IFuture - The Diversity of Sustainable Lifestyles 2015 - SPREAD Sustainable ...

IFuture - The Diversity of Sustainable Lifestyles 2015 - SPREAD Sustainable ...
   – The Diversity of Sustainable Lifestyles

    2015		        2020				               2030				   2040					            2050

D7.3 People’s forum workshop summaries
                                                           Sustainable Lifestyles 2050
IFuture - The Diversity of Sustainable Lifestyles 2015 - SPREAD Sustainable ...
About SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050                                             CONTENTS
Sustainable Lifestyles 2050              Principal Report Authors: Outi Kuittinen (Demos Helsinki), Roope Mokka
                                         (Demos Helsinki), Aleksi Neuvonen (Demos Helsinki), Mari Orjasniemi (Demos           PART I: What it is all about                                3
                                         Helsinki), Maria Ritola (Demos Helsinki), Markus Wikholm (Demos Helsinki)              1 What is SPREAD Sustainable
Funding Scheme                           With inputs from the project consortium and project advisors                         		 Lifestyles 2050 & iFuture                                3
                                                                                                                                2 How iFuture was done                                    6
                                         Report Visualisation: Francois Jegou (Strategic Design Scenarios / Politecnico
                                                                                                                                3 A sustainable lifestyle weighs 8000 kg
                                         di Milano), Adèle Seyrig (Strategic Design Scenarios), Marta Corubolo (Politecnico
                                                                                                                              		 – the boundary values of future lifestyles               10
                                         di Milano), Anna Meroni (Politecnico di Milano), Christophe Gouache (Strategic
                                                                                                                                4 Barriers to lifestyle change                            14
                                         Design Scenarios)
                                         Report Layout: Kirmo Kivelä (Demos Helsinki)                                         PART II: The European lifestyle patterns
                                                                                                                              according to iFuture study                                  16
                                         Project Coordinator:
                                                                                                                                5 The three lenses of sustainable lifestyles              16
Project Coordinator                      Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production (CSCP)
                                         Hagenauer Straße 30. 42107 Wuppertal. Germany Tel + 49 . 202 . 45 95 8 - 10
                                         Fax + 49 . 202 . 45 95 8 - 30 www.scp-centre.org                                     PART III: The Profiles                                      23
                                         Cheryl Hicks, Project Director: cheryl.hicks@scp-centre.org                            6 Meet the Europeans – the diversity of
                                         Nora Brüggemann, Project Manager: nora.brueggemann@scp-centre.org                    		 personal lifestyles today & tomorrow                     23
                                         Rosa Groezinger, Project Manager: rosa.groezinger@scp-centre.org                     		 Dávid, 33, Hungary: 10 400 kg,
                                                                                                                              		 compact home and the life nearby                         25
                                         Project Consortium:                                                                  		 Sebastian, 24, Germany: 12 500 kg,
Project Consortium                       Ashoka, France                                                                       		 compact home and the life nearby                         28
                                         Demos Helsinki (Demos), Finland                                                      		 Maarit, 35, Finland: 19 800 kg,
                                         Ecoinstitut Barcelona (ECOI), Spain                                                  		 big home & staying home                                  31
                                         Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the Netherlands                     		 Oriol, 35, Spain: 38 500 kg,
                                         EuroHealthNet, Belgium                                                               		 compact home & moving about                              34
                                         The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics                   		 Eero, 53, Finland: 41 400 kg,
                                         at Lund University (ULUND), Sweden                                                   		 big home & moving around                                 37
                                         The Northern Alliance for Sustainability (ANPED), Belgium                            		 Rosa, 55, Spain: 53 200 kg,
                                         Politecnico Milano (Polimi), Italy                                                   		 big home & staying home                                  39
                                         Regional Environmental Center for CEE countries (REC), Hungary                       		 Till, 36, Germany: 55 200 kg,
                                                                                                                              		 big home & moving around                                 42
                                         EC Scientific Officer:
                                         Perla Srour-Gandon                                                                   PART IV Conclusions                                         42
                                         Duration: 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2012                                           7 The Material Prism
                                                                                                                              		 – The era of new dimensions in lifestyles                44
                                         Funding scheme: European Commission’s Seventh Framework                                8 Top ten suggestions for further research
                                                                                                                              		 by iFuture participants                                  46
                                         Programme (Coordination and Support Action):
                                         Socio-economic Sciences and Humanities
                                                                                                                                Materials produced in SPREAD
                                         Budget: EU contribution 1,423,082 €                                                    People’s forum ‘iFuture’                                  47
                                                                                                                                References                                                48
                                         Website: www.sustainable-lifestyles.eu
                                                                                                                                Annex 1 SPREAD iFuture participants                       50
                                         Online community: www.sustainable-lifestyles.eu/community                              Annex 2 SPREAD project partners
                                                                                                                                participating in iFuture                                  51
                                                                                                                                Annex 3 Lifestyle questionnaire for collecting data for
                                                                                                                                material footprint calculations                           52
                                                                                                                                Annex 4 Deep interview questionnaire                      54
                                                                                                                                Annex 5 iFuture workshop outlines                         56

2   SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050
IFuture - The Diversity of Sustainable Lifestyles 2015 - SPREAD Sustainable ...
PART I: What it is all about

1 What is SPREAD Sustainable
  Lifestyles 2050 & iFuture

SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050 is a European         The SPREAD People’s forum, named ‘iFuture’,
social platform project running from January 2011        brings a ‘real-world’ perspective to the develop-
to December 2012. Different societal stakeholders        ment of questions related to visions, roadmap and
– from business, research, policy and civil society –    further research. The work explores the realities
have been invited to participate in the development      that citizens face every day and the motivations
of a vision for sustainable lifestyles in 2050. The      that drive them when striving for more sustainable
process started with taking stock of existing knowl-     lifestyle alternatives and for good life. It aims to
edge on sustainable lifestyles, and barriers and driv-   understand the people’s diversity and frame lifestyle
ers for change towards them (see SPREAD 2011).           change.
It continued with systematically collecting promising
practices on sustainable living, moving, consuming
and society and based on this, further visualising       Table 1. The key themes of SPREAD.
the emerging new practices and gatekeepers to
promote current initiatives and the new ideas devel-     Key theme                                                SPREAD project output
oped (see SPREAD 2012a & 2012b). Back casting            Unsustainable lifestyle trends and impacts               Vision and futures scenarios for sustainable living in
scenarios were developed to evaluate the future
development of current best practices and trends         Promising practices for sustainable ways of living       Project emerging promising practices into the future
                                                                                                                  and visualise resilient future practices
(see SPREAD 2012c). Finally, the SPREAD process
                                                         Understanding people’s diversity and framing lifestyle   People’s Forum
will result in a roadmap for strategic action that       changes
identifies opportunity spaces for policy, business,      Technical, social, policy and business innovation that   Vision, pathways and action strategies for different
research and civil society to take action to enable      enables sustainable ways of living                       stakeholder groups

more sustainable lifestyles across Europe.               Policy solutions and economic systems that foster        Agenda for future research needs for sustainable
                                                         prosperity and healthy, sustainable lifestyles           lifestyle solutions and (large-scale) implementation

                                                                                                                                                               D7.3 People’s forum workshop summaries   3
IFuture - The Diversity of Sustainable Lifestyles 2015 - SPREAD Sustainable ...
Bringing sustainability to life
iFuture has engaged with individuals   through five   Sustainable                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ising P, Nraew business mod
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   l inno
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         vation                  els, Citiz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           en m
workshops in four European countries (Finland,
                                 Lifestyles in the EU:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        a                                                                                                                                                          ovem
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Soci                                                                                                                                                               ents
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           , Po
Germany, Hungary and Spain) and all over Europe                                                                                                                                                                                      Public health, corporate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     and peer promotion of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        healthier habits

through online participation. The work has identified                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ture Enablers
                                 Today's Facts &                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                astruc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Infr , Cities, Communities, Technology, Ac
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           400 Transition Towns (2011)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in 34 countries

different motives, values and realities behind the
everyday choices and behaviourTomorrow's
                                   of Europeans. Trends
                                                                                                                                                                            Urban planning: human-centred

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     cy                                                                                                                                  cess
                                                                                                                                                                            city design     walking, cycling,
                                                                                                                                                                                 physical activity spaces

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         One Planet communities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           in UK, US, Portugal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 aviour Drivers
                                                                                                                                              Digital health coaching
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Co-housing in Denmark,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sweden, Netherlands, France,

Quantifying the current material footprints of 75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Infrastructure to enable more                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Spain, Belgium, UK, Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            esires, Motivators, Trigg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    physical activity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ds, D                          ers,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Nee                                                                                                              Con
persons was the start of the process, but it was                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       flic
                                                                                                                               Tobacco + fat tax
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ts                                                                                                                                                                8000 + passive houses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in EU (2007)

just the beginning. During the process we have ex-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Lifestyle Impa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Access to sustainable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Physical Activity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       city/community housing

plored the real lives behind the footprints: the way                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             cts
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Policy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            infrastructure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Eco-houses for low-income
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            families in France

these people live, move, eat, consume, spend their
                                                                                                              Biological gardens,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Unsustainable lifestyle trend:
                                                                                                        affordable healthy food shops,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         average house/apartment size                                                                                   Individualism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Unsustainable lifestyle trend:
                                                                                                             local farmers markets                                                                                                                                                                                                                        obesity, heart disease, cancer          & household energy use
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Average dwelling unit 86 to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       92 m2 (EU-15) 1990-2007                                                                                                                                                                                 ~50% EU homeowners investing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Availability & advertising of                                  Obesity + heart disease: 60% of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Policy                                                in home energy savings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          low cost, processed and fast                                  adults + 20% children overweight

free time and why they do it that way; what they
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      food                                                   in EU-27, x2 since 1980
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Number of people per
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     household 2,8 to 2,4 people
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Social inequity: 20-25%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aging + affluence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        low-income men obese; 40-50%

value, who are important to them, what motivates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A-label appliances from 10
                                                                                                                                                             Access to more sustainable                                                                                                                    low-income women obese                                                                                                   Space heating = 67% household                                                                                                                                                                                          to 90% 1998-2008
                                                                                                                                                                 and healthy food                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        energy consumption
                                                                                                 Organic food market =                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Access to information:
                                                                                                 20 billion EUR industry,                                                                                                     Cultural habits                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              energy efficiency
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Smoking related (EU-25)
                                                                                             11,4% annual growth 2004-2013                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Electricity consumption (per

them, what holds them back, what they think about
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           deaths 14%, 2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        capita) 30% 1990-2007

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Solar water heaters 75%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          of households in Cyprus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Appliances and lighting in EU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Unsustainable lifestyle trend:                                                                                                             1,2%/yr 1998-2008                                                                        Desire for technology

people around them, how they feel about change
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Consumption of Meat, Dairy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Access to sustainable/
                                                                                                                                                     Food prices/commodity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       efficient products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Speeding up of life                                                             & Junk Food
                                                                                                                                                              prices                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rebound effect: 70% of energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     efficiency achieved offset by                                                                                                                                                                                      90-100% EU countries have
                                                                                          Total meat consumption                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       electronics + energy use                                                                                                                                                                                          energy efficiency retrofit

and the future. iFuture connects peoples’ aspira-
                                                                                             fell 2,2% in 2008.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                incentives
                                                                                               Pork + poultry                                                                                                                                                                        Meat + dairy consumption =
                                                                                               vs. beef + lamb
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Unsustainable lifestyle trend:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24% total food impacts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More stuff, more waste
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    High income / less time

tions and ideas about the ‘good life’ to sustainable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Frozen vegetables imports                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Collaborative consumption:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               174%, 1990-2007                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             electronics sharing,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               20-30 tech items per                                                    Societal status symbols                                                                                              swapping, lending
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               household (EU avg.)                                                         associated with                                     Collaborative consumption:
                                                                                           Consumers as producers:                                    Citizen food movements                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               spending/stuff                                          access vs. ownership
                                                                                                Urban farming,                                                                                                                                                                              Global consumption of

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Environmental impact                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        infrastructure                                      Online goods swapping/
                                                                                               rooftop farming,                                                                                                                                                                           bottled water 2,7% in 2009                                                                                                                                 80% of environmental impacts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                awareness                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sharing services
                                                                                             landshare initiatives                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     from use of product phase

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Non-seasonal exotic food
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            imports : banana imports
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Cost of TV 20% 1981-1994 vs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 92% 1990-2007                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Living longer:                                                                                                    By 2013 collaborative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        cost of repair 150%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                aging population needs new                                New business models focused                                  consumption businesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    goods and services                                         on consumption                                           expected to 35 billion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Food safety
                                                                                              “Fat tax” (Romania, Denmark),
                                                                                                  Eco-farming incentives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Unsustainable lifestyle trend:                                                                                        Waste generation 2%

Ecological sustainability is not of an overriding
                                                                                               (Germany), Sustainable food                                                                                                                                                                                                       air travel & hotels                                                                                           1996-2004: 524 kg/person/year
                                                                                                     procurement (UK)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Washing solution that does
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     not require water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Convenience associated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Unsustainable lifestyle trend:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 with progressive products                                   Access to convenient recycling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Total tourist travel forecast                                          Car ownership 35% 1990-                      Single car use and air travel

primary value for anyone. And will never be. Human
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (i.e. Tech)                                            + up-cycling programs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     122% 2000-2020                                                          2007 (EU-27)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Recycling cooking oil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     for engines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        International air passengers                                        Passenger transport                1/3 world’s 750 M cars owned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Access to low-cost air travel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            88-760 M 1972-2006                                                30% 1990-2005                           by Europeans

life is way too rich to be guided by one principle.
                                                                                                              EU industrial zone =
                                                                                                              transformation into
                                                                                                             eco-parks/eco-tourism                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Policy: "true cost" products,                                         Fashion accessories from
                                                                                                                                                                            Availability of attractive                                                                                                                             Hotelstays 1,44% 2000-2006                                                                      20% Kms travelled                                                                                                                                                                                           reclaimed waste
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EU resident+ non-resident                                   public + rail                                                                                                                                                           internalising external
                                                                                                                                                                              eco-tourism in EU                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1995-2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Disposable income                                                                                                        transport (avg)                                                                                                                                                               resource costs

Some of us are driven by tradition or security, some                                                                           Airline fuel tax
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Seeking experiences vs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Private car use +
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              air transport x2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               150% price of water in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Denmark tax scheme =
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              water consumption + waste

by benevolence or universalism, some by hedon-                                                                                                                                                           Policy: internalising external
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 resource costs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Status symbol (frequent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Collaborative transport

ism or power. Most likely, by a mix of several of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 flyer/hotel loyalty perks)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Affluence                                                                                                                                                                  Car sharing 14 EU countries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             5,5 M users by 2015

                                                                                                                                          Travel services that specialize                                                                                                                                                                              Stress

the above. In fact, human life is much too rich to
                                                                                                                                               in local eco-tourism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Suburban lifestyles

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Flexible work options                                                                     Bike sharing services doubled
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   in 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Availability of attractive local

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Human-centred city design:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            intermodal urban transport
                                                                                                                                                                                   Collaborative consumption:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Home office
                                                                                                                                                                                     Online home/apartment                                                                                       Online platforms for virtual
                                                                                                                                                                                    share + swapping services                                                                                           experiences

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Accessible low-carbon                                                                                                                 Video conferencing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Policy, safety & security

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Staycations                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Eco villages

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Source: CSCP 2012
     Picture 1. Understanding Sustainable Lifestyles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Urban planning to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         decrease mobility needs –
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              car free zones

      in the EU: Today’s Facts & Tomorrow’s Trends
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Limiting parking spaces
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Taxing car use

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Island powered 100% by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 renewable energy (Spain)                                         Bike lanes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Congestion charges

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        High speed train use
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          180% 1995-2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Electrical vehicles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sustainable Lifestyles 2050
                                     © Copyright: Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption & Production (CSCP), 2012                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          informed by the SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050 European Soci

4   SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050
IFuture - The Diversity of Sustainable Lifestyles 2015 - SPREAD Sustainable ...
be guided by principles only. Our lives are unique
results of continuous negotiation between values,            Lifestyles refer to the way we live our lives, the way           needs, provide a better quality of life, minimise the
habits, perceptions, experiences, material realities,        we fulfil our needs and aspirations. They serve as               use of natural resources and emissions of waste and
                                                             “social conversations” in which people signal their so-          pollutants over the lifecycle, and do not jeopardise
infrastructures, information, culture, social norms
                                                             cial position and psychological aspirations to others.           the needs of future generations. Sustainable lifestyles
and social learning etc. When building sustain-              Since many of the signals are mediated by goods,                 reflect specific cultural, natural, economic and social
able lifestyles, we have to take this richness and           lifestyles are closely linked to material and resource           heritage of each society. (SPREAD 2011, based on
complexity into consideration. While the material            flows in the society.                                            Mont 2007.)
boundaries of our societies close in, the diversity of
                                                             Sustainable lifestyles refer to patterns of action and
personal combinations of those boundaries, values,
                                                             consumption, used by people to affiliate and differ-
experiences, norms and life situations will not.             entiate themselves from others, which: meet basic

In this report we will look at the diversity of people’s
lifestyles, both now and in the era of sustainable
lifestyles. It is a common misconception that mate-
rial scarcity – be it climate change or the peak pro-
duction of natural resources from oil to phosphor
– would lead into a similar linear development in our
lives that the increased wealth and expansion of the
middle classes did, except with a downward trajec-
tory. This paper presents an alternative view; a view      Picture 2. Situational and behavioural factors influencing human behaviour
that takes a look at the actual material footprints
of people from several European countries and the

                                                                                                                                                                                           Source: Defra, Sustainable Lifestyles Framework, 2011.
lives behind the footprints. It asks what exactly will
change and what is the quality of that change.                                   Culture
                                                                                                                                                   Norms                Attitudes
                                                               Infrastructure          Geography
Meet the Europeans in all their diversity                                                                                                Beliefs                            Habits
– now and in the future.
                                                           Social Networks                                                                                                      Values

                                                                                   Situational factors      Influencing human         Behavioural factors
                                                                                                                 behaviour                                                 Self-efficacy
                                                                                                Social Learning         Leadership
                                                                     Access to                                                                                 Perceptions
                                                                      Capital                                                    Knowledge
                                                                         Our lives are a complex negotiation of many factors.         Identity

                                                                                                                                                 D7.3 People’s forum workshop summaries    5
IFuture - The Diversity of Sustainable Lifestyles 2015 - SPREAD Sustainable ...
2 How iFuture was conducted                                                    5



                                                     1&2 iFuturists in Barcelona (1) and in Budapest
                         2                               (2) listen carefully what the SPREAD and
                                                         iFuture are about.

                                                     3   One of the workshop leaders in Germany,
                                                         Nora Brüggeman, leads iFuturists to think
                                                         40 years forward by first taking a quick
                                                         peek into 40 years back, to the year 1972.

                                                 4   4   Examining the future profiles in Barcelona.
                                                         Do they fit me? The comments get written
                                                         down in workshop diaries.

                                                     5   Hungarians thinking who is missing in the
                                                         sustainable character types in the cards.

                                                     6   Lunch time in Germany. The food is
                                                         vegetable-based, like in 2050.

    6   SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050
IFuture - The Diversity of Sustainable Lifestyles 2015 - SPREAD Sustainable ...


               7 Finnish iFuturists discuss in pairs
                 what they like about the future
                 services and what needs to change
                 so that the services would answer
                 their needs and preferences.

               8 Local Loop scenario gets scrutinized
                 in a group discussion in the Finnish

               9 Online workshop set up in Finland.
                 The participants sit at their home
                 computers all around Europe.

               10 In Barcelona the workshop ended
                 with a lunch in a traditional street
                 party “calcotada popular”. Excellent
                 example of Empathic communities in
        10       real life.

             D7.3 People’s forum workshop summaries    7
IFuture - The Diversity of Sustainable Lifestyles 2015 - SPREAD Sustainable ...
1. Participant recruitment                                2. The quantification of par-                          3. iFuture workshops
and engagement                                            ticipants’ lifestyle impact and                        After the preliminary assessment, one-day work-
During autumn 2011 and spring 2012 the                    in-depth interviews                                    shops, designed by Demos Helsinki and led by the
SPREAD partners CSCP, Ecoinstitut Barcelona,                                                                     Demos Helsinki in Finland and online, Ecoinstitut in
Demos Helsinki and REC selected members for               Once the participants had been selected, the           Spain, CSCP in Germany and REC in Hungary (see
the iFuture workshops in Finland, Spain, Ger-             research team conducted an assessment of the           Annex 5 for the process and questions covered
many and Hungary, 15 citizens for each. The               participants’ lifestyles by calculating their mate-    in the workshops). The activities in the workshops
selection of participants aimed for a diversity of        rial footprint and conducting deep interviews.         consisted of four parts:
backgrounds, with respect to age and place of             Personal data for current footprint calculations
residence. To further support geographical diver-         was provided by participants through an online         I.   Material footprints and profiles. This section
sity and opportunity to participate, a fifth group        questionnaire (see Annex 3). Questions cov-                 presented the results of the preliminary assess-
was organised online. Participants for the online         ered the following lifestyle elements: Housing              ment, first only the personal material footprint
workshop were selected in autumn 2012.                    (I), Energy and heating (II), Transportation (III),         and then the full profile. Individual reflection and
                                                          Food (IV), Household goods (V), Activities (VI).            facilitated group discussions followed.
The participants were volunteers found through            An interview was conducted by phone to get
contacts on mailing lists and online groups of            an understanding of the worldview and values           II. Sustainable lifestyle characters and new
SPREAD consortium partners, regionally oper-              of the participants, and to learn more about the           things of the future. In this section, partici-
ating NGOs and via an announcement on the                 participants’ relationship to their individual life-       pants were asked to think about different peo-
SPREAD project website and online commu-                  style choices. The interview studied Life situation        ple’s patterns of behaviour as well as their own
nity. The aim was to get a diverse picture of a           (I), Everyday choices as a consumer (II), Own              with the help of character cards created for the
variety of lifestyles in different parts of Europe. All   experiences (III), Values (IV) and Future (V) (see         workshop. Next, two by two, the participants
participants were to represent themselves, with           Annex 4). Current and future lifestyle profiles            discussed new services and practices of the fu-
no expert knowledge on sustainable lifestyles             including a current material footprint and a future        ture the help of visual aids, the emerging ideas
required. A sufficient command of English was             projection of it were developed by the research            cards, developed earlier in SPREAD by Po-
required. Organisers recognised that this prereq-         team based on material footprint calculations              litecnico di Milano (See SPREAD 2012b). This
uisite might exclude certain segments of society,         and interviews.                                            section was to study how the people react and
but the aim was not to gather statistically signifi-                                                                 think about emerging practices: what they like
cant samples. Instead, a case-study approach                                                                         about them and what would need to change in
was applied.                                                                                                         order for them to adopt these new services and

8   SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050
IFuture - The Diversity of Sustainable Lifestyles 2015 - SPREAD Sustainable ...
III. Scenarios. The preliminary versions of the four    4. Reporting
     future scenarios developed in SPREAD were
     scrutinised. All the scenarios were introduced,    This document reports and analyses the results of
     after which each participant reflected individu-   material footprint calculations, in-depth interviews
     ally and discussed in groups, guided by the        as well as personal inputs and group discussions in
     workshop leaders, one of the alternatives and      the five workshops. It has been written by Demos
     how it would relate to their lives. The current    Helsinki, with help from other Consortium partners.
     and future profile assessed in previous section    The results will be presented in the final conference
     of the workshop were to give the scrutiny a        of SPREAD. Group of ten people selected from the
     personal scale, and vice versa; the scenarios      iFuture participants were invited to the final confer-
     were to provide a wider perspective on chang-      ence.
     ing the impact of their lifestyles.

    The primary aim of this section was to identify
    the systemic shifts and adjustments necessary
    to enable and facilitate change on the individual
    level. Thus all the experience and knowledge
    about sustainable lifestyles, existing feedback
    systems, gatekeepers, drivers and barriers ac-
    cumulated earlier in the project was assessed
    by ‘real-world’ stakeholders and everyday
    decision-making was incorporated into the
    framework. This fed to the development of the
    scenarios and introduced new perspectives on
    the weight of specific decisions and important
    inhibitors to lifestyle change.

IV. Summing up and the Research questions.
    In the summary section participants were asked
    to write down research questions that should
    be prioritised when studying sustainable life-
    styles. They were also asked to give feedback
    on the workshops.

                                                                                                                 D7.3 People’s forum workshop summaries   9
IFuture - The Diversity of Sustainable Lifestyles 2015 - SPREAD Sustainable ...
3 A sustainable lifestyle weighs 8000 kg
  – the boundary values of future lifestyles
Material resources form a fundamental basis for         production. There is a great paradigm shift taking       In concrete terms, the material footprint measures
understanding the future. In a purely physical          place and it means that scarce resources translate       the use of renewable and non-renewable mate-
sense there is not going to be any more natural         to higher prices for things that require plenty of       rial resources (excluding water and air) plus the
resources such as copper, phosphor, aluminium,          material resources. (Grantham 2011)                      erosion caused by agriculture and forestry on the
uranium or oil in the future. It’s not possible to                                                               individual level. It covers the whole lifecycle from
substitute ecosystem services that the climate,         Underlying the increased prices of natural resources     the extraction of raw materials to the processing
glaciers or the oceans provide without using con-       is the fact that our current lifestyles and consump-     industry, distribution, consumption, recycling and
siderably more ecosystem services somewhere             tion patterns are unsustainable. Consumption levels      disposal. Thus, it can provide a rough indication of
else (Meadows et al. 2004). In recent years we          have increased six-fold since the 1960s. The global      the long-term ecological sustainability of lifestyles
have witnessed, for example, a rise in the produc-      population has doubled, while consumption expen-         when compared to the level of natural resource
tion of biofuels, which in turn, due to diminishing     ditures per capita have almost tripled. This is why      consumption that is estimated as sustainable.
returns, has increased the costs of food produc-        there’s a demand for change in lifestyles that allow
tion.                                                   people to meet their personal needs and aspira-          In the SPREAD project we have defined the mate-
                                                        tions, while allowing current and future generations     rial footprint of a sustainable lifestyle at 8000 kg per
Until the early 2000s this did not really matter.       to do the same (SPREAD 2011).                            annum (p.a.) for one person. This quantified target
Starting in the late 19th century technologies have                                                              forms the fundamental assumption of sustainabil-
become more efficient in using natural resources,       The mirror of sustainable lifestyles in the iFuture is   ity on the individual level. The material footprint of
which has kept digging resources from more and          the material footprint. The idea behind the footprint    8000 kg p.a. consists of household goods, food
more difficult places profitable. Thanks to increased   is to provide a comprehensive and understandable         and beverages, everyday mobility and tourism,
productivity, the price curve of natural resources      tool to reduce different kinds of present and future     electricity, heating and built housing.
has been sloping steadily downward in the past          environmental challenges. It is a tool to measure
century.                                                and optimise the resource consumption of our life-       The 8000 kg p.a. of material footprint per person is
                                                        styles, including the services and the products and      based on the work of Michael Lettenmeier, Stefan
In recent years the material nature of our lives        production processes behind them (i.e. in the areas      Bringezu, Friedrich Schmidt-Bleek et al. from the
has become more visible, given the fact that the        of consuming, moving, housing and health). Thus it       Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and
increase in the cost of resource extraction has         is a good tool for decreasing the vulnerability of our   Energy on a safe and sustainable level of natural
outstripped the improvements in the efficiency of       lifestyles by showing the need for innovation around     resource use (for further reading Bringezu 2009,
                                                        the products and services that currently put a pres-     Kotakorpi et al. 2008, Lettenmeier et al. 2012).
                                                        sure to the environment.

10   SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050
In addition to the 8000 kg p.a. of material foot-        Table 2. Environmental and social boundaries
print, in iFuture we base our assumptions of future      that create the base for the 8000 kg sustainable footprint.
sustainable lifestyles on the following environmental
and social indicators:
                                                         Environmental boundaries                                                       Social boundaries
1. Environmental boundaries                                   Earth-system process                Current           Boundary               Human development                 Current     Goal 2050
                                                                                                   value              value                                                   Value
We draw on the planetary boundaries framework                             Climate change                                                  Human Developed Index
                                                              Atmospheric carbon dioxide              387                350                   (measure of life expec-
developed by a group of earth system and environ-           concentration (ppm by volume)                                               tancy, literacy, education and
                                                                                                                                                                              0,63          0,77
mental scientists led by Johan Rockström from the                        Biodiversity loss                                                          standards of living)
Stockholm Resilience Centre. Due to the complex-                 Extinction rate (number of          >100                 10             Years of education in less
                                                               species per million per year)                                                   developed countries              6             8
ity of quantifying these planetary boundaries, we                             Biochemical                                                               (average years)
have only taken into consideration six of the original   Anthropogenic nitrogen removed
                                                                                                      121                 35                         Life expectancy
                                                                                                                                                                               70            >75
                                                          from the atmosphere (millions of                                                             (global average)
nine in the background considerations.                                     tonnes per year)                                                          GINI coefficient
                                                                                  Land use                                                 (Measure of the inequality:
                                                         Land surface converted to crop-             11,7                 15
2. Social boundaries                                                          land (percent)
                                                                                                                                            a value 0 expressing total
                                                                                                                                                 equality and a value 1
                                                                                                                                                                               0,7          0,55

                                                                               Fresh water                                                          maximal inequality.)
We use population growth and human develop-                    Global human consumption              2600               4000                       Global population
                                                                                                                                                                                7            8,9
                                                                           of water (km3/yr)                                                                     (billion)
ment indices based on statistics and research by
                                                                               Ozone layer
UNDP and UN Population Division. These social                          Stratospheric ozone            283                276
system boundaries (the goals for 2050) are the                concentration (Dobson units)

minimum requirements for socially sustainable
development. The worldwide recognition of these                                                Reference: Rockström J. et all. (2011)     Reference: UNDP (2011)
social system boundaries is the underlying assump-
tion in our work.

                                                                                                                                                           D7.3 People’s forum workshop summaries   11
How much is 8000 kg p.a.?                                 Picture 3. The material footprint of ordinary things.
Estimations on the current average material foot-             How much is 40 000 kg in 2012?
print (also called a material rucksack) of Europeans
                                                          •   10 000 km in a car (15 000 kg)
varies between 27 and 40 000 kg p.a. It means
that our material footprint will need to decrease by,     •   2 000 km public transport (700 kg)
on average, 75–80% to reach a sustainable level. In       •   550 kg of food with 19% share of meat (6 000 kg)
order to get there, it is necessary to know what the      •   37 m2 warm living space (10 000 kg)
8000 kg p.a. consist of and how much it is.               •   Resources for other consumption items
                                                              and leisure time (8 300 kg)
The sustainable material footprint includes three
main categories, nutrition (3000 kg p.a.), transport          How much is 1000 kg in 2012?
(2000 kg p.a.) and housing infrastructure (1300 kg
p.a.). Other categories include electric power con-       •   500 km alone in a car or
sumption, leisure time activities and other purposes      •   3 000 km with public transport or
(1700 kg p.a. altogether). A sustainable material         •   6 m2 warm living space or
footprint can be distributed for example in the fol-
                                                          •   100 kg meatballs
lowing way:

         3 000 kg nutrition                               For example, some people may accumulate more             material footprint. In the lower part of the picture 3
         1 300 kg for the house                           of their footprint through transportation while others   an average European material footprint of 40 tons is
         300 kg electric power consumption                move less, but live in a larger apartment. Not eve-      translated into consumption of different things. Not
         500 kg household goods                           ryone needs to live the same way, but – on aver-         surprisingly, the figures tell of a very ordinary life.
         2 000 kg transport and tourism                   age – everyone must live within boundaries of our
         400 kg leisure time activities                   planetary system in order to realise our sustainable     The figures that shed light on the material footprint
         500 kg other purposes                            future. This idea of diversity in lifestyles, both now   are based on the level of currently available technol-
                                                          and in the alternative sustainable futures, has been     ogy. Development of technology will lead to effi-
It is important to note that this is only an example of   the guiding principle in our work of exploring cur-      ciency gains, which in turn will provide people with
a sustainable material footprint. This generalisation     rent lifestyles and ways of turning them sustainable.    more using the same material input. The picture
does not mean that the composition of the material                                                                 below illustrates the difference of material intensity
footprint is similar for everyone. The share of con-      But how much is a ton of material footprint?             of the same things between now and 2050. For
sumption category in a material footprint of 8000 kg      The upper part of the picture 3 tells how many           example, travelling 3000 km with public transport
p.a. can differ according to the values, needs and        kilometres by a private car or public transport or       or living in 6 m2 of warm living space today can as-
aspirations of each person’s unique lifestyle.            how many square metres of warm living space or           sumed to be equivalent to 5000 km and 15 m2 in
                                                          kilograms of meatballs will one get with a ton of        2050, respectively.

12   SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050
40 000 KG

                                                                                                                                                                                         30 000 KG
    How much is 1000 kg in 2050?                       The material footprints of
•   700 km alone in a car                              iFuture participants
                                                                                                                                                 12 513 KG                               20 000 KG
•   3000 km with public transport                      In iFuture, a personal material footprint for each
                                                                                                                                                                               8 066KG

•   15 m2 warm living space                            participant was calculated with a footprint calcula-
                                                                                                                                                                                         10 000 KG
•   250 kg soya-vegetable patties                      tor, developed by Demos Helsinki and D-mat, spe-               HOUSEHOLD GOODS

                                                                                                                   FOOD AND BEVERAGES
                                                       cifically for the SPREAD project. Average footprints
                                                                                                                  EVERYDAY MOBILITY AND TOURISM
The bottom line, nontheless, is that technology        (kg per person per year) of the of the iFuture partici-            ELECTRICITY AND HEAT

                                                                                                                       BUILT HOUSING
alone will not make our lives sustainable. The         pants were 26,000 in Finland, 25,000 in Germany,
change is so drastic that our lifestyles, in which     26,000 in Spain, 22,000 in Hungary and 22, 000
                                                                                                                   HOUSEHOLD GOODS
technology is only one factor, will have at least as   for the online workshop participants from different
significant a role to play.                            countries of Europe. Based on the finding that eight      FOOD AND BEVERAGES
                                                                                                                                                                                         40 000 KG
                                                       tonnes of material use is the sustainability threshold
                                                                                                                  EVERYDAY MOBILITY AND TOURISM

                                                       for European households (Lettenmeier 2011, based
                                                       on Bringezu 2009), these figures show that for the                                        53 228KG                                30 000 KG
                                                       time being, Europeans don not yet live sustainably.       ELECTRICITY AND HEAT
                                                                                                                                                                                         20 000 KG
                                                       A large diversity of lifestyles between different peo-                                                                  7 990KG
                                                       ple was identified. The lowest material footprint of
                                                       all the participants was 8500 kg/a, which is slightly                                                                             10 000 KG

                                                       higher than the sustainability threshold given. The
                                                       highest material footprint was 69 000 kg/a, which             BUILT HOUSING
                                                       would require a factor 9 decrease in order to be
                                                       sustainable.                                                    HOUSEHOLD GOODS

                                                                                                                 FOOD AND BEVERAGES

                                                                                                                                                                                         40 000 KG

                                                                                                                                                 55 195KG
                                                                                                                                                                                         30 000 KG

                                                                                                                  EVERYDAY MOBILITY
                                                                                                                     AND TOURISM                                                         20 000 KG
                                                                                                                                                                               7 960KG

                                                                                                                                                                                         10 000 KG

                                                                                                                 ELECTRICITY AND HEAT
                                                                                                                        BUILT HOUSING

                                                                                                                                                     D7.3 People’s forum workshop summaries      13
See the Table 3 on next page

4 Barriers to lifestyle change
                                                                                                                                I always thought I do sustainable food shopping – I buy green prod-
                                                                                                                                ucts, shop locally, but now, the food makes up for a big share of my
                                                                                                                                        footprint. This high impact I would like to change of cause.”
                                                                                                                                                                                      German participant, 63 years old

This discrepancy between current and sustain-                             Also in the area of food I wonder what is in the end more valuable. I am convinced
able lifestyles is an issue that has not gone un-                         that I can drink as much water as I want, I just shouldn’t get it from France or any-
                                                                         where far away. I think if I would eat 5 kilos of strawberries from my grandmother’s
noticed by Europeans. The question ‘what makes                           garden in summer, there is no problem as all, but if I insist on eating them in winter,
our lifestyles unsustainable’ is clearly an issue that                                                                            than it becomes a problem.”
                                                                                                                                                 German participant, 18 years old
people have pondered and developed ideas on
barriers that limit the change.

                                                                I already made a plan to reduce my footprint in housing:
In the iFuture the participants had an opportunity to              I will need to find a girlfriend and have a child, as then

                                                               the living space will stay the same, but will be divided by                           I do not know how to downgrade my electricity
discuss the issue of sustainable lifestyles in more         three and the food I think can also be reduced by this. This                                   consumption (although acting with care)”
concrete terms and through examples from their                 would really solve my problem: I bought property a while                                                               Spanish participant, 55 years old
                                                            ago which is too big just for myself and I can not just move
own lives. What the interviews and workshops               out of it again. I could easily fit it one or two other people. It

showed, was that the participants had a good un-           wouldn’t really be an option to share this flat with someone.                   A lot can be changed if one for example puts on another
                                                         It’s an old building and the rooms are large. It’s only 3 rooms,                     pullover when it is cold. But this is nothing I desire for
derstanding on the major sustainability challenges                                   but they add up to 80 square meters.”                  myself, as this have been the conditions in my parent’s
they face in the everyday lives. Their responses                                                    German participant, 35 years old                                           home when I grew up.”
                                                                                                                                                                                      German participant, 36 years old
help us understand the diversity of barriers people

perceive between their current and (desired) sus-                                                                                             If I am wealthy enough, I can afford to have a car and
                                                                                                                                           on top of this to buy the tickets for the train. If I had less
tainable lifestyles.                                                                                                                                      money available, I would need to choose.”
                                                                                                                                                                                      German participant, 63 years old

Table 3 from the SPREAD report ‘Today’s Facts                                                                                                It is really important for us to save time or to have our
                                                                                                                                           comfort by accomplishing the planned tasks. For exam-
and Tomorrow’s Trends´ (2011) Sustainable life-                                                                                             ple the big purchasing at weekends is only possible by
styles baseline report lists key challenges and                                                                                                              car, but now we are saving our money.”
                                                                                                                                                                                    Hungarian participant, 36 years old
promising practices for more sustainable ways of
living. Placed around the table are comments that
                                                                                                                                                                       Since I live in a small rural town,
                                                                                                                                                                 the demand for transportation is high.“
appeared during iFuture interviews and workshops,                                                                                                                                   Hungarian participant, 65 years old
commenting corresponding challenges and prac-

                                                                                                                                          I’m not surprised I have to reduce mobility, since it is not
tices.                                                                                                                                      sustainable. Unfortunately as of today public transport
                                                                                                                                         connections between work and home, in my case, are not
                                                                                                                                                                                      Spanish participant, 38 years old

                                                                                                                                                                 The reason of this is easy: this genera-
                                                                                                                                                                  tion had to live in privation in the past
                                                                                                                                                                         and now they do not want to.”
                                                                                                                                                                                    Hungarian participant, 33 years old

14   SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050
Table 3. Barriers of lifestyle change according to previous research and iFuture participants.

Lifestyle area   Key challenges and impacts                          Promising sustainability trends and practices                         We should think more about what we buy. But purchas-
                                                                                                                                           ing more consciously is more relevant for the younger
Consuming        High or rising environmental impacts due to:        • Increased awareness of sustainability issues among
                                                                                                                                           generation. Because of historical reasons the generation
                 • Food and drink consumption, in particular           many European citizens
                                                                                                                                       grown up during the communist era doesn’t want to give up
                   meat and dairy                                    • Emergence of collaborative consumption (sharing, lending        things.
                 • Increasing long distance transportation of          trading, swapping)
                                                                                                                                                                                    Hungarian participant, 33 years old
                   goods, particularly import of non-seasonal        • Growing availability and demand for eco-efficient or or-

                   and exotic foods                                    ganic/ecological products and foods                                Urban Gardening is a great idea in theory, but mostly be-
                 • Increasing use of chemicals in food produc-       • Growth of urban farming                                            cause it makes people happy. he problem is that people
                   tion and increasing consumption of processed      • Movements toward consumption reduction (e.g. meat                  plant things that are not necessarily useful on their own,
                   food                                                consumption)                                                    such as tomatoes. But no one will grow Wheat or Grains
                                                                                                                                       which is vital for our diet”
Living           High or rising environmental impacts due to:        • Growing availability and demand for environmentally                                                            German participant, 58 years old
                 • Increasing number of households (e.g. more          friendly appliances
                   single-person households)                         • Increasingly successful energy efficiency efforts in private
                 • Increasing individual living spaces                 households

                 • Increasing consumption of energy and water        • Increasing awareness and behaviour change for energy               I have already made the energetic refurbishment of my
                   despite recent energy efficiency gains in           and water conservation                                             house partly. So we will use less electricity but I will use
                   household appliances                              • Emergence of energy-efficient, passive and                         solar energy.”
                 • Growing number of electricity consuming ap-         energy-positive housing
                                                                                                                                                                                    Hungarian participant, 33 years old
                   pliances and devices in households                • Emergence of innovative urban planning approaches
                 • Rebound effects                                   • Cities or neighbourhoods that support sustainable living

Moving           High or rising environmental impacts due to:        • More efficient transportation technologies, such as electric
                 • Increasing numbers of passenger cars                vehicles
                 • Oil dependency (a consequence of passen-          • Growth in car sharing services that show a shift away from
                   ger car use)                                        private ownership to collaborative consumption
                 • Increasing mobility needs related to urban        • Increasingly successful efforts to stimulate modal shifts
                   sprawl and urban structures that favour car         toward walking, cycling or public transportation
                   use (e.g. shopping facilities in the urban        • Strategic urban planning to decrease mobility needs and
                   periphery)                                          make sustainable modes of transport safer and accessible
                 • Rising air travel and cheaper air fares

Health and       High or rising health impacts, such as:             • Growing awareness and better information on healthy diets           My footprint in regards to food I could and
society                                                                and lifestyles (e.g. labelling)
                 • Increasing levels of obesity and heart disease                                                                          can make smaller. It’s a matter of everyday
                   associated with poor diets and inadequate         • Increased availability and demand for local, ecological and         life skills. Shouldn’t people be more skilled
                   lifestyle choices                                   seasonal food                                                   in the future than now?
                 • Increase of respiratory and heart diseases as-    • Initiatives that promote walking, cycling and limit cigarette                             Finnish participant, 35 years old
                   sociated with poor housing conditions               smoking in buildings
                 • Increased availability and low prices of highly   • Increasingly successful efforts to integrate health and eq-
                   processed, unhealthy food products                  uity considerations into policy making and urban planning
                 High or rising social inequity:
                 • Per capita environmental impacts are consid-
                   erably higher in high income groups than in
                   lower income groups
                 • Low income groups are more affected by
                   adverse sustainability effects (e.g. climate
                   change, local air pollution, rising energy
                 • High income groups are more likely to have
                   healthier diets

                                                                                                                                                        D7.3 People’s forum workshop summaries                  15
PART II: European lifestyle patterns according to iFuture study

5 The three lenses of sustainable lifestyles
We are entering an age of new materialism. It is          The drivers of new materialism are simple. In recent      hold goods and transportation. By this, we were
common to see our current lifestyle as ‘materialist’      years the material nature of our lives has become         looking for what are the most material intensive part
in its nature. We spend a lot of time and money           more visible given the fact that the increase in cost     of peoples lives and why so.
on clothes, furnishing and decorating our homes;          of resource extraction has outstripped the improve-
on talking and reading about designs of everyday          ments in the efficiency of production. This implies       The results are eyeopening. We have found three
objects, from cars to phones and kitchen appli-           that many of our natural resources, oil being one         lifestyle factors of paramount importance in the
ances. However, it is fascinating how immaterial          of the most important (Kumhof & Muir 2012), are           age of new materialism: (1) life stage transitions, (2)
our consumption has been until today. Due to the          reaching peak production in the 21st century. This        material inclinations and (3) values and attitudes to-
abundance of material resources, prices and avail-        amplifies certain lifestyle factors that have previ-      wards lifestyle change. These factors describe the
ability of commodities have fallen steadily for most      ously been present but not overly significant.            likely changes in peoples’ lifestyles due to mate-
of the 20th century and consumer prices since the                                                                   rial scarcity, i.e. new materialism. We call them the
1980s (SPREAD 2011, 37 based on Braun 1995;               It is important to understand that even if material re-   three lenses of sustainable lifestyles: they are the
GMO 2011). As a result there has been little or           sources will grow in importance, not everything that      forces that diversify our future lifestyles. Let’s look
no need to pay attention to the cost of materials         we recognize as material today is equally important       at how hese lenses work. In this chapter you hear
embedded in our consumption.                              – only the material intensive parts of our consump-       the participants’ views alongside our analysis.
                                                          tion are changing to in the event of sustainable
The ”stuff” that surrounds us has appeared and dis-       lifestyles.
appeared from our lives as if it had no origin or there
would be no life for it after the garbage bin (SPREAD     In this study we have used the material footprint
2011, 35 based on Cooper 2002). The highly mate-          methodology to illustrate where most natural
rial nature of these pivotal lifestyle components such    resources are consumed in our daily lives. Material
as housing and transportation have not fully been         footprint calculation takes into account materials
understood.                                               required to produce, use and discard a product or
Now this is changing. New materialism means
that the material aspects of our life become more         In iFuture we looked at the whole of people’s life-
significant.                                              styles and valuations combined with the data on
                                                          their material footprints – from dwellings to house-

16   SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050
1. Life stage transitions
                                                             “                                                                               “
                                                                There is four of us and our house is 94 square meters.                          I earn 5 times more than as a student and am still broke -
                                                                That’s a bit above than the recommended ratio. I’m not                          you upgrade your lifestyle according to your income.”
                                                                skilled to make a change. My spouse is interested in                                                                     Online participant, 37 years old
Transitions between different life stages are para-          these things in a different manner. If I wouldn’t have kids, my

                                                             footprint would be totally different. With children one doesn’t                    In private life the most important thing is the family. So,
mount in understanding future sustainable lifestyles.        even dream of traveling to a holiday with an airplane. I’ve                        a good holidays, good life and good appartment are only
The size of iFuture participants’ material footprint         been thinking about the possibility of our parents living in the                   “frameworks” for the family life, to enjoy children and
                                                             same lot as us.”                                                                husband.”
followed a clear path according to one’s life stage.                                                     Finnish participant, 35 years old                                              Spanish participant, 33 years old
One of the primary definers of one’s material foot-

                                                             “                                                                               “
print is whether the person, for example, lives alone           I am 26 years old, I have no work, I’m studying a master-                         I guess fresh families with small kids are trapped with
                                                                degree and sharing an apartment. We are 3–4 people.”                              the societal pressure to move around by car... and once
or in shared housing, alone as a couple, as a family                                                    Spanish participant, 26 years old         the family sits into a car its difficult to get them out from
with kids or as single or couple whose children had                                                                                          there. But I also believe that people like us are the pioneers

                                                                 The share of transportation is massive! I need to move                      in ignoring the oldfashioned and high-carbon societal pres-
left the home. Most importantly, choices made in                 closer to my workplace – although retirement will fix                       sures.”
transitions between these life stages define one’s               that! We will try to find a solution: where we put guests,                                                              Online participant, 31 years old
                                                             children, grandchildren-to-be. We could move closer to work

material footprint for years to come, sometime even          to a place half the size of our current place. We can’t afford                      Having 4 children means a lot of travelling with the car,
for a lifetime.                                              the same size. Only if there were flats in the city center with                     a lot of energy consumption and less flexibility in terms
                                                             guestrooms.”                                                                        of consumer choices. Probably the most unsustainable
                                                                                                         Finnish participant, 50 years old   thing I do is driving the car, especially short distances.”
From a European family’s perspective, having                                                                                                                                            German participant, 56 years old

                                                                 Living with a family as an adult equals to a flatshare,
children and children moving out are the most

                                                                 doesn´t it? So why again does the footprint rise when                           Changing the way we live sounds difficult to me. We
important life stage transitions in terms of one’s               people start a family as we´ve heard before.” “But if the                       enjoy it very much living in this big house, this is where
                                                             children move out?”                                                                 our two sons used to grow up. Now one of them has his
material footprint. The research points out that                                                 Online participants, 30 and 22 years old    lawyers offices in the house as well, but not really using it as
having children as well as children moving out is an                                                                                         much anymore, as he’s now working in a different field. But

increasingly important watershed for different kinds             My daughter is soon a teenager and it will be hard to get                   when we have family reunions, we can easily host 4-6 people
                                                                 her involved in a low consumption manner. How should I                      in the house. This is quite nice and I would miss having this
of lifestyles, i.e. they represent points in life that fix       argue that I wouldn’t like to buy some product when her                     opportunity. Having this space to host family members is
footprints related to both housing and transporta-           friends have it. I ponder if I cut her out from the group of her                also important for the social structure of the family. Maybe it
                                                             age by restricting what she gets.”                                              could be an option for us to have someone living on the sec-
tion to certain level for a long time and are difficult                                                  Finnish participant, 37 years old   ond floor of our house, but I would need to think about this.”
to impact thereafter (Kaskinen et al. 2009). This is                                                                                                                                    German participant, 63 years old

                                                                 I already made a plan to reduce my footprint in housing:
because people generally seem to lack agency and                 I will need to find a girlfriend and have a child, as then
choice in transitions. In many cases large trans-                the living space will stay the same, but will be divided by
                                                             three and the food I think can also be reduced by this.”
portation footprints seem to result from living in a                                                    German participant, 35 years old
“family home” with sufficient level of living space,
which people can only afford outside cities. Similar-
                                                                When I’m 66 years old, I won’t be as adventurous as
                                                                nowadays. Then I’ll love things such as a good house and
ly couples or single people that continue to house              that I’ve achieved good things in my work.”
the family dwellings after their children have moved                                                     Finnish participant, 28 years old

out refer to the need of having extra-space for the

                                                                Alright, but we cannot be students forever. Since we are
children and the grandchildren to visit.                        supposed to be adults and parents and so on, our foot-
                                                                print will be high by default.”
                                                                                                         Online participant, 26 years old

                                                                                                                                                              D7.3 People’s forum workshop summaries              17
These housing choices at the made at the transi-            2. Material inclinations
tion points of life also largely define transportation                                                               •   Compact home & moving around: The third
patterns. In other words, one of the key reasons for        New materialism brings two aspects of our every-             type is one with low consumption in Electricity
the large transportation footprints in Europe seems         day life to a new light: our homes and our transpor-         and Heat (e.g. with electricity from renewable
to be the lack of living alternatives for families with     tation habits. These are the biggest consumers of            sources) and high consumption in Everyday
children as well as unpreparedness for a “third             material in our current lifestyles, and also interest-       Mobility and Tourism. For example, single peo-
age”, i.e. life after children and work.                    ingly the categories that have grown mostly during           ple who have a mobile work and enjoy travelling
                                                            the last 40 years (in some areas of Europe such              in their free-time but choose to have a compact
On the whole people are not very well prepared              as Finland the both living space and transportation          home.
and lack support for these transitions as they take         kilometres have more than doubled since 1970
place. This is why one of the key points in reduc-          (Finnish Statistical Agency 2011)).                      •   Compact home & life nearby: The last and
ing people’s material footprints is to understand                                                                        fourth type is one with both low consumption
and help them take better agency of their footprint         We studied 75 persons around Europe and how                  in Electricity and Heat and Everyday Mobility
in their transitory period as well to create viable         the material inputs available on the planet could be         and Tourism. E.g. People who enjoy urban life
choices for the transitions to replace the current          potentially shared among the consumers of 2050.              and choose to live in a vibrant neighbourhoods
practices that lead into large transportation and           Based on the data from the lifestyle questionnaire,          in a small but relatively expensive home, young
housing footprints.                                         the interviews and the collaborative workshops,              people in shared flats with no car or people
                                                            one can conclude that there are currently clearly            living in a moderate or self-sufficient dwelling in
When given a chance to reflect on their mate-               four different types of households in the study:             the countryside without the necessity to move
rial footprints, most people understand that their                                                                       around.
footprint relates heavily to their life stage transition.   •   Big home & moving around: The first type is
However, this analysis could only be done retro-                one with high consumption both in Electricity        From this we can gather that with access to far less
spectively. In other words, the challenge is creating           and Heat and Everyday Mobility and Tourism,          material resources in their use, people will have to
understanding and choice prior to the transitions,              such as, people with large family home who           choose between being home-centric or mobile in
or yet the best, at the moment of delivery.                     need to commute or travel for work.                  their lifestyles. Currently these go somewhat hand
                                                                                                                     in hand – the bigger the home, the more we travel.
                                                            •   Big home & staying home: The second type is          This seems at least partly be an issue of cost of
                                                                one with high consumption in Electricity and         living. Large homes that are affordable tend to be
                                                                Heat but low consumption in Everyday Mobility        located far away from services thus linking housing
                                                                and Tourism. For example, ageing couples who         and transportation together.
                                                                don’t need to commute and enjoy leisure activi-
                                                                ties available at their own neighbourhood or a
                                                                person with a big flat close to services.

18    SPREAD Sustainable Lifestyles 2050
“                                                                              “                                                                          3. Values and attitudes towards
   I am not very consequent in my actions and decisions. I                          I am a disappointed, as I had expected different
   live in the country on a farm in which we produce all our                        results and scored relativily bad. My understanding of
   own electricity, but living so far from town and my job
means I have to travel at least 70 km every day. There are
                                                                                    myself would have been that I am already acting quite
                                                                               sustainably. The mobility aspect alone is very surprising –
                                                                                                                                                             lifestyle change
always two sides of the coin and I try not to feel guilty about                I try to use trains a lot and rarely the car. The appartment
my life.”                                                                      is big but I tend to heat it very efficiently I thought. Food              In our research we looked at the reactions of
                                           German participant, 36 years old    waste are very limited, for example I am still eating older                people when discussing sustainable lifestyles. The
                                                                               bread that others would have through away long before.
                                                                                                                                                          reactions towards alternative ways of living a good

   Anything what I do or what I do not do has impacts be-                      Regarding changes I am quite conscious, so some things
   yond me and affects the people around me. It was a con-                     are easier for me. What is difficult, is to overcome my                    life with considerably less material consumption
   scious decision not to move in a big city and to stay with                  lack of will power. Fun is part of life, and sometimes it is
                                                                               difficult to balance out fun and consciousness.”                           spurred a diversity of views. We saw clusters of
my wife in my hometown. This way we use the car only at
weekends. But even in this case for travelling to the nature.”                                                       German participant, 37 years old     value-based reactions to sustainable lifestyles and
                                                                                                                                                          lifestyle change in general emerging. A cluster of

                                         Hungarian participant, 36 years old
                                                                                   The profile resumes quite well. I hope to have sold my

    I live in an appartment in Barcelona and it implies that I                     car even before 2020 and to use car-sharing or taxis.                  values and attitudes is a useful tool to understand
                                                                                   Holidays in local destinations are not so attractive,
    have to contract electricity, water... and other household
                                                                               but to travel around Europe will be excellent. We have
                                                                                                                                                          what guides decision making in one’s life.
    supplies. I would like to live in a small town or village that
allows me to be more self-sufficient (to use self-produced                     so many cultures and different environments here that I
                                                                               do not need to travel to other continents. Food service
energy, etc...)”
                                                                               would today be unlikely as I am living very remotly, but in
                                                                                                                                                          In the face of change, it is typical that values and
                                           Spanish participant, 55 years old
                                                                               general I very much favour it as being very convenient.”                   attitudes come to surface. A value is a concep-

    The footprint seems very logical to me. Mobility is so high                                                      German participant, 36 years old     tion, distinctive of an individual, of the desirable
    as we are living on the countryside and are dependant                                                                                                 which influences the selection from available means

    on using our car. Heating and energy consumption on                            I use car to commute between my home and work-
the other side is so low, as we heat with wood, which is very                      place. I have no other choice only the car, because                    and ends of action (Kluckhohn 1951). An attitude
neutral. Regarding food we try to buy locally, but I have to                       not have good public transport system. It would be
                                                                               too complicated and expensive. So, my only possibili-
                                                                                                                                                          is a tendency to respond positively or negatively
admit we are mainly driven my comfort (would be no problem
to get fresh milk from a farm, but it is so much easier to buy                 ties to decrease my footprint if I use eco friendly car or                 towards a certain idea, object, person, or situa-
a package in the supermarket). A lot can be changed if one                     electric car, but actually in Hungary this technologie is
                                                                               not available.”
                                                                                                                                                          tion. Based on our interviews with the participants
for example puts on another pullover when it is cold. But this
is nothing I desire for myself, as this have been the condi-                                                       Hungarian participant, 39 years old
                                                                                                                                                          we mapped out clusters of values and attitudes
tions in my parent’s home when I grew up.”                                                                                                                towards lifestyles that serve as a starting point in

                                           German participant, 36 years old
                                                                                  This is the only way to make ecological living a real-                  understanding how people see the lifestyle dimen-

                                                                                  ity beyond population centers. This is how rural life
   I use public transports and try to reduce the water and                        is sustainable. Okay, these things may work in Italy                    sions opened by new materialism, that is, when
   energy consumption in the shared flat. I buy organic food                   where the distances are small even on the countryside.
   products (vegetables) and share the car for long travels                                                                                               material aspects of our life become more signifi-
                                                                               Think of Finland, there’s a lot of moving about. That’s
(my parents live in Luxemburg).”                                               demanding for the infrastructure.”                                         cant. The value clusters on the page 21 are a result
                                           Spanish participant, 26 years old
                                                                                                                      Finnish participant, 37 years old   of a factor analysis of the participants answers

                                                                                                                                                          in the preliminary interviews. They present a very

   I knew my footprint was going to be horrific due to my
   bi-hemispheric life/work.”                                                       I recognize myself almost entirely in the profile. I
                                              Online partipant, 37 years old
                                                                                    would only disagree in the low frequency of trave-                    basic and a fundamentally partial view of what the
                                                                                    ling: it is one of my passions and if possible, I would               value clusters related to sustainable lifestyles in Eu-

                                                                               not priverme it (obviously always looking for an efficient
   I travel a lot: last year I’ve done five international flights              method of transportation). I also do not see that material-                rope are. Due to the small sample, we cannot say
   because of my job (international cooperation).”                             istic consumption is completely obsolete by then.”
                                           Spanish participant, 30 years old                                                                              that these are the only clusters or even the most
                                                                                                                        Spanish participant, 26 years
                                                                                                                                                          important ones, nor they are exclusive. Gaining a
                                                                                                                                                          deep understanding of values of a person requires

                                                                                                                                                                        D7.3 People’s forum workshop summaries   19
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