FIRST YEAR GUIDE 2021 - Sydney University Law ...

 
FIRST YEAR GUIDE 2021 - Sydney University Law ...
SYDNEY UNIVERSITY LAW SOCIETY   2021

FIRST YEAR
GUIDE
FIRST YEAR GUIDE 2021 - Sydney University Law ...
A   Ack
         We acknowledge the traditional Aboriginal owners of the land that the
          University of Sydney is built upon, the Gadigal People of the Eora Nation.

       now
           We acknowledge that this was and always will be Aboriginal Land
           and are proud to be on the lands of one of the oldest surviving cultures
            in existence. We respect the knowledge that traditional elders and
             Aboriginal people hold and pass on from generation to generation,

          l
              and acknowledge the continuous fight for constitutional reform and

       edg
                treaty recognition to this day. We regret that white supremacy has
                 been used to justify Indigenous dispossession, colonial rule and
                  violence in the past, in particular, a legal and political system

          eme
                   that still to this date doesn’t provide Aboriginal people with
                     justice.

              nts      Many thanks to everyone who made the production and
                        publication of the 2021 Sydney University Law Society
                         First Year Guide possible.

                                   Publications Director
                                   Justin Lai

                                   Design Director
                                   Arasa Hardie

                                   Editor-In-Chief
                                   David Zhu

                                   Editors
                                   Kimberley Cheng
                                   Jacinda Zhang
                                   Ilona Ho

                                  All contents © Sydney University Law Society Inc. 2021
                                  All references to ‘Sydney University Law Society’ or ‘SULS’ refers
                                  to Sydney University Law Society Inc., an incorporated charitable
                                  association registered in the state of New South Wales.
                                  This publication is copyright. Except where permitted under
                                  the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), no part of this publication may be
                                  reproduced or stored by any process, electronic or otherwise, without
                                  the specific written permission of the Sydney University Law Society.
                                  The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not
                                  necessarily represent those of the Sydney University Law Society or
                                  Sydney Law School.
                                  Although the Editors have taken every care in preparing and writing
                                  the Handbook, they expressly disclaim and accept no liability for any
                                  errors, omissions, misuse or misunderstandings on the part of any
                                  person who uses or relies upon it. The Editors and Sydney University
                                  Law Society accept no responsibility for any damage, injury or
                                  loss occasioned to any person or entity, whether law students or
                                  otherwise, as a result of a person relying, wholly or in part, on any
                                  material included, omitted or implied in this publication

2
FIRST YEAR GUIDE 2021 - Sydney University Law ...
CONTENTS
WHO IS A FIRST YEAR                   6 SERVICES                                  38
LLB                                    6   Faculty Support                        38
JD                                     6   SULS Equity                            39
Transfer                               6   Self-Care as Welfare                   40
International                          7   Fees & Financial Support               44
                                           Student Bursaries                      44
KEY DATES                             7    Centrelink & Dept. of Human Services
                                           Student Representative Council
                                                                                  45
                                                                                  46
What do I need to do?                  7
                                           Sydney University Postgraduate         46
                                           Representative Association
NAVIGATING UNI                        8    Further Support Services               47
ADMINSTRATION                         K
Finances
Enrolling
                                       8
                                      10
                                           GETTING AROUND                         48
Unexpected Academic Interference      14   CAMPUS                                  U
                                           Getting to Campus                      48
ACADEMICS                             16   The Law Library
                                           Food & Drink
                                                                                  48
                                                                                  49
Course Rules                          16
                                           Study Spots                            50
What is a Credit Point?               16
                                           Living in and around University        53
What is a Major or Minor?             16
Degree Progression                    17
Academic Tips & Advice                21   EXCHANGE                               55
Referencing                           25   Swapping Units for Exchange            56
Online Learning                       27
Class Preparation & Lecture Notes
Academic Honesty
                                      28
                                      29
                                           LAW INDUSTRY                           57
Peer-Assisted Study Session (PASS)    30   BASICS
Appeals                               30
Appeal Flowchart                      31
                                           APPENDIX                               58
                                           Sample Degree Progression              59
CO-CURRICULARS                        32   Faculty Services                       65
How do I have fun whilst I’m in Law   32   SULS Executive                         66
School?
How can I develop my skills           34
professionally?
How can I contribute to the           36
community?

                                                                                   3
FIRST YEAR GUIDE 2021 - Sydney University Law ...
PRESIDENT’S
WELCOME

        Welcome to Sydney Law School!               study tips, access to support services
                                                    and most importantly, ways to make
        Starting a new degree, especially if this   your University years fun.
        is also your first year at University,

    W
        is undoubtedly daunting. Foundies           Publications like this handbook are
        reader in hand, there is likely a           just one of the many ways SULS helps
        mixture of nerves and excitement            enrich your LLB, JD or postgrad
        as you attend your first lecture.           experience. For first year students
        The Sydney University Law Society           specifically (COVID-19 pending),
        (SULS) is here to support you every         SULS runs LLB Law Camp, JD I
        step of the way. SULS is the oldest,        Drinks, a Welcome Party and the
        largest and most active student             Law School Basics Series. Many of
        society on campus. By becoming a            my closest friendships today were
        SULS member (sign-up here: https://         born from these experiences!
        www.suls.org.au/register), you will
        be joining 2,500+ others in their           If you have any questions, you can
        access to 100+ programs, events and         chat with us in-person in the SULS
        initiatives.                                office (Room 103, New Law Building)
                                                    during our office hours from 10am-
        Be sure to bookmark this file! The          2pm on Monday-Thursday, with
        First Year Handbook will be an              extended hours for part-time JD and
        indispensable guide to navigating           LLM students until 6pm on Tuesday.
        your academic journey. I certainly          For those studying remotely, we
        wished it was available to me when I        will be having Zoom and WeChat
        first started 5 years ago. The inaugural    office hours. Alternatively, shoot us
        First Year Guide was launched in 2018       a message on our Facebook page or
        to fulfill that exact need - to demystify   via email. We are always here to help.
        the often confusing world that is Law
        School. Inside, you will find invaluable    Wishing you all the best as you
        information on degree progressions,         transition into Law School. You got
                                                    this!

                                                                           Wendy Hu,
                                                                     President, Sydney
                                                                        University Law
                                                                                Society

4
FIRST YEAR GUIDE 2021 - Sydney University Law ...
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
FOREWORD
Law School. Those two words can             cover everything that might happen          Of course, thank you also to our
evoke excitement, anticipation, stress,     throughout what is sure to be an            brilliant   Publications    Director,
elation, and yes, sometimes fear.           unpredictable year, but I hope that it      Justin, whose guidance and support
                                            will at least offer a good foundation       was invaluable throughout this
But firstly, congratulations. You’ve        from which to begin your long law           whole process. We are similarly
worked so hard throughout high              school journey.                             grateful to the SULS executives and
school to get the marks to get in, and                                                  other members who contributed to
now the real journey begins. This is        So: grab some snacks, grab a drink,         the guide or otherwise assisted.
going to be the most incredible time of     and kick back. I hope you enjoy
your life up until now - it was certainly   reading this guide as much as we did        Lastly, to you, the reader - good
for me - and I encourage you all to         compiling it.                               luck with your first year and for all
make the absolute most of it, because                                                   the years ahead. I hope this guide
it only comes around once.                  My thanks go out to my incredible           will prove useful in those years and
                                            editorial team of Ilona, Kim, and           beyond.
In this guide, we hope to give you          Jacinda for doing a fantastic job and
a sneak peek into all the potential         giving up part of their holidays in order   Happy reading!
ups and downs of your first year as a       to do so; your passion and dedication
member of the Sydney University Law         were essential to the compilation of
School. You’ll find study tips, the best    this guide and I could not have asked                               David Zhu,
eats on campus, social opportunities,       for a better group of editors to work                          Editor-in-Chief,
and plenty of very pretty diagrams          with.                                                           2021 SULS First
courtesy of our Design team. It won’t                                                                           Year Guide

                                    PUBLICATIONS
                              DIRECTOR FOREWORD
Welcome to Sydney Law School!                                                           and Jacinda, the executive members
                                            As one of the largest societies on          and students whose testimonials are
I must say my first year of law school      campus, the position of SULS is             invaluable, and work of previous
was something which I look back on          important - not merely an avenue            years’ Editors.
fondly.                                     for fun social events, SULS provides
                                            resources and support to students in        As a first year, studying law at
I tried to do a moot, and failed. I         need, and independently advocates           university was completely uncharted
went to Law Camp, of which I’m              for student interests. Being involved       territory for me. I hope you consider
not going to speak of very much. I          can range from attending events,            the First Year Guide as a compass,
looked forward to Inter-Fac sport           to joining a committee, or helping          guiding you down the right paths,
on Wednesday mornings. I attended           contribute to our extensive list of         to the right people. I can confidently
several social events on the request        publications. In whatever capacity          say it is an excellent read - may it be
of others - the SULS Informal, a            you decide to participate, I can say        a useful one too!
handful of Campus events. All were          you will not regret it.
organised by SULS, and all were an
                                                                                                                Justin Lai,
absolute blast - helping me form some       I must give special thanks to all of the
incredibly strong friendships in the        Guide’s contributors - to the Editorial                  Publications Director,
process.                                    Committee of David, Ilona, Kimberley,                       Sydney University
                                                                                                               Law Society

                                                                                                                              5
FIRST YEAR GUIDE 2021 - Sydney University Law ...
WHO IS A FIRST
YEAR?                                            in your 20-30s or mature-aged, we
                                                 warmly welcome you into the family!
                                                 As a first year JD student, you will
                                                 embark on your legal journey and
                                                 learn from the world’s leading law
      LLB Student                                academics here at Sydney Law, whilst

 W
                                                 developing your skills of analysis,
      Welcome to your first year of university   research, writing and advocacy.
      and most importantly - Sydney
      University Law School! We know you         Transfer Student
      worked really hard in the last year to
      get here and while we can’t promise        As a transfer student, even though
      you won’t also work really hard here,      you’ve experienced university before,
      we want to help you get the most out of    entering Sydney Law School for the
      this new chapter in your life. We hope     first time can be an intimidating
      you are able to enhance your social,       process. However, just like everything
      professional, academic life or personal    else in life, it just takes a little while
      health and wellbeing in your first year,   to get used to! Sydney Law School
      regardless of the circumstances. You       offers a great transfer program that
      may find that it takes a little time to    has always been popular with both
      get used to the pace, independence,        transfers from other universities
      or rigour of university but you are        and Sydney University students who
      not alone in this transition. The best     have decided to transfer courses. This
      part about the first year of university    means you are part of a very large
      is you’re on the same boat as so many      transfer cohort and not facing this
      other students; get excited to embark      journey alone! The altered degree
      on this new chapter of your life with      progression for transfer LLB students
      the rest of your cohort.                   means you will be doing a mix of
                                                 first, second and third year units in
      Juris Doctor                               your first year of law school, which,
                                                 ostensibly, can be quite challenging.
      Maybe you’ve just completed a              It’s recommended that you attend
      Bachelor’s degree, or maybe you’re         the SULS workshops, social events,
      returning to university in order to        competitions and moots held
      pursue a graduate legal degree owing       throughout the year as the best way to
      to a newfound interest in the law or       engage with the Sydney Law cohort.
      as the perfect complement to your
      professional career. The Sydney Law        International Student
      School JD cohort is extremely diverse
      - whether you already have a degree        G’day mate! Welcome to Australia!
      (or multiple degrees!) in a different      We understand how big of a leap it
      field, are domestic or international,      must have been to move countries for
                                                 university, especially during a time
                                                 like last year. Whether you haven’t
                                                 gone back to your home country for a
                                                 year or have lived here for a while, the
                                                 international student experience is
                                                 extremely unique. This however gives
                                                 you the opportunity to experience a
                                                 new culture and lifestyle for the next
                                                 three or five years. While you learn
                                                 to pick up the Australian slang and
                                                 accent, we also want you to know
                                                 about the support and guidance for
                                                 international students in the SULS
                                                 International Student Guide available
                                                 on suls.org.au/publications.
FIRST YEAR GUIDE 2021 - Sydney University Law ...
KEY DATES
To keep up with SULS events week to week, sign up to our Newsletter where general
announcements and events https://www.suls.org.au/register

 SEMESTER 1 PREFERENCES                                            SEMESTER 1 SCEHDULES RELEASED!

    18th - 3rd                                                          8th february
      january          february
                                                                   We recommend you download your timetable
  Enter your preferences for your academic
                                                                   onto your own calendar to stay on top of it!
  timetable early on according to your personal
  timetable and preferences

   WELCOME WEEK
                                                                  Online or offline, be sure to stay tuned to

  22nd - 26th                                                     events to get to know the law school and the
                                                                  community

     february

  SEMESTER 1:                     1st - 26th                                   MID SEM BREAK

                                     march            june                        2nd - 11th               april

 Semester 1 Payment Date
                                      SEM 1 CENSUS DATE                         STUVAC
                                                                                              7th - 13th
                                       31st                                                      june
 International Students: 1st March

                                        march
 Semester 1 Payment Date Domestic      If you want to drop or add a unit, we   Semester 2 Preferences:21st June - 6th
 Students: 19th March                  suggest you do it before the census     July
                                       date to avoid financial penalties.

                                                                                           9th - 4th
                                      SEM 1 RESULTS
  MIDTERM EXAMS                                                   SEMESTER 2:
                                      RELEASED

  15th - 26th                          14th         july                                   august        december
       june                                                                                    MID SEM BREAK:
                                      Semester 2 Payment Date             SEM 2 CENSUS         27th June - 4th October
                                      International Students: 4th
                                      August
                                                                          DATE                 STUVAC:
  Check out the education guide

                                                                          6th
                                                                                               15th - 21th November
  on how to study for exams,
  see more details here               Semester 2 Payment Date                                  FINAL EXAMS:
                                      Domestic Students: 15th
                                      August
                                                                           september           22nd November-4th
                                                                                               December

          CONGRATULATIONS ON FINISHING YOUR FIRST YEAR: 5TH DECEMBER
                                                                                                                         7
FIRST YEAR GUIDE 2021 - Sydney University Law ...
NAVIGATING UNI
ADMINISTRATION
        PAYING FOR
    A   UNIVERSITY
        A law degree isn’t cheap and there are a variety of processes you may have to
        go through to fund your degree, depending on if you are a domestic student
        or international student.
        • For domestic students (Australian citizens), the Commonwealth
             Government funds a large proportion of course fees, so that you only need
             to pay for the remaining ‘student contribution fee’. Whilst you can choose
             to pay these course fees upfront, most students prefer to defer payment
             through the HECS-HELP loan scheme so that they don’t have to pay until
             their income exceeds the threshold, which is $46,620 (from 1 July 2020)
             and is indexed every year according to inflation.
        • For international students, upon receiving your offer, you will be required
             to pay a deposit equivalent to the course fees of your first semester. Moving
             forward, before each semester, you will receive a financial statement which
             requires you to pay the tuition for the upcoming semester by a payment
             date to avoid sanctions. The payment date for semester 1 is March 1st
             2021 and for semester 2, August 7th.
        • If you are not an Australian citizen, or international student (New Zealand
             citizen, Permanent residents, etc) scan the QR code for more information
             about your uni finances.

        Make sure you do all of the below             will ask for it.
        before the Census Date, which              3. Fill    out      a  Request     for
        is Wednesday 31 March 2021                    Commonwealth Support form
        for Semester 1 and Monday 6th                 and submit it before the census
        September for Semester 2.                     date. This form is provided to you
                                                      while you were enrolling into your
                                                      course online.
        How do I apply for
        HECS?                                      You can always access this form later
                                                   by logging on to Sydney Student then
        1. Check your eligibility - HECS is        going to My Finance > Your Finances
           available to all students with a        > Government forms.
           Commonwealth Supported Place            A similar process occurs if you need
           (CSP). If you’re unsure that you        to borrow money for your Student
           meet these requirements, you            Services and Amenities Fee. On the
           can check your eligibility at bit.      same page, fill out a Request for SA-
           ly/2DiMCUc.                             HELP assistance.
        2. Apply for a Tax File Number
           (TFN) if you don’t already have         What happens next?
           one - your enrolment will be
           cancelled without it (if you do not     Your debt will begin to accumulate - if
           pay your contribution upfront)          at any point your income exceeds the
           and your application for HECS           threshold, a percentage of it will go

8
FIRST YEAR GUIDE 2021 - Sydney University Law ...
towards paying off your debt. No                                                     For JDs: Only a limited number of
interest will be charged but your debt   You keep talking                            CSPs are available to JDs, and you
will be indexed every year to reflect
inflation. You can find out more about
                                         about the census                            must apply for this place through
                                                                                     UAC (UAC Code: 980200). Your ap-
repayments and other information         date. What is this?                         plication will be assessed by merit,
here: bit.ly/1bleyxw.                                                                and accepting the Domestic Full fee
                                         The census date is an important date        place (UAC Code: 980205) will not
How do I pay up-                         set by the university - it is the last
                                         day you can withdraw from a subject
                                                                                     prevent you from being offered a CSP
                                                                                     place. If you accept a Full fee place,
front?                                   without incurring financial liability       and you are a domestic student, you
                                         and academic penalty. If you with-          may apply for FEE-HELP. The pro-
You can pay for your fees upfront        draw after the census date, you can-        cess is largely the same as applying
through Sydney Student by going          not get a refund for the course even if     for HECS-HELP (previous page).
to My Finance > Your Finances. If        you don’t finish it, and you will get ei-
you do not pay upfront before the        ther a Discontinued Not to Count as
relevant census date, your fees will     a Failure (DC) or a Discontinue Fail
automatically be deferred as a HECS-     (DF) recorded on your transcript for
HELP loan, provided that you have        the unit you withdrew from. The cen-
given the University your TFN.           sus dates are Wednesday 31 March
                                         2021 for Semester 1 and Monday 6th
                                         September for Semester 2.

                                                                                                                         9
FIRST YEAR GUIDE 2021 - Sydney University Law ...
THE
                                                                                   STUDENT
                                                                                   CENTRE
                                                                                   The Student Centre is located in the
                                                                                   Jane Foss Russell Building, near the
                                                                                   Wentworth Building and City Road.

SYDNEY
                                                                                   They can assist with:
                                         •   Under ‘My Studies’, you can:          • Enrolments, student cards, class
                                             • Change the units you want to           timetables, examination inquiries
                                                                                   • HECS and student fees

STUDENT
                                                enroll in
                                             • Apply for credit from               • Calculator       and     dictionary
                                                previous study/reduced                certification for exams
                                                volume of learning (RVL)
                                             • Discontinue your course,            However, due to COVID-19, the
                                                suspend your studies or            Student Centre is currently closed for
Sydney Student (sydneystudent.                  transfer courses                   in-person enquiries. Alternatively,
sydney.edu.au) is an online portal for       • See your academic transcript        you can contact them by:
all administration tasks. To briefly            and final assessment marks         • Calling 1800 SYD UNI (1800 793
break down the portal:                          at the end of semester                 864) or +61 2 8627 1444 (outside
                                         •   Under ‘My Finances’, you can:             Australia), Monday to Friday,
•    Under ‘My Details’, you can:            • See your fees and find out              9am-5pm.
     • Update your personal details             how to pay your fees               • Making an enquiry online
        (such as when you change             • Update your bank details                https://bit.ly/2MiJZHg
        your address or phone                   to receive scholarships and
        number)                                 payments
                                                                                                     The Student Centre

ENROLLING
                                         You should have received
                                         an email in your uni email
                                         asking you to confirm
                                         your place and enrol,
                                         so follow the link and
                                         enrol as soon as possible so that you     Degree      progression - You
                                         have time to ask if there is anything     will then be prompted to answer
                                         you’re unsure about. Enrolment is         questions, some of which involve
                                         straightforward since you just follow     degree progression. We recommend
                                         the prompts online, but it can take       you check out our degree progression
                                         up to an hour. Here are some of the       advice on pages 12 to 14. If you need
                                         things that you will come across:         to make changes, don’t worry. You
                                                                                   can also change your units at any time
                                         UniKey - First, you retrieve your         before the census date.
                                         UniKey - this will be used to log in to
                                         Sydney Student and the University
                                         Wifi, so write it down or memorise it.    Transferring Credit (Transfer
                                                                                   Students) - If you are transferring
10
online process, usually at the end
                                                                                  of the enrolment form - make sure
                                                                                  to tick the box asking whether you
                                                                                  give permission for the University to
                                                                                  release your details to Transport for
                                                                                  NSW.

into the law school from a different     Your timetable must be finalised by
degree/university, you will need to      Friday 12 March 2021 (Semester 1) or
                                                                                                NOTE
apply for credit for previous study,     Friday 20 August 2021 (Semester 2).
especially if you are choosing to
                                                                                       If you are a postgraduate
continue studying a previous degree
                                                                                       research student, a bulk of
alongside law. This ensures you
                                                                                       your course administration
don’t have to repeat similar units.
                                                                                       will be conducted through
To apply, log into Sydney Student,
                                                                                       the Higher Degree by
go to My Studies > Course Details >
                                                                                       Research Administration
then Application for credit and/or                      TIP
                                                                                       Centre (HDRAC). Your
reduced volume of learning (RVL).
                                                                                       relevant research periods
                                             kicky.tools is a great USYD
                                                                                       will also affect how you
                                             timetable planning app
                                                                                       conduct your enrolment.
Student card - This card is a form of        that accesses set tutorial
                                                                                       For enquiries, please email
ID and is essential for you to attend        and lecture times to help
                                                                                       the HDRAC at: hrdac.2@
exams, borrow books and access               optimise your university
                                                                                       sydney.edu.au
buildings. If you use a concession           timetable.
Opal card, you will also need to carry
your student card around so that
you can prove you are a student if a
Transport Officer asks. Keep it safe,
but if you lose it, you can replace it
for $25 at the Student Centre. This
year, due to COVID restrictions,
your student card should be posted       HECS (domestic students) -
to you, and you must have it on you      You will be prompted to pay for
on campus to access buildings.           your enrolled units. Regardless of
                                         whether you want to apply for HECS-
                                         HELP, pay the fees upfront or are
Timetables - Every January               funded by another scheme (such
and June, timetable preferencing         as a scholarship), you should deal
opens up. Make sure you block out        with your financial liability as soon
the times you wish to keep clear         as possible. Similar schemes also
and choose the class times you           operate for the Student Services and
prefer. Note that your selection is      Amenities Fee (SSAF) with SA-HELP.
not guaranteed, and once you are
allocated a class, you often cannot
deviate from that selection unless       Concession Opal - If you are eligible
you have permission from the Unit        for a concession Opal card (Australian
of Study Coordinator to informally       citizen/permanent resident and full-
do so, or unless you demonstrate         time student), you can apply for one
special circumstances to the Student     on Sydney Student. This is a quick
Centre: see bit.ly/2Fv7nN3.

                                                                                                                     11
GETTING SPECIAL
CONSIDERATIONS
                                                  If your ability     public transport delays, personal
Sometimes unexpected

                                   I
                                                  to     complete     events, minor illnesses where you
events interfere with our                         assessments or      are still capable of completing
academic studies.                                 examinations
                                                  has       been
                                                                      assessments).

                                                  affected     by
                            illness, injury or misadventure,
                            you should try applying for Special
                            Consideration       (see     following
                            flowchart). A successful application                    NOTE
                            will provide you an adjustment to
                            ensure fair academic treatment.                If you have an ongoing
                            However, we encourage you to still             condition or illness that
                            complete the exam/assessment to the            affects your ability to
                            best of your ability just in case your         study, you should instead
                            application is rejected.                       register with Disability
                                                                           Services in order to
                            Make sure to apply for Special                 receive adjustments from
                            Consideration no more than 3                   the University. For more
                            working days after the assessment for          information and how to
                            which you were affected, and try to            get in contact, please see
                            document your reasons as thoroughly            bit.ly/2swzRxn.
                            as possible. If you are applying for
                            medical reasons, the University has a
                            particular “Professional Practitioners’
                            Certificate” that is required, which
                            may be accessed at bit.ly/2QQDg3P.

                            Some      applicable     circumstances
                            include:
                            • Short term illness or injury                            TIP
                            • Personal misadventure of a
                                family member or close friend              A simple extension of up to
                            • Death of a family member or                  two days can be provided
                                                                           at the discretion of the
                                close friend
                                                                           Unit of Study Coordinator.
                            • Unexpected          primary     carer
                                                                           The Law Faculty generally
                                responsibilities                           doesn’t provide these, so
                            • Attendance at a funeral of a                 it can be worth applying
                                family member or close friend              for special consideration
                            • Natural disaster                             regardless of how minor the
                            • Limited        COVID-19      impacts         circumstance. Your other
                                (e.g. eviction, loss of job, family        degree, however, may offer
                                member death)                              simple extensions. You may
                                                                           apply for a simple extension
                            • Must be out of your control and;
                                                                           by approaching your Unit of
                            • Seriously impacted your ability to
                                                                           Study coordinator by email.
                                complete the assessment/exam               More information on simple
                                                                           extensions can be found at
                            Circumstances considered reasonably            bit.ly/2QOPHgJ.
                            within your control will not be
                            considered sufficient to apply (e.g.

12
HOW TO APPLY FOR SPECIAL
CONSIDERATIONS

   Prepare a short statement
                                                   Gather all supporting                      Access your special
that describes the impact of the
                                                 documentation. For a full                      considerations
 illness, injury or misadventure.
                                                list of accepted documents,                   student dashboard
Be as specific as possible, using
                                                           click here                                here
               dates.

     Tick the checkbox
    confirming you have                          Select ‘Continue’ at                             Select ‘New
 supporting documentation                         the Privacy notice                              Application’
 to upload and click ‘Begin
          Request’

        Fill in the                                                                            Fill in Assessment
   application details,                                                                           details. If you
                                               Attach supporting
      including your                                                                             are filling in the
                                                  documents
   prepared statement.                                                                          application more
                                                                                              than 3 working days
                                                                                             after the assessment,
                                                                                               you must provide a
                                                                                                      reason.

                                                Outcome received
                                               in University email
                                                account. Most are                                  Read the
                                              processed within four                             declaration and
                                                  working days.                                     submit

                      Successful                                           Denied

                 The e-mail will inform you               The e-mail will inform you of your options and
                 of the adjustment made.                  why the application was declined.
                 You may receive further                  •   If the application omitted important
                 information on how your                      information      or  documentation      that
                 adjustment will work.                        supports your case, you are encouraged to
                                                              re-apply with this additional information.
                                                          •   If you have further questions about
                                                              the reasoning behind the unsuccessful
                                                              application, or have not received a
                                                              response in four working days, make an
                                                              online enquiry.

                                                                                                                      13
by unforeseeable circumstances which
                                                                                       impact your ability to continue a unit,
                                                                                       you will need to apply to discontinue

DISCONTINUING
                                                                                       directly to the Law Faculty. You will
                                                                                       need to show that these were ongoing
                                                                                       circumstances that were beyond your

A UNIT
                                                                                       control and that you had reasonable
                                                                                       prospects of passing the subject, for
                                            to “Units of Study” under the “My          example if you had received a pass
                                            Studies” tab.                              grade in a mid-semester assessment
                                                                                       or assignment. If successful, you may
                                            If you want to drop out of the unit af-    be eligible for a fee refund. For more
                                            ter the census date, you will need to      details, see bit.ly/2FxxJy7.
You may, at some stage, find that           apply for a “Discontinuation - Not
you no longer want to study a unit          to Count as Fail” up to seven weeks
you have chosen or that you would           into the semester. This will appear
be better off studying it later in your     on your transcript as “DC”, and won’t
degree. If that is the case, try to with-   affect your Weighted Average Mark
draw (discontinue) the subject prior        (WAM). However, you may still be
to the census date to avoid academic        liable for tuition fees. For further de-
or financial penalties. You can with-       tails, see bit.ly/2FEyS6g.
draw from a Unit of Study through
the Sydney Student portal, by going         After this deadline, if you are affected

Being a student does not mean
                                                                SUSPENDING
                                                               YOUR STUDIES
you are bound to study non-stop
for the duration of your degree -
by suspending your studies for a
semester or more, you can take
a break and return to studying
later. You must be sure to apply for
suspension and enrol before the
census date, as your candidature will
lapse and you will be unable to re-                        NOTE                        There are additional requirements
apply for the combined degree.                                                         that you will need to be aware of
                                                  There is a one year limit            when suspending a degree in Law.
                                                  on suspensions, subject              Applications for suspensions are
JDs: If you are a JD student, you are             to other conditions. For
unable to suspend in the first year of                                                 completed through Sydney Student,
                                                  more information, refer              and it is recommended that this is
your full-time study, or the first two            to the University Course-
years of part-time study. However, you                                                 done prior to the census date so that
                                                  work Policy: bit.ly/38ZU-
are able to suspend for an aggregate of           JkP.                                 you are not liable for any penalties.
two calendar years in total.                                                           For more details, please see bit.
                                                                                       ly/2SX5rzX.

14
DISCONTINUING
YOUR COURSE
                                                                   If you do decide to withdraw from your
This is effectively dropping out of                                degree completely, we recommend
the entire degree you are currently                                discussing such a pivotal decision with
studying, ending your current                                      a course advisor in case you might be
enrolment. You may need to do this               TIP
                                                                   able to manage your unit load. You
if you wish to transfer into another                               could also consider suspending your
course (For example, discontinuing     If you are transferring
                                       courses, you can request    studies instead. If you discontinue
Commerce/Law to study Science/                                     after the relevant census date,
Law), or decide to withdraw from       a course transfer in
                                       Sydney Student, under       academic and financial penalties may
tertiary study completely.                                         apply. All applications to discontinue
                                       My Studies > Course
                                       details > then Request      are made through Sydney Student.
                                       Course Transfer. See more   For more information, please see bit.
                                       information about this at   ly/2CpukgU.
                                       bit.ly/2VXz8mE.

                                                                                                       15
ACADEMICS

              A
At SULS, we want to see every student
succeed. This section includes           What is a credit point?                  What is a major/minor?
information on degree progression,
academic advice for your first-year      A credit point is just how the study     Majors and minors are your specialised
subjects, assessment tips and a quick    load of a unit is measured. Most units   areas of study in your non-law degree.
AGLC referencing guide.                  are generally 3 or 6 credit points       They are a group of units that help
                                         (however, most Open Learning             you develop a depth of expertise in
Due to the current pandemic, there       Environment units (OLE) are 2 credit     one academic discipline. Majors are
may be changes on very short notice      points), and the standard full-time      your primary focus, whilst Minors are
to the availability of units and unit    load is 24 credit points a semester      the secondary focus e.g. Marketing,
of study details, including mode of      (around 4 units of study).               Biology or Chinese Studies. For more
delivery and assessments. For the                                                 information on Majors and Minors,
most up-to-date information, be sure                                              check out the Sydney University
to check your degree handbooks at                                                 Interdisciplinary Studies Handbook
Sydney University Handbooks 2021                                                  2021 - About Majors and Minors.
and unit of study details in the
unit outline provided to you at
the start of each unit and continue
to check for changes throughout the
semester.                                Bachelor of Laws Combined Degree Progression

BACHELOR OF                              To make degree-planning easier,
                                         we’ve included sample degree •
                                                                                    2000- or 3000- level units)
                                                                                    OLEs (from Table O)
LAW COMBINED                             progression guides for Bachelor of •
                                         Arts/Bachelor of Laws, Bachelor of
                                                                                    Dalyell Scholars units (from Table
                                                                                    D, if you are undertaking that
DEGREE                                   Commerce/Bachelor of Laws and
                                         Bachelor of Science/Bachelor of Laws
                                                                                    program)

As an LLB student, you will generally    students in the Appendix. When
study one to two law subjects every      filling it out, make sure you include:
semester in the first three years of
your degree (in addition to Legal        •   Compulsory core units (e.g.
Research), with the majority of              BUSS1000      and    BUSS2000                          TIP
your subjects derived from your              for Bachelor of Commerce; or
                                             minimum mathematics and                      If you’re going on
other degree in Arts, Commerce,
                                             junior units for Bachelor of                 exchange,       be     sure
Economics, Engineering or Science.                                                        to double check the
However, combining it with Law may           Science)
                                                                                          necessary requirements
affect the flexibility of your degree    •   Your Major’s Introductory units
                                                                                          for degree progression as
progression and lots of opportunities        (usually 1000-level units) -                 it may differ for you.
are available even after you’ve chosen       usually completed in your first
your degree. As such, it’s super             year
important to plan ahead!                 •   Your Major’s other units (usually

16
JURIS DOCTOR                                   •      From Year 2 Semester 2 (full-
                                                                                                time) or Year 4 Semester 2 (part-
                                          Whether you are commencing your                       time), you may be able to swap
                                          study in-person or remotely due to the                one core unit for an elective,
                                          pandemic, you’ll be immersed into as                  and choose to complete the core
                                          much law as you can handle from                       subject later on in your degree.
             NOTE                         the outset. The Sydney JD program
                                          develops your analysis, research,              Juris Doctor Progression
                                          writing and advocacy skills through
    Your non-Law degree
                                          a focus on international, comparative          (Full-time)
    typically requires you to
    take a minimum number                 and transnational aspects of law.
                                          For more information on the course,            All full-time JD students will complete
    of intermediate or senior                                                            Foundations of Law (LAWS5000) on
    units (2000 or 3000-level             please see Juris Doctor.
                                                                                         an intensive two-week basis prior to
    units), so make sure you                                                             your first semester at Sydney Law
    fulfil those requirements!            Juris Doctor Degree                            School. You are also required to
    Although it is not essen-
    tial to select second- or
                                          Progression                                    complete Legal Research (although
                                                                                         0 credit points) in your first year, in
    third-year electives in the                                                          order to complete your degree. On
                                          The JD consists of 144 credit points
    first year of your degree,                                                           the next page is a typical example of
                                          or 24 units of study in total. Each unit
    it is important to allocate                                                          a degree progression for a full time
                                          is worth 6 credit points. Check out the
    space in your progression                                                            JD student, undertaking a total of 48
                                          appendix for an empty full-time JD
    for these units. For all the                                                         credit points per year.
                                          degree planner
    course rules and details,
    check out the Sydney Uni-                                                            COVID-19 update: You may be
                                          •      Refer to the Handbook for
    versity Handbooks 2021.                                                              able to undertake 3 units of study
                                                 more updated and accurate
                                                 information on requirements for         per semester, but remain on a full-
                                                 degree progression and electives:       time load. Contact the Law School
                                                 Juris Doctor - Sydney Law School.       academic advisor to discuss your
                                          •      You may select Master’s units of        study options
Check out the SULS Education                     study as electives, but they must
Guide on suls.org.au/publications                not exceed a total of 24 credit
for more information on credit                   points (i.e. 4 subjects)
points and degree progression.

                                                             YEAR 1

 SEM 1            Foundations of Law             Torts                Contracts          Criminal & Civil
                                                                                           Procedure
                                                                                                                Legal Research

 SEM 2               Criminal Law        Torts & Contracts II
                                                                Public International
                                                                        Law
                                                                                              Public Law

                                                             YEAR 2
                                                                  Introduction to
 SEM 1
                                              Federal
                  Administrative Law                                Property &         The Legal Profession
                                         Constitutional Law
                                                                 Commercial Law

 SEM 2            Corporations Law               Equity               Evidence               Real Property

                                                             YEAR 3
                 Private International
 SEM 1                    Law
                                              Law Elective         Law Elective              Law Elective

 SEM 2               Law Elective             Law Elective         Law Elective              Law Elective

                                                                                                                                 17
Juris Doctor Progression
(Part-time)                                          NOTE

Part-time JD students will study             You must pass all Year 1
Foundations of Law (LAWS5000)                and 2 core units of study
for the entirety of Semester 1. Below        before proceeding to Year
is a typical example of a degree             3, and you may not enrol
progression for a part-time JD               in more than two electives
student undertaking 4 units of study         in Year 4.
per year.

                                                     YEAR 1
                                                                                            Legal
     SEM 1              Foundations of Law                                Torts
                                                                                          Research

     SEM 2            Public International Law                        Public Law

                                                     YEAR 2

     SEM 1          Civil & Criminal Procedure                        Contracts

     SEM 2                  Criminal Law                        Torts & Contracts II

                                                     YEAR 3
                                                                                           Legal
     SEM 1               Adminstrative Law                  Federal Constitutional Law
                                                                                         Research II

     SEM 2               Corporations Law                             Evidence

                                                     YEAR 4
                   Introduction to Property &
     SEM 1              Commerical Law
                                                               The Legal Profession

     SEM 2                      Equity                             Real Property

                                                     YEAR 5

     SEM 1           Private International Law                      Elective Unit

     SEM 2                   Elective Unit                          Elective Unit

                                                      YEAR 6

     SEM 1                   Elective Unit                          Elective Unit

     SEM 2                   Elective Unit                          Elective Unit

18
What happens if I fail a unit?

                                               What can I do if I fail a unit?
                                                                                                         NOTE
                                               You should always consult Law School
FAILING AN ASSESSMENT                          after failing a unit for advice on the best
       OR UNIT                                 course of action to minimise disruption to
                                                                                                There may be changes to
                                                                                                availability of Summer/
                                               your degree progression. You may want
                                                                                                Winter School in the future
                                               to consider repeating the unit in Summer
                                                                                                i.e. cancellation of Summer
                                               or Winter School so as to avoid extending
                                                                                                School 2020-2021, so be
                                               your degree, but note that you will still
                                                                                                sure to check for updates
                                               be required to pay for the unit despite
                                                                                                with Law School.
                                               failing it, and the costs of repeating the
                                               same unit.

  MAKE AN ACADEMIC                             See Appeals Process.
       APPEAL

                                               Make sure you enrol in units of study
  CHECK COURSE REQUIREMENTS                    that meet your course requirement
  IN THE RESOLUTIONS IN YOUR
       COURSE HANDBOOK                         International Students
                                               If you’re not meeting your course
                                               requirements, the University is
                                               required to notify the Department
                                               of Home Affairs. This may have an
                                               affect on your student visa status

                                                •    Law Academic Advisor              •     Counselling &
                                                Undergraduate:                               Psychological Services
    ADVICE & SUPPORT                            law.professional@sydney.edu.au         •     SRC (undergraduate) -
                                                Postgraduate:
                                                                                             Caseworker Help service
                                                law.postgraduate@sydney.edu.au
                                                                                       •     SUPRA (postgraduate)
                                                                                             - Student Advice and
                                                                                             Advocacy Officer Service

For more information, please visit Staying on Track with your studies.

                                                                                                                              19
What happens if I make
Unsatisfactory Academic Progress?

                               You are not meeting academic progression
      UNSATISFACTORY           requirements if:
     ACADEMIC PROGRESS         •   Semester average mark is
ACADEMIC TIPS
AND ADVICE

                                               More tips and advice     to third parties and vicarious, joint
Here are some tips in the

                              M
                                               can be found in the      and several liabilities.
core subjects you will                         SULS      Education
be studying in your first                      Guide on suls.org.
                                               au/publications or
                                                                        TIPS:
                                                                        • Notes - Note down the key facts
year.                                          grab a hard copy at         and ratio decidendi in every case;
                            the SULS office.                               create mind maps of the law as
                                                                           well as scaffolds. Keep the ‘big
                            LAWS1006/LAWS5000                              picture’ of the course in mind
                                                                           when structuring your notes.
                            Foundations of Law                          • Assessments are mostly based
                                                                           on answering problem questions
                            ‘Foundies’ gives an overview of the            – that is, the application of legal
                            history of the legal system in Australia,      principles to often complex and
                            which has been heavily influenced              lengthy factual scenarios. This is
                            by British Colonialism, Aboriginal             where scaffolds come in handy.
                            customary law, the Constitution and         • Facts can be quite complex and
                            international human rights.                    involve multiple parties. Make
                                                                           sure you draw clear flow-charts
                            TIPS:                                          of what’s happening to whom
                            • Use sticky notes and highlighters            to help understand the problem
                               as you read the textbook and                question.
                               reader because those quotes and          • There are a lot of cases in Torts, so
                               sources can be very helpful in              make sure you’re revising across
                               your assignments.                           the semester and keeping your
                            • Practice identifying the ratio               memory of the content fresh!
                               decidendi in case law judgments
                               as well as interpreting statutes–
                               this will be helpful in future law
                               subjects.                                LAWS1015/LAWS5002
                            • Be committed to the unit and              Contracts
                               make sure you go to the lectures
                               and tutorials. Foundies is a             Contracts refer to binding agreements
                               wonderful way to start meeting           with a legal obligation. This unit
                               people in your cohort!                   provides the legal background in the
                            • The reader is huge and don’t              creation, terms, performance, breach
                               beat yourself up if you don’t get        and discharge of a contract.
                               through the whole thing.
                                                                        TIPS:
                            LAWS1012/LAWS5001                           • There are many differences in
                                                                           opinion on rules of law according
                            Torts                                          to different judges or courts.
                                                                        • Distinguish yourself in your
                            Torts introduces liability for civil           written answers by showcasing
                            wrongs. It goes through elements of            the diversity of opinion, choose
                            intentional torts, action on the case,         one stance and justify why you’ve
                            the tort of negligence, compensation           chosen it.
                                                                                                           21
•    In lectures, pay attention to
     the commentary your lecturer        General
     provides. It is often useful for
     how to organise your answers        Assessment
                                         Advice
     and knowing which cases are
     more important.                                                              Practice makes perfect
                                                                                  The way that law is applied as
                                         Assessments in the Law School            knowledge is quite unique, and the
LAWS1014/LAWS5003                        comprise of take-home assignments        most effective way to develop them
                                         and exams.                               is actively applying       these skills.
Civil and Criminal                                                                Competitions such as mooting are a
Procedure                                                                         different, interactive way of developing
                                                                                  these skills beyond past exams and
CCP explains how to commence                                                      practice problem questions.
civil and criminal actions, case
management, gathering evidence and
rules of privileges, as well as police                                                        ABC
                                                                                              123
powers, bail and sentencing.
                                         Know your due dates
TIPS:                                    Especially first year JD students
• This unit features an open book        who will be managing a full-time
   final exam which means notes          load entirely within the Law Faculty!
   must be concise and orderly.                                                   Word Count
                                         Generally, there is a mid-semester       Make sure you stick to any word
• The Civil and Criminal parts of        block of assessments, and then the
   the unit are quite different, so                                               count restrictions! Law School is not
                                         final examination period. Ensure that    as generous as the other Faculties,
   it’s worth assembling a separate      you plan to accommodate for any
   folder for each.                                                               so your assignment/exam will not be
                                         clashes early enough in the semester.    read beyond the specified word limit.
• For Civil, summarise the contents
   of the various Acts and the                                                    You may also be penalised for going
   circumstances in which appeals                                                 over the specified word limit e.g. 10%
   are possible (preferably in a table                                            penalisation for every 100 words over.
   form).
• As you progress, don’t forget to
   note down the section numbers
   and case names.                       Never too early to start
                                         Don’t wait until you “learn more
                                         content” to start mid-semester
                                         assignments, or a more “appropriate”
                                                                                  Deadline
                                         time in the semester to start your
                                                                                  Unless you obtain an extension, the
                                         exam notes. You are always able to
                                                                                  Law School will generally enforce
                                         read ahead to gain more knowledge,
                                                                                  a 10% penalty (or 20% penalty
                                         and the more work you do now, the
                                                                                  depending on the assessment) for each
                                         less work you have to do later.
                                                                                  day you submit an assignment late (be
                                                                                  aware of the 11:59 deadlines as even
                                                                                  12:00 will result in the deduction).

                                         Review, review, review
                                         Going over your work (whether with
                                         your own eyes or asking a friend) will
                                         also give you a better idea of whether
                                                                                  Set aside enough time to check
                                         you have structured and expressed
                                                                                  your work
                                         your knowledge in an effective way.
                                                                                  Set aside a good amount of time to
                                                                                  edit your work so that you can iron
                                         NOTE: Be aware of the University’s
                                                                                  out mistakes and improve content.
                                         policy on Academic Honesty when
                                                                                  You don’t want to lose marks on small
                                         discussing assessment work with
                                                                                  things like punctuation, grammar
                                         a friend. For more information,
                                                                                  and referencing! NOTE: AGLC has
                                         please see Academic dishonesty and
                                                                                  different requirements depending on
                                         plagiarism.
                                                                                  what you’re citing.
22
times and pick out key facts linking
Essays                                    to principles of law. Remember to
                                                                                     own words to demonstrate your
                                                                                     understanding. It may be helpful to
                                          identify the material facts - examiners    understand the procedural history
Essays involve crafting a sophisticated   can be tricky and put in red herrings.     and read the judgments of the courts
argument in relation to an often          However, be wary as most facts in          below (if there are any) to get a grasp
ambiguous area of law. As you             problem questions are not put there        of the matter. It may also be useful to
have been given time to prepare in        for no reason. For take home problem       consider policy considerations and
an assignment, you are expected           questions, ensure that you read            the social factors at the time which
to extensively research the law by        the relevant cases as thoroughly as        may have potentially influenced the
reading, citing and even quoting from     possible and consider the reasoning        Judges’ ruling.
cases and journals.                       of both the majority and dissenting

                                                                                     Exams
                                          judgments.
A good first step is analysing the
question and finding instructive
keywords which hint at the marker’s       What is IRAC?                              Law exams are very intense as you
expectations. Take-home essays often                                                 are expected to push out quite a bit of
involve research in areas that may not    Most lecturers recommend that you          information and knowledge within a
be covered in class so considerable       follow the IRAC acronym (Issue,            very limited period of time. You will
research is necessary to demonstrate      Rule, Application and Conclusion)          develop a study routine that will work
comprehensive knowledge on the            for each legal point, but it is vital to   best for you - there are no hard and
topic. As you conduct your research       also include the authority for the rule    fast rules as to how much you must
and familiarise yourself with the         (usually an important case which           study every day. However, we do have
major cases and their judgments           considers the principle or legislation).   some general advice below that may
(including dissenting judgments),                                                    be helpful for first-years adjusting to
consider the arguments that you           •   Use headings and identify the          legal examinations.
want to pursue and prioritise them by         parties involved (e.g. Smith v
strength.                                     Blue) – note headings should           For more information on exams,
                                              comply with Australian Guide to        check out the SULS Education Guide
Your essay should be structured to            Legal Citation page 34, r [1.12].      at   suls.org.au/publications  and
include:                                  •   Don’t invent facts or repeat them      the Sydney University’s website on
• Introduction             (addressing        unnecessarily in your analysis–        Exams.
    the question asked with an                use what you have been given.
    overarching thesis and providing      •   Raise all the issues but allocate
    a roadmap or overview for your            sufficient space depending on
    essay)                                    their importance and contention.
• Body (providing your arguments          •   Note       dissenting   judgments
    – it is imperative to reference           with ‘Cf’ or ‘Contra’ because
    cases, legislation and readings in        this demonstrates an in-depth
    every paragraph and link them             understanding (but do not do
    back to your thesis statement)            this too often as your word count
• Conclusion (where you restate               is limited) – see Australian Guide
    your thesis and succinctly                to Legal Citation page 7, r [1.2].
    summarise your arguments)             •   Briefly note the consequences if
                                              you reach a different conclusion
                                              (e.g. “if I am wrong and causation
                                              is satisfied…”)

                TIP
                                          Case Notes
      Reference as you go
      so that you can add                 Case notes involve summarising or
      pinpoints, and make sure            analysing a court’s judgment. These
      to use the latest version           assessments focus on your ability to
      of the AGLC (see the                understand legal material and pick out
      section on Referencing in
                                          the most important elements. Thus,
      this guide).
                                          a comprehensive understanding is
                                          required of the case.

                                          Make sure you understand the
                                          difference between ratio decidendi
Problem Questions                         and biter dictum, and summarise
                                          the judicial officer’s reasons. Whilst
Problem questions involve applying        it may be easy to use words or
the law to a set of facts. To start,      phrases from the court’s judgment,
you should read the problem several       it is important that you use your

                                                                                                                        23
•   Allocate writing time to each
                                    More pain during semester,                    question/section of the exam
                                    more gain during exams                        according to how many marks
                                                                                  they are worth, not how long you
                                    The more conscious time spent                 think it would take to answer the
                                    with    legal    content,   especially        question fully.
                                    during semester, the better you will      •   Sketch the structure of your long
                                    perform. Though it’s tempting to              responses in reading time so that
                                    say that “I’ll catch up later because         you may keep yourself on track
                                    I have time coming up to exams,” it           during writing time.
                                    is almost never the case. Diligently
                TIP                 compiling your examination notes          Closed-book Exams
                                    means further time to review them,
     Always a good idea to          and therefore ensuring that they are      Most of you would be familiar with
     review your assessment         accurate and useful.                      the “closed-book” exam format,
     tasks for feedback so you                                                which heavily relies on content
     know where to improve          Use reading & writing time                memorisation.       Lecturers     may
     for next time. If it is an     effectively                                provide a case list and/or statutes
     assignment, you will be                                                  within the exam itself, and this
     notified on Canvas when        •   Exams will generally provide          may be made known to students
     your assignment mark               a short period of reading time        beforehand. If provided, take the
     and feedback is released.          (where you will probably              opportunity to use that list as the
     If it is an examination, you       be allowed to plan out your           outer limits of the subject that you
     need to submit an Exam             responses on the examination          will need to familiarise yourself with.
     Script Request at https://         paper/your own paper), followed       Doing practice exams and problem
     bit.ly/2HprZbo after your          by a longer period of writing time.   questions repeatedly will help you
     mark has been released.        •   Use this opportunity to carefully     recall important issues, which will aid
                                        read the paper and its questions      with constructing a response within a
                                        carefully; marks are easily lost      time-pressured environment.
                                        through mundane carelessness
                                        such as getting the name of a         Open-book Exams (Online/In-
                                        party wrong on the facts.             person)
                                    •   Is it a problem question, or is it
                                        an essay response? Depending          Open-book       exams     are      self-
                                        on the type of question, your         explanatory. Generally, you will be
                                        response will need to be planned      able to use your own materials during
                                        and constructed differently.          the exam (subject to conditions
                                                                              depending upon the unit of study),
                                                                              whether you’re sitting for it online or
                                                                              in-person.

                                                                              First year law students may
                                                                              sometimes get lulled into a false sense
                                                                              of security and rely upon their notes
                                                                              too much, rather than committing
                                                                              the subject content to memory. Make
                                                                              sure your exam notes are concise and
                                                                              well-structured, and that you know
                                                                              where information is placed within
                                                                              your notes when you spot issues/
                                                                              questions within the exam. It is very
                                                                              discouraging during the course of
                                                                              the exam to lose track of where your
                                                                              content is, then have to burn time

24
Referencing
                                                                                   You can find the common rules
                                                                                   in the Australian Guide to Legal
                                                                                   Citation (AGLC). The latest edition
                                                                                   is the AGLC 4th Edition which can
                                                                                   be accessed at AGLC4 - download.
                                                                                   We’ve listed below some quick tips on
                                                                                   citations!

                                           A Quick Guide to AGLC4

                                           Rules about...                          Found at...

within the exam to find it. Keeping        Footnotes                               Page 1, r [1.1]
in mind of the limited tablespace
during the actual physical exam, so        Citing subsequent references            Page 9, r [1.4]
make your notes as accessible and
convenient as possible.                    Quoting Passages                        Page 15, r [1.5]

With online open-book exams                Headings and titles                     Page 34, r [1.12]
becoming a norm in the online
learning environment, here’s a quick       Bibliographies                          Page 35, r [1.13]
overview on how they are generally
run:                                       Cases (General)                         Page 39, r [2]
• Exams are typically released on
    Canvas at the specified exam-          Cases (Pinpoint referencing)            Page 52, r [2.2.5]
    release time (NOTE: check unit of
    study exam cover sheet released        Cases (Identifying judicial officers)   Page 58, r [2.4]
    prior to the exam date).
• Download the pdf of the exam.            Legislation                             Page 67, r [3.1]
• Complete the assessment within
    the specific time-limit (NOTE:         Journal articles                        Page 91, r [5]
    You need to submit before the
    deadline to not be listed as LATE      Books                                   Page 98, r [6]
    by Canvas i.e. If the deadline is at
    12:00pm, you should submit by          Speeches                                Page 113, r [7.3]
    11:59:59 am).
• Upload your exam answer in               Internet materials                      Page 130, r [7.15]
    word document format onto the
    specified Canvas exam site.            Treaties                                Page 133, r [8]

Take-home Exams                            UK Cases                                Page 251, r [24.1]

These are exams where you are given
a certain period (generally around
a week) to complete the exam “at
home”, rather than in a formal
setting. Again, the extra time may lull                  TIP                                     TIP
students into a false sense of security;
however, you should prepare for these        Remind your housemates,                  Conduct a final check
exams as you would for other exams,          friends, family to not                   of your exam set-up
                                             interrupt you during the
as there will be no time to revise                                                    i.e. equipment is set up
                                             exam and to stay off the
content during the “writing” period.                                                  correctly, restart your
                                             internet.
Read the details of the examination                                                   computer and close any
carefully, as they may also incorporate      If something happens and                 unnecessary programs.
elements of research alongside a             you’re unable to complete
problem question, and they will most         your exam, you will be                   Find a quiet space to sit
likely need to be referenced according       able to apply for Special                the online exam.
to the Australian Guide to Legal             consideration.
Citation, unlike formal exams

                                                                                                                     25
Citing the Constitution                                         Citing Cases
See AGLC4, page 76, r [3.6]                                     See AGLC4, page 39, r [2]

Examples:                                                           Case Name (Year) Volume Law Report Series
Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 (Imp)
                                                                             Starting Page, Pinpoint.
63 & 64 Vict, c 12, s 9.
Australian Constitution s 51 (ii).
Constitution.

•    Using any one of the above is acceptable provided          Examples:
     that there is no ambiguity about which constitution is     Mabo v Queensland (No 1) (1988) 166 CLR 186, 216
     being cited (think about your word count!).                (Brennan, Toohey and Gaudron JJ).
•    Pinpoint references are the same as for legislation        Hollis v Vabu Pty Ltd (2001) 207 CLR 21, 37 [35].
     below (e.g. Constitution s 51(xx)).
                                                                •    This is the general rule for citing the Commonwealth
                                                                     Law Reports (for High Court), New South Wales
                                                                     Law Reports (for Supreme Court of NSW) and
                                                                     Federal Court Reports (for Federal Court). Note that

Citing Legislation
                                                                     referencing may be different for reports from other
                                                                     states or international jurisdictions.
                                                                •    If the plaintiff or defendant are people, only include
See AGLC4, page 67, r [3.1]                                          their surnames.
                                                                •    It is optional to include the judicial officer/s’ names. If
                                                                     you do, write the judicial officer/s’ surname and then
                                                                     an abbreviation e.g. (Gageler J). See AGLC4 page 59
           Title Year (Jurisdiction) Pinpoint.                       for all abbreviations. The first example shows how
                                                                     joint judgments are cited e.g. (Brennan, Toohey and
                                                                     Gaudron JJ).
                                                                •    Note, the old (and incorrect) format looked like this:
                                                                     Mabo v Queensland (No 1) (1988) 166 CLR 186 at 216
Examples:                                                            per Brennan, Toohey and Gaudron JJ. AGLC4 does
Civil Liability Act 2003 (NSW) s 3(1)(a).                            not use ‘at’ or ‘per’ in citing cases.
Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) s 223(1).

•    Note that the year is italicised but the jurisdiction is

                                                                Citing Journal Articles
     not (not Crimes Act 1900 (NSW))
•    For jurisdiction, ‘Cth’ for Acts passed by the
     Commonwealth Parliament, ‘NSW’ for the New South
     Wales Parliament.                                          See AGLC4, page 91, r [5]
•    Pinpoint references should comprise an abbreviation
     of a designation and a number, separated by a space
     (not s.45 nor s45).
•    Subsections should be placed in parentheses                      Author, ‘Title’ (Year) Volume Journal Title
     immediately following the section number without a                       Starting Page, Pinpoint.
     space (not s 21 (2)).

                                                                                      Examples:
                                                             TIP                      Justice Michael McHugh, ‘The
                                                                                      Judicial Method’ (1999) 73 Australian
                                                There are often many versions         Law Journal 37, 41.
                                                of a major case and hence many        George Williams, ‘High Court
                                                different citations for it. As a      Appointments: The Need for Reform’
                                                rule of thumb, it’s best to cite      (2008) 30 Sydney Law Review 161.
                                                the most authoritative version,
                                                which is usually an authorised
                                                report, e.g. CLR for the High         You need to cite the full title of the
                                                Court and NSWLR for the               journal (e.g. not ALJ for Australian
                                                Supreme Court of NSW. To read         Law Journal).
                                                up more on this go to page 54, r
                                                [2.2.7], in the AGLC4 guide.

26
ONLINE LEARNING

                                           Sydney Law School,        your class resources, including your
The pandemic brought

                              S
                                           however, luckily, has     online lecture recordings, discussion
a lot of changes to                        been able to adopt a      groups, unit of study outlines and
Sydney Law School, most                    hybrid of online and
                                           offline components
                                                                     readings. It is also where online exams
                                                                     take place, and where you will submit
prominently, the switch                    to account for its        your assignments. It is accessible at
to online classes.        students’ needs. Your first semester       https://canvas.sydney.edu.au/
                          may be all online, offline, or a mix
                          of the two, but chances are, you will                            SCAN HERE
                          need to be familiar with accessing
                          online learning materials.                                       TO ACCESS
                                                                                           CANVAS
                                                                                           WEBSITE
                          Class Structure
                          Lectures: Currently, given the health
                          situation, the Sydney Law School will
                          most likely be offering all its lectures   Zoom
                          online via recordings. You can access
                          your weekly lecture recordings on          Zoom is USYD’s primary video
                          Canvas (see below), and you will           conferencing program used to access
                          be expected to have watched them           all online classes and live lectures.
                          before your tutorial/seminar. Be sure      To access an online class, you must
                          to check your unit of study outline to     first download Zoom from the links
                          ensure you are watching the lectures       provided here. Then login to Zoom
                          corresponding to the week its content      with your USYD student email
                          is covered in class. It should be noted    address. Some online classes will
                          that some lectures are live, meaning       prevent access from private accounts.
                          you will have to enter the Zoom Call at    Then click the Zoom link provided by
                          a particular time, with a link supplied    your course coordinator/tutor which
                          by Canvas/email to watch the lecture.      should automatically open up Zoom
                                                                     in your class.
                          Tutorials/Seminars:              When
                          timetabling begins, you will most          Participating in Class
                          likely be given the choice of online or    Zoom provides a variety of functions
                          offline tutorials/seminars. The Sydney       that tutors will use to help facilitate
                          Law School offers online classes to        learning and participation. A chat box
                          those affected by international time       enables you to send files and text both
                          variances and people with health or        to the class and privately to particular
                          accessibility issues. If you choose to     class members. The chat box also
                          take an online class, your tutor will      enables you to vote (yes/no) and
                          communicate a Zoom Link (through           ‘raise your hand’ to signal to tutor.
                          Canvas or email) which you must
                          access on time every week. You are         Break Out Groups
                          expected to participate as if in an        Sometimes, the tutor will send you
                          offline class.                               into ‘breakout groups’ which exits you
                                                                     from the main class and places the

                          Canvas
                                                                     class members into random groups.
                                                                     This allows more discussion amongst
                                                                     peers and is often a great way to meet
                          Canvas is your online portal as a USYD     new people!
                          student that will give you access to all

                                                                                                          27
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