GPS Guide Sustainable Public Management - Updated with SDG

 
GPS Guide Sustainable Public Management - Updated with SDG
GPS Guide
Sustainable Public Management
   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps

         Updated with SDG

       SUMMARIZED VERSION
GPS Guide Sustainable Public Management - Updated with SDG
CREDITS
                                                    Production and contents

                                                1st version, launched in 2013:
                                  Partnership between NEF (Future Studies Center) - PUC-SP
                                and the executive secretariat of the Sustainable Cities Program

                                             Current version, launched in May 2016:
                                     executive secretariat of the Sustainable Cities Program

                                                               Print

                                                         Agência Frutífera

                                                       São Paulo, May 2016.

                   Organization

The Sustainable Cities Program provides the city halls and civil society’s organizations with all contents, products, software,
training and services, made available on a free of charge basis.
No one is authorized to carry out any sales, or provide services or consulting services on behalf of the Sustainable Cities Program.
GPS Guide Sustainable Public Management - Updated with SDG
SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION								 4

GOVERNANCE								14

COMMON NATURAL RESOURCES						19

EQUITY, SOCIAL JUSTICE AND CULTURE OF PEACE			        27

LOCAL MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABILITY				               35

URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN						40

CULTURE FOR SUSTAINABILITY						44

EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE			   48

DYNAMIC, CREATIVE AND SUSTAINABLE LOCAL ECONOMY		     53

RESPONSIBLE CONSUMPTION AND LIFE STYLE OPTIONS			     62

BETTER MOBILITY, LESS TRAFFIC						68

LOCAL ACTION FOR HEALTH							73

FROM LOCAL TO GLOBAL							78
INTRODUCTION

    The world is going through a period of fast socio-e-             hand, creative opportunities open up allowing a shared
conomic, environmental, technological and cultural                   volume of information, knowledge and practical expe-
changes, together with intense urbanization and a strong             rience, through new technological tools in real time. The
feeling that a governance and value crisis is in place to            spread of such virtual tools is leading to the formation of
achieve a vision of future able to face the challenges that          large organized networks around the world seeking effec-
are posed at such a fast pace. Brazil is inserted directly in        tive and innovative solutions to the complexity of the on-
this context.                                                        going process.

 One of the most difficult questions that pose                           Since 2011, Rede Nossa São Paulo (Our São Paulo Ne-
 a challenge to Brazil and a number of other                         twork), the Brazilian Social Network for Fair, Democratic
                 countries is:                                       and Sustainable Cities and the Ethos Institute, in a part-
                                                                     nership with several other organizations and national
                   how to balance                                    and international networks, have provided a set of to-
               economic development                                  ols to help build this vision of the future combined with
                                                                     transparent and participatory processes: the Sustainable
                                                                     Cities Program. A program under constant construction,
                                                                     but which has as its starting point the observation that
                                                                     implementing a new development paradigm is possible,
                                                                     necessary and urgent.

       with environmental sustainability                                 It is possible because the Sustainable Cities Program
     and social justice, through transparent                         combines the idea of change with opportunities and expe-
          and democratic governance?                                 riences that are already available to be put into practice in
                                                                     the construction of a new development model. It is neces-
     To build such an answer, choices addressing the pro-            sary because, in recent decades, a global consensus has
blem in fragments or parts are no longer appropriate – the           emerged in the sense that our development model has
question is complex and must be addressed systemically               been causing the systematic destruction of the planet’s
and horizontally. Nothing should be put aside momenta-               resources, putting at risk the continuity of the human spe-
rily to try to resolve later. The global socio-economic cri-         cies. And it is urgent because there is also a consensus that
sis needs to be resolved within the natural limits that the          the ability to govern and tackle the socio-environmental
planet itself imposes, reversing trends of extreme climate           crisis in the planet still fails to match the speed of the pro-
changes and depletion of natural resources, in addition              cess of destruction of natural resources and of the climate
to overcoming the unacceptable social inequality. There-             changes in progress.
fore, it should be considered that the temporal dimension
of the problem is real, and that there is no more time to                The UN system has been acting more strongly in this
waste.                                                               direction, seeking to mobilize its nearly 200 Member Sta-
                                                                     tes to acknowledge the severity of the diagnosis and com-
   But, if on the one hand there is a social malaise about           mit to agreements and targets that will give global and
the effects caused by this systemic crisis, on the other             solid answers to humanity and the planetary crisis.

    4       INTRODUCTION                                        GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps
Introduction

         The Sustainable Development Goals and COP-21

  Approved at the United Nations                          The commitment was made by                      The process started in 2013,
Summit on Sustainable Develop-
ment (September 25-27, 2015),
 the Sustainable Development
                                                      the   193         Member States
                                                    of the United Nations, including
                                                                                                      following a mandate originated
                                                                                                      from the Rio+20 Conference, the
                                                                                                      SDGs should guide national policies
       Goals (2030 Agenda)                          Brazil. These are based on 5 P’s:                 and activities of international coo-

combine     17          global objectives
                                                        People,
                                                        Prosperity,
                                                        Peace,
                                                                                                      peration over the next fifteen years,
                                                                                                      succeeding and updating the Millen-
                                                                                                      nium Development Goals (MDGs).

      and   169      goals
with the purpose of ending po-
                                                        Partnership and Planet.

                                                        Although global in nature and
                                                                                                          The implementation of the SDGs
                                                                                                      is a challenge that requires a part-
verty by 2030 and universally                       universally applicable, the SDGs                  nership with the active participation
promote economic prosperity,                        (Sustainable Development Goals)                   of all, including Governments, civil
social development and environ-                     converse with the policies and ac-                society and the private sector.
mental protection.                                  tions at regional and local levels.

    These goals will be accompa-                        The Paris Agreement provides for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in
nied by a set of indicators for Gover-              all regions of the planet and was agreed by consensus
nments, civil society and businesses
to review their actions and priorities
in favor of a new development mo-
del able to put mankind back on
                                                                            by the   195            Participating States.

the planet and the planet back on                                            Under the Agreement, global warming
mankind.

    In December 2015, another key
UN initiative took place, the 21st
                                                                           should be held below         2ºC
                                                     and it highlights the importance of efforts to ensure that the temperature rise
Conference of Parties (COP-21) of the                                                   on earth
United Nations Framework Conven-
tion on Climate Change (UNFCCC),
when a new global agreement to
combat the effects of climate chan-
                                                                                 will not exceed 1,5°C
                                                                                      above pre-industrial levels.
ge was approved by consensus.

GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps                                       INTRODUCTION    5
Introduction

    In the Brazilian context, the fundamental participation          municipal and regional level – precisely where the muni-
of the cities in achieving the proposed challenges agreed            cipalities have the central role of that governance.
in the SDGs and in the COP-21 stands out.                                 One of the solutions that the Sustainable Cities Pro-
                                                                     gram (and in particular this Sustainable Public Manage-
      An example of that is the target to reduce                     ment Guide – SPMG) proposes is promoting, from the
                                                                     municipalities, synergies between scientific-technologi-

                                           by   37%       ,
                                                   by 2025,
                                                                     cal, socio-cultural and institutional advances, harmoni-
                                                                     zing development processes and impacts at a local level,
                                                                     making it sustainable. In addition, the objective is alwa-
                                                                     ys to encourage citizen participation as a way of contri-

and by
by 2030,
          43%          ,
                                                                     buting to the improvement of life quality in each region,
                                                                     taking advantage of the exchange of information and ex-
                                                                     periences in the local and global levels.
                                                                          With this purpose in mind, improving the life quality of
                                                                     the populations residing in Brazilian municipalities in line
          the greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil.                    with global transformations, that Our São Paulo Network
                                                                     initiated this movement in 2007, which was soon expan-
    To achieve such results, it is of utmost importance that         ded into the Brazilian Social Network for Fair, Democratic
cities may play a leading role in actions such as restruc-           and Sustainable Cities, responsible for the promotion of
turing urban mobility systems and prioritizing planning              the Sustainable Cities Program throughout the Country.
to reduce the use of fossil-based fuel in public transport,               With this Sustainable Public Management Guide
among other initiatives. The Country also intends to zero            (SPMG), which also counted on the collaboration of the
deforestation in the Legal Amazon and restore 12 million             Center for the Study of the Future, PUC-SP University, we
hectares of forests by 2030, an area equivalent to the terri-        offered the Brazilian municipalities a set of concepts, tools,
tory of England. The Sustainable Cities Program, with this           goals, indicators and exemplary practices of public policies
publication, is brought up to date with the decisions agre-          in various cities of the world so that the municipal public
ed upon by almost 200 countries, incorporating the goals             management could improve and advance in innovative
and indicators of the Sustainable Development Goals and              planning in line with the Sustainable Development Goals
the COP-21, mainly those which can be implemented at a               of the United Nations.

          The current management of cities
          The reality of the cities: progressive urbanization
    More than half of humanity now lives in cities – a per-          ties, lack of basic sanitation, substandard dwelling, vio-
centage that is expected to reach 60% by 2030, according             lence and impact of climate changes. Adopting this logic,
to estimates. In Latin America, Brazil is the most urbani-           if it is in cities that global problems manifest themselves,
zed country, as a result of an intense structuring process           it is also in cities that the human, technological and po-
in the cities started in the 1950s, which led to a concentra-        litical resources needed to overcome such problems are
tion of 86,53% of its population in urban areas.		                   concentrated.
    According to the “World Urbanization Prospects 2014”                   As a way of providing cities with tools to face this situ-
report, by the United Nations, this percentage can reach             ation, the 1988 Federal Constitution established a process
over 90% by 2050.                                                    to decentralize public policies, thus giving cities a leading
    The accelerated unsustainable growth of cities is one            role and allowing society participation as central platfor-
of the biggest challenges for the future of mankind. The             ms in the redemocratization period consolidated with the
cities concentrate the most serious global problems, such            Constitution.
as poverty, social inequality, pollution, mobility difficul-

     66      INTRODUCTION                                       GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps
Introduction

   In fact, Brazilian municipalities took a leading role in                      educating, healthy and democratic cities that will provide
the decision-making processes. That is precisely the rea-                        citizens with good life quality and allow the society to take
son why it is necessary to establish new ways of planning,                       part in all aspects of public life.
governing, producing and consuming in the cities to en-
sure the construction of inclusive, prosperous, creative,

         The management of cities requires a systemic approach
    The development of modern urban planning requi-                                  Strategic planning based on a systemic and participa-
res a systemic approach based on sustainability, which                           tive approach should, thus, consider the implementation
is able to capture the relationship between the different                        of the projects under a vision of short, medium and long
fields of interaction in the city: economic, cultural, so-                       terms, in order to ensure the continuity of programs, es-
cial, ecological, technological, tax, demographic, etc.                          pecially infrastructure works, which typically take longer.
    The plan should involve the various municipal bo-                            It should also set goals that can be publicly monitored
dies related to these topics and make an integrated                              over time. Such guidelines should be included in the Mas-
analysis of the information.                                                     ter Plan and in the Multiyear Plan, as we will see below.o.

                          The Master Plan

            Required by the Constitution for cities with                         torial factors relating to the city.
            more than 20 thousand inhabitants, the Mas-                              The principles that guide the Master Plan
            ter Plan is the instrument of the urban develo-                      are contained in the Statute of the City, where
            pment policy. Its main goal is to provide con-                       the plan is defined as a basic tool to guide the
            ditions for local development, by enabling an                        development
            understanding of political, economic and terri-

                     The Multiyear Plan (MYP)

            Also determined by the Federal Constitution,                         first year of management of the elected Mayor,
            the Multiyear Plan specifies the annual expen-                       covering the four-year period of municipal ma-
            ditures of the municipal administration that are                     nagement, effective as of the second year of the
            intended for works and projects set out in the                       management, until the first year of the subse-
            government action plan or in the Master Plan.                        quent management.
            The Multiyear Plan should be drawn up in the

GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps                                        INTRODUCTION     7
Introduction

          The Sustainable Cities Program

    The Sustainable Cities Program
was born at the initiative of the orga-
nized civil society, with the purpose
of contributing to the sustainabili-
ty of Brazilian cities, by seeking to
improve the quality of life and well
-being of the population in general.

                                      The letter of commitment
         In 2012, the Sustaina-                             The Program was joined by mayors
     ble Cities Program laun-
     ched a Letter of Commit-
     ment for political parties,
     candidates and mayors,
     to guide public managers
     and ensure that they will                                       of285
                                                                      Brazilian cities
     in fact act towards the
     sustainable development
                                                                                                including   22 cities
     of cities.
                                                                                           and the Federal District,

         In practice, this let-
     ter represents a com-                       contributing to the creation of indicator observatories

                                                                     105
     mitment on the part of
     managers to work on                                        in                    of these cities,
     administrative priorities
     that take into account               which managed to improve their               to political parties and candida-
     the economic, social, en-            planning and implement innova-               tes for municipal administrations
     vironmental and cultural             tive public policies in their mana-          that are interested in being part of
     variables, according to              gements, exchanging experien-                this unprecedented movement in
     the local context.                   ces and taking part in a network             Brazil in building fairer, more de-
                                          of cities committed to sustainab-            mocratic and sustainable cities. It
                                          le development.                              will be a great opportunity to rai-
                                              Considering the 2016 election            se awareness among candidates
                                          process and the incorporation of             so that they make commitments
                                          the SDGs in the new platform of              aligned with the Sustainable Cities
                                          the Sustainable Cities Program,              Program and with the implemen-
                                          the letter of commitment has                 tation and municipalization of the
                                          been updated and is available                SDGs.

     88     INTRODUCTION                                   GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps
Introduction

                                Sustainable Cities’ 12 Platform Themes

   As already seen, the Sustainable Cities Program aims at contributing to the teams in charge at the city hall to develop
their Master Plan and establish Strategic Targets; and for such purpose, the Program is based on guidelines, indicators
and targets, organized into 12 platform themes:
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                                 Ed

   The United Nations Sustai-                                                        The strategic planning for the Sustaina-
nable Development Goals that                                                         ble Cities Program
correspond to the local scope
were organized in 12 platform                                                           Cities well-succeeded in the conception and
themes as well as the respective                                                     the implementation of the Master Plan and of the
indicators used as bases for the                                                     Target Plan used the indicators, the project ma-
diagnosis and the planning of                                                        pping and the innovative knowledge already exis-
the municipal administrations.                                                       tent and verified whether they were aligned with
                                                                                     the future view of the municipality.

GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management       www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps                                                    INTRODUCTION       9
Introduction

Guiding questions to start the process

   The questions listed below may serve as a focal point for the considerations of the planning team as a starting point.
They make up a check-up of the current situation, and in view of the answers, they allow a visualization of what has to be
done along the current and future administrations:

          How can the Sustainable                   How can the promotion                            Is the government team
 01       Cities Program help assess        02      of the Sustainable Cities                 04     aligned with the commit-
          the overall situation of the              Program help mobilize the                        ments made and willing
city, overcome challenges and iden-       municipal administration and the                 to use the tools offered by the Sus-
tify paths that could take it towards     society at large?                                tainable Cities Program?
the desired future?
                                                   Will there be a team res-
                                            03 ponsible for preparing the                           What kind of partnerships,
                                                   initial diagnosis, planning,               05    support and external agre-
                                          implementation and monitoring of                          ements would be needed
                                          the program?                                     to develop the program?

Planning step by step

                              DIAGNOSIS
   ORGANIZED                                        DEFINITION OF                  VISION FOR                         GOAL
                            BASED ON THE
  INFORMATION                                        PRIORITIES                    THE FUTURE                         PLAN
                             INDICATORS
           1                       2                       3                               4                             5

       ORGANIZED INFORMATION                     DIAGNOSIS BASED ON THE                        Externally, one must see the city
  1                                         2
       - gathering, organization                 INDICATORS                                inserted in its region, its state and
of information on the indicators              The diagnosis must express the               Country, taking into account the
and preliminary diagnosis                 internal and external perspectives               opportunities offered and the res-
    Planning of the goals requires        on the city. At an internal level, un-           ponsibilities assumed in these three
data on the respective indicators,        derstanding the view on the ope-                 levels. At the same time, it is neces-
which need to be gathered, organi-        ration of the city individually, con-            sary to project possible burdens
zed and analyzed beforehand. After        sidering its strength points (which              that the dynamics in regional, state
the data are organized, the next step     indicators have already reached the              and federal contexts could bring to
is the description of a diagnosis of      goals suggested or are close to rea-             the city.
the city.                                 ching them) and weaknesses (which
                                          indicators have values far from the
                                          goals suggested).

      10
      10   INTRODUCTION                                    GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps
Introduction

                                                                                           DEFINITION OF INDICATORS
                                                                                    3
                                                                                           Upon analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, oppor-
      STRENGTHS                               WEAKNESSES                           tunities and threats, in the light of a vision for the future of
       The strengths                           The weaknesses                      the city, the team responsible will be able to identify whi-
     of the city in each                      of the city in each                  ch indicators are most critical and require greater effort of
          platform                                 platform                        public management, in order to guide the city planning.
                                                                                   It is essential that the priorities listed may be determined
                                                                                   on a participatory basis and may be projected at the time
                                                                                   of their completion, so that they can stay in public policies
                                                                                   beyond one administration, are monitored by society and
   OPPORTUNITIES                                 THREATS                           can reach the improvement goals of that specific area.
    The opportunities                          Situations that
   for the city to stand                         may hinder
  out positively in each                        or harm the                               VISION FOR THE FUTURE OF THE CITIES
                                                                                     4
         platform                                 Goal Plan                               Every city needs to have, as an aggregator of all
                                                                                   society, a vision for what is intended to be achieved ac-
                                                                                   cording to its vocation, which can be touristic, cultural,
                                                                                   historic, natural, scientific, industrial or a number of com-
                                                                                   binations. It is important to add the social players of the
   The diagnosis must be done for each platform of the
                                                                                   territory to this planning for the future, so that the choice
Sustainable Cities Program, considering the proposed in-
                                                                                   of directions may have legitimacy and may be successful
dicators.
                                                                                   over the years.

		 EXAMPLE:
                                                                                         How to design a vision for the future?

    Goal: Common Natural Resources
                                                                                       The different conceptions of the cities of tomorrow
                                                                                   are increasingly important in all levels. Currently, mana-
 STRENGTHS                                  WEAKNESSES
                                                                                   gement models are sought for sustainability with huma-
 • Rich biodiversity                        • Small green area
                                                                                   nitarian features and that will balance economic and en-
 • Different ecosystems                       per inhabitant
                                                                                   vironmental factors.
 • Structured recycling                     • Low environmental
   program                                    awareness of the
                                                                                       A vision for the future of the city should be the result of
 • Engaged civil society                      population and of
                                                                                   a collective imagination construction, described in clear
 • Dynamic business hub                       the business sector.
                                                                                   terms, to encourage actions and show the direction of the
                                                                                   Goal Plan within medium and long terms. Such imagina-
                                                                                   tive exercise can be accomplished through appropriate
 OPPORTUNITIES                              THREATS
                                                                                   methodologies, by bringing together specialized techni-
 • Region becoming                          • Requirement for
                                                                                   cal teams, civil society and by holding meetings with resi-
   the technological                          qualification of
                                                                                   dents and representatives of the Government.
   hub of the state                           young manpower
 • Geographic loca-                         • Low investment in
                                                                                       The visions for the future must come from realistic
   tion allowing the                          education.
                                                                                   diagnostics, but they need to have optimistic projections.
   development of
                                                                                   The objective is to engage broad segments with expecta-
   wind energy
                                                                                   tions favorable to local planning.

GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management     www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps                                         INTRODUCTION      11
Introduction

                                            The following are examples of such visions:

                                            • Being a city recognized nationally for the best health policy;
                                            • Being among the highest HDIs of Brazil (and Latin America);
                                            • Achieving all the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, and for such
                                            achievement, obtaining global recognition;
                                            • Being a Latin American reference in sustainable urban mobility;
                                            • Being a Brazilian hub in terms of well-being and life quality;
                                            • Being a recognized destination for sustainable tourism.

 5     GOAL PLAN DRAFTING                                                   C. Goal
                                                                            Provide the city with the number of hospital beds that
     The Goal Plan should point out the management prio-                will meet the population’s needs adequately.
rities: strategic actions, indicators and quantitative targets              Priority: high
for each of the sectors of the public municipal administra-
tion and should consider criteria, such as promotion of                    D. Vision for the future
sustainable development, social inclusion and respect for                  To become a city recognized for having a health policy
human rights.                                                           with level of excellence according to international stan-
                                                                        dards.
		 ExAmplE:
                                                                        		          EXAMPLES OF GOAL PLANS:
     Platform: Local action for Health
                                                                        • Barueri (SP)
   A. Organized information                                             http://indicadores.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/static-user/
   INDICATOR: proportion of public and private hospital                 user_111_programa_metas_planometas_barueri.pdf
beds available per 1,000 inhabitants of the city.
                                                                        • Petrópolis (RJ)
    GOAL REFERENCE: according to the World Health
                                                                        http://indicadores.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/static-user/
Organization: a minimum of 2.5 hospital beds for every                  user_115_programa_metas_apresentacao_completa_
1,000 inhabitants.                                                      plano_de_metas_pcs1.pdf
     B. Diagnosis
                                                                        • São Paulo (SP)
    The city has only 1 hospital bed for every 1,000 inha-
                                                                        http://www.nossasaopaulo.org.br/portal/arquivos/progra-
bitants, therefore, below the standard indicated by the
                                                                        masdemetas/plano-de-metas-saopaulo-2013-2016.pdf
World Health Organization.

     Benefits of the Goal Plan

          The requirement for drafting a Goal Plan for the four        providing greater predictability, election of priorities, eli-
     years of management, to be complemented by demons-                mination of waste and productivity gains. This will allow
     tration of performance indicators and periodic accou-             an enhancement of the ability to manage.
     ntability to society, means, first of all, investing in the           Further, the benefits of the Goal Plan also include:
     improvement of public administration, in its democratic           programmatic consolidation of political parties and their
     modernization and in the search for efficiency and qua-           electoral proposals; and the promotion of participation,
     lity of the services provided to the population. The Goal         transparency and broad social co-responsibility with re-
     Plan will allow good planning and budget performance,             gard to the implementation of public policies.

     12
     12      INTRODUCTION                                          GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps
Sustainable Cities Program and the 12 Sus-
     tainable Development Goals (SDGs)

   Now, we will present, in details, each of the 12 platforms with conceptual and theoretical basis

on the several different management areas and their impact on sustainable development, linking the

SDGs with which the platform converses and contextualizing them in a municipal government level,

listing the linked indicators and outlining successful references, i.e. municipal public policies that are

already working successfully in cities in Brazil and in the world.

   A source of information for planning, management and decision-making in the government, the

publication aims to contribute to the capacity of municipal administrators to implement goal plans

that include sustainable development.

                     All the material is available on www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br
GOVERNANCE
        What we understand as Governance
    The concept of Governance is based on the linka-             citizens. The dialogue between public managers and
ge between the political-administrative system, which            society will be successful to the extent that it inclu-
governs the decision-making process in a government              des the highest number of civil sectors, such as NGOs,
level, and the different social actors of the municipal,         companies, unions, universities, media, among others.
state or federal territories. In this regard, Governance         It should also provide for transparency, accountability
encompasses how the territory is organized politically           and free access to information of public management.
and the participation of the various segments of ci-
vil society in decision-making spaces. A modern and
democratic management must combine the political                      According to the new UN’s development parame-
and political-party guidelines of the elected member                  ters, this platform of the Sustainable Cities Pro-
of government with direct performance mechanisms                      gram converses with the SDGs:
of society in administrative decisions, always respec-
ting diversity and building instruments that promote
equality in different levels.
    The objective is to gradually replace the concept of
“government” by “public service”, in order to increasin-
gly establish partnerships between government and

Objectives and goals

                  General objective                                                Specific Objectives

        Strengthening decision-making processes by pro-                      Establishing strategic guidelines for the
        moting the instruments of participative democracy,                   joint work of the government with the orga-
        fostering equality in its multiple dimensions.                       nized society. This work can originate ideas
                                                                             that value the positive aspects of the cities,
        Every Mayor is elected to represent the citizens and,                point out collective solutions agreed by
        whenever possible, meet their expectations; howe-                    consensus for everyday problems, such as
        ver, with the advancement of democratic moderni-                     flooding, lack of day-care centers or health
        zation associated with the complexity of contem-                     centers as well as building the vision for the
        porary society, the structuring of direct democracy                  future of the cities and their strategic mas-
        mechanisms allowing the participation and opening                    ter plans.
        of dialogue channels of the Executive with various
        social segments and schools of thought is desirable.                 Transparency in information on the public
        The purpose is to build broadly majority decisions                   policies, budget data and the choice of bu-
        that strengthen the achievement of the priorities                    siness partners is the trust base for the par-
        and common objectives of the city for short, me-                     ticipatory process.
        dium and long terms.

   14       GOVERNANCE                                      GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps
Governance

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and specific objectives
Here, we highlight the incentive to policies aimed at women, with a focus on empowerment of girls and women to the full
exercise of citizenship and active participation in politics.

                       SDG 5: Gender equality
                       Achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls

                      In the 2014 elections there was a growth of                                   The gender disparity in the Bra-
                                                                                               zilian political and political-party

            46%
                                                                                               universe also takes place at a muni-
                                                                           over

                                                                                 7
                                                                                               cipal level. In 2012, according to the
                                                                                               Secretariat of Policies for Women,
            in the number of female                                                  ,000
                                                                                               31.9% of the candidates for the offi-
            candidates when compa-                                               were women.
                                                                                               ces of city councilors in the munici-
            red to the 2010 election.
                                                    However, after the election, the wo-       pal elections were women, and the-
                                                    men’s representation dropped sig-          se were only 13.3% of those elected,

Of the   25           ,000 candidates
for offices in the Executive and Le-
                                                    nificantly: in 2014, 51 women were
                                                    elected for the National Congress.
                                                    This represents only 10% of the to-
                                                                                               which is virtually the same drop as in
                                                                                               the number of women’s representa-
                                                                                               tion in the general elections.
gislative branches throughout Brazil,               tal representatives.
                                                                                                  Thus, in pursuit of expansion of
                                                                                               political participation of all in deci-
  Goal SDG 5                                                                                   sion-making, there is the need for
                                                                                               building institutional tools and pro-
      Goal 5.5 ensure full and effective participation of women and equal oppor-               cedures to boost the political role of
  tunities for leadership at all decision-making levels in political, economic and
  public life.                                                                                 women.

                       SDG 10: Reduced inequalities

                       Reduce inequality within and among countries.

    The search for an egalitarian and               were given a refugee status by the         the political world by strengthening
democratic society is directly related              Brazilian Government from 2011 to          their voice and decision-making
to social and political inclusion. This             August 2015. It is the nationality with    power.
goal is focused on the importance of                the highest number of recognized
eliminating discriminatory laws, es-                refugees in Brazil, ahead of Angola
pecially in dealing with immigrants.                and Congo.                                      Goal SDG 10
    Brazil was historically formed as                   In this context, it is imperative
                                                                                                        Goal 10.2 by 2030 em-
the country of arrival of important                 not just to welcome with dignity                power and promote the social,
migratory flows. According to data                  those who arrive in the country, by             economic and political inclusion
from Conare (National Committee                     fostering social and economic inclu-            of all, irrespective of age, sex, di-
                                                                                                    sability, race, ethnicity, origin, reli-
for Refugees), a body attached to                   sion programs and projects, but also            gion or economic or other status.
the Ministry of Justice, 2,077 Syrians              create strategies to include them in

GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps                                   GOVERNANCE         15
Governance

                         SDG 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
                         Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide
                         access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at
                         all levels

    The full exercise of citizenship requires building strong,              In 2005, the UN created the United Nations Conven-
transparent institutions with instruments of popular par-               tion against Corruption, aimed at building rules and pa-
ticipation. Access to justice for all and the strengthening             thways to recognize, prevent and punish crimes of such
of the bases that support the development of a Rule of                  kind. In Brazil, the dialogue with this convention takes
Law must be secured.                                                    place mainly through the Office of the Federal Controller
    Social control mechanisms are strategic to ensure                   General (CGU), responsible for creating the Brazil Transpa-
good management. In addition to monitoring the work                     rent Scale (EBT), a methodology for evaluating the level of
carried out by the management and direct participation                  compliance with the provisions of the Access to Informa-
in building public policies, such tools allow monitoring                tion Act (Law 12.527/2011).
and combating one of the greatest obstacles to good go-
vernance: corruption.

     Goals SDG 16
       Goal 16.3 - Promote the Rule of Law at the national                 Goal 16.7 - Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory
   and international levels and ensure equal access to justi-           and representative decision-making at all levels.
   ce for all.
                                                                            Goal 16.10 - Ensure public access to information
         Goal 16.5 - Substantially reduce corruption and bribery        and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with
   in all their forms.                                                  national legislation and international agreements.

       Goal 16.6 - Develop effective, accountable and transpa-
   rent institutions at all levels.

    16
    16       GOVERNANCE                                            GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps
Governance

        Indicators and their benefits
    The indicators can help to promote not only inclusion and social justice, but the necessary citizenship and participa-
tory governance.

                                  Indicators related to Governance platform

                                 1    Accessibility in public spaces
                                 2 Access to justice
                                 3 Access denied in the citizen information system
                                 4 Municipal Conferences
                                 5 Municipal Councils
                                 6 Dada in open format
                                 7 Deliberative participation spaces and public hearings in the city
                                 8 Public officials investigated for corruption
                                 9 Public officials who have suffered administrative action
                                 10 Individuals who used electronic government
                                 11 Regulated Access to Information Act
                                 12 Mechanisms of direct democracy
                                 13 Women in management positions in the municipal government
                                 14 Women in charge of the Municipal Government Departments
            OVERNANCE

                                 15 Afro-Brazilian in management positions in the municipal government
                                 16 Budget implemented and decided on a participatory basis
                                 17 Agencies to control and combat corruption
                                 18 Ombudsman
                                 19 Gender equality in Municipal Councils
                                 20 Participation of adolescents and youth in decision-making bodies
                                 21 Queries answered in the citizen information system
                                 22 People with disabilities employed in the municipal government
                                 23 Regionalized public policies
                                 24 Transparency Portal
                                 25 Presence of Female City Councilors in the Municipal Council
                                 26 Municipal lawsuits for corruption
                                 27 Goal Program
                                 28 Appeals and complaints recorded in the citizen information system
                                 29 Systems to control and combat corruption
                                 30 Smart and transparent systems for procurement and competitive bidding
                                 31 Internet users by types of service of electronic government

GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps                         GOVERNANCE   17
Governance

How to do it?

   To summarize the concepts presented about Governance, successful practical examples that can serve as reference or
inspiration for your city are presented below:

                          Erechim, RS                                                              Lisboa, Portugal

      Municipal Ombudsman as a citizenship channel                                    Participatory Budgeting is deliberative

     In 2011, a new model of municipal ombudsman was imple-                  The Participatory Budgeting of Lisbon is a decision-making
mented in the city of Erechim, called “Active Ombudsman”. The            process, giving actual decision-making power to citizens to
initiative represented the establishment of a more human dialo-          submit proposals for their city and vote on the projects to be
gue channel between the demands of the community and the                 included in the Activity and Budget Plan of the City of Lisbon.
services provided by the city. The Active Ombudsman seeks city           The proposals can be submitted online and in Participatory
citizens to hear their opinion about the service used and thus           Meetings.
contribute to improve the quality and efficiency of public admi-             In the participatory budgeting cycles of Lisbon, between
nistration. This after-service work stands out as an example of          the years of 2008 and 2015, 5.208 proposals were presented,
innovation.                                                              1.647 projects were voted and 88 projects were approved, with
     Since the ombudsman reorganization, 138,499 after-servi-            a total of 179.272 votes, and investments of € 28,825,668.00.
ce calls were recorded, and 11,555 claims were received – and            http://cidadessustentaveis.org.br/boas-praticas/lisboa-participa
79.13% of these had a positive resolution by the city. In total,
there were 150,054 call records in five years of operation, repre-
senting an average of 150 calls a day.
http://www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/boas-praticas/ouvidoria
-municipal-de-erechim-um-canal-de-cidadania

                 Get to know other initiatives related to the Governance platform on
                 http://cidadessustentaveis.org.br/boas-praticas

    18
    18       GOVERNANCE                                              GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps
COMMON NATURAL RESOURCES
         What we mean by Natural Common Resources
    The concept of Common Natural Resources includes                             the practice of conscious consumption, reuse and recy-
the elements of the physical environment, such as water,                         cling of products and composting of waste. Examples are
soil and air, and the different terrestrial ecosystems whi-                      the policies that encourage the production of renewable
ch, in addition to being necessary to sustain human life,                        energies (wind and solar), the use of biomass fuels (such
contain different species of Brazilian fauna and flora, the                      as ethanol and biodiesel), and agricultural and cattle-ran-
variety of which is called biodiversity (http://www.mma.                         ching activities that do not engage in predatory exploita-
gov.br/ biodiversidade/biodiversidade-brasileira).                               tion and do not contaminate the environment.

    Brazil stands out internationally for being one of the
countries with the highest flora and fauna biodiversity on
                                                                                        In    accordan-
the planet, and to preserve this natural wealth, the cou-
                                                                                    ce with the new
ntry needs local public policies to streamline access to
                                                                                    UN development
and use of these resources, as well as protect its reserva-
                                                                                    parameters, this
tions and recover its degraded areas. It is imperative that
                                                                                    platform of the
a sustainable city be administered under guidelines that
                                                                                    Sustainable Cities
promote water resources and biodiversity and encourage
                                                                                    Program converses
reforestation, soil preservation and good air quality.
                                                                                    with the SDGs:
    In this context, the promotion of public policies aimed
at the balance between urban interventions and environ-
mental preservation becomes necessary. It is recommen-
ded to work with its inhabitants and municipal entities

         Goals and objectives
                General objective

         Fully assume the responsibility for protecting, pre-                    administrations must ensure their rational use in order
         serving and ensuring balanced access to natural                         to preserve them over the years.
         common resources.
                                                                                 More compact cities, occupying modest portions of
         Most of the Brazilian municipalities have under                         the municipal territory and seeking an increasingly
         their responsibility enormous territorial exten-                        harmonious relationship with all the natural environ-
         sions, which make up significant portions of our                        ment (as well as encourage the adoption of sustaina-
         natural wealth. With a high concentration of po-                        ble agricultural and cattle-ranching practices and the
         pulation in cities, it is of utmost importance not                      recovery and protection of their natural resources) will
         to neglect the municipal/regional territory as a                        certainly be the cities of the future. And only these will
         whole, as it is vital to control the pressure on the                    be able to offer better life quality and water and food
         natural resources that urban growth often causes.                       security, as well as avoid intense climatic changes and
         The natural resources are finite and the municipal                      extreme events.

GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps                            COMMON NATURAL RESOURCES     19
Common Natural Resources

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and specific objectives
The care for the elements of the physical environment, fauna and flora, always in relation to the social interaction requi-
red and needed to match the parameters of sustainable development stands out.

                    SDG 2: Zero hunger and sustainable agriculture

                    End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainab-
                    le agriculture

    Sustainable development has as           The World Health Organization                       Sustainable agriculture practices
its premise the harmonic coexisten-               (WHO) recommends                           are an important example of balan-
ce between natural ecosystems and                    a minimum of                            ce between rural, urban and respect
society. In this context, the promo-                                                         for the environment. In addition to
tion of public policies that provide
a balance between urban interven-
tions, rural development and envi-
                                                      12         sq. m.
                                                of green area per inhabitant
                                                                                             providing better environmental con-
                                                                                             ditions for production in the field,
                                                                                             this modality ensures social benefits
ronmental preservation becomes                           in the city.                        for the urban environment itself, es-
necessary. The maintenance of gre-                                                           pecially in terms of food security.
en areas, particularly those close to                                                            Significant advance in this direc-
urban centers, is essential for good           To maintain the recommended                   tion was obtained with the National
air quality, preservation of biodiver-      standard, it is important that the               School Feeding Program (PNAE),
sity and the quality of life of the inha-   municipal government protect rural               sanctioned in 2009.
bitants of the cities.                      areas, native forests and even urban
                                            green areas, turning them into are-               The law determines that, among
                                            as of preservation, environmental                       other things, at least
                                            protection areas or protected areas.
                                            Environmental protection policies
                                            should also be linked to those of
                                            social inclusion, economic develo-
                                                                                              30%           of the food for public
                                                                                                elementary and middle schools
                                            pment of rural areas and reduced                    derives from family agriculture.
                                            inequalities.

     Goal SDG 2
         Goal 2.4 by 2030, ensu-            ase productivity and production, that            flooding and other disasters and that
     re sustainable food production         help maintain ecosystems, that streng-           progressively improve land and soil
     systems and implement resilient        then capacity for adaptation to clima-           quality.
     agricultural practices that incre-     te change, extreme weather, drought,

    20       COMMON NATURAL RESOURCES                        GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps
Common Natural Resources

                       Goal SDG 6: Clean water and sanitation

                       Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

     The development of sus-                            According to the study “Water Loss: Challenges to the Advancement of
tainable societies requires                         Basic Sanitation and Water Scarcity” (2015), prepared by the Trata Brasil
concern for the preservation                        Institute,
of water resources and for an                                        the average water loss against billing
extensive offer of sanitation,                           (Index that compares the volume of water available to be distri-
given that lack of sanitation                                  buted with the volume that is billed by the company)
can lead to contamination of
soil, sea, rivers and other sour-
ces of clean water. In addition,
it is critical to have strategies
                                                          in the   100                  largest cities
                                                                                                            was   37
                                                                                                             in the year 2013.
                                                                                                                              %
                                                                            in Brazil
in place to monitor the ratio-
nal use of water by the indus-                               This is the result of leaks, theft, lack of or errors in metering,
try and agriculture, as well as                           lack of investment in prevention and maintenance in the distri-
secure the commitment of                                  bution system.
these sectors to programs for
protection and restoration of
                                                    The situation of sewage collection                   in river beds, stream beds or mari-
watersheds.
                                                    and treatment is even more alar-                     ne outfalls. That causes all these
                                                    ming: : less than 50% of Brazilian                   resources to be contaminated and,
   On the other hand, a lar-
                                                    households are connected to the                      often, their ecosystems to be des-
ge number of Brazilian cities
                                                    sewage network, as well as only                      troyed. Giving sanitation priority is
presents high rates of treated
                                                    38.7% of the total collected sewa-                   therefore one of the fundamental
water loss.
                                                    ge is treated before being dumped                    premises to build sustainable cities.

    Goals SDG 6
        Goal 6.1 by 2030, achieve                       Goal 6.3 by 2030, improve water                      Goal 6.5 by 2030, imple-
    universal and equitable access to               quality by reducing pollution, elimina-              ment integrated water resources
    safe and affordable drinking water              ting dumping and minimizing release                  management at all levels, including
    for all.                                        of hazardous chemicals and materials,                through transboundary coopera-
                                                    halving the proportion of untreated was-             tion, as appropriate.
        Goal 6.2 by 2030, achieve                   tewater and substantially increasing re-
    access to adequate and equitable                cycling and safe reuse globally.                        Goal 6.6 by 2020, protect
    sanitation and hygiene for all and                                                                   and restore water-related ecosys-
    end open defecation, paying special                 Goal 6.4 by 2030, substantially                  tems, including mountains, forests,
    attention to the needs of women                 increase water-use efficiency across                 wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes.
    and girls and those in vulnerable si-           all sectors and ensure sustainable wi-
    tuations.                                       thdrawals and supply of freshwater to                    Goal 6.b support and stren-
                                                    address water scarcity and substantially             gthen the participation of local
                                                    reduce the number of people suffering                communities in improving water
                                                    from water scarcity                                  and sanitation management.

GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps                             COMMON NATURAL RESOURCES        21
Common Natural Resources

                   SDG 11: Sustainable cities and communities

                   Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

    Major cities internationally re-         the safety and welfare of the popu-               ted in some municipalities, such as
cognized such as Vitoria-Gasteiz, in         lation. Many cities have reduced or               development of rural tourism and
Spain, and Lyon, in France, have de-         even eliminated the sources of de-                fostering of agricultural pluriactivity.
veloped projects for the expansion           predation through proactive urban                     Territorial planning is the key to
of vegetation cover in the urban area        planning, by implementing collecti-               making cities more inclusive, safe,
and managed to ensure that the               ve public spaces for leisure and con-             resilient and sustainable. This tool
whole population’s access to green           templation, with cultural activities              adjusts the rural and urban areas
areas is within a radius of up to 300        and prioritizing urban parks.                     of the city and assists in mitigating
meters away from their homes.                    In addition, seeking to deepen                the environmental impacts resulting
    Another important factor of pre-         the resilience of cities, strategies to           from anthropic actions.
servation of green areas concerns            qualify rural areas have been adop-

    Goal SDG 11
         Goal 11.4 strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

                   SDG 12: Responsible consumption and production

                   Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

    To achieve an effectively sus-           natives for a change of habits.                   natural resources and mitigate
tainable management and the                     A recurring problem faced in                   climate change. The government
efficient use of natural resources,          several municipalities is fires and               must promote educational acti-
paradigms must be broken and                 forest burning, the vast majority                 vities with the entire community
the population must be re-educa-             of which is man-made, for lack of                 and promote public policies to
ted by involving it in participatory         care or lack of proper information.               encourage a culture that is more
cycles, with practical experiences              In this scenario, it is important              ecological and organic.
showing more sustainable alter-              to go beyond actions to protect

    Goal SDG 12
         Goal 12.2 by 2030, achieve sustainable management and the efficient use of natural resources.

    22      COMMON NATURAL RESOURCES                           GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps
Common Natural Resources

                       SDG 14: Life below water

                       Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainab-
                       le development

    The conservation of marine resources depends on the reduction of pollu-                        However, the Federal Constitu-
tion and acidification of the seas. In this sense, the regulation of fishing is es-            tion of 1988 defines that sea beaches
sential to restore and ensure the balance of marine ecosystems, ensuring a                     and their natural resources, marine
maximum and sustainable yield.                                                                 land, territorial sea, river beaches,
                                                                                               among others, are the property of
                                            Brazil has
                                                                                               the Federal Government.

7.367
   km of coastline, without                                         which brings this exten-
                                                                                                   A fact that poses a new challenge
                                                                                               for municipal management: develo-
                                                                                               ping mechanisms to protect these
                                                                        sion up to over        ecosystems and natural resources.
taking into account the coas-

                                                                          8,5
tal cutouts (bays, coves, gulfs,
                                                                                                   Thus, municipal and social parti-
             etc.),
                                                                                               cipation mechanisms must be esta-
                                                                           thousand km         blished in policies related to access
Spread over
                                                                                               to the sea, use, management and

395                     municipalities in   17             states
                                                                                               protection of marine resources and,
                                                                                               especially, small-scale fishing.

    Goals SDG 14
         Goal 14.1 by 2025, prevent                 including marine debris and nutrient       least 10% of coastal and marine
     and significantly reduce marine                pollution.                                 areas, consistent with national
     pollution of all kinds, in particu-                                                       and international law and based
     lar from land-based activities,                     Goal 14.5 by 2020, conserve at        on the best available scientific in-
                                                                                               formation.

GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps                   COMMON NATURAL RESOURCES       23
Common Natural Resources

                  SDG 15: Life on land

                  Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably
                  manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation, and
                  halt biodiversity loss degradação da terra, e estancar a perda de biodiversidade

    Sustainable development provides, in its essence,                              However, according to data
a link between natural ecosystems and society, indi-                        from the Ministry of the Environment,
cating that conservation policies should be linked to                        between August 2014 and July 2015
those who seek objective opportunities for social in-
                                                                                    deforestation increased by
clusion and reducing inequalities.

    The preservation of terrestrial ecosystems, forests
and biodiversity requires the conservation of what                            16%
currently exists and the reversal of damage previou-
sly caused to the environment. In addition, for being
                                                                                  Of the Atlantic Forest and its rich
linked to the maintenance of biodiversity, it sets speci-
                                                                                          biodiversity, only
fic goals to put an end to illegal hunting and trafficking
of species of wild fauna and flora. To enhance this
care, it is important to have as a reference, also, the
                                                                                                  8%
                                                                                    of the original coverage is left.
20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets, adopted in the Conven-
tion of Nagoya, Japan, in 2010 ( www.cbd.int/nbsap/                   That upslope is worrying, as it resumes a movement
training/quick-guides).                                           that was being fought by Governments. What makes SDG
                                                                  15 extremely important and relevant to our country.
   There is clear concern for the speeding up of pro-
cesses such as deforestation and desertification, whi-
ch are issues close to Brazil, in view of the range of
municipalities responsible for segments of the Atlantic
Forest, Amazon Rainforest, Pantanal and Cerrado.                        Goals SDG 15
                                                                            Goal 15.1 by 2020, ensure the conservation,
                                                                        restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and in-
                Our country includes: :                                 land freshwater ecosystems and their services, in par-
                                                                        ticular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in
                                                                        line with obligations under international agreements.

                     60%
            of the entire Amazon basin and
                                                                            Goal 15.2 by 2020, promote the implementation
                                                                        of sustainable management of all types of forests, halts
                                                                        deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially
                          about                                         increase afforestation and reforestation.

                                                                            Goal 15.a mobilize and significantly increase fi-

                     50%                                                nancial resources from all sources to conserve and sus-
                                                                        tainably use biodiversity and ecosystems.

          of the national territory is covered
                    by this biome..

    24     COMMON NATURAL RESOURCES                          GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps
Common Natural Resources

          Indicators and their benefits
   The Common Natural Resources Platform indicators reflect the main points on the care for the environment, the
health of the population and the future generations. Monitoring and improving these indicators is a way to provide more
quality of life in the present and ensure its continuation in the future.

                   Indicators relating to the platform Common Natural Resources

                                        1   Permanent and sustainable access to drinking water

                                        2 Deforested area

                                        3 Restored area of degraded forests

                                        4 Protected watershed areas

                                        5 Areas for Protected Areas

                                        6 Assessment of supply/demand of urban water supply

                                        7 Remaining native plant coverage
             COMMON NATURAL RESOURCES

                                        8 Sewage that does not receive any kind of treatment

                                        9 Sewage treated before reaching the sea, rivers and streams

                                        10 Afforestation and reforestation

                                        11 Public expenses intended for the regeneration of natural resources, ecosys-

                                        tems and biodiversity

                                        12 Specific legislation on environmental issues

                                        13 Participation of the city in the Basins Committee

                                        14 Loss of treated water

                                        15 Medium and long term plans for water resources

                                        16 Forest burning and fires

                                        17 Recovery of degraded soil

                                        18 Sewage network

                                        19 Reservations and protected areas

                                        20 Rivers and streams rated as at least “in good conditions” according to official

                                        criteria

                                        21 Coastal area in conservation and scientific interest area

GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management          www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps              COMMON NATURAL RESOURCES   25
Common Natural Resources

How to do it?

   To summarize the concepts presented about Common Natural Resources, successful practical examples that can
serve as reference or inspiration for your city are presented below:

                    Quatro Pontes, PR                                                                Lyon, França

         The “Water, Who Loves It Takes Care of It”                                   City revitalizes rivers and creates parks
                program recovers springs
                                                                             The city of Lyon has been investing in preservation and cre-
    A partnership between the city and the citizens prioritized          ation of new green areas for over 10 years. The initiatives range
the recovery of springs in the region as an environmentally heal-        from the conversion of vacant lots into urban parks, to larger
thy and sustainable consensus for water collection and supply.           projects, such as the revitalization of river banks. In addition to
The initiative helps prevent pollution and shortage of water in          the new initiatives, the maintenance of existing green infrastruc-
aquifers.                                                                ture is constant.
    In two years, 19 springs were recovered. After the recovery,             With all this attention to green areas, currently the city has
the water flow increased fivefold on average.                            430 hectares of gardens, parks and green spaces, corresponding
http://cidadessustentaveis.org.br/boas-praticas/agua-quem                to 32 sq. m. of green area per inhabitant. http://cidadessustenta-
-ama-cuida-recuperacao-de-nascentes-em-quatro-pontes                     veis.org.br/boas-praticas/lyon-cidade-mais-verde

                 Get to know other initiatives related to the platform Common Natural Resources on
                 http://cidadessustentaveis.org.br/boas-praticas

    26      COMMON NATURAL RESOURCES                                GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps
EQUITY, SOCIAL JUSTICE
                  AND CULTURE OF PEACE
         What we mean by Equity, Social Justice
         and Culture of Peace
    The concepts of equity and social justice refer to equal                        The objective should be to build a society that is econo-
access to public services of health, education, culture, se-                     mically viable, socially fair and environmentally sustainable.
curity and housing and the real opportunities of profes-
sional occupation.

   The effectiveness in this access promotes an environ-                                 The According to the new UN develop-
ment of culture of peace, which means to say less social                             ment parameters, this platform Sustainable
inequalities, driving a set of values, attitudes, behaviors                          Cities Program converses with the SDGs:
and lifestyles that prevent conflicts and contribute to the
resolution of problems through dialogue and negotiation
between the parties involved.

    Satisfactory fulfillment of such socio-economic parame-
ters, combined with sustainable development, is reflected on
the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations
Development Program (UNDP). Therefore, more egalitarian
societies tend to produce superior results in the HDI ranking.
The economic and social inclusion process is also based on
the strengthening of freedom and individual rights.

Objectives and goals

          General objective                                                               Specific Goals

        Promote inclusive and                          The reduction in social differences is a basic condition for the well-being of
        supportive communities.                        the population and enables the construction of a sustainable urban space.
        Social inclusion and so-                       Bearing that in mind, the specific goals of this platform include: develo-
        lidarity promotion poli-                       ping and implementing programs to prevent and overcome the condition
        cies are fundamental to                        of poverty; ensuring equitable access to public services, education, health,
        the development of our                         employment opportunities, vocational training, cultural and sports activi-
        societies and should be                        ties, information and digital inclusion with internet access; promoting so-
        adopted by municipal                           cial inclusion and equality between genders, races and ethnic groups and
        administrations, so that                       respect for sexual diversity; increasing the security of the community and
        cities may become more                         promoting the culture of peace; and ensuring the right to dwelling in social
        fair and egalitarian.                          and environmental conditions of good quality.

GPS Guide - Sustainable Public Management   www.cidadessustentaveis.org.br/gps               EQUITY, SOCIAL JUSTICE AND CULTURE OF PEACE   27
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