs, which are necessary to                        Eripek (1996), intellectual disability is generally
ensure that they can live independently (Cavkaytar,                    defined as the inability to perform an individual's
1999). In general, the main purpose of educational                     academic, social and self-care skills, as well as being
activities is to prepare individuals for society. It aims              significantly normalized in mental functions and
to teach functional knowledge and skills that they                     showing an inability to adapt (Diken, 2008). The
                                                                       main purpose of the special education services
a Near East University, Mersin 10 Turkey, meltem.haksiz@neu.edu.tr     offered to individuals with mental disabilities is to
b  Near East University, Mersin 10 Turkey, Faculty of Education,
                                                                       gain the independent life skills necessary to ensure
c Near East University, Mersin 10 Turkey, Faculty of Education,        that they can continue their lives without being
                                                                       dependent on others in society. Skills required for

                                                                     REVISTA ARGENTINA
                                        2021, Vol. XXX, N°1, 41-50   DE CLÍNICA PSICOLÓGICA
Effectiveness of the Teaching Offered through Infographics in Teaching Traffic Rules to Students with Intellectual Disability
42                               Meltem Haksiz, Gonul Akcamete, Mukaddes Sakalli Demirokc

independent life are daily life skills, social                  presented in mass media. In addition, Aybek and
adaptation skills, business and professional skills,            Alan (2016) studied the opinions of classroom
functional academic skills, etc. (Karabulut & Yikmis,           teachers regarding to the traffic safety course
2010).                                                          curriculum of the fourth grade in primary school
    Dever and Knapczyk (1997) listed these skills in            and Hatipoglu (2011) tried to determine the traffic
five subheadings under social adaptation skills.                knowledge and perceptions of preschool children.
These are personal care and development, home                       When the literature is examined, it is observed
and community life, work/profession, leisure                    that there are also studies on traffic education.
assessment and travel skills. Dever and Knapczyk                Kavsiraci (2014) examined the traffic phenomenon,
(1997) also stated that functional skills to be taught          traffic safety education in our country, its place in
to children with intellectual disabilities and                  the formal education system, the importance, goals
teaching community-based education will make it                 and objectives of child traffic safety education. In
easier for students to reach independence.                      addition, Hatipoglu, Ozdemir and Ozturk (2012)
    According to Cullen and Alber-Morgan (2015)                 evaluated the traffic education provided during the
managing a person's money, meeting their needs,                 primary education period, which is a step of the
getting where they live and want to go is also under            formal education system in Turkey, where learning
adaptive social life skills. Especially, knowing the            is faster and more permanent, within the scope of
traffic rules necessary for going from one place to             this study.
another on foot is an important point in ensuring                   Yeaton and Bailey (1983) used a pre-developed
independence in gaining social life skills.                     and analyzed pedestrian safety training program to
    Although traffic education is important in                  teach kindergartens and first grade children
almost every phase of human life, it has a vital                appropriate street crossing behavior.
importance and influence within the education                       Traffic education is important in the education
system. It constitutes the most important part in               of children with normal development, as well as in
terms of informing and raising the awareness of                 the education of children who need special
children who are the adults and assurance of the                education. Because it is not easy, but not
future especially in the primary education period. In           impossible, to ensure that individuals who need
addition, children of primary school age need to                special education can act independently without
gain knowledge and skills as well as to be protected            being harmed and dependent on others by
from traffic accidents and to be brought to a level             adapting to the hard conditions of city life.
where they can protect themselves. As children in               Especially in order for individuals with intellectual
this age learn and be affected more quickly,                    disabilities to live independently, there are skills
information on traffic safety will be more effective            and concepts that need to be taught systematically
and permanent for life for them. Besides, the whole             in many areas. These are social life skills, called
society will be made aware of it over time. In this             independent life skills.
way, every effort for traffic education will play a                 In the literature, in the studies on traffic
role in the reduction of accidents. In addition, over           education in special education, Karabulut revealed
time, the whole society will become a link in the               the current situation and road safety of individuals
chain of measures (Cigiltepe, 1998).                            with intellectual disabilities in urban transportation
                                                                in 2007 and he aimed to put forward suggestions
Literature Review about Teaching Traffic Rules                  for mentally disabled individuals and their families
    When the literature is examined, it is observed             that would improve their road safety skills in urban
there are studies on traffic education in primary               traffic and would make families' that like to take
education. Bolat, Ozbek, and Kaygusuz (2017)                    their children out safely lives easier .
aimed to study the effect of teaching the 4th grade                 Batu, Ergenekon, Erbas & Akmanoglu (2004)
traffic safety course on the use of child traffic               study the effectiveness of what is the most or least
education park on student achievement whereas                   encouraging in teaching pedestrian skills to
Tahiroglu, (2012) aimed to study the traffic                    individuals with developmental disabilities. Five
education activity which is developed in accordance             people with developmental disabilities were taught
with the value disclosure and value analysis                    three different pedestrian skills, all related to
approaches. Erturk, (2016) aimed to determine                   crossing streets, using simulation activities on a
primary school students' perceptions of applied                 road model in their school's gymnasium. Multiple
traffic education and Guner & Genc (2012)                       research design was used among behaviors in order
examined the opinions of children studying at                   to evaluate the effects of maximum guidance. The
primary school level on the issue of traffic safety             results of the study revealed that guidance was the

                                                             REVISTA ARGENTINA
                                2021, Vol. XXX, N°1, 41-50   DE CLÍNICA PSICOLÓGICA
43                                Meltem Haksiz, Gonul Akcamete, Mukaddes Sakalli Demirokc

most or least effective in teaching pedestrian skills.           students safe. In addition, it was concluded that
Participants learned each of the skills and were able            knowing how to cross the street safely can help
to generalize these skills to city traffic in real life.         increase students ' opportunities to access
    In 1976, Page, Iwata and Neef thought the basic              community activities and, ultimately, employment.
pedestrian skills to five male students with special                 In their study conducted in 2008, Takahashi and
education needs in a classroom. In this study,                   Noro taught a child with an autistic disorder who
training was carried out on a model created to                   exhibits dangerous behavior on the street to reduce
simulate city traffic conditions. Each participant was           this behavior and walk safely. In the cost of
taught five specific skills related to crossing the              response procedure, he lost a reinforcer (his
street in turn. Intersection recognition, pedestrian             favorite card) every time he exhibited problematic
light skills, traffic light skills and skills for two            behavior. In the DRO procedure, he received a
different stop sign conditions. Before, during and               reinforcement when he walked without any
after the training, participants were tested under               problem behavior. The results showed that the
generalization studies in the model and actual city              response-cost procedure and the combined use of
traffic conditions. In addition, training in some skills         the response cost and DRO were effective in
has been found to facilitate performance in skills               reducing problematic behavior on the street and
not yet trained.                                                 maintaining safe walking. After the conclusion of
    Koisaari, Michelsson, Holopainen, Maximainen,                this study, the child was able to walk safely on the
Paivansalo, Rantala & Tervo (2015) examined the                  way to and from school.
traffic offences and criminal acts of adults with                    Wrigth and Wolery (2011), on the other hand,
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity disorder from their              examined eight studies published between 1976-
birth to 40 years of age. In their study that is                 2008 that examined the effectiveness of various
conducted in 2011, Mechling and Seid consider the                teaching practices in teaching pedestrian skills to
use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) with                   individuals with developmental disabilities. In
picture, audio and video prompts as a portable, self-            teaching pedestrian skills to individuals with
activating device to facilitate independent                      developmental disabilities, the researchers stated
pedestrian travel of three high school students with             that classroom teaching practices, teaching
moderate intellectual disabilities. By using multiple            practices conducted in social environments, and
probe designs between three targets and their                    practices conducted using virtual reality technology
respective locations, the self-requesting device was             can be used effectively. Researchers emphasized
evaluated for its effectiveness in increasing                    that effectiveness studies are generally conducted
independent travel between multiple targets. As a                in teaching pedestrian skills and that comparison
result, it shows that students can use the PDA                   studies are needed to determine more effective
secretly to use pedestrian travel (walking) to                   and      efficient   applications   among      these
maintain the use of the device over time and to                  applications.
adjust the demand level used on different                            In today's educational environments, teachers
pedestrian routes without the need for anyone                    benefit from many different teaching models,
else.                                                            methods, techniques and tools in transferring
    In 2016, Hawkins studied with three students                 course contents. Therefore, the educational
one of them was diagnosed with autism, one who                   materials used facilitate students' perception and
was diagnosed with both autism and language-                     learning processes, increase motivation, make the
speech disorder, and the other who was diagnosed                 taught subject alive, enrich the teaching process,
with both intellectual disability and language-                  and facilitate permanent learning by reinforcing the
speech disorder. In his study, he aimed to get                   knowledge (Aslan & Dogdu, 1993; Erden, 1998;
students safely across the street. He first used the             Demiralp, 2007).
task analysis of the steps required to cross the                     Thanks to the recent advancement of
street safely. A multiple key design was then used               technology in education, especially the changes in
among participants to determine the progress that                computer technologies, many visual learning tools
students had made in the behaviors needed to                     and materials can easily be designed in education,
cross a street. The results of this study showed that            which can eliminate the learning difficulties of
all three participants improved their cross-street               students and provide positive benefits to their
skills immediately after the first intervention                  learning. One of these visual materials is
session. These results showed that special                       infographics, which we can often find in magazines,
education students can learn the steps needed to                 the web and newspapers (Basgun, 2013; Harrison,
get across the street, and these skills can help keep            Reinecke, & Chang, 2015).

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44                                Meltem Haksiz, Gonul Akcamete, Mukaddes Sakalli Demirokc

    Infographics are a type of graphic that combines             More than 350 disabled adults, 10 disability
graphic design and information to help convey the                organizations, and 50 healthcare professionals
message accurately to individuals, large audiences               were involved in the development of infographic to
and institutions that are in the position of receivers.          test how evidence-based physical activity
In other words, it can also be expressed as the form             recommendations could be presented in
of visualized forms of data or ideas that allow the              organizations. As a result, this study revealed that it
transfer of information rapidly and easily (Smiciklas,           will contribute to motivating adults with disabilities
2012).                                                           to participate in physical activity.
    If infographics are considered in terms of                       According to research conducted, the use of
learning and teaching, they differ from other visual             infographic in special education has shown positive
materials by visualization. In a study conducted by              results. The use of infographics, especially in
Borkin et al. (2013), they examined the level of                 education, has been determined that they
recall according to visualization types. According to            remember the given information for a longer time
the research results, they found that visualizations             (Lyra, Isotani, Reis, Marques, Pedro, Jaques, &
with more intensive use of images, more                          Bitencourt, 2016). Therefore, the use of
pictograms, wider color scale and lower data-ink                 infographics in the education of individuals with
ratio are more memorable than other visualization                intellectual disabilities makes it important that the
types, and infographics have the highest level of                information will be recalled for a long time. In
recall.                                                          addition, the limited number of studies in special
    Recently, this strategy has started to take place            education related to the use of infographic makes it
in special education. When the literature is                     essential to conduct further research in this area.
examined, the effects of the use of infographics in              From this point of view, the need to test the
the education of individuals with learning                       effectiveness of the teaching offered through
difficulties in mathematics lesson were                          infographics in teaching traffic rules to students
investigated. According to the results obtained in               with intellectual disabilities arose.
the study, it is stated that the use of infographic can
be effective for the individuals who have learning               Aim of the research
difficulties in maths lesson in terms of                            The general purpose of the researcher is to
understanding the content of the lesson, making                  determine the effectiveness of the instruction
the information they learn permanent and                         presented to students with intellectual disabilities
organizing complex information (Baglama, Yucesoy,                through direct teaching method and infographics in
Uzunboylu, & Ozcan, 2017).                                       gaining the ability of students to use traffic signs
    In the study by Smith and Wightman (2019), a                 and pedestrian crossings. In line with this general
project was created in order to promote physical                 purpose, answers to the following questions were
activity for the disabled. In this project, social               sought:
workers were first involved as a messenger group                 1. Is the education provided by direct teaching
to promote physical activity. The process of                        method and infographics effective in gaining the
developing guides for these messengers is                           meaning of traffic signs for students with
described and marked in the guide. An infographic                   intellectual disabilities?
is then highlighted to convey physical activity and              2. Is the teaching provided with the direct teaching
insights are presented about some of the messages                   method and infographics effective in gaining the
produced within it. These messages include                          ability of students with intellectual disabilities to
pleasure, amount of physical activity, strength,                    cross the pedestrian crossing?
inactivity, visual images, language, and a focus on              3. If the meaning of traffic signs is gained by
different disorders. As a result, it contributes to                 infographics presented by the direct teaching
knowledge by offering new insights into how to                      method of students with intellectual disabilities,
encourage physical activity for the people with                     can this learning outcome be maintained ten
disabilities.                                                       days and twenty days after the end of teaching?
    Choi, Smith, Jung, Oh, Park, & Foster (2020)                 4. If students with intellectual disabilities gain the
aimed to examine the UK's evidence-based                            ability to cross the pedestrian crossing with
infographic recommendations on physical activity                    infographics presented by direct teaching
for disabled adults and to introduce it to the South                method, can this learning outcome be
Korean disabled community. This infographic was                     maintained ten days and twenty days after the
developed by the team led by Brett Smith under the                  end of the education?
Commission of the Department of Health England.                  5. If the meaning of traffic signs is gained with the

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                                 2021, Vol. XXX, N°1, 41-50   DE CLÍNICA PSICOLÓGICA
45                               Meltem Haksiz, Gonul Akcamete, Mukaddes Sakalli Demirokc

   infographics presented with the direct teaching              school attendance.
   method of students with intellectual disabilities,               Three students with intellectual disabilities who
   can the generalization of this skill (interpersonal          attended special education classes participated in
   and inter-environment) be achieved?                          the study. Participants were selected from among
6. If students with intellectual disabilities gain the          students     who     met     the    pre-determined
   ability to cross the pedestrian crossing with                prerequisites. These prerequisites are a) knowledge
   infographics presented by direct teaching                    of the names of colors, B) knowledge of the right
   method, can the generalization of this skill                 side and left side, c) knowledge of reading and
   (interpersonal and inter-environment) be                     writing, d) compliance with the guidelines, e)
   achieved?                                                    regular attendance at school.

Method                                                          The researcher
Research Model                                                     The researcher is a graduate of the master's
    In this study, in order to determine the                    program in the Department of Special Education.
effectiveness of teaching students' ability to use              Currently, the practitioner continues her doctoral
traffic signs and pedestrian crossings, which is                education in the Department of Special Education.
presented to students with intellectual disabilities            She also works as a lecturer in the Special Education
through     direct    instruction    method      and            Department of the University.
infographics, multiple probe model among the
single-subject research methods with probe phase                Environment
will be used. Single-subject studies are a research                 The research was conducted in their own
method that involves time series analysis based on              individual training rooms at the institution where
repeated measurements or observations before,                   the participants received education. The individual
during and after an experimental intervention                   training room in the institution is 2m x 3m in size. It
applied on a subject in order to reach a basic causal           also has a work desk, two chairs, a bookshelf and a
relationship (Kothari & Garg, 2015; James, 2016;                whiteboard.
Richards, 2018).
Participants                                                    Infographics
Subjects                                                             In the study, according to the needs of students
    During the application process of the study,                with intellectual disabilities, the researcher gave
three participants were studied, two of whom were               the visual to the designer and infographics were
girls and one of whom was a boy. The age of the                 created. Later, opinions of 5 experts were taken and
participants varies from 8 to 10 years old. The                 in line with these opinions, infographics, sound and
research was conducted at the special special                   motion were added. In addition, the created
education center where the participants received                infographics are designed to be compatible with the
education. The research was conducted with three                Tablet computer. After the validity and reliability of
students with intellectual disabilities in an empty             the created infographics received positive feedback
classroom by determining appropriate lesson hours               from 5 field experts, the teaching was started by the
between 08:30 and 12:00 five days a week. When                  researcher.
reporting data, code names were used instead of
the real names of the participants. The selection of            Other tools and materials
the participants was decided by considering the                    During the application, a tablet computer was
class hours of the students whose suitability for the           used for teaching with infographics. Data forms and
research was determined in terms of prerequisite                items were used to record data during the
characteristics.                                                application process. In addition, a video camera
    Emre is a male student with down syndrome                   device was used to record the application and then
who was diagnosed with intellectual disability at               obtain inter-observer and application reliability
the age of 10. Aslı and Canan are female students               data. Finally, a desktop computer was used to
aged 8 and 9, respectively, who have been                       watch video recordings and graphically analyze
diagnosed with intellectual disability. After being             research findings.
interviewed by a special education teacher, it was
determined that they met the necessary                          Dependent and Independent Variable
prerequisite skills for research. There is no                       The dependent variable of this research is what
additional inability of students and no problem with            traffic signs mean for individuals with intellectual

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                                2021, Vol. XXX, N°1, 41-50   DE CLÍNICA PSICOLÓGICA
46                                Meltem Haksiz, Gonul Akcamete, Mukaddes Sakalli Demirokc

disabilities and the ability to cross a pedestrian               is the teaching provided by the infographics
crossing. The independent variable of the research               presented by the direct teaching method.

                                                Figure 1. Infographic

Experimental Process                                             participant. "Now we will solve the questions
    Baseline Level: In order to collect the baseline             together. I need you to do a few things. I want you
data, students were given 8 traffic signs and                    to take your pen and solve your questions,” the
worksheets on the skill of crossing a pedestrian                 participant does what the practitioner says. Then
crossing. Operations that students did correctly are             the participant practitioner said, “Well done! What
recorded as ‘ + ’ in the registration form, and                  did that sign mean? You have to decide what to
operations that they did incorrectly and leave                   write… (Student Reinforced.) Well done! By saying
empty are recorded as ‘-’ in the registration form.              "Now I want you to write down the crosswalk sign,
After the three session baseline data were                       the crosswalk line, the stop sign, the traffic lights
collected, the application sessions were started.                and the duties of the traffic police,” the practitioner
    Practice Session: The participant and the                    directs the participant. In the guided practice,
practitioner were seated opposite each other and                 when the subject does not remember or makes a
the practitioner said, “Today we will do a very                  mistake, the necessary feedback should be made by
enjoyable work with you. But in order for this study             the practitioner. This application was also made by
to be enjoyable and fun, there are rules that we                 the practitioner. A more independent application
must follow throughout the study. These are:                     has been introduced. The participant is given a
throughout the study, you will sit with your feet on             worksheet for traffic signs and pedestrian skills by
the floor, leaning back to your desk and you will                the practitioner. In independent practice, the
listen and watch carefully. By saying "During this               practitioner does not interfere with the participant.
work, we will use the following tools", the tools are                Monitoring Sessions: In order to evaluate the
introduced one by one. The practitioner begins by                permanence of the skill acquired, it was conducted
telling the participant, “we'll start if you're ready.”          by the researcher ten and twenty days after the
The practitioner displays infographics in the tablet             teaching sessions ended. This session data was
computer. After the subject watched the                          collected just like the data of the collective
infographic, the practitioner said, “Well done, you              attendance sessions. Monitoring sessions were
watched it very well! Now we can move on to the                  conducted by the researcher. The researcher gave
other infographic,” and showed the other one.                    the students 8 worksheets related to traffic signs
Other infographics were later followed. Later, the               and the skill to cross the pedestrian crossing. The
practitioner carried out the guided application. The             researcher did not react to the wrong or correct
practitioner placed the worksheet in front of the                answers of the participant. Operations that

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47                               Meltem Haksiz, Gonul Akcamete, Mukaddes Sakalli Demirokc

students did correctly are recorded as ‘+’ in the               is 5 for Emre, 6 for Canan and 5 for Aslı. All of the
registration form, and operations that they did                 participants reached the level of: Emre 90% , Canan
incorrectly and leave empty are recorded as ‘-’ in              and Aslı 80% from 30% at the end of the teaching
the registration form.                                          sessions. The findings of this study, in which traffic
                                                                signs are presented through direct teaching
Collection and Analysis of Data                                 method and infographics, show that all of the
    Effectiveness, monitoring and generalization                subjects can learn, generalize and the traffic signs
data collected within the scope of the research                 that are presented and maintain this skill in line
were analyzed graphically and graphs were                       with the tracking data received.
interpreted. A line chart prepared by Microsoft                     Research findings in Figure 4, the ability of
Excel 2010 program was used for graphical analysis.             students with intellectual disabilities to cross a
The data regarding the generalization sessions were             pedestrian crossing was graphically analyzed for all
analyzed by comparing the pre-session and post-                 three subjects. In the figure, success percentages of
session sessions and displayed on a column chart.               Emre, Canan and Aslı are listed respectively. As
                                                                shown in Figure 4, the number of teaching sessions
Reliability                                                     is 5 for Emre, 6 for Canan and 5 for Aslı. At the end
    Within the scope of the research, interjudge                of the teaching sessions, all of the participants
reliability data was collected. Interjudge reliability          reached the level of 30% to Canan 80%, Emre and
data of the study were obtained from two special                Aslı 90%. The findings of this study, in which the
education teachers who graduated from the                       ability to cross the pedestrian crossing is presented
teaching for the intellectualy disabled. Interjudge             through direct teaching method and infographics,
reliability is made by comparing the compliance of              show that all of the subjects were able to learn,
the records of the practitioner with the records                generalize and maintain this skill in line with the
kept by the observer who made the reliability                   tracking data received.
review. The interjudge reliability coefficient of the
study was obtained by using the formula                         Discussion
"Consensus / Consensus + Disagreement) x 100                        According to the results of these findings, the
(Tawney & Gast, 1984). Interjudge reliability was               teaching offered to students with intellectual
calculated to be sufficient for the reliability of the          disabilities by direct teaching method and
research data for all three participants.                       infographics was effective in gaining students '
    Application reliability indicates whether the               ability to cross traffic signs and pedestrian
independent variable is applied as planned (Erbas,              crossings. When the findings of the research are
2012). Special education teacher collected                      evaluated in terms of effectiveness in the literature,
application reliability data of the research.                   Bağlama, Yücesoy, Uzunboylu and Özcan stated in
Application reliability form has been prepared by               2017 that the use of infographics in maths lesson
the researcher. Application reliability was 100% in             can be effective for students who has learning
all sessions in all participants.                               disability in terms of understanding the content of
                                                                the lesson, making the information they learn
Results                                                         permanent and organizing complex information. In
    The aim of this study is to determine the                   another effectiveness study, Choi, Smith, Jung, Oh,
effectiveness of the instruction offered to students            Park, & Foster (2020) aimed to examine UK's
with intellectual disabilities through direct teaching          evidence-based infographic recommendations on
method and infographics in gaining the ability of               physical activity for adults with disabilities and
students to use traffic signs and pedestrian                    introduce it to the community of disabled people in
crossings. For this purpose, the effects of the direct          South Korea. As a result, this study revealed that it
teaching method on the acquisition, maintenance                 will contribute to motivating adults with disabilities
and generalization of the students' ability to use              to participate in physical activity. In this way, it can
traffic signs and pedestrian crossings were studied             be said that infographics contribute positively to
in the research.                                                the lives of individuals who need special education.
    Research findings are shown in Figure 3, the                    The fact that the findings obtained from the
ability of students with intellectual disability to             study presented unique findings to the literature is
know the traffic signs is graphically analyzed for all          considered important in terms of enabling the use
three subjects. In the figure, success percentages of           of infographics and teaching practice in teaching
Emre, Canan and Aslı are listed respectively. As                traffic signs and crossing skills to students with
shown in Figure 3, the number of teaching sessions              intellectual disabilities. In this respect, the research

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                                2021, Vol. XXX, N°1, 41-50   DE CLÍNICA PSICOLÓGICA
48                                Meltem Haksiz, Gonul Akcamete, Mukaddes Sakalli Demirokc

is thought to contribute to the literature and special           disabilities the ability to cross traffic signs and cross
education practices in the world and in our country.             the pedestrian crossing. According to these
                                                                 findings, it may be recommended to use direct
Conclusion and Recommendations                                   teaching methods and infographics when teaching
    As a result of this research, it was found that the          traffic signs and crossing skills at a pedestrian
education offered through direct teaching method                 crossing. It can also be distributed to schools by
and infographics in teaching traffic signs and the               converting it into a package program.
skill of crossing the pedestrian crossing to students                Based on the literature and research findings,
with intellectual disabilities was effective in the              recommendations for further research can be
acquisition of this skill, and concluded that the                made. Firstly, individual teaching was carried out in
students who gained the skill continued the skill                this research, it can be studied with small groups. In
after ten and twenty days and generalized it to                  this study, the teaching of traffic sign and
different environments and people.                               pedestrian crossing skills was studied. The effect of
    Based       on       the     research       results,         direct teaching method on teaching self-care skills
recommendations for practice can also be given. It               presented through infographics can also be
was concluded that the education provided by                     examined. The infographics developed in this study
direct teaching method and infographics were                     can also be studied with students in different
effective in teaching the students with intellectual             disability groups.

 Figure 2. Graphical Analysis of the Participants'                 Figure 3. Graphical Analysis of the Participants'
     Level of Acquisition of the Target Skill.                         Level of Acquisition of the Target Skill.
B= Starting Level; S= Teaching Sessions; P=Polling                B=Starting Level; S= Teaching Sessions; P=Polling
        Sessions; F=Monitoring Sessions;                                  Sessions; F=Monitoring Sessions;
            G=Generalization Sessions                                         G=Generalization Sessions

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49                                  Meltem Haksiz, Gonul Akcamete, Mukaddes Sakalli Demirokc

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