FAO'S WORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE - United Nations Climate Change Conference 2019 - Food and Agriculture ...

FAO'S WORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE - United Nations Climate Change Conference 2019 - Food and Agriculture ...
United Nations
Climate Change
Conference 2019
FAO'S WORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE - United Nations Climate Change Conference 2019 - Food and Agriculture ...

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Cover photo: Shimbwe Juu Kihamba Agroforestry Heritage Site, Moshi Rural District,
Northern Tanzania. © FAO/Felipe Rodriguez

FAO'S WORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE - United Nations Climate Change Conference 2019 - Food and Agriculture ...
                  The Northern Upland
                   Agroforestry System
          exemplifies synergy between
        humans, plants and animals but
           this balance is under threat.
               © FAO/Felipe Rodriguez

FAO'S WORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE - United Nations Climate Change Conference 2019 - Food and Agriculture ...

                                                Delivering on country
                                                     commitments to
                                                      transform food
                                                          systems and
                                                 promote sustainable
                                                      agriculture can
                                                        create a world
                                                 without hunger and
                                                malnutrition by 2030.

                                  Climate change dominated                foundations for human existence,
                                  the global agenda in 2019.              including food production.
                                  Greenhouse gas emissions are            The Intergovernmental Panel
 “WE NEED TO                      showing no signs of falling, as
                                  they must to meet the goals of
                                                                          on Climate Change (IPCC)
                                                                          found that land and oceans
 WORK TOGETHER                    the Paris Agreement and the
                                  2030 Agenda for Sustainable
                                                                          are under growing threat, but
                                                                          could contribute to lowering
 TO MITIGATE                      Development. The world is in
                                  danger of missing the target
                                                                          emissions and helping vulnerable
                                                                          communities adapt to a
 AND ADAPT TO                     of limiting global warming to           changing climate.

 THE EFFECTS OF                   1.5 °C this century, set out in the
                                  Paris Agreement.                        The response to climate change

 CLIMATE CHANGE                   Several major reports in 2019
                                                                          is growing. The Climate Action
                                                                          Summit in September 2019 saw
 ON AGRICULTURE                   showed why this would be a
                                  disaster. FAO’s State of the World’s
                                                                          new commitments from the public
                                                                          and private sector. The issue is
 AND NATURAL                      Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture
                                  and a report from the world’s top
                                                                          firmly in the public consciousness,
                                                                          with protest movements swelling
 RESOURCES.”                      biodiversity body, IPBES, laid out
                                  how climate change will accelerate
                                                                          across the globe. With the Paris
                                                                          Agreement commitments due to
                QU Dongyu         the loss of the ecosystems and          be updated in 2020, now is the
           FAO Director-General   biodiversity that provide the           time for real, concerted action.

FAO'S WORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE - United Nations Climate Change Conference 2019 - Food and Agriculture ...
                                                                                                      A fisher casts his net in the
                                                                                                       water to catch small fish,
                                                                                                                Wataboo beach.
                                                                                                      ©UN Photo/Martine Perret

AGRICULTURE, FOOD SECURITY              latest reports show, climate change     the livelihoods of millions of rural
AND CLIMATE CHANGE                      is already having profound              people. It will expose urban and rural
Agricultural and food system            consequences. Oceans are warming        poor to higher and more volatile food
transformation is a crucial part of     and acidifying, threatening fish        prices. It will cause forced migration
this action. Agriculture emits around   stocks. Longer, more intense            and jeopardize the Sustainable
one quarter of greenhouse gases, but    droughts are imperilling freshwater     Development Goals (SDGs).
it holds almost half of the solutions   supplies and crops. Extreme weather
to global climate goals. As this        events that damage infrastructure,      Delivering on country commitments
booklet shows, action on forests        wipe out harvests and erode natural     to transform food systems and
and other ecosystems, soils, water,     resources are hitting the livelihoods   promote sustainable agriculture
livestock, oceans and food systems      of smallholder farmers, fishers and     can still create a world without
can reduce emissions and remove         foresters, who have contributed least   hunger and malnutrition by 2030.
carbon from the atmosphere while        to climate change. The State of Food    But we must work urgently to
feeding a growing population.           Security and Nutrition in the World     transform agriculture through
                                        2019 cited the changing climate         inclusive, multisectoral approaches
Such action, designed also to help      as a key driver behind a rise in the    that reduce greenhouse gas
communities, particularly the rural     number of hungry people – which         emissions and build resilience and
poor in developing countries, adapt     rose to over 820 million in 2018.       adaptive capability. This booklet
and build resilience to climate                                                 illustrates FAO’s commitment
change, is critical if agriculture      Without action, the changing climate    to innovating in agriculture and
is to provide the extra 49 percent      will affect food availability and       transforming its practices to meet the
of food required by 2050. As the        hinder access to food by disrupting     climate challenge.

FAO'S WORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE - United Nations Climate Change Conference 2019 - Food and Agriculture ...

                                              The Koronivia Joint
                                              Work on Agriculture
                                              the importance of
                                              agriculture and food
                                              security in the climate
                                              change agenda.
 CHANGES                                    The adoption of the The Koronivia
                                                                                 Farmers reactivate

                                            Joint Work on Agriculture at         agricultural
                                            COP 23 in 2017 was an important      production on

 PATTERNS CALL                              turning point for agriculture        40 hectares of
                                                                                 abandoned land,
                                            in the international climate         Mexico City.

 FOR PROFOUND,                              discourse. Following the decision
                                            by 90 percent of countries to
                                                                                 Reyes Pantoja

 SYSTEMIC                                   include the agricultural sectors
                                            (crops, livestock, fisheries,
 CHANGES IN OUR                             aquaculture and forestry) in
                                            their Nationally Determined
 SOCIETIES AND                              Contributions (NDCs) under

                                            the Paris Agreement, Koronivia
                                            re-emphasized the importance
                                            of agriculture and food security
            Maria-Helena Semedo,            in the climate change agenda.
  FAO Deputy Director-General for Climate
                  and Natural Resources
                                            Countries agreed to work together
                                            to address issues related to soil,

FAO'S WORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE - United Nations Climate Change Conference 2019 - Food and Agriculture ...
livestock, and nutrient and water    THE FOOD–AGRICULTURE–CLIMATE          NATIONAL
management, as well as on the        NEXUS                                 ADAPTATION
food security and socio-economic     FAO’s Strategy on Climate
impacts of climate change            Change focuses on enhancing           PLANS
across the agriculture sectors.      capacities to implement NDCs,         Since 2015, the Integrating
FAO is working to support            supporting countries to adapt to      Agriculture in National Adaptation
countries in the development and     and mitigate the effects of climate   Plans (NAP-Ag) programme, jointly
implementation of this joint work    change through research-based         coordinated by UNDP and FAO,
through webinars and workshops       programmes and projects geared        has worked with 11 developing
allowing agriculture experts under   towards adapting smallholder          countries to identify and integrate
the United Nations Framework         production, and making the            climate adaptation measures into
Convention on Climate Change         livelihoods of rural populations      national planning in the agriculture
(UNFCCC) to informally share         more resilient. The strategy          sectors in support of achieving
their views on how to develop and    moves away from a reactive            the Sustainable Development
implement the decision. FAO held     response to crises to proactively     Goals. Uruguay, in September
the third Koronivia Dialogue at      preventing and anticipating           2019, became the latest of the
its headquarters in Rome from        them, supporting people before,       countries to launch a National
September 25-27.                     during and after shocks.              Adaptation Plan.

FAO'S WORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE - United Nations Climate Change Conference 2019 - Food and Agriculture ...

To meet the Sustainable Development
Goals, in particular those on poverty
and hunger, agriculture and food
systems need to sustainably boost
productivity and efficiency.
➨ Food and agriculture needs to produce 49 percent
more food by 2050, but it is already a major driver of,
and hugely vulnerable to, climate change. It emits            Nature-based solutions are key.
around a quarter of greenhouse gas emissions and              They help mitigation, adaptation
supports around 2.5 billion people.
➨ Climate impacts such as extreme weather events,             and resilience, conserve and restore
spreading pests and diseases, loss of biodiversity,           ecosystems, and ensure nature
degrading ecosystems, and water scarcity will
worsen as the planet warms. These impacts will                contributes to resilient livelihoods,
damage food security and livelihoods and lead to              green job generation and rural
forced migration.
                                                              poverty reduction.
                                                              ➨ Reducing deforestation and restoring degraded
Agriculture and food systems are                              forests and landscapes are cost-effective, rapid ways
a huge part of the climate solution.                          to cut emissions by over 5 gigatonnes of carbon
                                                              dioxide equivalent each year – about ten percent of
But they must transform through                               total 2018 emissions – while boosting biodiversity and
inclusive, multisectoral approaches                           healthy ecosystems.
                                                              ➨ Restoring agricultural land and degraded soils can
that reduce emissions, draw down                              remove up to 51 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide from
carbon, and boost climate resilience                          the atmosphere in total and raise food production by
                                                              17.6 megatonnes per year.
and adaptation.                                               ➨ As agriculture accounts for 70 percent of freshwater
                                                              withdrawals, actions to produce more with less
➨ Almost half of the solutions to stay within agreed          water will go a long way towards adapting to
climate goals come from food and agriculture.                 climate change.
These solutions involve action on forests and other           ➨ Protecting and restoring coastal and marine
ecosystems, soils, water, livestock, oceans and               ecosystems – such as mangroves, salt marshes,
food systems – as well as on food environments                seagrass beds, seaweeds and coral reefs – can provide
and consumers.                                                protection against waves and storms.

FAO'S WORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE - United Nations Climate Change Conference 2019 - Food and Agriculture ...
                                                                                                 DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
                                                                                                 Children water a kitchen-garden
                                                                                                          at the Farmer Nutrition
                                                                                                             School in Houayjay.
                                                                                                      ©FAO/Manan Vatsyayana

                                                            But the transformation of agriculture
                                                            and food systems can only succeed if
                                                            it harnesses innovation by women and
Sustainable food systems and diets                          youth, technology, digital solutions,
can make a huge contribution to                             and indigenous and traditional
climate action.                                             knowledge – ensuring that approaches
➨ As healthy and sustainable diets are almost always        are inclusive and pro-poor.
best for the environment, reforming food systems
to prioritize these diets can protect the climate and       ➨ Biodiversity and communities are key pillars for
water resources, increase adaptation and resilience,        restoring agriculture sectors and resilient landscapes
boost food security and improve human health.               and livelihoods.
➨ Reducing food losses from production to retail,           ➨ Leveraging investments in climate-smart
which FAO estimates costs USD 400 billion a year,           agriculture, including from the private sector, is also
can bring further cuts in emissions and gains in            crucial to lifting millions of people out of hunger
agricultural productivity.                                  and poverty.

FAO'S WORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE - United Nations Climate Change Conference 2019 - Food and Agriculture ...

CHALLENGES                               ➨ Transboundary animal and                SOLUTIONS
➨ Over 820 million people were           plant pests and diseases are              ➨ One third of existing, feasible
undernourished in 2018, while            spreading faster with climate             solutions for agreed climate goals
agriculture provides livelihoods for     change. Plant diseases alone              come from agriculture.
2.5 billion people.                      cost the global economy
                                         USD 220 billion annually.                 ➨ Nature-based solutions
➨ Climate change could push                                                        can keep up to 12 gigatonnes
122 million more people, mainly          ➨ Agriculture, forestry and               of carbon dioxide out of the
farmers, into extreme poverty by 2030.   other land use cause almost one           atmosphere each year and
                                         quarter of human greenhouse gas           add USD 2.3 trillion to the
➨ Climate change is projected to         emissions. Tropical deforestation         global economy.
increase cereal prices 29 percent        and forest degradation account for
by 2050.                                 11 percent.                               ➨ Rehabilitating agricultural
                                                                                   and degraded soils can remove
➨ Agriculture absorbs 26 percent         ➨ A third of global soils are             51 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide
of the economic impact of climate        degraded, releasing 78 gigatonnes         from the atmosphere in total,
disasters, rising to 83 percent for      of carbon dioxide into the                and raise food production by
drought in developing countries.         atmosphere, and costing over              17.6 megatonnes per year.
                                         10 percent of GDP through lost
➨ Water scarcity affects 40 percent      biodiversity and ecosystem services.      ➨ Emissions from livestock
of the population. For every 1 °C                                                  production, in particular methane,
rise, 500 million extra people will      ➨ Livestock supply chains                 can be cut by 30 percent.
face a 20 percent dip in renewable       account for 14.5 percent of
water resources.                         human emissions.                          ➨ Reducing deforestation and
                                                                                   restoring degraded forests can cut
                                         ➨ The ocean has absorbed over             emissions by over 5 gigatonnes

                                         90 percent of human-induced               of carbon dioxide equivalent
                                         warming and 30 percent of carbon          each year.

 FOOD SYSTEMS                            dioxide emissions. In some Western
                                         and Central Pacific island states,        ➨ Fisheries and aquaculture

 AND DIETS CAN                           small-scale fisheries’ harvests could
                                         fall up to 50 percent by 2050.
                                                                                   offer significant opportunities
                                                                                   to reduce fuel consumption
 MAKE A HUGE                             ➨ Around 14 percent of food, worth
                                                                                   and emissions.

 CONTRIBUTION                            USD 400 billion, is lost post-harvest
                                         before it reaches retailers. Total food
                                                                                   ➨ Agriculture accounts for
                                                                                   70 percent of freshwater
 TO CLIMATE                              losses and waste cause 8 percent          withdrawals; producing more

                                         of greenhouse gas emissions,              with less water can address
                                         according to earlier estimates.           water scarcity.

CHALLENGES                                               SOLUTIONS


                                                      ONE THIRD OF SOLUTIONS FOR

                                                      METHANE EMISSIONS FROM
                                                      LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION CAN BE
OF HUMAN EMISSIONS                                    CUT BY 30 PERCENT

                                                      REHABILITATING SOILS CAN REMOVE
78 GIGATONNES OF CARBON                               51 GIGATONNES OF CARBON

                                                      AGRICULTURE ACCOUNTS FOR
                                                      70 PERCENT OF FRESHWATER


  The transformation
  of agriculture and
  food systems can
  only succeed if it
  harnesses innovation.

The following section looks at the    FAOSTAT
methods, tools and technology,        FAOSTAT includes a global
including apps, that FAO              inventory of GHG emissions from
provides to help farmers and          all agricultural activities, including
nations mitigate and adapt to         crop production, livestock, and
climate change.                       forestry and land-use changes.
OF GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG)               Global Forest Resources
EMISSIONS                             Assessments (FRA)
Taking stock of emissions             FRA 2015 is the most
from the agricultural sectors         comprehensive assessment of
allows countries to monitor           forests to date. It examines the
progress against their Nationally     status and recent trends for
Determined Contributions (NDCs)       about 100 variables covering the
and climate action commitments,       extent, condition, use, and value
assess their status, and consider     of forests and other wooded land.               FAO IS A KEY
potential areas of action.            The next edition is due in 2020.
                                      Additionally, FAO assists countries                  PARTNER
Ex-Ante Carbon-balance Tool
                                      in strengthening their national
                                      forest monitoring systems.                       IN CREATING
This system provides ex-ante
estimates of the impact of land use
and land-use changes, and natural
resource management on GHG
                                      Global Livestock
                                      Environmental Assessment
emissions and carbon balance.
EX-ACT is a powerful tool that can
                                      Model (GLEAM)
                                      This model supports the
ensure agricultural investments       assessment of adaptation and                        TO BOOST
are climate-proofed.
                                      mitigation scenarios in the livestock
                                      sector. It calculates livestock               FOOD SECURITY
                                                                                             A forestry expert assesses
                                                                                            the Blackwood State Forest
                                                                                                       after a bushfire.
                                                                                            ©FAO/Salahuddin Ahmad

production, GHG emissions and        environmental performance           development, thus contributing to
mitigation potential using IPCC      and GHG emissions in livestock      national and global climate change
Tier 2 methods. A user-friendly      supply chains.                      mitigation goals.
version is available for download    www.fao.org/partnerships/leap/en/   www.slideshare.net/FAOoftheUN/tag/namatool
to support governments, project
planners, producers, industry, and   Learning tool on Nationally         Open Foris
civil society organizations.         Appropriate Mitigation Actions      Open Foris is a set of open-source
www.fao.org/gleam/en/                (NAMAs) in the agriculture,         software tools to facilitate flexible
                                     forestry, and other land-use        and efficient data collection,
Livestock Environmental              sectors                             analysis and reporting. Its modules
Assessment and Performance           Through this tool, FAO              can be used for forest inventories,
(LEAP) Partnership                   supports developing countries       land use and land-use change
This multi-stakeholder partnership   in identifying, developing and      assessment, and climate change
develops harmonized metrics          implementing NAMAs in the           reporting.
and methodologies to track           context of national sustainable     www.openforis.org



ASSESSING, IMPACTS, RISKS              characteristics that enable them
AND VULNERABILITIES                    to thrive in local conditions and
Understanding the vulnerability        meet the needs of the people
of people’s food security to climate   that keep them. This tool models
change is essential to identify        potential future habitats for 8 800
appropriate adaptation measures        livestock breeds, allowing more
and so reduce both vulnerabilities     informed decision-making on breed
and impacts.                           management as climate change
                                       alters habitats.
Agricultural Stress Index              www.fao.org/breed-distribution-model/en/
System (ASIS)
Using data on vegetation and land      Analysis and Mapping of
surface temperature, ASIS detects      Impacts under Climate Change
hotspots where crops may be            for Adaptation and Food
affected by drought. It contributes    Security (AMICAF)
to the food security monitoring        Aimed at strengthening household
work of Global Information and         food security through livelihood
Early Warning Systems on Food          adaptation approaches, the
and Agriculture (GIEWS).               assessment was implemented in
www.fao.org/giews/en/                  Indonesia, Paraguay, Peru and
                                       the Philippines. Funded by the
Assessment services and digital        Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry
inclusion in Africa                    and Fisheries of Japan, its main           of different climate change scenarios
Four new apps are bringing             objective is to connect climate            in crop yield.
agricultural services closer to        change impact assessment, food             www.fao.org/aquacrop/en/
farmers, providing real-time           insecurity vulnerability analysis
information on weather, livestock      and livelihood adaptation                  Event Mobile Application
care, markets, and nutrition-related   approaches.                                (EMA-i)
aspects of food production: Weather    www.fao.org/climatechange/amicaf/en/       This app enables data collection
and crop calendar, Cure and feed                                                  and real-time reporting at country
your livestock, Agrimarketplace        AquaCrop                                   level of geo-referenced information
and e-Nutrifood.                       AquaCrop is a crop model that              on animal diseases, facilitating both
www.fao.org/3/CA1050EN/ca1050en.pdf    simulates the yield response to water      surveillance and early warning.
                                       of herbaceous crops in different           www.fao.org/3/CA1078EN/ca1078en.pdf
Assessment tool for the                agro-ecological conditions. It is
potential impact of climate            particularly suited to addressing          Fall Armyworm monitoring
change on breed distribution           conditions where water is a key            and early warning system
Livestock breeds raised in certain     limiting factor in crop production. It     (FAMEWS)
environments have acquired             allows the simulation of the impact        Through this app and its platform,

                                                                            Farmers in Mahailuppallama
                                                                            learn about the new Fall
                                                                            Armyworm Monitoring and
                                                                            Early Warning System
                                                                            (FAMEWS) mobile application.
                                                                            ©FAO/Lekha Edirisinghe

                                                                             INVESTMENTS IN
data on Fall Armyworm can
be collected at the farm level
                                      users to browse and analyse
                                      price series as well as to make           AGRICULTURE,
and collated for sharing at
local, national and global levels
                                      comparisons across markets,
                                      commodities and seasons.
                                                                            INCLUDING FROM
to manage the pest, identify
priority areas, and foster early
                                      www.fao.org/3/CA1093EN/ca1093en.pdf         THE PRIVATE
warning mechanisms for                Global assessment of
                                      fisheries and aquaculture
                                                                                    SECTOR, IS
                                                                                   CRUCIAL TO
all stakeholders.
www.fao.org/3/CA1089EN/ca1089en.pdf   compliance with the Code

Food Price Monitoring and
                                      of Conduct for Responsible
                                      Fisheries.                            LIFTING MILLIONS
Analysis (FPMA) tool
This customizable tool supports
                                      Implementation of the Code
                                      is monitored through global              OF PEOPLE OUT
country-level analysis and
dissemination of agricultural
                                      questionnaires sent to all
                                      FAO Members twice a year.
                                                                                   OF HUNGER
commodity prices. Through
an online interface it allows
                                      The progress report can be
                                      used by members to improve
                                                                                AND POVERTY



                         performance and address their            management practices; the selection
                         adaptation to climate change.            of sustainable land management
                         www.fao.org/fishery/code/en              practices that are well adapted to
                                                                  the local context; and assessment,
                         Global early warning system              documentation and sharing.
                         for transboundary plant pests            www.fao.org/nr/lada and www.wocat.net
                         and diseases
                         The Desert Locust early warning          Land Resource Planning (LRP)
                         system monitors locusts, weather         Toolbox
                         and ecological conditions, and           This online resource provides
                         provides forecasts and alerts to         tools for stakeholders directly or
                         countries as part of a strategy to       indirectly involved in land-use
                         reduce the frequency, duration,          planning.
                         and magnitude of plagues. The            www.fao.org/land-water/land/land-governance/
                         system can be adapted to other           land-resources-planning-toolbox/en/
                         transboundary plant pests and
                         diseases. A new system of drones,        Modelling System for
                         dLocust, is under development.           Agricultural Impacts of
                         www.fao.org/ag/locusts                   Climate Change (MOSAICC)
                                                                  This system allows
                         Information Network on                   interdisciplinary climate change
                         Post-harvest Operations                  impact assessments on agriculture
                         (INPhO)                                  through simulations. It allows for
                         This platform facilitates access to      a better integration of scientific

                         technological solutions to help reduce   information in the design of
                         food loss in developing countries.       agricultural development projects

COUNTRIES IN             The information on the platform
                         is accessible through four types
                                                                  and policy.

TURNING THEIR            of media – virtual reality, mobile
                         phones, computers and audio.             Nuclear and isotopic
CLIMATE                  www.fao.org/3/CA1199EN/ca1199en.pdf      techniques for better
                                                                  adaptation and resilience to
COMMITMENTS              Land Degradation Assessment
                         in Drylands (LADA)
                                                                  climate change
                                                                  Nuclear and isotopic techniques
INTO ACTION              The LADA-WOCAT toolset                   are important tools to measure the

                         facilitates participatory processes      impact of climate change, so that
                         involving land users and experts         agriculture can better adapt to and

INNOVATION               for national and local assessment of
                         land degradation and existing land
                                                                  be more resilient to climate change.

                                                                                                          WaPOR, a tool to monitor
                                                                                                     water productivity, is presented
                                                                                                      during the Global Framework
                                                                                                         on Water Scarcity Partners
                                                                                                     Meeting at FAO headquarters.
                                                                                                       ©FAO/Giuseppe Carotenuto

Self-evaluation and Holistic           productivity for Africa and the                   Climate and Land Hub
Assessment of climate                  Near East. It is a vital new tool to              (CL-Hub)
Resilience of farmers and              address water scarcity and adapt to               To support countries in turning
Pastoralists (SHARP)                   changing weather patterns.                        their climate commitments
This tool helps farmers and            www.fao.org/in-action/remote-sensing-for-water-   into action, FAO is developing
pastoralists assess and prioritize     productivity/wapor/en/#/home                      an online knowledge platform
the resilience of their livelihoods.                                                     called the Climate and Land
SHARP is used for monitoring           World Agriculture Watch                           Hub (CL-Hub). The CL-Hub
and evaluation, as well as a           This portfolio of products and                    platform offers a "one stop
learning method, integrated into       services supports country-based                   shop" of knowledge products
agropastoral/farmer field schools      initiatives to develop information                helping countries and other
in sub-Saharan Africa.                 systems centred on family farmers                 stakeholders to navigate a
www.fao.org/in-action/sharp/en/        and to generate appropriate                       rapidly proliferating landscape
                                       typologies that characterize the                  of virtual networks and
Water Productivity through             diversity of farming types. This                  online platforms and to
Open access of Remotely                allows targeting of investments to                address climate change in
sensed derived data (WaPOR)            adapt to climate change, increase                 the agriculture and land
This FAO portal monitors and           resilience and reduce poverty.                    sector effectively. It will be
reports on agriculture water           www.fao.org/world-agriculture-watch/en/           available soon.


                         AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SYSTEMS            and food security, and lead to
                                                                 forced migration.

 PORTFOLIO               To meet the SDGs, in                    Accelerating and scaling up actions
                                                                 can strengthen the resilience
 Starting in 2009,       particular those on poverty
                                                                 and adaptive capacity of food
 over 300 projects and   and hunger, agriculture and
                                                                 systems and people’s livelihoods
                         food systems need to boost              – moving from a reactive response
 programmes have         productivity and resource               to crises such as droughts to
 addressed climate       efficiency. At the same time,           proactively preventing and
                         they must reduce emissions,             anticipating them. Reaching out
 change adaptation                                               to rural producers with diversified
                         draw down carbon, and boost
 and mitigation in       resilience and adaptation to
                                                                 agricultural opportunities and
                                                                 climate-smart practices can reduce
 the agricultural        the changing climate.                   extreme poverty.
 sectors. Through its
                         More than three billion people,         Adapting agriculture to climate
 extensive network of    80 percent of the poor, live in rural   change requires action based on
 professionals, FAO      areas, with around 2.5 billion          science and must include three
                         dependent on agriculture for their      important components: innovation,
 supports countries      livelihoods. But agriculture and        investment – including technology
 on climate-related      food systems, which must increase       – and inclusiveness, across borders
                         production 49 percent by 2050, are      and sectors. Because agriculture
 issues, from            particularly vulnerable to climate      is directly engaged with climate
 policy design to        change. Agriculture sectors absorb      change, biodiversity, soil fertility
                         about 26 percent of the economic        and land degradation, it is the key
 improved practices      impacts of climate-induced              to bringing together fragmented
 and capacity            disasters – this rises to 83 percent    stakeholders – resource managers,
                         for drought only in developing          producers, value-chain operators,
 development.            countries. Climate change               advocates and policy makers.
                         will increase losses by causing
                         more frequent and extreme               Agriculture and food systems,
                         weather events (droughts,               meanwhile, contribute almost one
                         floods, unreliable rainy seasons,       quarter of global greenhouse gas
                         hurricanes) escalating pest and         emissions. But almost half of the
                         disease risks, loss of biodiversity     solutions to stay within agreed
                         and ecosystem degradation.              climate goals come from food
                         This will impact land-use systems,      and agriculture. These solutions
                         livelihoods, water resources            involve action on forests and other

  A farmer surveys his
  wheat crop.
  ©FAO Pakistan

ecosystems, soils, water, livestock,    biodiversity, use natural resources    FAO in action
oceans and food systems – as            sustainably, restore degraded          ➨ FAO reached over 25 million
well as on food environments            lands and promote ecosystem            people in 2018 through inclusive,
and consumers.                          services. Mutually supportive          multisectoral interventions to
                                        climate and land policies have the     ensure continued access to food,
Agriculture can reform by adopting      potential to save resources, amplify   reduce acute hunger and poverty,
climate-smart, nature-positive          social resilience and inclusion,       and build resilience.
farming systems, better forest          support ecosystem restoration,         ➨ Recent FAO field assessments
governance and land-use planning,       and foster collaboration between       show that every USD invested
and approaches that safeguard           multiple stakeholders.                 in early action has generated a
                                                                               return on investment ranging from
                                                                               USD 2.5 to USD 7.1 in avoided
                                                                               disaster losses.
 CUTTING EMISSIONS FROM ENERGY                                                 ➨ A recent FAO study showed
 USE IN AGRICULTURE                                                            that farm-level practices and
 Globally, agrifood chains consume     adequate supply of modern energy        technologies aimed at reducing
 about 30 percent of available         services along agrifood chains          disaster risks provide farmers with
 energy, mostly in post-harvest        by improving energy efficiency,         economic and social benefits that
 operations and in the form of         increasing renewable energy, in         are 2.2 times higher than standards
 fossil fuels. The challenge is to     particular sustainable development      practices previously used by farmers
 disconnect the development of         of bioenergy, contributing to the       under natural hazard conditions.
 agrifood chains from the use of       development of a bioeconomy,            ➨ FAO developed the Agricultural
 fossil fuels without compromising     and implementing the above              Stress Index System (ASIS) for
 food security. FAO’s Energy-Smart     through a water–energy–food             early warning and monitoring of
 Food Programme aims to ensure         nexus approach.                         agricultural droughts. ASIS uses
                                                                               satellite-based remote sensing



data to detect agricultural areas with   efficient water management in
a high likelihood of water stress.       irrigation to optimize soil water
➨ FAO leads the Global Framework         retention and plant uptake,
on Water Scarcity in Agriculture         water harvesting for household
to support knowledge exchange            and societal use, and efficient
and collective action in order to        water distribution among
improve adaptation to climate            water users.
change and water scarcity including      ➨ FAO works with countries
through drought management and           on adaptation planning and
water-harvesting for agriculture.        implementation in agriculture,
➨ A key area of FAO´s work to            supporting 69 countries through
enhance resilience is to support         76 projects.

                                                                                 NATURE-BASED SOLUTIONS
  BUILDING CLIMATE RESILIENCE                                                    Nature-based solutions – such
  IN PAKISTAN                                                                    as agroforestry – can quickly
  The Green Climate Fund (GCF)           broader support to countries to         reduce emissions, remove
  has provided FAO with a grant          respond to climate change.”             carbon from the atmosphere
  of nearly USD 35 million to            In the Indus River Basin, agriculture   and help adapt to climate
  transform Pakistan’s Indus River       employs nearly 26 percent of            change.
  Basin by improving agriculture         Pakistan’s labour force and
  and water management to make           produces more than 90 percent of        Nature-based solutions for
  this vital food-producing region       the country’s agriculture outputs.      mitigation, adaptation and
  more resilient to climate change.      However, extended droughts              resilience conserve and restore
  The provincial governments of          and floods have affected millions       ecosystems, and ensure nature
  Punjab and Sindh have committed        of people in recent years. The          contributes to resilient livelihoods,
  an additional USD 12.7 million in      project will help shift Pakistan        green job generation and rural
  co-financing.                          and its Indus Basin agriculture         poverty reduction. They can
  “We are at a critical moment that      from high vulnerability to an           enable sustainable production
  calls for bold climate action that     alternative paradigm wherein better     intensification to meet demand
  can stimulate concrete solutions to    information, water management           from increasing populations while
  help build resilience,” said Maria     and farming practices will              keeping up to 12 gigatonnes of
  Helena Semedo, FAO Deputy              significantly increase resilience to    greenhouse gases per year out
  Director-General, Climate and          climate change, directly benefiting     of the atmosphere and adding
  Natural Resources. “This project is    1.3 million rural people and millions   USD 2.3 trillion to the global
  an important step forward in FAO’s     more indirectly.                        economy. They can also optimize
                                                                                 the capture, retention in the

                                                                                   A nursery in Ouedraogo Salif,
                                                                                   part of the Action Against
                                                                                   Desertification initiative of the
                                                                                   African, Caribbean and Pacific
                                                                                   Group of States.
                                                                                   ©FAO/Giulio Napolitano

                                                                                   soil, and recharge of surface and
                                                                                   groundwater resources, reducing
                                                                                   threats of drought and unreliable
                                                                                   rains on food production and food
                                                                                   security. Nature-based solutions
                                                                                   receive only 3 percent of climate
                                                                                   action funding. Awareness and
                                                                                   funding in these areas need to be
                                                                                   scaled up.

                                                                                   FAO in action
                                                                                   ➨ A recent FAO study shows
                                                                                   that nature-based solutions – like
                                                                                   conserving or planting mangrove
                                                                                   forests to protect coastal areas
GREET GREEN WALL FOR CITIES                                                        from flooding, soil and water
FAO’s Great Green Wall for Cities        winds, floods and landslides.”            conservation through contour
Initiative, announced in September       FAO, together with partners, is           farming across hillsides, and
2019, builds on the progress made        aiming to support at least three cities   conservation agriculture systems –
under the Great Green Wall of            in each of 30 countries in Africa and     can offer higher returns than hard
Africa and the Sahel project and         Asia. By 2030, the action will have       infrastructure measures.
will see the creation of urban green     helped cities create up to 500 000        ➨ FAO combats deforestation
areas that are integrated into wider     hectares of new urban forests and         and desertification, including
landscape restoration activities.        restore or maintain up to 300 000         by supporting large-scale
“The rapid expansion of cities           hectares of existing natural forests in   initiatives such as Action Against
takes place without land-use             and around cities in the Sahel and        Desertification in support of the
design and the resulting human           Central Asia.                             Great Green Wall across the Sahel.
pressure causes highly damaging          The enhanced green infrastructure         ➨ Restoring 350 million hectares
environmental effects through            will reduce the costs of preventing       of degraded landscapes – an area
clearing or degradation of forests       and addressing the impacts of             the size of India – by 2030 under
and other green spaces,” said FAO        climate change and improve the well-      the FAO- and UNEP-led UN
Director-General Qu Dongyu. “The         being of citizens. If well managed,       Decade for Ecosystem Restoration
problem is particularly severe in        urban forests and trees can reduce        could secure USD 9 trillion in
drylands, where the effects of climate   air temperature by up to 8 °C,            ecosystem services.
change are expected to increase the      reduce the costs of air conditioning      ➨ In the upper basin of El
exposure of cities and surrounding       by up to 40 percent, reduce storm         Salvador’s Lempa River, farmers,
areas to severe droughts, sand and       water flows and improve air quality       as part of an FAO and Global
dust storms, heatwaves, extreme          by filtering dust and pollutants.         Environment Facility project,
                                                                                   restored micro-watersheds,



areas of land that collect water, to
reduce the risk of disaster and help
small-scale rural farmers adapt to
climate change.
➨ In the Kagera basin, Burundi,
FAO promoted watershed
management and community
land planning for the integrated
management of crops, pastures,
agroforestry and wetlands and
restoration of soil and water
resources. Farmers were taught
how to grow vegetables that
require a small amount of land,        an estimated 296 gigatonnes of        management is essential
have a short growth cycle and are      carbon, which can be increased.       for sustaining vegetation
easily marketable.                     Reducing deforestation and            cover; reducing soil loss;
➨ FAO is tackling land                 restoring degraded forests can cut    sequestering carbon above
degradation and drought in             emissions by over 5 gigatonnes        and below ground; sustaining
mechanized cropping systems            of CO2 equivalent each year,          the hydrological cycle that
by promoting conservation              which is around 10 percent of all     ensures the recharge of surface
agriculture systems that combine       2018 emissions.                       and groundwater to supply
improved vegetation cover for                                                rural communities, irrigation
optimizing rainwater infiltration      Mountain ecosystems and               systems and urban centres; and
and soil organic matter, direct        watersheds are an important           indeed regulating the climate.
drilling of seed and reduced           source of water, energy and
traffic to reduce soil disturbance,    biological diversity. However, loss   There is a need to address the
and rotations and plant mixes to       of protective vegetation cover        drivers of deforestation and
optimize soil function.                due to fires, logging, agricultural   degradation, ensure responsible
                                       expansion, overgrazing and            governance of forests and land,
THE POWER OF FORESTS                   loss of wetlands are resulting        scale up successful restoration
Increasing forest cover is             in accelerated runoff and soil        strategies and actions, and
a cost-effective and rapid             erosion, landslides, reduced water    ensure effective monitoring
                                       storage, increased emissions,         and reporting. Tenure and
solution to climate change.
                                       and rising levels of poverty and      resource use protection and
Tropical deforestation and             vulnerability of inhabitants.         benefits need to be fair.
forest degradation account                                                   Livelihoods, food security
for 11 percent of the world’s          The integrated management             needs and the culture of
greenhouse gas emissions.              of mountains/hillsides and            traditional forest keepers need
The world’s forests currently store    valleys through watershed             to be addressed.

                                           A fire protection brigade clears
                                           brush for fire protection and to
                                           give trees room to grow.
                                           ©FAO/Lou Dematteis

                                           planning and actions at all levels.      to restore more than 100 million
                                           FAO supports monitoring of               hectares by 2030.
                                           progress towards REDD+ and               ➨ FAO’s Forest and Landscape
                                           restoration goals at all levels.         Restoration Mechanism has shown
                                           ➨ FAO is developing programmes           results in three continents. In Africa,
                                           with public and private partners         FAO and partners organized a Forest
                                           for sustainable and climate-smart        and Landscape Investment Forum
                                           non-timber forest value chains to        to promote investments in forest
                                           build up resilient livelihoods for       and landscapes, including climate
                                           women and youth while restoring          change mitigation and adaptation.
                                           forests and landscapes.                  In Lebanon, innovative restoration
                                           ➨ FAO supports the African               models have helped reduce erosion
                                           Union Development Agency                 accelerated by intense weather
FAO in action                              (AUDA-NEPAD) in the                      events. In Uganda, the integration of
➨ The UN-REDD Programme is                 implementation and monitoring            restoration activities in the national
an initiative of FAO, UNDP and             of the African Forest Landscape          Forest Investment Programme
UNEP, with 65 partner countries,           Restoration Initiative (AFR100) with     allows for greater climate change
that supports forest and land-use          commitments from 28 countries            mitigation action.

  FAO, the UN Development                   improving governance and advancing      against climate change by halting
  Programme and the UN Environment          national policy and institutional       deforestation and forest degradation
  Programme established a                   systems to safeguard forests and        under the UNFCCC’s REDD+ scheme.
  collaborative partnership known as        mitigate climate change.                Technical expertise and support
  the UN Programme on Reducing              Some 34 governments have now            from FAO, provided through UN-
  Emissions from Deforestation              been able to submit critical baseline   REDD, has helped countries identify
  and Forest Degradation, and the           data on forest carbon stores and        drivers of deforestation and forest
  conservation and enhancement of           forest-related greenhouse gas           degradation, while making significant
  forest carbon stocks (UN-REDD) in         emissions to the United Nations         advances in modernizing forest
  2008 to support countries wishing to      Framework Convention on Climate         monitoring. FAO support for new
  participate in reducing emissions from    Change (UNFCCC). Together, those        technologies, satellite data and
  deforestation and forest degradation.     34 countries account for 1.4 billion    open-source software allows countries
  The Programme supports partner            hectares of forest — 36 percent of      to collect an unprecedented wealth
  countries in strengthening and            the planet’s forest area. This data     of data on forests and generate
  innovating their National Forest          is an essential basis for developing    detailed maps, statistics and studies
  Monitoring Systems, constructing          countries to tailor their REDD+         on forest-use that were not previously
  Forest Reference Emission Levels,         actions and contribute to the fight     possible.



Soils are our allies in the
fight against hunger and
climate change.
Soils help to supply clean water
and food, prevent desertification
and provide resilience, while
mitigating climate change
through carbon sequestration.
A third of global soils are
degraded, impacting at least
3.2 billion people and costing
over 10 percent of annual
global gross product in loss
of biodiversity and ecosystem            of carbon – roughly equivalent     System monitors and forecasts
services.                                to total global emissions in       the condition of the Earth’s
                                         2018 – from the atmosphere         soil resources.
However, by managing soils               while raising food production by   ➨ FAO developed the first
sustainably, restoring degraded          17.6 megatonnes per year.          Global Soil Carbon Map to
land and improving soil health,                                             identify degraded areas, setting
the full potential of soils can be       Rangeland and pastoral systems     restoration targets and exploring
unlocked. The rehabilitation of          occupy two thirds of global        sequestration potential.
agricultural and degraded soils          dryland areas and are estimated
can remove up to 51 gigatonnes           to store up to 30 percent of the   PUTTING COMMUNITIES
                                         world’s soil carbon in addition    AT THE CENTRE OF
                                         to the substantial amount of       CONSERVATION
  FAO and the Global Soil                above-ground carbon. In view       AND RESTORATION
  Partnership are supporting             of the degraded nature of          Biodiversity and
  countries in the Implementation        large areas of rangelands, the     communities are key pillars
  of the Voluntary Guidelines on         potential to sequester carbon
                                                                            for restoring agriculture
  Sustainable Soil Management to         through improved management
                                         is significant.                    sectors and resilient
  increase the resilience of soils and
                                                                            landscapes and livelihoods.
  natural resource systems to the
  effects of climate change, while       FAO in action
  simultaneously reducing greenhouse     ➨ FAO manages the Secretariat      Large-scale restoration and
  gas emissions from soils.              of the Global Soil Partnership.    agro-ecological practices
                                         Its Global Soil Information        in cropping systems

                                   In Tiba, a technical expert
                                   teaches farmers how to check soil
                                   to make sure it is disease-free.
                                   ©FAO/Heba Khamis

                                   managed landscapes –                    terms of mitigation, adaptation
                                   including a mosaic of forests           and resilience.
                                   and tree-based landscapes,
                                   as well as grasslands – they            FAO in action
                                   can build resilience of the             ➨ The Dryland Sustainable
                                   sector to climate change, help          Landscape Impact Program,
                                   produce the 49 percent of more          led by FAO, assists 11 countries
                                   food the world needs by 2050,           across Africa and Asia in
                                   and increase carbon sinks.              fostering resilience of production
                                   Investing at scale in these             systems in drylands, promoting
                                   practices is a win-win solution         restoration and rehabilitation,
                                   for tackling climate change in          and improving livelihoods.

                                     HELPING NEPAL TO MAINSTREAM
are crucial to building              CLIMATE RESILIENCE INTO
climate-smart agriculture.           VULNERABLE ECOSYSTEMS
Successful restoration practices     The Green Climate Fund (GCF) has      towards the goals of the national
include assisted or natural          allocated nearly USD 40 million       REDD+ strategy.
regeneration in forests and          to a project that will help nearly    The Churia hills region in the
agroforestry landscapes, and         1 million people respond to forest    Himalayan foothills is critical to
planting using the seeds and         degradation, flooding and soil        Nepal’s food security, but decades
seedlings of local and adapted       erosion in the Churia hills region    of unsustainable use of natural
species from rich forest             of Nepal.                             resources has resulted in forest
and grassland biodiversity.          Nepal’s Government, through           degradation, floods and soil
These practices work because         its Ministry of Forests and           erosion. Somsak Pipoppinyo, FAO
they put communities and             Environment (MoFE), is adding a       Representative to Nepal, said
people at the centre of action,      further USD 8 million – for a total   the GCF contribution to FAO’s
address the root causes of           of more than USD 47 million. This     work in partnership with the
degradation, combine local           first project approved by GCF for     government would benefit more
knowledge with science and           Nepal will be implemented over        than 200 000 households and
adapted technology, and              a period of seven years, with         help them become more resilient to
diversify livelihoods.               technical assistance from FAO.        the changing environment.
                                     It will help build planning and       “It will also help them adapt to,
Agriculture, forestry and food       extension capacities within the       and mitigate, the effects of climate
security should not be treated       newly decentralized provincial        and extreme weather events in the
in isolation. When cropping          governments, and contribute           years to come,” said Pipoppinyo.
is integrated into sustainably



REFORMING THE LIVESTOCK                      population, a key source of food          34 times the warming impact
SECTOR                                       and protein.                              of CO2 (although it stays in the
Better livestock                                                                       atmosphere for ten years, far
management offers huge                       Livestock-generated emissions are         less than CO2, which persists for
                                             correlated with low productivity:         a century).
mitigation potential.
                                             currently, the emissions intensity
Livestock supply chains account              of dairy systems in sub-Saharan           To reduce the environmental
for 14.5 percent of global                   Africa is five times higher than in       footprint of livestock requires
anthropogenic greenhouse                     Western Europe. These emissions           increasing production through
gas emissions, with cattle                   can be reduced by a third,                improved feeding, genetics and
responsible for about two-thirds             particularly by tackling methane.         animal health, and recycling
of that figure. But livestock                Methane accounts for about half           by-products and waste as feed, fuel
remains, for much of the world’s             of livestock emissions, and has           and fertilizer.

                                                                                       FAO in action
                                                                                       ➨ Working with over
  CLIMATE-SMART LIVESTOCK                                                              150 stakeholders in 13 countries,
  IN ECUADOR                                                                           FAO and partners have developed
  This project seeks to reduce land          smart livestock management,               a knowledge base that has
  degradation, mitigate greenhouse gas       including through pilot projects and      increased awareness of the role
  (GHG) emissions and boost adaptation       technical assistance to farmers on        of methane in climate change
  to climate change in Ecuador’s livestock   environmental and climate problems.       and food security, and supported
  sector. It is implemented by FAO and                                                 countries in advocating for
  the national government with Global        Project results                           methane mitigation.
  Environment Facility funds.                A total of 26 424 hectares was            ➨ In Kenya, FAO supported the
  In Ecuador, the agriculture sector         influenced by the climate-smart           design of nationally appropriate
  contributed almost 20 per cent             livestock approach in six provinces       mitigation action for the dairy
  of total GHG emissions for 2012,           All of the producers linked to the        sector, “Low-carbon and Climate
  with over 40 per cent coming               project in the village of Tangalí have    Resilient Dairy Development in
  from enteric methane. The project          implemented good livestock practices,     Kenya”, which was submitted
  works to strengthen coordination           including the incorporation of forage     to the Green Climate Fund
  and institutional capacities to            species with high protein content and     for funding.
  incorporate the climate-smart livestock    a paddock division with the addition of   ➨ The FAO-hosted Livestock
  approach in the management of              electric fences and live fences.          Environmental Assessment and
  territories and the development of         Climate change adaptation and             Performance (LEAP) Partnership
  livestock instruments and policies.        mitigation measures have contributed      has developed consensus
  The project disseminates and               to a 40 per cent increase in production   on accounting methods and
  implements technologies for climate-       on the farms of Tangalí producers.        guidelines for the assessment of
                                                                                       climate emissions for the sector.

                                                                                 A man cultivates molluscs,
                                                                                 part of a programme to
                                                                                 develop the fisheries and
                                                                                 aquaculture sector's capacity
                                                                                 to adapt to climate change,
                                                                                 Caleta El Manzano.

                                                                                 OCEANS AND SUSTAINABLE
                                                                                 Oceans and inland waters
                                                                                 are essential to food security
                                                                                 and climate regulation.
                                                                                 The ocean has absorbed more than
                                                                                 90 percent of the additional heat
                                                                                 generated by anthropogenic climate
                                                                                 change. This puts it at the forefront
                                                                                 of long-term impacts of climate
                                                                                 change. Climate change will
                                                                                 increase sea surface temperatures,
                                                                                 sea-level rise and ocean acidification
                                                                                 and will intensify tropical storms
                                                                                 which will reach higher peak
                                                                                 wind speeds. Climate change also
                                                                                 contributes to dangerous declines in
                                                                                 ocean oxygen levels.

Chile is one of the main                  diversification. They are             officials, experts and decision-
fish-producing countries, but in recent   incorporating new methodologies       makers at national, regional and
decades the sector has experienced        and techniques, which allows          communal levels were trained in
a downward trend. A new project           them to maintain or improve           adaptation to climate change in
by the Chilean Undersecretariat           their income level. An additional     fisheries and aquaculture.
of Fisheries and Aquaculture, the         60 fishermen and fish farmers were    The direct involvement of artisanal
Ministry of the Environment, FAO          trained in the use of equipment and   fishers and small-scale aquaculturists
and the Global Environment Facility       instruments for measuring variables   allowed the project to tap into their
is helping reverse this trend by          such as sea surface temperature       empirical knowledge about changing
equipping the fishing and aquaculture     and the salinity of the water, with   fish resources. They also participated
sector adapt to climate change.           the aim of improving the activities   in the decision-making process on
The project trained 800 fishermen         they perform – such as oyster         new regulations needed as climate
and fish farmers in productive            cultivation. A total of 400 public    change moves fishing grounds.



All of this means that                ➨ FAO reduces ecosystem
sustainable fisheries                 impacts from fishing, including
management is essential. Fish is      effects on bycatch and
crucial to a healthy diet – as well   associated species.
as sustaining the livelihoods         ➨ In 7 Caribbean countries,
of an estimated tenth of the          FAO works with local
global population. But nearly         governments to adapt the
33 percent of the major               fisheries sector to climate
commercial fish species that          change. These actions include
FAO monitors are being fished         the sensitization of fishers, the
at biologically unsustainable         incorporation of early warning
levels. In high warming               systems via mobile technology
scenarios, there could be a 10        and training to increase
percent fall in ocean primary         income through productive
production by the end of the          diversification. Access to
century. In some Western and          insurance is also promoted to
Central Pacific island states,        allow fishing to resume quickly
Small Scale Fisheries’ harvests       after storms or hurricanes.
are projected to fall up towards
50 percent by 2050.                   TRANSFORMING FOOD SYSTEMS           can protect climate and water
                                      AND DIETS                           resources, increase adaptation and
Fisheries need support to shift       Sustainable food systems            resilience, boost food security and
to ecosystem-based approaches         and diets can make a huge           improve human health.
that fish sustainably and to
                                      contribution to climate action.
ensure they remain productive                                             The EAT-Lancet Commission has
in the face of the changing           Growing consumption, combined       recommended that everybody
climate. Coastal communities          with a huge amount of food          adopt the Planetary Health
are highly exposed to sea-level       waste, is driving the conversion    Diet. If adopted universally, this
rise and extreme events such          of land for agriculture – which     diet would reduce emissions,
as cyclones and storm surges,         is destroying ecosystems and        feed 10 billion people and
but restoring mangroves and           biodiversity and driving up         save 11 million lives each year.
coral reefs can help build            climate change. This is happening   According to the Commission,
ecosystem resilience.                 while more than 820 million         a planetary health plate should
                                      people go hungry and many           consist largely of vegetables and
FAO in action                         more are overweight or obese.       fruits, with the rest made up
➨ FAO supports implementation         As healthy and sustainable diets    of whole grains, plant protein
of sustainable and efficient          are almost always best for the      sources, unsaturated plant oils,
fisheries management and              environment, reforming food         and, occasionally, small amounts
fishing practices.                    systems to prioritize these diets   of meat or fish.

                                                                              A Kyrgyz rider drives sheep
                                                                              to the pasture in Tuyk canyon,
                                                                              60 km from Bishkek.
                                                                              ©FAO/Vyacheslav Oseledko

                                                                              Reducing food losses and waste
                                                                              could make a massive difference.
                                                                              According to the most recent
                                                                              FAO report on the State of Food
                                                                              and Agriculture 2019, around
                                                                              14 percent of food produced is lost
                                                                              from the post-harvest stage up
                                                                              to, but excluding, the retail stage.
                                                                              This represents USD 400 billion
                                                                              in lost produce. Earlier estimates
                                                                              – which are being updated –
                                                                              found that food losses and waste,
                                                                              including retailers and consumers,
                                                                              are responsible for 8 percent of
                                                                              total greenhouse gas emissions,
                                                                              and cost up to USD 2.6 trillion per
                                                                              year, including USD 700 billion

Greater adoption of climate          and contribute to climate change        30 percent respectively. In the Kyrgyz
technologies in the agrifood         adaptation. In 2018, FAO and the        Republic, pasture improvement has by
sector is an important step          EBRD used the methodology to            far the greatest mitigation potential,
towards more sustainable food        conduct rapid assessments of climate    followed by manure management,
systems. Such technologies can       technologies in the Kyrgyz Republic     drip irrigation and improved
help improve productivity, reduce    and Kazakhstan. Both countries have     greenhouses. In terms of adaptation
carbon emissions, build climate      seen a considerable rise in agrifood    potential, drip irrigation is the most
resilience and make better use of    emissions over the past 15 years,       promising technology given its
natural resources.                   largely due to expanded livestock       ability to increase water availability
FAO and the European Bank for        production.                             and agricultural production. In
Reconstruction and Development       The studies found that by investing     Kazakhstan too, pasture improvement
(EBRD) developed a methodology       USD 1 billion in climate technologies   has the best mitigation potential,
to identify and prioritize climate   in the Kyrgyz Republic and              then conservation agriculture, field
technologies in the agrifood         USD 2.3 billion in Kazakhstan,          machinery and precision agriculture,
sector based on their potential to   agrifood sector emissions could be      while drip irritation has the best
mitigate greenhouse gas emissions    reduced by almost 60 percent and        adaptation potential.

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