Health and Safety

 
 
Health and Safety
Health and Safety




www.sparc.org.nz
Health and Safety
Health and Safety
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS   1



Table of
       contents
Introduction                                         4

Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992             5
Who is responsible?                                  5
Employer responsibilities                            5
Employee responsibilities                            6
Volunteers                                           6

Role of OSH                                          8

Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC)              9

Smoke-free Environments Act 1990                    10

Workplace health and safety systems                 11
Employer commitment and policy                      11
Hazard identification and management                 12
Prioritising hazards                                12
Controlling hazards                                 14
Monitoring hazards                                  14
Stress in the workplace                             14
Occupational Overuse Syndrome                       15
Manual handling                                     15
Workplace health and safety systems summary         16

Accident management                                 17
Accident management summary                         17

Emergency management planning                       18
Fire                                                18
Other emergency procedures                          19
First aid                                           19
Civil defence supplies                              20
Emergency management summary                        20

Staff training, supervision and participation       21
Information for employees                           21
Training or supervision                             21
Suitable protective clothing and equipment          21
Staff participation                                 22
Health and safety representatives                   22
2



    Contractors and visitors                                 24

    Health and safety and events                             25
    Event risk management process                            26

    Appendix                                                 29

    Appendix 1: Example health and safety programme plan     31

    Appendix 2: Sample hazard register                       33

    Appendix 3: Sample employee health and safety handbook   34

    Appendix 4: Event management risk profile template        42

    Appendix 5: Sample health and safety manual              43
It isn’t the mountains
     ahead to climb
that wear you out; it’s the pebble
       in your shoe.  Muhammad Ali
4




    Introduction
    This toolkit is designed to assist managers to meet their obligations under the Health
    and Safety in Employment Act 1992 (HSE Act), the Health and Safety in Employment
    Amendment Act 2002 (Amendment Act) and associated legislation. It will also help
    you to set up new, or review your existing, health and safety policy and procedures.
    This resource is designed to be read in conjunction with other SPARC publications such
    as the ‘People Management’ and ‘Risk Management’ toolkits.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                           HEALTH AND SAFETY IN EMPLOYMENT ACT 1992   5




Health and Safety
           in Employment Act 1992
The main Act for the management of health and safety is the Health and Safety in
Employment Act 1992 (HSE Act). The principal objective of the Act is to provide for the
prevention of harm to employees while at work and to other people in the vicinity of a
workplace. The HSE Act is supported by regulations, guidelines and codes of practice
which control specific health and safety issues. A place of work is defined very broadly
as any place (not necessarily part of a building or structure) where any person is to
work, is working for the time being, or customarily works for gain or reward.
The Act does not tell people how to make the workplace safe; rather, it requires that
they have taken all reasonable practicable steps to make work safe. It recognises that
those involved in the work (employers and employees) are in the ideal position to
decide on the best way to make their workplace safe.
The Health and Safety in Employment Amendment Act 2002 increased the principal
coverage of the HSE Act to include protection to volunteers (excludes sports
organisations), persons in on-the-job training/work experience and employees on loan.
The amendment also confirms that harm can occur from work-related stress and that
temporary conditions may cause a person’s behaviour to be hazardous.
The guidelines and appendices in this section will help you to understand your duties
and responsibilities, and those of your employees, in relation to health and safety.


Who is responsible?
There is a shared responsibility by employers, employees and others to ensure a safe
and healthy workplace. Under the HSE Amendment Act in 2002, employees are
required to take part in the process of maintaining a safe and healthy workplace.


Employer responsibilities
As an employer, under the Act, it is primarily your responsibility to ensure that work is
carried out in a safe and healthy manner by performing the following duties:
       •    Provide and maintain a safe working environment (refer HSE Act
            sections 6, 7).
       •    Provide and maintain facilities for the health and safety of employees at
            work (refer HSE Act section 6).
       •    Ensure any equipment in the place of work is designed, set up and
            maintained to be safe for employees (refer HSE Act section 6).
       •    Ensure systems of work do not lead employees to be exposed to hazards in
            or around their place of work (refer HSE Act sections 7-10).
       •    Develop procedures for dealing with emergencies that may arise while
            employees are at work (refer HSE Act section 12).
       •    Train and supervise employees (refer HSE Act section 13).
       •    Involve employees in the development of health and safety procedures
            (refer HSE Act section 14).
6



    Employee responsibilities
    Employees also have a responsibility under the HSE Act:
           Not to endanger themselves or others (refer HSE Act section 19).

    This includes:
           •    following the employer’s instructions regarding hazards in the place of
                work, and health and safety practices
           •    reporting hazards
           •    using and caring for protective clothing and equipment and emergency
                equipment
           •    not misusing or damaging equipment
           •    cooperating with the monitoring of workplace hazards and employees’
                health (with permission)
           •    reporting work-related injuries or ill health
           •    not undertaking work that is unsafe. The Act provides that an employee
                may refuse to do certain work if that employee believes the work is likely to
                cause them serious harm
           •    not interfering with an accident scene (refer HSE Act section 26)
           •    complying with notices or other requirements of health and safety
                inspectors and departmental medical practitioners from OSH (including
                improvement or prohibition notices) (refer HSE Act sections 31, 33, 35, 37,
                39-45).
    An employee with supervisory or management responsibilities may also represent
    the employer and therefore have employer responsibilities in addition to their own
    responsibilities, for example ‘being in control of the place of work’.


    Volunteers
    The Act describes a volunteer as any person who does not expect to be rewarded for
    work undertaken in their capacity as a volunteer and has not received any reward for
    this work. A person who is in a place of work for the purpose of receiving on-the-job
    training or gaining work experience is not included in the definition of volunteer by the
    Act. This means your organisation should ensure a safe work environment for anyone
    who is receiving on-the-job training or gaining work experience.
    If a volunteer does work on a regular and ongoing basis and the work is regarded as an
     integral part of the business or operation, those volunteers will be covered by certain
    parts of the Act, in particular the obligation to provide a safe work environment.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                            HEALTH AND SAFETY IN EMPLOYMENT ACT 1992   7



Certain volunteers are excluded by the Act, including those assisting with sport and
recreation for:
       •    a sports club
       •    a recreation club
       •    an educational institution.
Volunteers, such as those assisting with sport and recreation, who are not afforded
specific and enforceable coverage under section 3C of the Act are provided general
declaratory coverage under section 3D of the Act. This requires that all practicable
steps be taken to ensure health and safety of the volunteer while he or she is doing
work activity. If an OSH inspector is aware of a significant hazard that may affect
the volunteer, the Inspector will request that steps be taken to eliminate, isolate or
minimise the hazard as opposed to requiring steps to be taken. In summary, volunteers
who are involved in sporting activities are still covered by the Act but the obligations to
provide a safe environment under the Act are not enforceable.
8




    Role of OSH
    The Occupational Safety and Health service (OSH) of the Department of Labour
    (DOL) administers and enforces the HSE Act. Health and safety inspectors provide
    information to employers and ascertain compliance with the Act. They are able to issue
    enforcement notices and prosecute under the HSE Act (refer HSE Act sections 29-45).
    Enforcement notices consist of improvement, prohibition or infringement notices.
    Improvement notices require the workplace to comply with various sections of the
    Act in a given timeframe. For example, a hazard notice that informs you that there is
    a hazard in the workplace must be dealt with. Before issuing this notice the Inspector
    must have tried to discuss the hazard with you. There is no penalty or fine associated
    with a hazard notice, but continued non-compliance may result in further action by a
    health and safety inspector.
    A prohibition notice is issued where it is determined that there is risk of serious
    harm occurring and may specify that employees are withdrawn from the work area.
    Continued non-compliance may result in an instant fine (infringement notice)
    or prosecution.
    Infringement notices may be issued for continued non-compliance with the Act and
    may result in an infringement notice which requires you to pay an instant fine (ranging
    from $100 to $4000).
    If a notice is issued and not complied with, the employer may be prosecuted (refer HSE
    Act sections 49, 50). If it is determined that you, as the employer, have not taken all
    reasonable practicable steps to ensure a safe workplace your organisation can be liable
    for a fine of up to $250,000. Refer to the OSH enforcement policy A Guide to the
    Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 (OSH, 2000).
    If an employee has suffered serious harm as a result of your knowingly operating an
    unsafe workplace (e.g. an accident occurs more than once in the same way), the fine
    can be up to $500,000.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                            ACCIDENT COMPENSATION CORPORATION (ACC)   9




Accident
Compensation
Corporation (ACC)
As an employer you are responsible for providing your employees with both a safe
workplace and ACC cover (through levies) for work-related injuries.
ACC WorkPlace Cover levy rates are determined by the cost of work-related injuries in
an industry sector. So the fewer injuries that occur overall, the less each employer will
have to pay in levies.
Employers are able to participate voluntarily in an ACC workplace safety management
practices programme or an ACC Partnership Programme.
The workplace safety management practices programme can be used to strengthen
your existing health and safety systems and offers the following benefits:
       •    It gives you an externally audited, national safety framework to work to.
       •    It proves your safety commitment to staff and members or associates.
       •    It rewards you with ACC levy discounts.
       •    It works to reduce injuries.
Discounts on your ACC WorkPlace Cover levy are awarded on three levels, to recognise
how comprehensive and effective your workplace safety management practices are.
The three levels are:
       •    Primary (10% discount)
       •    Secondary (15% discount)
       •    Tertiary (20% discount).
ACC will decide whether a discount is awarded, and at what level, on the basis of an
independent audit of your workplace safety systems and procedures. Discounts apply
for 24 months, starting from the first of the month after a successful audit.
If you are willing and able to manage your own accident cover and employee claims,
you can become part of the ACC Partnership Programme. Under the Programme,
you effectively agree to act on behalf of ACC for your work-related injuries. There are
two cover options to choose from – the Partnership Discount Plan, and the Full Self-
Cover Plan. Your organisation would need advanced health and safety systems and
infrastructure to support this programme.
More information is available through ACC: www.acc.co.nz
10




     Smoke-free
                Environments Act 1990
     It is a requirement of the Smoke-free Environments Act 1990 that all employers have
     a written policy on smoking for all areas occupied by the employer and frequented by
     employees. This policy should be reviewed in consultation with employees every year.
     You also need to ensure there are prominent notices indicating where smoking is not
     permitted and locating permitted smoking areas (such as a sheltered outdoor balcony).
     You will need to develop a policy that meets the requirements of the Smoke-free
     Environments Act 1990 and the Smoke-free Amendment Act 2003. It should be based
     on the following principles:
            •    Everyone is entitled to a smoke-free environment in all the areas normally
                 used for work.
            •    Everyone who does not smoke, or who does not wish to smoke in their
                 place of work must, as far as is reasonably practicable, be protected from
                 tobacco smoke in their place of work.
            •    The implementation a smoke-free policy depends on everyone responding
                 courteously to the desire for a smoke-free environment.
     Recent amendments to the Act now place an obligation on the licensee of any licensed
     premises to take all reasonable practical steps to ensure that no person smokes at
     any time in any part of the premises other than an open area. This also applies to the
     operator of a restaurant. If a sporting organisation runs a bar or restaurant then it must
     ensure it takes reasonable steps to prohibit members and patrons from smoking in the
     restaurant and/or bar.
     The Act also imposes controls on the marketing, advertising and promotion of tobacco
     products and their association through sponsorship of other products and events. A
     sporting organisation should not be involved in any sponsorship or advertising that
     involves tobacco products.
     More information is available through the Ministry of Health: www.moh.govt.nz
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                              WORKPLACE HEALTH AND SAFETY SYSTEMS   11




Workplace health
                                and safety systems
The main components of the Act require employers to show commitment to health
and safety by providing systems and resources for:
       •    employer commitment and policy
       •    hazard identification and management
       •    accident management
       •    emergency management
       •    employee information, training and supervision
       •    employee involvement
       •    working with contractors.


Employer commitment and policy
When developing a Health and Safety policy manual (refer example appendix 5), you
should list the objectives of the health and safety programme and how these objectives
will be achieved. Objectives should be SMART – specific, measurable, achievable, realistic
and time-bound (including a target date for completion). You should also document
who is responsible for achieving the objectives and ensure these objectives are reviewed
annually. An example plan from the ACC website is provided in appendix 1.
Your organisation’s commitment to a health and safety programme should include a
statement and an outline of staff and management accountabilities. A copy of your
health and safety policies should be documented in the health and safety manual and
there should be an abridged version in the health and safety employee handbook to
ensure that your organisational commitment is fully recognised.
Policies and procedures should be approved and regularly reviewed (for example yearly
or two-yearly) to ensure that they are up to date (legislatively and organisationally).
They should be authorised, signed and dated. A list of policies commonly found in a
health and safety manual is provided in appendix 5 – Manual review checklist.
12



     Hazard identification and management

     Hazard Identification
     Section 7 of the HSE Act requires employers to have in place effective methods to
     systematically identify hazards to employees at work. Hazards may be:
            •    previously existing
            •    new
            •    potential.
     Hazards can be identified by:
            •    physical inspection of the workplace, equipment and work practices
            •    analysis of ‘near miss accidents’ to determine the cause and prevent
                 accidents of this nature in future
            •    analysis of tasks and how they are carried out in the workplace.
     Once identified, hazards must be assessed and significant hazards controlled.
     A significant hazard is a hazard that is an actual or potential cause or source of:
            •    serious harm
            •    harm where severity of harm relates to the frequency or extent of exposure
            •    harm which does not usually occur and is not easily detectable until a
                 significant time after exposure to the hazard.
     Hazard identification and controls must be completed for each new or modified piece
     of equipment. An example of a hazard identification process is outlined in appendix 5
     – Hazard management policy.


     Prioritising hazards
     It is possible that in the process of identifying hazards there may be a number of
     significant hazards. Undertaking a risk assessment for each hazard will assist in
     prioritising hazard control methods. There are several methods available to determine
     risk. This involves considering two factors:
            •    Likelihood (the probable frequency that an injury or illness will occur as a
                 result of the hazard).
            •    Impact (the severity or degree of injury or illness that could occur as a result
                 of the hazard).
     The risk assessment method below is consistent with the SPARC Organisational Risk
     Management Toolkit. Refer to the SPARC website: www. sparc.org.nz. Likelihood and
     Impact are rated separately on a scale of 1 to 5 and then a risk level is determined as to
     whether the risk is a critical, high, moderate or low level risk. Likelihood, impact scale
     and risk assessment charts are provided below.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                                      WORKPLACE HEALTH AND SAFETY SYSTEMS   13



Likelihood scale

Score         Scale           Frequency of accident or illness
1             Rare            May occur only in exceptional circumstances, e.g. less than 5%
                              chance of occurring
2             Unlikely        Could occur at some time, e.g. 5-29% chance of occurring
3             Possible        Should occur at some time, e.g. 30-59% chance of occurring
4             Likely          Will probably occur in most circumstances, e.g. 60-79% chance
                              of occurring
5             Almost          Will occur in most circumstances, e.g. 80%+ chance of occurring
              certain

Impact scale

Score         Scale           Severity of accident or illness
1             Minimal         Negligible injury or illness
2             Minor           Minor injury or illness requiring minor first aid and/or less than
                              one week’s recovery
3             Moderate        Injury or illness requiring advanced first aid and medical visit
                              (e.g. GP or hospital visit) and/or 1-6 weeks’ recovery
4             Major           Injury or illness requiring advanced first aid and emergency
                              medical assistance (e.g. hospitalisation) and/or more than
                              6 weeks’ recovery
5             Extreme         Injury or illness requiring immediate emergency medical assistance
                              and may result in permanent or long-term disabling effects or
                              death. Hospitalisation likely to be for more than 6 weeks


Risk assessment chart

              Impact
Likelihood
              Minimal          Minor             Moderate         Major             Extreme
Almost        H                H                 C                C                 C
certain
Likely        M                H                 H                C                 C
Possible      L                M                 H                C                 C
Unlikely      L                L                 M                H                 C
Rare          L                L                 M                H                 H


Legend:
C                 Critical risk; immediate action required
H                 High risk; senior management attention is needed
M                 Moderate risk; management responsibility must be specified
L                 Low risk; manage by routine procedures


When the risk has been determined, this should be entered into the hazard register
(see example in appendix 2). The higher the risk, the greater the priority to control
the hazard.
14



     Controlling hazards
     Sections 8-10 of the HSE Act require that once hazards are identified you must
     eliminate, isolate or minimise them as follows:
            •    To eliminate a hazard you would change the situation so that the hazard
                 no longer exists (e.g. fix an uneven floor).
            •    If this is not possible, you should attempt to isolate the hazard by putting in
                 place a process or mechanism that keeps employees away from the hazard
                 (e.g. wash floor outside work hours to prevent a slipping hazard).
            •    If this is not possible, then you must minimise the hazard by doing all
                 you can to protect employees from harm (e.g. put signage up to warn of
                 tripping/falling hazards on stairs).
     Appointed health and safety representatives are required to have training for the
     identification and control of hazards and are responsible for maintaining a hazard
     register. Specialist advice may be sought to control specific hazards (such as
     dangerous substances).
     A hazard register (see example in appendix 2) lets employees know of the potential
     areas of harm in the workplace. This list must be kept up to date and made available
     to existing employees. It should also be included in new employees’ induction packs.
     However, it is everyone’s responsibility to identify hazards, complete a hazard
     notification form (see example in appendix 5 – Hazard notification form) and discuss
     the issue with the nominated health and safety manager.


     Monitoring hazards
     Where a hazard cannot be eliminated and a minimisation approach is taken to manage
     a significant hazard, employers are required to monitor employees’ health (with the
     employees’ consent) in relation to exposure to the hazard.
     Monitoring ensures that the control measures implemented remain appropriate
     and can be changed if the hazard characteristics have changed. The frequency of
     monitoring should be determined based on the risk and potential for change in the
     characteristic of the hazard. We tend to think of hazards as things that cause physical
     harm, but amendments to the HSE Act in 2002 emphasised that stress and fatigue
     have potential to cause harm also. You should, therefore, monitor your employees’
     health in terms of both physical and mental wellbeing.
     Monitoring may be by way of survey, visual inspection or sophisticated analysis
     (for example audiometry).


     Stress in the workplace
     Everyone experiences stress from time to time and most of us have ways in which we
     deal with it. Prolonged exposure to high levels of stress, however, may be detrimental
     to a person’s health. Whilst it is difficult to monitor each employee’s level of stress, you
     are required to ensure that your work practices don’t cause unnecessary harm. In the
     same way you are required to put systems in place to manage other hazards, you must
     have systems to deal with stress in the workplace.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                                WORKPLACE HEALTH AND SAFETY SYSTEMS   15



For example, stress can be:
       •    inherent in the job
       •    a result of the way the job is organised (e.g. shift work, unpredictable work
            peaks)
       •    a result of excessive work demands
       •    related to personal factors (e.g. relationship status, financial issues etc).
If you become aware of the fact that an employee is suffering from stress, you must
have systems in place to assist to reduce the potential for harm. The best place to start
is an open discussion with the employee. If their source of stress is work related (e.g.
high workload, job content, conflict with colleagues) you can work together to take all
reasonable practicable steps to reduce the stressful situation.
Whilst you have no control over an employee’s personal life and external factors that
may impact on a person’s ability to cope at work, you are still required to take some
simple and practicable steps to help an employee deal with personal issues (if you
know about them). Some examples of the kind of support you could provide in this
situation are flexible work arrangements, reduced workload, paid leave or support to
attend counselling.
You will need to decide on the best ways to monitor stress levels and appropriate
systems to manage stress in your workplace.


Occupational Overuse Syndrome
Occupational Overuse Syndrome (OOS) is a collective term for a range of conditions
(including injury) characterised by discomfort or persistent pain in muscles, tendons and
other soft tissues. Every case of OOS has the potential to be classified as a significant
hazard because the condition may cause ‘serious harm’. Therefore the risk factors
for OOS need to be controlled by eliminating the hazard if at all possible, or else by
isolating or minimising the hazard.
There is an approved code of practice for OOS available through OSH:
www.osh.dol.govt.nz


Manual handling
‘Manual handling’ is defined as any activity requiring a person to lift, lower, push, pull,
carry, throw, move, restrain, hold or otherwise handle any animate or inanimate object.
Any manual handling tasks that are likely to be a risk to health and safety in the
workplace require hazard assessment and management. Staff should be provided with
appropriate training where manual handling tasks occur in the workplace. There is a
Code of Practice for Manual Handling published jointly by OSH and ACC. The code can
be downloaded from either the OSH or ACC websites.
16



     Workplace health and safety systems summary
     Keep your workplace SAFE by following this simple mnemonic:

     S         Stop        Look at the work, activities, equipment and substances
     A         Assess      Does the work present any hazards that can cause harm?

                           Are they significant hazards?

                           Are controls sufficient?
     F         Fix         Correct any hazards

                           Eliminate, isolate or minimise
     E         Evaluate    Continue to monitor the hazard and controls

                           Are controls effective?
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                                                   ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT     17




Accident
                  management
The Act requires you to keep a record of all accidents (including near misses) at work.
You should record this information in an accident register, an example of which is
included in appendix 5 – Accident form/register. The accident register also includes an
accident investigation portion to find out what happened, what the causes were and
what can be done to prevent it occurring in future.
Serious harm must be reported to OSH as soon as possible after the event and in
writing within seven days of the harm occurring. Serious harm is described in the first
schedule of the HSE Act.
Employees need to know how to manage an accident or incident. This information
should be contained in the health and safety policy manual and should include:
       •    what to do if you are involved in a work accident or incident
       •    how to react in an emergency when you are ‘on the scene’
       •    the reporting and investigation process.


Accident management summary
After the initial management of the accident or incident (first aid), the process for
managing the accident should include:

C           Correct          Return to SAFE to correct the hazard
A           Accident         Report the accident/incident as required

                             Report serious harm. Contact the health and safety manager
                             immediately
R           Rehabilitate     Get involved in the rehabilitation process

                             Provide a supportive environment for rehabilitation
E           Evaluate         Has the rehabilitative process been successful?

                             Will the steps in place prevent similar events?

                             What have we learnt from the process?
18




     Emergency
                management planning
     Fire
     The Building Act 1991 requires evacuation schemes for public safety where any
     building is used as a place:
     (a)    where 100 or more people are able to be present for different purposes or
            activities; or
     (b)    where facilities for employment are provided for more than 10 people
            (whether self-employed or employed by one or more employers).

     An evacuation procedure is required where facilities for employment are provided for
     fewer than 10 people. The evacuation procedure is put in place by the owner of any
     building to ensure the safety of all occupants when evacuating in the event of a fire.
     It must detail:
            •    what to do if a fire is discovered
            •    what to do if the fire alarms sound or you are warned of a fire
            •    how to get out of the building in an emergency
            •    what the fire alarm signal is.
     An evacuation scheme is an enhanced evacuation procedure that must be approved
     by the Fire Service. If an evacuation scheme is required, it is the responsibility of the
     building owner to ensure there is an approved and maintained evacuation scheme.
     An evacuation scheme will describe procedures for:
            •    what to do if you discover or are warned of a fire
            •    the duties and roles of wardens appointed to supervise the evacuation
            •    how to evacuate the building promptly to a place of safety
            •    how all building occupants are accounted for during an evacuation
            •    how to ensure that all persons with disabilities, including staff, visitors and
                 associates are assisted and accounted for during an evacuation
            •    fire action notices in the building
            •    the maintenance of the evacuation scheme
            •    the safe operation of fire fighting equipment in the building.
     Section 21A(9) of the Fire Service Act 1975 allows for a waiver from the requirement
     to provide an evacuation scheme for a building. A waiver can only be granted when
     the Fire Service is satisfied that:
            •    the building has an adequate warning system
            •    occupants can evacuate unsupervised or unassisted
            •    disabled occupants do not require specialised care
            •    any evacuation would be safe, expeditious and efficient
            •    the building complies with the building code
            •    all exits are obvious to visitors.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                                    EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLANNING    19



Your organisation should have access to either an evacuation scheme or evacuation
procedure. It is important that all staff familiarise themselves with this. There should be
a nominated building warden and floor warden if you are located on more than one
floor of a building. Fire warden training should be provided to a delegated fire warden.
Links to training providers can be found on the New Zealand Fire Service website.
A fire drill (or trial evacuation) must be conducted every six months. If a false alarm
is raised, this can be considered a drill. Following a fire drill, the process should
be evaluated to identify any areas of concern or improvement. A checklist can be
downloaded from the New Zealand Fire Service website.
Further information on fire evacuation schemes, procedures and forms can be found
at www.fire.org.nz


Other emergency procedures
Employees should know and understand what to do in the event of an emergency.
Other emergency procedures that require a written policy or process include
earthquake, flood, bomb scare, armed hold-up, aggressive or violent situations, and
security (working alone) (refer example health and safety manual in appendix 5).
Further information is available at: www.civildefence.govt.nz/memwebsite.nsf/
wpg_URL/Being-Prepared-Businesses-Index


First aid
The Act requires you to take all practicable steps in providing effective first aid
arrangements. This means that you should have a nominated person on your staff
who has had first aid training. A certified workplace first aider is an individual that has
completed the two-day (16-hour) workplace first aid qualification. This qualification
requires a two-yearly refresher course of one day. There are many first aid providers.
A current list is available at: www.mcdem.govt.nz/memwebsite.NSF/wpg_URL/
Being-Prepared-What-to-do-First-Aid?
Additionally, you need to provide basic first aid supplies in every place of work while
work is in progress. Where timely and convenient access to appropriate medical or
ambulance services is restricted due to distance or remote location, then at least
two trained personnel should be provided for up to every 10 employees. Employers
also need to take into account their duties to people other than employees such as
members of the public or participants at sports events that you may be responsible for.
OSH provides guidance notes on providing first aid equipment, facilities and training,
accessed from their website. Please see appendix 5 – First aid policy, for a list of
recommended minimum first aid kit contents for the workplace, and appendix 5 –
First aid register, for a sample first aid register.
20



     Civil defence supplies
     As part of your emergency management planning, you should ensure there are
     adequate civil defence supplies held at your place of work, as this is a practical step
     the employer can take to ensure staff safety in such an emergency. The general rule of
     thumb is to have enough supplies such as food, water and blankets for your staff for
     three days. More information is available through your local city council; a link to your
     local city council is available at www.civildefence.govt.nz


     Emergency management summary
     Four components (4 Rs) are common to the approach taken in emergency
     management:

     R        Reduction      Reduce the risk of emergency events occurring and their potential
                             impact (hazard management process)
     R        Readiness      Plan the response to an emergency event (policies and procedures are
                             developed and known to all staff)
     R        Response       What to do when an emergency event occurs (staff implement
                             emergency management policies and procedures)
     R        Recovery       Review emergency response after the event – debrief staff and
                             recommend changes to the emergency management policies and
                             procedures if required
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                          STAFF TRAINING, SUPERVISION AND PARTICIPATION   21




Staff training,
           supervision and participation
Information for employees
You must provide your employees with information about:
       •    hazards in the workplace
       •    hazards that may arise from work they are doing
       •    the steps taken to minimise the likelihood of harm occurring from these
            hazards
       •    where to find, how to use and how to maintain safety clothing and
            equipment
       •    how to deal with any emergencies that arise
       •    injury and accident reporting
       •    employee and employer responsibilities.
Appendix 3 contains an example of an employee health and safety handbook as a
guideline. It gives a general overview of the type of information you could cover; you
will need to tailor this information to the specific procedures and processes you follow
for health and safety. You will need to decide what information to include in your
employee health and safety handbook, and the way in which the information should
be delivered to meet the needs of your workplace and employees. Make sure you use
appropriate language for your employees, so that the information is easy for everyone
to understand. You should also ensure that your organisation’s health and safety
manual is readily available to staff.


Training or supervision
You are legally required to do everything possible to ensure that employees have
adequate knowledge, experience, supervision and training to do their work safely.
An induction process for new employees should include health and safety matters
including identification and management of hazards.
Appendix 3 – Induction of new employees contains a checklist for health and safety
induction of new employees.


Suitable protective clothing and equipment
If the role requires it you must provide suitable clothing, equipment and instructions
on how to use it properly. It is not acceptable to give your employees money in lieu
of clothing or equipment, or require them to provide their own (unless the employee
volunteers to use his or her own equipment and you are satisfied it is suitable). It is
your responsibility to ensure that all safety equipment, including protective clothing,
is maintained. An example within sport and recreation would be the provision of
reflective vests for staff whilst involved in an event (e.g. road or cross-country) where it
is important that staff are highly visible to reduce risk of injury to either a staff member
or competitor in an event.
22



     Staff participation
     You must provide opportunities for employees to contribute to health and safety within
     the workplace. According to the Act, employees who wish to be involved (and union
     representatives if appropriate) are required to work together to develop, implement
     and maintain an employee participation system. This is simply a system that gives
     employees a reasonable opportunity to have input into health and safety. You should
     be able to demonstrate employee participation through documentation of meetings
     and activities that should occur at least quarterly.
     You are required to develop an employee participation system if:
            •    your organisation has more than 30 employees;
            •    you employ fewer than 30 employees and one of the employees or a union
                 representing them asks for an employee participation system.
     If you already involve your employees in your health and safety processes, and all
     parties agree to maintain the status quo, you don’t need to set up a new employee
     participation system. You will, however, need to set up a process by which your
     system can be reviewed, such as a staff survey that ascertains satisfaction with current
     employee participation.
     Your employee participation system should reflect the needs of your organisation.
     Examples of the things you might like to include are:
            •    the election of employees to act as health and safety representatives, either
                 acting as individuals or as part of a health and safety committee (please see
                 below for more information on health and safety representatives)
            •    the employees’ role in hazard identification
            •    setting up a process for ensuring regular cooperation between you and
                 your employees on health and safety matters
            •    deciding on how many days’ paid leave will be allocated to each
                 representative for health and safety training.


     Health and safety representatives
     Your elected representatives can work either individually to promote health and
     safety in the workplace or as part of a health and safety committee. Either way their
     objectives will be the same and may include things such as:
            •    encouraging a safe and healthy work environment for all employees
            •    raising awareness of health and safety in the workplace
            •    identifying potential hazards in the workplace
            •    discussing ways to manage the hazards with the employer
            •    investigating health and welfare complaints by employees
            •    investigating and recording accidents
            •    keeping up to date with health and safety policy and legislation.
     To be effective in their role your health and safety representatives must understand
     health and safety matters. To facilitate this, they are allowed, under the Act, to take
     paid leave to attend approved courses. A list of these courses is available from the
     Employment Relations Service website: www.ers.dol.govt.nz
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                           STAFF TRAINING, SUPERVISION AND PARTICIPATION   23



The Act provides a formula for how many days’ paid leave for approved training you
are required to provide for your health and safety representatives and is based on the
number of employees you have in your organisation as follows:

Number of employees    Maximum total number of days’ paid leave the employer
                       must provide
1–5                    2
6 – 50                 6
51 – 280               1 day for every 8 employees, or part of that number
281 or more            35 days plus 5 days for every 100 employees, or part of that number
24




     Contractors
                                         and visitors
     Contractors and visitors are covered by the Act when they come into your workplace
     and it is your responsibility to advise them of health and safety procedures and their
     responsibilities in relation to these. The key things you may wish to advise on are:
            •    building evacuation procedures
            •    the need to take all practicable steps to ensure their own safety and that of
                 others (this includes advising a staff member of any special assistance that
                 may be required in case of an emergency requiring evacuation)
            •    reporting all accidents and near misses
            •    complying with health and safety policy and procedures.
     Visitors and contractors can be protected against hazards by use of a combination
     of signage, restricted access, supervision and security.
     You should ensure that there is a record kept of all contractors and visitors on-site.
     If contractors or visitors are not escorted, then you may wish to issue them with an
     identity badge and have them sign an acknowledgement that they have read and
     understood the health and safety visitor requirements while on the premises.
     You must ensure that contractors provide you with details of any hazards that they may
     bring on-site or of any hazards they may create as a result of the nature of work being
     undertaken together with how these hazards may be mitigated.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                                       HEALTH AND SAFETY AND EVENTS   25




Health and safety
                                               and events
Most sporting organisations are involved in event management, which requires careful
consideration of health and safety issues. If you are an event organiser, you have a duty
of care to ensure that staff, participants, spectators, volunteers and the general public
are protected from avoidable risk. It is also your responsibility to undertake a hazard
and risk assessment.
The types of hazards that you might encounter relating to health and safety
may include:
       •    accident and first aid matters (participant competitors, officials,
            staff, spectators, volunteers)
       •    structural collapse
       •    human waste disposal
       •    crowd control
       •    lost children
       •    traffic
       •    loss of utilities (water, sewerage, etc)
       •    hazardous materials
       •    food waste disposal
       •    an emergency such as fire, earthquake, evacuation
       •    security
       •    communication issues
       •    food handling.
It is important to consider every possible hazard and risk that may occur and
manage these risks. This may require some expert advice including formation of a
committee where specific responsibilities are assigned to ensure that health and safety
responsibilities are comprehensively managed. After identifying risks and assessing
these, you need to implement a risk mitigation strategy so that risks can be either
eliminated or mitigated. If a risk occurs, you will then be prepared to deal with it
appropriately and meet your legal obligations to do so. The event risk management
process is summarised in figure 1. An example checklist from the SPARC Organisational
Risk Management Toolkit is in appendix 4.
26



     Event risk management process

                           1. Identify event



                   2. Identify risks and their causes



                          3. Identify controls



                       4. Conduct risk analysis

                        Consider            Examine
                       likelihood            impact




                            Determine risk level




                            5. Evaluate risks

                           Is the risk acceptable?

                          Yes                   No



                   Implement controls   What more should
                        in step 3       be done? Go back
                                            to step 3.




                                6. Write plan



                         7. Implement and
                         communicate plan



                          8. Monitor/Review

                          FIGURE 1: RISK MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW (ADAPTED FROM AS/NZS 4360)
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                                      HEALTH AND SAFETY AND EVENTS   27



Event management should include liaison with local government, emergency services,
Transit New Zealand (if applicable) and insurers who can support event organisers,
including providing advice on planning, required permits and licences.
More information related to health and safety and events includes:
      •    SPARC Organisational Risk Management Toolkit: www.sparc.org.nz
      •    The New Zealand Standard SNZ: HB 8669:2004 Guidelines for Risk
           Management in Sport and Recreation. Available through Standards New
           Zealand: www.standards.co.nz
      •    Safety Planning Guidelines for Events, available through
           www.osh.dol.govt.nz
      •    Safety Planning Guidelines for Events forms, available through
           www.osh.dol.govt.nz
28
Appendix
30
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                                                                                APPENDIX 1   31




Appendix 1
Example health and safety programme plan
{Insert your company name here}

Overall objective
To achieve the Primary level of the ACC Workplace Safety Management Practices
programme by {insert date here}.

    Objective            Action Plan                                  Person     Date       Status1    Budget
    1. Adopt and         i. Review the policy, make the
       implement            necessary changes, and sign and
       the                  date it
       organisation’s    ii. Distribute and publicise the policy
       health and
       safety manual     iii. Establish the incident and
       by {insert date        injury register and meet with all
       here}                  employees to advise them of the
                              process for reporting incidents
                              and injuries
    2. Establish the     i. With employee representatives,
       health and           agree upon the process for
       safety team          selection of the health and
       by {insert date      safety team
       here}             ii. Develop the timetable for the
                             meetings (at least quarterly)
                         iii. Confirm the actions that the team
                              will undertake for the coming year
    3. Review the        i. Review the organisation’s generic
       hazards in the       hazard register
       workplace by      ii. Identify site-specific hazards,
       {insert date          assess to see if they are significant
       here}                 hazards and develop appropriate
                             controls
                         iii. Train staff in the methodology
                         iv. Undertake the necessary
                             workplace monitoring and
                             personal health monitoring
    4. Complete          i. Identify training needs for each job
       a review             position
       of training       ii. Establish competence level of all
       practices by          staff
       {insert date
       here}             iii. Identify suitable training courses/
                              trainers/training programmes




1
    Status refers to whether the objective is active or completed and may also record final cost if completed.
32



     Annual and ongoing activities

     Element             Action                               When        Responsibility      Status

     Employer            i. Review the policy                 Annual      Health and safety
     commitment                                                           representatives
     Planning, review    i. Review the current health         Annual      Health and safety
     and evaluation         and safety plan                               representatives
                                                              Annual
                         ii. Prepare the health and safety
                             plan for the coming year         Annual
                         iii. Complete annual self-
                              assessment
     Hazard              i. Update hazard identification,      Annual      Health and safety
     identification,         including hazards associated                  representatives
     assessment and         with new or changed               Monthly
     management             equipment
                                                              Annual
                            and processes
                         ii. Review the hazard register
                             to ensure that controls are in
                             place and effective
                         iii. Complete monthly workplace
                              inspections
                         iv. Undertake workplace and
                             personal health monitoring
     Incident and        i. Review and analyse the            Annual      Health and safety
     injury reporting,      incident and injury data                      representatives
     recording and
     investigation
     Employee            i. Health and safety                 Quarterly   Health and safety
     participation          representatives to meet                       representatives
                            regularly
     Emergency           i. Arrange two emergency             6 monthly   Health and safety
     planning               evacuation exercises                          representatives
                         ii. Re-examine/update the
                             emergency plan after each
                             exercise


     Source: adapted from an example found at: www.acc.co.nz
Hazard Identification and Analysis                                                                                                      Action
Hazard and potential                 Significant   Practicable to                          Controls required                            Person        Date of   Completed
harm                                                                                                                                   responsible   action    by
                                     hazard?      Eliminate?       Isolate?   Minimise?   (including existing)

                                     Yes/No       Yes/No           Yes/No     Yes/No




                          Risk
                          category
Lifting/manual            M          Y                                        Y           Make arrangement with couriers to            H&S rep       …/…       H&S rep
handling – risk of back                                                                   handle heavy packages or take them
injury                                                                                    where they need to go                                                …/….
                                                                                          Use trolley
                                                                                          Ask for assistance
                                                                                          Training in back care
                                                                                                                                                                            Sample hazard register




                                                                                          Refer OSH publication Code of Practice for
                                                                                          Manual Handling




Computer use (VDU)        M          Y                                        Y           Make sure workstations are set up                          …/…       H&S rep
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Appendix 2



– risk of Occupational                                                                    Vary tasks as much as possible
Overuse Syndrome                                                                                                                                               …/….
(OOS)                                                                                     Provide OOS training
                                                                                          Comply with the OSH publication
                                                                                          Approved Code of Practice for the use of
                                                                                          VDUs in the Workplace
Workload – Stress         L          Y                                        Y           Ensure office is adequately staffed           CEO           …/…       Annual
                                                                                          Ensure staff are sufficiently trained to                              Review by
                                                                                          complete work required                                               CEO
                                                                                          Make sure job descriptions are clear                                 …/….
                                                                                          Ensure staff use annual leave
                                                                                          entitlements
Loose flooring             H          Y            Y                                       Fix any areas of uneven flooring (temporary Office           …/…       Contractor
                                                                                          signs to warn staff) and contract flooring  Manager
                                                                                          specialist to repair immediately                                     .../…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         APPENDIX 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  33
34




     Appendix 3
     Sample employee health and safety handbook
     {Insert your organisation name and logo here}

     Employee health and safety handbook
     1.0    HEALTH AND SAFETY
     It is up to all of us to create a safe and healthy workplace. We need to work together
     and do all we can to prevent accidents and illness in our work environment. This
     handbook provides a summary of information relevant to health and safety in the
     workplace and we ask that you familiarise yourself with it. We recognise that if we
     work together on all aspects of health and safety we will get a better end result. Please
     refer to the full policy and procedure manual for more detail.

     1.1    As your employer it is our responsibility to:
            •   identify, manage and control hazards to establish safe work practices
            •    provide information to foster awareness of health and safety
            •    provide protective clothing and equipment as required
            •    make adequate preparations for emergencies
            •    record all accidents and ‘near misses’ and investigate where necessary to
                 ensure future accidents are avoided
            •    ensure you are properly trained and supervised to do your work in a
                 healthy and safe manner
            •    provide reasonable opportunities for you to be involved in health and
                 safety.

     1.2    As an employee it is your responsibility to:
            •   contribute to the process of hazard identification, analysis and control
            •    ensure all work accidents and illnesses are reported and recorded
            •    use any protective clothing and equipment provided
            •    not undertake any work which is unsafe
            •    look out for the safety of fellow employees
            •    observe all workplace safety rules and hazard controls.

     1.3    Induction
     On joining the company you will be given information on our health and safety
     procedures, health and safety representatives, access to first aid and evacuation
     procedures. You will also be given a list of all hazards identified in our workplace
     (hazard register) and the location of all safety equipment.

     1.4     Hazard identification
     We are all responsible for identifying potential hazards in the workplace. A list of
     identified hazards should be included in your induction pack. Please let your health and
     safety representative know if you see anything you consider hazardous so he/she can
     add this to the hazard register and take action to prevent this from causing harm.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                                                               APPENDIX 3   35



1.5     Getting involved in health and safety – employee participation
We are keen to encourage employees to share in the management of health and
safety in the workplace. If you wish to be involved please let our Health and Safety
Representative know.

1.6    First aid
We have first aid people who are trained to assist with emergencies. Please ensure
they are aware of any medical conditions you have which may need special treatment
should an emergency arise.

1.7     Smoking
All areas within the building are designated non-smoking. Smoking is permitted in
[area] outside.
2.0    HEALTH AND SAFETY PROCEDURES
2.1    Dealing with accidents
We are required to report all accidents, as part of our process of identifying and
dealing with hazards. All accidents must be recorded in the accident register, which
includes a record of every accident or incident (including ‘near misses’) at work.
When an incident occurs in the workplace please follow these steps:
       •    Make sure the injured person has received the required medical attention
            (i.e. first aid, doctor or ambulance, depending on the severity of the
            accident).
       •    Tell the Health and Safety Representative, who will carry out an
            investigation and record the incident in the accident register.
When an accident involving serious harm occurs:
       •    don’t move the injured person
       •    seek appropriate medical assistance
       •    advise the Health and Safety Representative
       •    occupational Safety and Health (OSH) may wish to inspect the scene,
            so don’t interfere with the accident scene unless:
            – the person’s life is in danger
            – it is essential to maintain access for the public to essential services
            – it is necessary to prevent damage to, or loss of, property
       •    advise the local OSH branch as soon as possible by phone, fax or email
       •    cooperate with any investigation conducted
       •    send written confirmation (accident register) to OSH within seven days
       •    take steps to eliminate, isolate or minimise any identified hazard as soon
            as possible.
36



     2.2     Building evacuation procedure
     As part of our health and safety programme, employees are required to be fully
     conversant with the procedure to follow in the event of a fire or earthquake. Please
     familiarise yourself with these procedures. Some key reminders are outlined below:
     Fire safety
     How to be fire safe:
            •      Don’t block fire exits
            •      Keep fire doors closed
            •      Take care with flammable materials
            •      Know the fire drill procedure (and who your fire wardens are)
            •      Know where fire extinguishers are located and how to use them.
     In the event of a fire:
            •      if possible, operate the nearest fire alarm
            •      call 111
            •      use a fire extinguisher IF IT IS SAFE
            •      evacuate the building following the procedures below.
     If you hear the fire alarm:
            •      immediately vacate the building via the closest fire exit (don’t use the lifts)
                   – refer to your organisation’s evacuation procedures here as appropriate
            •      make sure any visitors leave the building with you
            •      walk, don’t run
            •      don’t return for personal belongings
            •      keep to the left of the stairs
            •      report to the designated meeting point and don’t return until the all clear
                   is given.

     Earthquake safety
     To be earthquake safe, eliminate hazards such as:
            •      unsecured bookcases, shelves, cabinets, audiovisual equipment
            •      blocked doorways and passageways.
     In the event of an earthquake:
            •      move away from windows and anything that could be dangerous if it falls
                   (e.g. partitions, bookshelves)
            •      find cover under tables, desks, doorways
            •      be prepared for aftershocks.
     After the earthquake:
            •      evacuate if instructed to do so (it could be safer inside than out) using the
                   following procedure – refer to your organisation’s own evacuation
                   procedures here
            •      check for injuries – first aiders to assist with treatment
            •      check for hazards – beware of broken glass, live wires, and damage to
                   floors, walls and ceilings
            •      extinguish any fires.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                                                       APPENDIX 3   37



3.0    WORKPLACE INJURY PREVENTION
Our aim is to prevent injury from occurring and provide the support required for you to
work safely in your workplace. Below are some common workplace hazards and ways
to help you avoid harm occurring from these hazards.

3.1    Visual display unit (VDU)
One of the most significant hazards in our environment is the VDU – this includes the
computer screen, keyboard and mouse. We will make all reasonable endeavours to
ensure you have a fully functional workstation that meets your needs. Where required,
a workstation assessment (example workplace assessment questions attached at the
back of this handbook) can be conducted to ensure your desk, chair, computer and
other office equipment are set up to minimise any potential risks.
Please see the diagram at the back of this handbook for the correct ergonomic set-up
for your workstation. Your health and safety representative will help you to set your
workstation up correctly to ensure you continue to work safely at your computer.
And remember you don’t necessarily need ergonomic equipment to set your
workstation up correctly. For example, a telephone book is one way to lift your screen
up to the correct eye level!

3.2   Occupational Overuse Syndrome (OOS)
OOS refers to a range of conditions characterised by pain or discomfort in the muscles,
tendons, and other soft tissues. Symptoms can include:
       •   Burning sensation
       •   Stiffness, aches and pains
       •   Soreness and weakness
       •   Numbness and tingling
       •   Muscle discomfort.
To minimise these symptoms always make sure you pause briefly (micro pause) when
completing repetitive tasks. For example, when working on a computer, pause every
3-5 minutes for 5-10 seconds, shake your wrists and stretch your fingers. Ensure you
maintain a good posture when working at your computer. Stand up and stretch as
often as you can. Ensure your mouse is located next to your keyboard so there is no
need to overreach. Use a mouse pad with a wrist support and an ergonomic keyboard.
If symptoms persist contact your health and safety representative.
38



     3.3   Eye strain
     Symptoms can include:
            •    Blurred vision
            •    Headaches
            •    Gritty tired eyes
            •    Sore and red eyes
            •    Dry or watery eyes.
     To minimise these symptoms make sure you pause every few minutes and look away
     from the screen. Minimise glare from light sources (e.g. tilt screen to avoid overhead
     glare). Wherever possible, work in natural light. Use a copy holder if frequently copy
     typing work on a PC. Make sure your screen viewing distance is 450 to 700mm.
     If symptoms persist contact your health and safety representative.

     3.4    Back pain
            •   Use equipment (e.g. trolley) to move heavy objects.
            •    Don’t use your back like a crane.
            •    Know your own strength – ask someone to help.
     If you suffer from back problems at work, contact your health and safety
     representative.

     3.5     Workplace stress
     You are the best judge of whether stress is having a detrimental effect on your health.
     If you feel unable to cope as a result of workload, or other stressors in your role or your
     personal life, please talk to someone you trust, e.g. your manager, your health and
     safety representative, a counsellor, a colleague. Stress has the potential to cause harm
     and we will do all we can to eliminate, isolate or minimise sources of stress to help you
     perform your role in a safe and healthy environment.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
                                                                                          APPENDIX 3   39



You and your workstation

Posture                                                Desk
• Shoulders – keep low and relaxed.                    • There should be no movement or
• Upper arms – should be straight up                     vibration during normal use.
  and down.                                            • The height range should be 600-
• Elbows – keep tucked close to the                      845mm (usually 720-730mm).
  body and bent 90–110° so that
  forearms are horizontal or gently
                                           450-700m• m
                                                     Desk top needs to be thin to allow
                                                     comfortable legroom.
  sloping upwards.                                     • Ensure there is space to rest wrists
• Wrists – need to be comfortably                        on, between the edge of the desk
  straight. Can be bent up slightly.                     and the front of the keyboard
  Avoid bending wrists sideways.                         (100mm).

Chair – general                                        Screen
• Ensure chair swivels easily and is                   • Height, swivel and vertical tilt should
  stable when force is applied to front,                 adjust.
  sides or back.                                       • Viewing distance of 450-700mm
• It should move freely on castors.                      (general measure of one arm’s length
                                                         away from body).
Chair – seat                                           • Angle of view 10–30° below
• Should be comfortable but
                                                         horizontal to the middle of the
  firm enough to allow ease of posture
                                                         screen.
  changes.
• Allow space between the front of the                 Copy holder
  seat and the back of the calf.                       • Use to avoid leaning forward while
                                                         reading.
Chair – armrests                                       • Position – place either beside the
• Can limit posture changes and make
                                                         screen or between the keyboard and
  it difficult to reach work.
                                                         the screen.
• If used ensure they have no sharp
                                                       • Position centrally or change from side
  edges and support the elbows and
                                                         to side regularly.
  forearms well.
• They must allow the chair to be                      Keyboard & mouse
  drawn up to the desk and have room                   • Stable and separate from screen.
  to move freely in the seat.                          • Mouse should be at the same level as
                                                         the keyboard.
Chair – seat height
• Feet should be flat on the floor or on                 Footrest
  a footrest to avoid pressure under the               • Large enough to allow feet sufficient
  thighs. Avoid sloping the thighs too                   room to move (400mm x 400mm
  much.                                                  suggested).
• You should be able to make                           • Nonslip top, angled slightly (0–10°).
  adjustment whilst seated.
                                                       • Stable and positioned close
                                                         to user.
                                                       • Adjustable to the specific height
                                                         required.


                                                     FIGURE 1: CORRECT ERGONOMIC POSITIONING
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