INTERNATIONAL GRADUATE OUTCOMES 2019 - WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO? Medium term destinations and career outcomes of EU and Non-EU graduates ...

 
INTERNATIONAL GRADUATE
    OUTCOMES 2019
  WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
Medium term destinations and career outcomes
of EU and Non-EU graduates from UK Universities
CONTENTS
1
FOREWORD
PAGE 5-7

2
INTRODUCTION &
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
PAGE 9-13

3
WHO COMPLETED THE SURVEY?
PAGE 15-19

4
HOW SATISFIED ARE
INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES?
PAGE 21-23

5
WHAT ARE GRADUATES
DOING NOW?
PAGE 25-35

6
HOW HAS A UK DEGREE BENEFITTED
INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES?
PAGE 37-53

7
HOW DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES
ENGAGE WITH THE UK?
PAGE 55-63

8
ANNEXES
PAGE 65-71
FOREWORD

1   FOREWORD

“   THE UK BENEFITS FROM INTERNATIONAL
    GRADUATES JUST AS MUCH AS GRADUATES         “
    THEMSELVES BENEFIT FROM THEIR UK DEGREES.

                                                WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
                                                                             PAGE 5
FOREWORD

FOREWORD – CHRIS SKIDMORE MP,                                                                          FOREWORD – VIVIENNE STERN,
MINISTER OF STATE FOR UNIVERSITIES,                                                                    DIRECTOR, UNIVERSITIES UK INTERNATIONAL
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND INNOVATION
                                      The UK government fully recognises the benefits                                                     We know that careers and employability are often at
                                      that international students bring to the UK’s higher                                                the forefront of potential students’ minds when they
                                      education sector, both economically and culturally.                                                 are making decisions about where to study. In fact,
                                      They bring greater diversity to university and                                                      as this study shows, it is one of the top reasons why
                                      college campuses, an international dimension to                                                     many of our international graduates chose to study
                                      the experience of all students, stimulate demand for                                                in the UK. For this reason, the UK government’s
                                      courses and add to the UK’s impressive research                                                     newly published International Education Strategy
                                      capacity. They can be a great asset for the United                                                  focuses on international student employability as
                                      Kingdom for a lifetime after graduation and help to                                                 a key theme.
                                      enhance the UK’s soft power, creating links around
                                      the world.
This is why, in the International Education        The results in this report are very encouraging,    As a sector, we know that employability is           help fill this data gap, receiving responses from
Strategy, published in March of this year,         showing that a majority of international            important. UK universities work hard to              16,000 graduates from 58 UK institutions and
Government set an ambition to increase the         students enjoy their time in the UK and credit      prepare students for the global jobs market.         189 countries around the world.
numbers of international higher education          a UK degree with helping them get to where          The style of education offered by UK
students studying in the UK to 600,000 by          they are today. This is something that we           universities, with its emphasis on self-direction,   The results are overwhelmingly positive.
2030, an increase of over 30%. To help achieve     should congratulate ourselves for. This report      critical thinking, collaboration and problem-        Graduates report significant salary and career
this, we have committed in the strategy to         will also help to provide valuable insight for      based learning, encourages the development           progression benefits, and a strong desire to
work with the sector to ensure that students       universities, the government and the wider          of skills that we know employers demand. The         retain professional, personal and business links
have the best possible experience studying in      sector to help us all ensure we are continuing      case studies in this report illustrate how these     with the UK. 82% of respondents say their UK
the UK, from the point they apply for a visa       to deliver the best possible experience for         features of a UK degree help our graduates           degree was worth the financial investment;
through to graduation, whilst working with the     international students in the UK.                   forge successful careers.                            and 69% said that having a UK degree helped
sector to improve their employment prospects                                                                                                                them progress more quickly in their career.
after their degree.                                Together we can build on this research to           Despite all this, though, we have surprisingly       Graduates also report an earnings premium
                                                   help ensure that international students             little in the way of hard data regarding the         attached to a UK degree with over half saying
I am therefore delighted to introduce the          who graduate from the UK’s world leading            career and other outcomes of our international       that they believe they earn above average
International Graduate Outcomes report from        universities are in the best possible position to   alumni. Our two main sources of graduate             compared to peers educated elsewhere.
Universities UK international. This report is a    go on to further employment, be it in the UK,       employability data, the LEO and the DLHE
great example of the Higher Education sector,      or their home nation.                               don’t tell us much about international               For the UK to build on this strong record,
and UUK working on its behalf, taking the                                                              graduates, especially those who work outside         and achieve the Government target to attract
lead and delivering positive action in order to                                                        the UK after they graduate.                          600,000 international students by 2030, our
support the delivery of the strategy and our                                                                                                                universities will continue to work hard to
shared ambitions.                                                                                      Universities UK International (UUKi),                improve the support they offer international
                                                                                                       supported by the British Universities’ Liaison       students to ensure we make good on our
                                                                                                       Association (BUILA), commissioned a major            promise of a world-class education.
                                                                                                       International Graduate Outcomes survey to

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                                           WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 6                                                                                                                                                                                                     PAGE 7
FOREWORD

2   INTRODUCTION
    & EXECUTIVE
    SUMMARY

“   THE UK CONSISTENTLY EMERGES AS ONE
                                       “
    OF THE TOP COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD FOR
    INTERNATIONAL STUDENT SATISFACTION.

                                            WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
                                                                         PAGE 9
FOREWORD

INTRODUCTION

The value of international students is reflected in the        This study is a starting point in enhancing
                                                               this evidence base. International Graduate
                                                                                                                  There are additional contributing factors to
                                                                                                                  the outcomes of international graduates that
UK government’s International Education strategy,              Outcomes 2019 (i-GO), conducted by iGraduate,      this data cannot wholly capture, including:
released in March 2019. The strategy sets out the              is the first study which specifically explores
                                                               the career outcomes of a large sample of
                                                                                                                  the financial, academic and English language
                                                                                                                  requirements that students must meet to study
government’s ambition to increase the total number             international graduates who studied in the UK.     in the UK. Some of the graduates surveyed
                                                                                                                  would have come from an already advantaged
of international students choosing to study in the UK          To gather responses from a significant sample of   background – although, while we do not
to 600,000 by 2030. Action 5 of the strategy says              16,199 international graduates, 58 participating   know the socioeconomic backgrounds of i-GO
                                                               institutions surveyed their international alumni   respondents, we do know that only 12% of
that the government will:                                      using iGraduate’s survey tool.                     them entirely self-funded their studies.

                                                               The results presented in this report provide       The UK benefits from international graduates
                                                               a snapshot of the employability benefits of        just as much as graduates themselves benefit
Work with Universities UK International (UUKi) and             a UK degree.                                       from their UK degrees and this evidence base
                                                                                                                  is a starting point to inform how government
the sector to identify and share good practice in how          The survey results show that international         policy and university strategies can maximize
universities effectively support international students into   graduates from UK universities go on to            the mutual benefits of international students
employment and further study, both here in the UK and when     successful and satisfying careers, and that        and graduates.
                                                               the majority of them recognise that their
they return to their home nation. We will also work with       UK degree is a vehicle for their success.
the sector to enhance the evidence base on international       The results also show just how valuable our
graduate outcomes and to monitor the UK’s comparative          international graduates are as ambassadors
                                                               for the UK.
position with respect to international student recruitment
and the international student experience.

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                               WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 10                                                                                                                                                       PAGE 11
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

THE INTERNATIONAL GRADUATE OUTCOMES
SURVEY OF 16,199 INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES
FROM UK UNIVERSITIES SHOWED THAT:

90% 82%
INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES ARE SATISFIED WITH
ALL ASPECTS OF THEIR LIVES AND CAREERS.
Over 90% of graduates who studied in the UK
report being satisfied or very satisfied with all
                                                                       STUDYING IN THE UK IS WORTH
                                                                       THE INVESTMENT.
                                                                       82% of international non-EU and EU
                                                                       graduates say their UK degree was worth
                                                                                                                                       83% 77%
                                                                                                                                       A UK DEGREE HELPS INTERNATIONAL
                                                                                                                                       GRADUATES FIND EMPLOYMENT.
                                                                                                                                       83% of i-GO respondents reported that their
                                                                                                                                       qualification helped them get their job.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              UK HIGHER EDUCATION DEVELOPS
                                                                                                                                                                                                              GLOBAL LINKS FOR THE UK.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              77% of international graduates say they
                                                                                                                                                                                                              are more likely to do business with the UK.
aspects of their lives, and 82% of graduates                           the financial investment.                                                                                                              81% will develop professional links with
who studied in the UK report being satisfied                                                                                                                                                                  UK organisations. 88% of respondents plan to
or very satisfied with their careers so far.                                                                                                                                                                  visit the UK for holiday or leisure.

69% 90%
INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES FROM THE UK
PROGRESS MORE QUICKLY THAN PEERS
EDUCATED ELSEWHERE.
69% of respondents feel having a UK degree
                                                                       OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN THE UK
                                                                       ARE SATISFIED WITH THEIR LEARNING
                                                                       EXPERIENCE AND THE SUPPORT THEY
                                                                       RECEIVE FROM THEIR UNIVERSITIES.
                                                                                                                                       53% 80%
                                                                                                                                       OF UK GRADUATES EARN ABOVE AVERAGE
                                                                                                                                       COMPARED TO PEERS EDUCATED ELSEWHERE.
                                                                                                                                       Over half (53%) of respondents working in
                                                                                                                                       their home countries believe that they earn
                                                                                                                                                                                                              INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES BUILD
                                                                                                                                                                                                              GLOBAL LINKS FOR UK UNIVERSITIES.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              36% of graduates plan on doing further
                                                                                                                                                                                                              study in the UK and more than 80% of
meant they could progress more quickly in                              UK graduates’ satisfaction was on average                       above average or well above average compared                           international alumni would recommend
their chosen career.                                                   7% higher than their peers’ satisfaction1                       to peers that studied in their home country.                           studying in the UK. 77% of research
                                                                       across nine unique career support elements.                     86% of EU graduates and 84% of non-EU                                  postgraduates want to collaborate with
                                                                                                                                       graduates felt that they earned average or                             UK institutions for research purposes
                                                                                                                                       above. Available figures show that the wage                            after graduating.
                                                                                                                                       premium associated with a UK qualification
                                                                                                                                       was 202% for Chinese graduates, 129%
                                                                                                                                       for Malaysian graduates, 83% for Indian
                                                                                                                                       graduates, and 50% for USA graduates.2

1
    I nternational Student Barometer, 2019. The average satisfaction score across the 9 elements was 74% for the UK compared to 67%    Local graduate salary data sources: Stutern; China Daily (China); Jobstreet (Malaysia); Payscale (India);
                                                                                                                                       2

     globally, with differences in the areas of employment (60% vs 55%), training (80% vs 73%), advice (78% vs 71%), placement (69%     The Balance (USA).
     vs 62%), and opportunities through employers (79% vs 73%) and alumni (70% vs 64%)

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                                                                                                WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PAGE 13
WHO COMPLETED THE SURVEY

3
WHO COMPLETED
THE SURVEY?

OVERALL RESPONDENTS: 16,199
    EU RESPONDENTS: 5,547
    NON-EU RESPONDENTS: 10,652

                                 WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
                                                              PAGE 15
WHO COMPLETED THE SURVEY

WHO COMPLETED                                           STUDY LEVEL OF                                      NATIONALITY OF
THE SURVEY?                                             i-GO RESPONDENTS                                    RESPONDENTS

The i-GO survey includes 58 universities                STUDY LEVEL (EU)             STUDY LEVEL (NON-EU)   TOP 10 NATIONALITIES BY RESPONSE RATE                                  The balance of respondents to the i-GO
in the UK. These institutions distributed                                                                                                                                          survey by nationality was broadly similar
the survey to EU and non-EU international                                                                                                                                          to that of international students studying
graduates who had completed their studies                                                                                                                                          in the UK. Though the sample included
between January 2011 and July 2016.                                                                                                                                                a wide range of nationalities, the largest
Responses were collected from 16,199                                                                                                                                               non-EU nationality represented was the
international and EU graduates in total.                                                                                                                                           USA, followed by China4 , India, Nigeria
                                                                                                                                                                                   and Malaysia. According to 2017/18 HESA
The majority of the responses (64%) were                                                                                                                                           data, the aforementioned nationalities were
medium-term graduates, between two and                                                                                                                                             five of the top six non-EU nationalities of
five years post-graduation, and a sizeable                                                                                                                                         students in that academic year.5
proportion (36%) were longer-term graduates
                                                        Higher degree, mainly by research
who had completed their studies five to seven                                                                                                                                      Likewise, the list of top EU nationalities
                                                        (PhD, DPhil, MPhil, etc.)
years ago.                                                                                                                                                                         represented in the i-GO survey is
                                                        Higher degree, mainly by                                                                                                   comparable with actual enrolments in the
The largest respondent group among both                 taught course (MA, MSc, etc.)                                                                                              UK, with Italy, France, Germany and Greece
non-EU and EU graduates had studied                     Other diploma or certificate                                                                                               being the top four EU nationalities in terms
at the taught postgraduate (PGT) level.                 Other qualification                                                                                                        of UK enrolment.6
Approximately a quarter of the non-EU
respondents and 37% of EU respondents                   Postgraduate diploma or certificate
had completed an undergraduate degree                   (including PGCE)
in the UK. Postgraduate research (PGR)                  Professional qualification,                         USA 7%                Nigeria 5%             France 3%
graduates made up 18% of the EU group and               e.g. Accountancy                                    China 6%              Greece 4%              Romania 1%
16% of the non-EU group. Higher Education               Undergraduate degree                                India 6%              Malaysia 4%            Other 55%
Statistics Agency (HESA) data from 2016/17              (BA, BSc, etc.)
shows that 33% of non-EU nationalities and                                                                  Germany 6%            Italy 3%
48% of EU nationalities that completed a
qualification in the UK in 2016-17 had studied
at undergraduate level, whereas postgraduate
research graduates made up 8% of the EU
group and 6% of the non-EU group.3

3
    https://www.hesa.ac.uk/data-and-analysis/students
                                                                                                            4
                                                                                                               ote that in the year 17-18, Chinese students made up 33% of the total non-EU student population and that the i-GO sample size is
                                                                                                              N
                                                                                                              significantly smaller than total numbers of Chinese students studying in the UK in the relevant years.
                                                                                                            5
                                                                                                              https://www.hesa.ac.uk/data-and-analysis/students/where-from
                                                                                                            6
                                                                                                              https://www.hesa.ac.uk/data-and-analysis/students/where-from

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                                                                    WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PAGE 17
WHO COMPLETED THE SURVEY

DESTINATIONS OF
RESPONDENTS

                                       RESIDING IN HOME                    RESIDING IN OTHER
          NATIONALITY                                     RESIDING IN UK
                                           COUNTRY                             COUNTRY
               CHINA                         73%               14%               13%

             FRANCE                          33%               39%               28%

            GERMANY                          55%               26%               20%

             GREECE                          49%               38%               13%

               INDIA                         63%               16%               21%

            MALAYSIA                         81%               10%                9%

          NETHERLANDS                        45%               31%               25%

             NIGERIA                         78%               13%                9%

                                                                                               87%
            ROMANIA                          22%               58%               21%

                USA                          73%               16%               11%

                ALL                          59%               24%               17%

Table 1: Destinations of respondents

The relatively high number of graduates who
move to work in a third country highlights                                                     OF RESPONDENTS SAID THEY WERE
the global opportunities that a UK degree
can unlock. This is supported by the finding
                                                                                               MORE LIKELY TO DO BUSINESS
that 87% of respondents said they were more
likely to do business internationally as a
                                                                                               INTERNATIONALLY AS A RESULT OF
result of their UK degree.                                                                     THEIR UK DEGREE.

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                              WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 18                                                                                                                                       PAGE 19
HOW SATISFIED ARE INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES

4   HOW SATISFIED
    ARE INTERNATIONAL
    GRADUATES?

“   I LOVED THE [UNIVERSITY] COMMUNITY, MY
     FELLOW STUDENTS, THE TRADITIONS, THE HISTORY,
     THE CULTURE, AND THE PROXIMITY
     TO THE REST OF THE EUROPE. IT WAS ONE “
     OF THE HAPPIEST YEARS OF MY LIFE.
    MSC, PSYCHOLOGY, REPUBLIC OF IRELAND

                                                WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
                                                                               PAGE 21
HOW SATISFIED ARE INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES

    HOW SATISFIED ARE
    INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES?

    The UK consistently emerges as one of the top       CURRENT INTERNATIONAL   i-GO data supports these findings and goes            very satisfied with all aspects of their lives.
    countries in the world in terms of international    STUDENT SATISFACTION7   further, indicating that international graduates      Satisfaction was slightly lower for those who
    student satisfaction and wellbeing: data from                               from the UK go on to have high career and             had graduated recently – perhaps owing to

                                                        90%
    the 2018 International Student Barometer                                    life satisfaction. Over 90% of graduates who          the uncertainties some face immediately after
    indicates that 90% of international students                                studied in the UK report being satisfied or           graduation – but rises over time.
    studying in the UK were satisfied or very
    satisfied with their overall experience.
    Additionally, UK-based international students’
    satisfaction with their arrival, learning, living
                                                        LEARNING EXPERIENCE
    and support experiences at UK universities is

                                                        89%
    higher than satisfaction among international
    students globally. Overall, 93% of international
    students studying in the UK responded that                                            90%                       82%                       82%                       69%
    they were happy or very happy with their lives                                   LIFE SATISFACTION        CAREER SATISFACTION        FEEL THEIR DEGREE     FEEL HAVING A UK DEGREE
                                                                                                                                          WAS WORTH THE           MEANT THEY COULD
    at the time of the survey and 88% said they felt                                                                                   FINANCIAL INVESTMENT    PROGRESS MORE QUICKLY
    welcome in the UK.                                                                                                                                         IN THEIR CHOSEN CAREER
                                                        LIVING EXPERIENCE

                                                        90%
    WHAT WAS MOST VALUABLE IN YOUR
    EXPERIENCE STUDYING IN THE UK?

“   The openness and friendliness                                               87% OF NON-EU GRADUATES AND 90% OF EU GRADUATES SAY THEY ARE MORE
                                                                                LIKELY TO DO BUSINESS INTERNATIONALLY BECAUSE OF THEIR UK DEGREE
    of the people both at the                           SUPPORT

                                                        88%
    university as well as in general,                                           EU STUDENTS                                                                                             87%

    the humour and how welcomed                                                 NON-EU STUDENTS                                                                                         90%
    I felt when moving to a new
    country. Also, the opportunity                      FEELING WELCOME
    to meet so many interesting
    individuals from all around the                                             85% OF NON-EU GRADUATES AND 84% OF EU GRADUATES FEEL THEY ARE HAPPIER
    world. The university is a cocktail                                         THAN PEERS THAT STUDIED IN THEIR HOME COUNTRY

    of multicultural ingredients,            “                                  EU STUDENTS                                                                                             84%
    which I grew on personally as                                               NON-EU STUDENTS                                                                                         85%
    well as academically.
    BSC, BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, ANGOLA

    7
        2018 International Student Barometer (ISB)

    WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                 WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
    PAGE 22                                                                                                                                                                            PAGE 23
WHAT ARE GRADUATES DOING NOW

5
WHAT ARE
GRADUATES
DOING NOW?

78% OF NON-EU GRADUATES
AND 83% OF EU GRADUATES ARE
CURRENTLY ENGAGED IN PAID
WORK OR FURTHER STUDY.

                              WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
                                                          PAGE 25
WHAT ARE GRADUATES DOING NOW

MAIN ACTIVITIES

MAIN ACTIVITIES OF i-GO RESPONDENTS                                                                                             UNEMPLOYMENT RATE BY YEAR OF GRADUATION

PAID WORK FOR AN EMPLOYER                                                                                                67%                   5.6%
                                                                                                                         71%
ENGAGED IN A COURSE OF STUDY                                                                                             11%
                                                                                                                         12%
RUNNING MY OWN BUSINESS
                                                                                                                         7%
SELF-EMPLOYMENT/FREELANCE                                                                                                4%
                                                                                                                         4%

                                                                                                                               % UNEMPLOYED
UNEMPLOYED & LOOKING FOR WORK                                                                                            5%                                         3.4%                                                  3.4%
                                                                                                                         4%                                                                                 3.2%
DOING SOMETHING ELSE
                                                                                                                         3%
                                                                                                                                                                                       2.6%                                                 2.5%
DEVELOPING A CREATIVE, ARTISTIC OR                                                                                       3%
PROFESSIONAL PORTFOLIO                                                                                                   2%
TAKING TIME OUT TO TRAVEL (NOT                                                                                           1%
INCLUDE SHORT-TERM HOLIDAYS)                                                                                             1%
                                                                                                                         1%
CARING FOR SOMEONE (UNPAID)                                                                                              1%
VOLUNTARY/UNPAID WORK                                                                                                                           2                    3                   4                   5             6                 7
                                                                                                                         1%
FOR AN EMPLOYER                                                                                                          1%                                                           YEARS SINCE GRADUATION

Of the non-EU respondents who were                              The share of respondents that reported they                     Among i-GO respondents currently domiciled
currently working, 58% were employed                            were unemployed and looking for work was                        in the UK, 90% were engaged in paid work or
by a company, organization, or other entity;                    very low, at under 4%. The rate decreases as                    further study.
7% were self-employed or freelancing; and                       the number of years since graduation increases,
8% were running their own business.                             suggesting that more and more graduates find
A further 11% were engaged in a course                          jobs with the passage of time.
of study, training or research.
                                                                4% of Indian respondents and 2% of Chinese
A similar trend is observable among EU                          respondents who graduated from 2011 to 2014
graduates: 62% of those who were working                        reported being unemployed, compared to
were employed by a company, organisation                        national unemployment rates of around 6%8
or entity; 8% were self-employed or                             and 5% respectively in those countries.9 8% of
freelancing; and 4% were running their                          Nigerian respondents were unemployed four
own business. A further 14% were engaged                        to seven years after graduating, compared to a
in a course of study, training or research.                     national graduate unemployment rate of 32%.10

8
  Indian National Sample Survey Office’s (NSSO) labour force survey (PLFS) via https://www.businesstoday.in/current/economy-    10
                                                                                                                                      National Bureau of Statistics Nigeria: https://nigerianstat.gov.ng/download/856
  politics/nsso-report-citing-unemployment-rate-at-45-year-high-not-final-says-niti-aayog/story/315753.html
9
 Urban unemployment rate from China National Bureau of Statistics: http://www.chinabankingnews.com/2018/07/04/8-2-
 million-graduates-set-enter-jobs-market-unemployment-hits-lowest-level-since-2012/

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                                                                                     WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 26                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             PAGE 27
WHAT ARE GRADUATES DOING NOW

INDUSTRIES OF                                                                                                                        COUNTRY FOCUS:
EMPLOYMENT                                                                                                                           GERMANY

                                                                                                                                            90% 58% 2.5x
Graduates working outside the UK indicated they were
employed in a variety of industries, from marketing
to mining. However differences are evident according                                                                                        OF GERMAN GRADUATES OF UK               SAY THEY EARN ABOVE AVERAGE            GERMAN GRADUATES OF UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           INSTITUTIONS EARN NEARLY 2.5
to the level of study the graduate completed.                                                                                               INSTITUTIONS ARE SATISFIED
                                                                                                                                            WITH THEIR CAREERS
                                                                                                                                                                                    COMPARED TO PEERS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           TIMES MORE THAN THE GERMAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           AVERAGE GRADUATE SALARY12

TOP 5 INDUSTRIES OF EMPLOYMENT

                              EDUCATION                    FINANCE               COMPUTING/IT           HEALTHCARE/     SCIENTIFIC
                                                                                                                                                83% 93%                             SAY THEY ARE MORE LIKELY
                                                                                                                                                                                    TO DO BUSINESS/FORM
                                                                                                                                                                                    PROFESSIONAL LINKS WITH THE
                                                                                                                                                                                    UK BECAUSE OF THEIR STUDY
                                                                                                                                                                                    EXPERIENCE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SAY THEY ARE MORE LIKELY TO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           DO BUSINESS INTERNATIONALLY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           BECAUSE OF THEIR STUDY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           EXPERIENCE
                                                                                                        SOCIAL WORK   RESEARCH AND
                                                                                                                      DEVELOPMENT
                                                                                                                                     Germany is the EU’s largest economy. Its strong                  Comments from graduates from Germany
OVERALL                            18%                        8%                         7%                 6%             5%        labour market benefits from a highly skilled                     highlight the ways in which their UK
EMPLOYMENT                                                                                                                           workforce that is trained both domestically—at                   qualification aided them in the labour
                                                                                                                                     the vocational and tertiary levels—and abroad,                   market: “The study was very practical and
UNDERGRADUATE
EMPLOYMENT
                                   10%                        10%                        7%                 7%            N/A        including in the UK. Germany is one of the UK's                  with real world business logic,” says one
                                                                                                                                     top trading partners, highlighting the important                 MBA graduate now working in Operations
TAUGHT                                                                                                                               role that German graduates educated in the UK                    and Finance in Hamburg. As a graduate with
POSTGRADUATE                       15%                        9%                         6%                 5%            N/A        may play in maintaining and growing these links.                 an MA in librarianship reflected, “Studying
EMPLOYMENT
                                                                                                                                                                                                      in the UK made me view things differently,
RESEARCH                                                                                                                             Germany’s trade in goods and services accounts                   especially in my career. I now have a strong
POSTGRADUATE                       38%                        N/A                       N/A                N/A            15%        for nearly 50% of GDP. UK degrees support                        ideology that you can achieve whatever
EMPLOYMENT                                                                                                                           German graduates to contribute to this, both                     you want to achieve.” “Global insight, self-
                                                                                                                                     through the subjects they study and through the                  awareness and self-study, and motivation”
N/A indicates that the share of respondents at this level of study working in this area is negligible
                                                                                                                                     soft skills they gain during their UK university                 were cited as the most valuable aspects of
                                                                                                                                     experience. 93% of German graduates said that                    the UK education experience by another
Most international graduates return to                                         from India and 5% of graduates from the USA.
                                                                                                                                     their UK degree made them more likely to do                      graduate with an undergraduate qualification
their home country to work, and there is                                       Likewise, graduates from India were more
                                                                                                                                     business internationally.                                        in banking and international finance.
clear evidence that UK graduates play an                                       likely than graduates from China or the USA
essential role in filling skills shortages in their                            to work in IT and computing: 15%, 7% and
home countries. For example, international                                     4%, respectively. This highlights graduates’                                                                           UNDERGRADUATE:
                                                                                                                                                                                                      BUSINESS STUDIES, ECONOMICS, AND POLITICS
recruitment firm Hays indicates the top                                        role in growing the economies of their home
hard skills sought in China are financial and                                  countries: India’s IT sector is one of the            MOST COMMON AREAS OF                                             TAUGHT POSTGRADUATE:
                                                                                                                                                                                                      ECONOMICS, BUSINESS/MANAGEMENT STUDIES,
budgetary11, which is reflected in our findings:                               world’s largest, constituting 7.7% of its GDP
21% of respondents from China indicated they                                   in 2017” and footnote “NASSCOM, the trade
                                                                                                                                     STUDY FOR GERMAN STUDENTS                                        SOCIAL STUDIES, LAW AND FINANCE
were employed in the finance, pensions and                                     association for the IT BPM industry in India.                                                                          RESEARCH POSTGRADUATE:
                                                                                                                                                                                                      BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND POLITICS
insurance sector, compared to 6% of graduates

11
     https://www.hays.cn/en/press-releases/HAYS_014336                                                                               12
                                                                                                                                          https://www.stepstone.de/Ueber-StepStone/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/StepStone_Gehaltsreport_2019_WEB.pdf

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                                                                                     WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 28                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               PAGE 29
WHAT ARE GRADUATES DOING NOW

COUNTRY FOCUS:                                                                                                             CASE STUDY:
CHINA                                                                                                                      ELLEN, CHINA

           93% 79% 3x
           SAY THEY ARE MORE LIKELY TO
           DO BUSINESS INTERNATIONALLY
           BECAUSE OF THEIR STUDY
           EXPERIENCES
                                                     ARE SATISFIED WITH
                                                     THEIR CAREERS
                                                                                           CHINESE RESPONDENTS REPORT
                                                                                           SALARIES THREE TIMES HIGHER
                                                                                           THAT THE NATIONAL AVERAGE
                                                                                           GRADUATE SALARY FOR CHINA19
                                                                                                                           Ellen graduated with an MA in investment management
                                                                                                                           at Cass Business School. Her first experience with
                                                                                                                           UK higher education came while a senior at Renmin
                                                                                                                           University in Beijing, where she did a semester
                                                                                                                           exchange in Edinburgh. She says she chose the UK

               78% 2%                               SAY THEY ARE MORE LIKELY
                                                    TO DO BUSINESS/FORM
                                                    PROFESSIONAL LINKS WITH THE
                                                    UK BECAUSE OF THEIR STUDY
                                                    EXPERIENCES
                                                                                           OF CHINESE RESPONDENTS
                                                                                           WERE UNEMPLOYED 4-7 YEARS
                                                                                           AFTER GRADUATING, COMPARED
                                                                                           TO A NATIONAL URBAN
                                                                                           UNEMPLOYMENT RATE OF 5%.16
                                                                                                                           for postgraduate study “to broaden my horizons”,
                                                                                                                           particularly in her chosen field of finance and
                                                                                                                           investment. For postgraduate study, she decided to
                                                                                                                           exchange one capital city for another and move to
                                                                                                                           London. The UK was “the perfect place to study,” she
China’s economy is the world’s second largest,                  of Chinese parents would consider sending                  says, because of the practical component to education
having grown its GDP by an average of 10%                       their children abroad for their education, and             that would be harder to get as a domestic student in
annually from 1978 to 2005. It continues to                     the backgrounds of these potential students
expand: GDP is forecast to grow 6% from March                   are becoming more diverse. The proportion
                                                                                                                           China. It was also attractive to be able to complete a
2019 to March 202013. The Chinese Ministry of                   of Chinese graduates returning home after                  Master’s level qualification in one year.
Human Resources and Social Security noted
                                                                studying abroad has risen from 55% in 2011
that skilled workers account for less than one-
fifth of the entire workforce, and the demand
                                                                to close to 80% in 2014—a 132%17 increase.                 Ellen now works for a security company in                      Ellen emphasizes that many top financial
for highly skilled labour increasingly exceeds                  i-GO data supports this finding, showing                   China, in sales trading. It is her third job in                institutions in China are competing for the
supply.14 As China moves up the value chain                     that graduates are drawn by employment                     this field, and each new role has been a level                 most qualified students, whether international
from a manufacturing economy to a provider of                   opportunities in China.                                    higher than the last. She feels her experience                 or from the top Chinese universities.
high-tech, information, and knowledge services,                                                                            in the UK has helped her career significantly
it needs to expand its human capital. Tertiary                  The most common study area for Chinese                     in a number of ways, particularly because
education is one of the key levers to do so.                    graduates of UK institutions is business and               the variety of courses allowed her to choose                   SOME SECTORS IN CHINA, SHE SAYS,
                                                                administrative studies, according to HESA data.                                                                           WOULD FAVOUR AN INTERNATIONAL
                                                                                                                           which specialisation to pursue, and being                      GRADUATE FOR BEING ‘EQUIPPED WITH
Outbound student mobility in China is at an                     This is similar to the main study areas of Chinese         near the financial centre in the City gave her                 MORE INTERNATIONAL SKILLS’.
all-time high, both worldwide and in the UK.                    respondents to the i-GO survey: 13% studied                “access to professional insights.”
There were more than 90,000 students from
                                                                finance, 11% studied management studies and
China studying at tertiary level in the UK in 2016,
                                                                8% studied marketing. These study areas address            SHE NOTED THAT SOME PROFESSORS AND
making it the top sender of international students
                                                                the skills shortages in China: a JP Morgan report          TEACHERS WERE INDUSTRY EXPERTS WHO
in the UK.15 Chinese student numbers in the UK
                                                                notes that service industries dealing with IT,             PROVIDED “INSIGHT INTO THE REALITY
have increased more than 14% since 2012-13.
                                                                software, accounting, finance, marketing and               OF THESE CAREERS.”
Student mobility is likely to grow: data from                   customer management are expected to grow and
the China Family Panel Survey indicates 20%                     absorb a substantial number of professionals.18

13
    https://tradingeconomics.com/china/gdp-growth-annual                                                                   17
                                                                                                                              http://monitor.icef.com/2018/02/increasing-numbers-chinese-graduates-returning-home-overseas/
14
   https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20170801064540606                                                    18
                                                                                                                              https://www.jpmorganchase.com/corporate/Corporate-Responsibility/document/skillsgap-in-chineselabor-market-exec-
15
    http://uis.unesco.org/en/uis-student-flow                                                                                  summary.pdf
   China National Bureau of Statistics: http://www.chinabankingnews.com/2018/07/04/8-2-million-graduates-set-enter-jobs-
16                                                                                                                        19
                                                                                                                              Local graduate salary data source: China Daily. Methodology in Annexe 5
   market-unemployment-hits-lowest-level-since-2012/

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                                                                             WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           PAGE 31
WHAT ARE GRADUATES DOING NOW

     ENTREPRENEURSHIP

     The more time that had passed since                       This trend is especially evident among    THE UK HAS TAKEN SIGNIFICANT STEPS TO
     graduation, the more likely respondents                   respondents currently residing in their   ENHANCE THE QUALITY AND CONTENT OF
     were to indicate they were self-employed or               home countries: almost one-fifth of       ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN EDUCATION, AND
     had set up their own business: 7% of 2016                 respondents who graduated in 2011 were    EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS ARE EMBEDDED
     graduates were self-employed compared to                  self-employed or running their own        WITHIN CURRICULA.
     10% of 2011 graduates. This indicates that                business in their home countries.
     respondents may be more likely to launch                                                            Organisations such as the sector-led
     their own enterprise after gaining some years                                                       National Centre for Entrepreneurship
     of experience after graduation.                                                                     in Education (NCEE) exist to support the
                                                                                                         UK higher education sector.

                                                                                                         FROM SUMMER 2019, GRADUATES WILL BE
                                                                                                         ABLE TO APPLY FOR A TIER 1 START-UP VISA
                                                                                                         IF THEY WISH TO START A BUSINESS IN THE
     SELF-EMPLOYMENT BY YEAR OF GRADUATION                                                               UK AFTER GRADUATING.
% SELF EMPLOYED/RUNNING OWN BUSINESS

                                                                                                19%      This will provide further opportunities for
                                                                                                         graduates to develop their entrepreneurial skills
                                                                                  16%                    in the UK and open up a career in business.
                                                    15%
                                       14%
                                             14%                    14%                                  It may be of significant value to undertake
                                                                                                         further research on the role and impact
                                                                                                         that coordinated approaches to developing
                                                                                                         entrepreneurship skills of international
                                                                                                         students could play in securing enhanced
                                                                                                         longer-term outcomes – both in terms of
                                                                                                         economic outcomes for the individual,
                                                                                                         but also the wider contribution to addressing
                                                                                                         (for example) UN Sustainable Development
                                        2     3      4               5            6              7       Goals and economic development.
                                                   YEARS SINCE GRADUATION

      WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                    WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
      PAGE 32                                                                                                                                                                            PAGE 33
WHAT ARE GRADUATES DOING NOW

COUNTRY FOCUS:                                                                                             CASE STUDY:
INDIA                                                                                                      SOHAM GEHANI, INDIA

80% 2x 20%
SAY THEY ARE MORE LIKELY TO
DO BUSINESS INTERNATIONALLY
BECAUSE OF THEIR STUDY
EXPERIENCE
                                  INDIAN GRADUATES OF UK
                                  INSTITUTIONS EARN ALMOST
                                  TWICE THE NATIONAL AVERAGE
                                  GRADUATE SALARY
                                                                   ONE-FIFTH OF INDIAN
                                                                   RESPONDENTS AND 23% OF
                                                                   RESPONDENTS WORKING IN
                                                                   INDIA WERE SELF-EMPLOYED
                                                                                                           Soham graduated from the University of Nottingham
                                                                                                           in 2013 with a BA and an ACA (Association of

65% 4%
                                                                   ENTREPRENEURS COMPARED
                                                                   TO AN AVERAGE OF 8%
                                                                   OF ALL RESPONDENTS
                                                                                                           Chartered Accountants) qualification in finance,
                                                                                                           accounting and management. One of his dreams
                                                                                                           is to grow the trade company he started while at
SAY THEY ARE MORE LIKELY
TO DO BUSINESS/FORM
                                  OF INDIAN RESPONDENTS WERE
                                  UNEMPLOYED 4-7 YEARS AFTER                                               Nottingham. Soham is currently gaining valuable
PROFESSIONAL LINKS WITH THE       GRADUATING, COMPARED TO A
UK BECAUSE OF THEIR STUDY
EXPERIENCE
                                  NATIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
                                  IN INDIA OF MORE THAN 6%
                                                                                                           career experience as a corporate finance manager
                                                                                                           at a company in the UK; however, he hopes to

51% 82%
SAY THEY EARN ABOVE AVERAGE
COMPARED TO PEERS
                                  ARE SATISFIED WITH
                                  THEIR CAREERS
                                                                                                           return to his business in the future and pursue
                                                                                                           it full-time. His inspiration for starting his own
                                                                                                           company came from his family, who are supportive
                                                                                                           of entrepreneurship.
One-fifth of Indian respondents and 23%                   International students from India wishing to     Soham’s main reasons for choosing the
of respondents working in India were self-               run their own business may be particularly        UK for studying abroad were the country’s
employed entrepreneurs. Self-employment in               drawn to the UK as a place of study. Soham        high-quality educational institutions, relative
India is present to an even greater degree in            Gehani, an Indian national who completed          proximity to his home country and English
the general population. International Labour             his undergraduate degree in finance at the        language provision. Studying in the UK
Organisation (ILO) data shows 79% of workers             University of Nottingham in 2013, notes that
                                                                                                           helped him develop skills useful in his career,
in India report being self-employed. This                the UK education system appealed to him
includes workers of all levels of education              because of its strong emphasis on independent
                                                                                                           such as taking ownership of tasks.
completion and so includes the great number              study and time management—skills which
of agricultural workers who are self-employed.           sharpened his ability to run the trade company    Soham notes that this compares favourably to
In India, 49% of the workforce was employed              he founded. Other Indian respondents noted        education in India, where he feels students are
in the agricultural sector in 2011/12.                   that the UK provided an ideal atmosphere to       sometimes “spoon-fed” in school.
                                                         gain the skills and networks required to pursue
i-GO data reveals that UK graduates running              their career goals. An MBA graduate currently
their own businesses in India often focus on             considering setting up a business in India
growing industries including IT, marketing,              reflected that “The teaching was empirically-
trade and services. The subject areas most               based, the lectures were very interactive and,
studied by Indian students in the UK—                    most of all, the MBA program facilitated the
business studies and STEM—foster skills                  opportunity to interact with a diverse cohort
both in entrepreneurship and in rapidly                  of students from all parts of the world.”
expanding industries.

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                          WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 34                                                                                                                                                                                  PAGE 35
HOW HAS A UK DEGREE BENEFITTED INTERNAL GRADUATES?

6
HOW HAS A
UK DEGREE
BENEFITTED
INTERNATIONAL
GRADUATES?

RESPONDENTS REPORT HIGH SATISFACTION
WITH THEIR SUPPORT EXPERIENCE: 80% WERE
SATISFIED OR VERY SATISFIED WITH SUPPORT
PROVIDED DURING THEIR TIME IN THE UK.

                                            WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
                                                                             PAGE 37
HOW HAS A UK DEGREE BENEFITTED INTERNAL GRADUATES?

UNIVERSITY                                                                   BUILDING
SUPPORT                                                                      NETWORKS:

Respondents report high satisfaction with their
support experience: 80% were satisfied or very                               HOW INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES FROM UK UNIVERSITIES FOUND JOBS
satisfied with support provided during their
time in the UK.                                                              PERSONAL CONTACTS                                                                             37%

A closer look at the data reveals that university                            EMPLOYER’S WEBSITE                                                                            12%
support often leads to career opportunities for
international graduates, particularly by helping
                                                                             RECRUITMENT WEBSITE                                                                           10%
students to develop personal networks.
                                                                             RECRUITMENT AGENCY                                                                            5%

                                                                             SPECULATIVE APPLICATION                                                                       5%

                                                                             UNIVERSITY CAREERS SERVICE                                                                    2%

                                                                             ADVERTISEMENT                                                                                 2%
                                                                             RETURNING TO/CONTINUING IN JOBS                                                               13%
                                                                             THEY HAD PRIOR TO THEIR STUDIES

                                      80%
                                                                             HOW DID YOU FIND OUT ABOUT                 37% of respondents indicated they had found
                                                                             YOUR CURRENT JOB?                          their job though personal contacts, including
                                                                                                                        networking. For graduates from Nigeria, 49% of

                                                                         “
                                                                                                                  “
                                                                             I MET ONE OF THE HEADS OF DEPARTMENT AT
                                                                             [MY UNIVERSITY] AND KEPT IN CONTACT WITH
                                                                                                                        employed graduates had found work this way,
                                                                                                                        compared to 44% of graduates from China, 42%
                                                                             HER DURING MY PREVIOUS EMPLOYMENT.         of graduates from India, and 37% of graduates
                                                                             MSC OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, VIETNAM       from both the USA and Malaysia.

                                                                         “
                                                                             WHEN I DID THE RESEARCH FOR MY             A look at comments from respondents reveals
                                                                             DISSERTATION I MET MY CURRENT BOSS AND     that ‘personal contacts’ are often made while

                                                                             CATCH UP. THIS HAS ENDED UP WITH ME
                                                                                                                   “
                                                                             ON A TRIP TO LONDON HE CONTACTED [ME] TO   at university. In fact, comments show that
                                                                                                                        universities play an integral role in helping
                                                                                                                        students to develop the networks that lead to
                                                                             COMING BACK HOME AND GETTING THE JOB.
                                      WERE SATISFIED OR VERY SATISFIED       MSC INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
                                                                                                                        career opportunities.

                                      WITH SUPPORT PROVIDED DURING           AND FINANCE, INDIA

                                      THEIR TIME IN THE UK.

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                      WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 38                                                                                                                                                                   PAGE 39
HOW HAS A UK DEGREE BENEFITTED INTERNAL GRADUATES?

    BUILDING                                                                                             CASE STUDY:
    NETWORKS:                                                                                            ANAÏS, FRANCE

    WHAT WAS MOST VALUABLE IN YOUR                                                                                       Anaïs studied in Scotland, graduating in 2012
    EXPERIENCE STUDYING IN THE UK?                                                                                       with a higher degree in Economics. The decision
                                                                                                                         to study in the United Kingdom stemmed from

                                                                     “
                                                                                                                         her interest in the English culture and her desire

“
    Firstly, the people I met—friends for life.                           The people I met and the
                                                                                          “                              to practice the local language in situ, as well as
                                               “
    Secondly, all the parallel events around the
    university that make it very easy to network with
                                                                          access to a lot of wonderful
                                                                          art and design companies
                                                                                                                         the reputation of UK universities and the quality
                                                                                                                         of the courses provided.
    other students and potential employers.                               and institutions.
                                                                          MA GRAPHIC DESIGN, CHINA                       Anaïs had previously studied in Taiwan and her
    MSC OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, VIETNAM
                                                                                                                         international background helped her to settle
                                                                                                                         down more quickly in Scotland. She is confident
                                                                                                                         that she made the right decision in enrolling at
                                                                                                                         the University of Strathclyde.

                                      “
                                                                                                                         WHILE A STUDENT, THE UNIVERSITY RECOMMENDED
                                          The connection with graduate employers                                         SHE APPLY FOR A UK GOVERNMENT TRAINING
                                                           “
                                          and related events/ facilities available,
                                          e.g. recruitment days, career centre.
                                                                                                                         PROGRAM CALLED “FAST STREAM”.
                                          Very, very useful.                                                             She successfully took part in this project, and
                                          MA INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS & MANAGING                                             was subsequently recruited by the Department
                                          HUMAN RESOURCES, THAILAND                                                      of Health as an economic adviser, where she led
                                                                                                                         and delivered an analysis of the capital budget.
                                                                                                                         Since graduating, Anaïs’s career has progressed
                                                                                                                         rapidly. She is now Head of Management
                                                                                                                         Information Policy, keeping management

              “
                                                        “
                   The education is world class and the focus
                   on research and independent learning
                                                                                                                         information and data analytics at the heart of
                                                                                                                         government decision-making.
                   proved invaluable in the workplace.
                                                                                                                         LOOKING BACK, THE EXPERIENCE OF BEING AN
                   BENG CIVIL ENGINEERING, GERMANY                                                                       INTERNATIONAL STUDENT, IN AN INTERNATIONAL
                                                                                                                         ENVIRONMENT, HELPED ANAÏS ESTABLISH A
                                                                                                                         RICH NETWORK WITHIN THE GOVERNMENT. SHE
                                                                                                                         NOTES THAT HER CAREER HAS BEEN PERFECTLY
                                                                                                                         SUPPORTED BY HER STUDIES AT THE UNIVERSITY.

                  “
                       I liked my course in particular because it was very well linked
                                                                         “
                       to the industry and the professors did everything in their power
                       to help us find jobs in the industry. My education was actually
                       relevant to the jobs I have had since graduating.
                       MSC COMPUTER GAMES AND ENTERTAINMENT, POLAND

    WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                    WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
    PAGE 40                                                                                                                                                                 PAGE 41
HOW HAS A UK DEGREE BENEFITTED INTERNAL GRADUATES?

THE IMPORTANCE OF A
UK DEGREE TO EMPLOYERS

81%
                                                                                                      THE MOST IMPORTANT ASPECT OF UK GRADUATES’ EDUCATION TO THEIR EMPLOYERS

                                                                                                      MALAYSIA (209)                       25%              6%               31%                                38%

                                                                                                      CHINA (133)                          24%               12%                   30%                            34%

                                                                                                      NIGERIA (70)                         26%              4%               34%                                 36%

OF GRADUATES SAID THEY WOULDN’T HAVE
BEEN ABLE TO GET THEIR JOB WITHOUT THEIR                                                              INDIA (70)                             29%                 9%                30%                             33%

DEGREE. ALMOST 1 IN 4 INTERNATIONAL
GRADUATES IN WORK SAID THAT HAVING A                                                                  USA (68)                   7%       7%                                62%                                          24%

QUALIFICATION FROM THE UK WAS THE MOST
IMPORTANT THING TO THEIR EMPLOYER.                                                                    ALL (2,343)                         24%               7%              32%                                 37%

                                                                                                      A qualification from a university/college in the UK                 The level of study (e.g. Undergraduate, Postgraduate, etc)
                                                                                                      A qualification from this university/college                        The subject(s) studied
                                                                                                      Figure 7: Importance to employer (UG employed only)

                                                                                                      WHAT WAS MOST VALUABLE ASPECT OF YOUR EXPERIENCE IN THE UK?

                                                                                                  “                                                                   “
                                                                                                      A UK QUALIFICATION IS RECOGNISED                                    LIVING IN ANOTHER COUNTRY AFFORDS ONE
Many i-GO respondents believe that having a        The figure on the next page shows data for         GLOBALLY. I CAN GO ANYWHERE IN THE                                  A MORE GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE. MY FIELD OF
degree from the UK was the most important
thing to their employers: more important than
                                                   undergraduate respondents only. This is
                                                   because the level of study is much more
                                                                                                      WORLD AND PRESENT MY QUALIFICATION
                                                                                                      AND TO AN EXTENT OPEN THE DOOR OF
                                                                                                                                               “                          WORK IS VERY DIVERSE, AND I’VE FOUND THAT
                                                                                                                                                                          I CAN CONNECT WELL WITH INTERNATIONAL          “
the particular university, the level of study or   important for postgraduate students: 33% of        OPPORTUNITY FOR MYSELF.                                             COLLEAGUES BECAUSE OF MY TIME SPENT
the subject(s) studied. For Indian respondents,    taught postgraduate respondents and 41% of                                                                             LIVING OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES.
having studied in the UK was considered to be      postgraduate research students said that the       BA, LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE,
the most important aspect of their education to    level of study was the most important thing        NIGERIA                                                             PHD, MUSIC STUDIES, USA
their employer by almost a third of graduates.     to their employer.

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                                                           WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 42                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PAGE 43
HOW HAS A UK DEGREE BENEFITTED INTERNAL GRADUATES?

FINANCIAL GAINS:
THE SALARY BENEFITS OF A UK DEGREE

INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES’                                  SALARY BY YEARS SINCE GRADUATION
ANNUAL SALARY BY QUALIFICATION LEVEL:

                                                                                        50,000
                                                                                                                                                          43,419
                                                                                        45,000                                                   42,001
                                                                                                                              38,203    38,855
                                                                                        40,000                     37,301
                                                                                                                                                                   Graduates enjoy steady career

                                                        AVERAGE IN GBP
                                                                                        35,000            31,716
                                                                                        30,000                                                   34,587
                                                                                                                                                          36,091   progression. Pay increased
                                                                                                                                        32,238
                                                                                        25,000                     27,843
                                                                                                                              30,670                               continually with the number
                                                                                        20,000
                                                                                                          25,592                                                   of years since graduation, with
                                                                                        15,000                                                                     2016 graduates earning an
                                                                                        10,000                                                                     average of £27,835 per annum
                                                                                         5,000                                                                     and 2011 graduates earning an
                                                                                             0                                                                     average of £38,692 per annum.
                                                                                                          2016     2015       2014     2013      2012     2011
UNDERGRADUATE            POSTGRADUATE   POSTGRADUATE
£30,094                  (TAUGHT)       (RESEARCH)                                                                  GRADUATION YEAR      EU NON-EU ALL
                         £31,619        £43,430            Figure 8: Annual pay by graduation year

There are clear salary benefits for graduates from
UK universities. The average salary of all survey                                                    50

                                                                         % OF EMPLOYED RESPONDENTS
respondents working full-time is £43,430 for research                                                45
                                                                                                           40%
                                                                                                                                                          44%      Not only does salary increase
postgraduates, £31,619 for taught postgraduates,                                                     40                                                            over time: so, too, does the
                                                                                                           34%
                                                                                                     35                                                   32%      number of graduates that
and £30,094 for undergraduates.                                                                      30                                                            believe they earn above
                                                                                                     25                                                            average, indicating a faster-
                                                                                                     20                                                            than-average salary progression
                                                                                                     15                                                   15%      for international students who
                                                                                                           13%
                                                                                                     10    10%                                            7%       studied in the UK. This points
                                                                                                      5     3%                                            2%       to an advantage in the labour
                                                                                                      0                                                            market that increases over time
                                                                                                          2016     2015       2014     2013      2012     2011
                                                                                                                                                                   for UK graduates.
                                                                                                                            GRADUATION YEAR

                                                                                                            WELL BELOW AVERAGE BELOW AVERAGE AVERAGE
                                                                                                                 ABOVE AVERAGE WELL ABOVE AVERAGE
                                                           Figure 9: Income relative to perceived national average by graduation year

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                                 WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 44                                                                                                                                                                                              PAGE 45
HOW HAS A UK DEGREE BENEFITTED INTERNAL GRADUATES?

FINANCIAL GAINS                                                                             CASE STUDY:
                                                                                            NATHAN, USA

PERCENT OF GRADUATES REPORTING THEY                                                                       Nathan studied at the University of St Andrews,
EARN ABOVE OR WELL ABOVE THE AVERAGE                                                                      graduating in 2015 with a BSc in computer
OF THE COUNTRY WHERE THEY ARE WORKING.
                                                                                                          science. As a student in the UK, he relished
                                                                                                          the international atmosphere, the close-knit
                                                                                                          community, and the academic rigor, which
                                                                                                          stressed independence and in-depth focus on the
                                                                                                          subject area. Nathan developed friendships with
                                                                                                          students from Scotland and around the world.
                                                                                                          He took advantage of the outdoor lifestyle that
                                                                                                          St Andrews offered, becoming a regular hiker and
                                                                                                          visiting various parts of the country. He visited
                                                                                                          other parts of Europe, becoming well acquainted
                                                                                                          with the EasyJet and Ryanair flight schedules.
                                                                                                          Since graduating, Nathan’s        education in the UK, where
                                                                                                          career has progressed rapidly.    students are encouraged to take
                                                                                                          Having interned at Comcast,       charge of their learning and
                                                                                                          a US cable company, in            manage their time and goals
                                                                                                          the summer during his             effectively, as a crucial element
                                                                                                          undergraduate years, he           of his career success.
                                                                                                          accepted a full-time offer
                                                                                                          during his senior year as a       In his opinion, a UK degree
                                                                                                          network/ systems engineer.        has aided his trajectory, by
EU: 51%                                  Differences in relative income among                             After several years, he moved     instilling both hard knowledge
NON-EU: 51%                              nationalities are partly a reflection of the top                 to Seattle, Washington, to        and cultural competencies.
GERMANY: 58%                             industries of employment and subjects studied:                   work in Amazon’s web services     He works with teams from
CHINA: 56%                               Chinese graduates most often work in finance,                    department as a systems           around the world, so being able
FRANCE: 52%                              which is more lucrative than average. Likewise,                  development engineer. In 2018,    to communicate effectively
GREECE: 51%                              at postgraduate level the most common subject                    an offer from Netflix took his    with people from a variety of
                                         studied by Indian students is management,                        career to the next level. He is   backgrounds is an essential
INDIA: 51%
                                         which is also associated with higher-than-                       now Senior CDN reliability        skill. The experience of being
                                         average salaries. The sectors with the highest                   engineer at Netflix, working      an international student in
                                         average salaries were management/ consulting/                    on the Open Connect CDN           an international environment
                                         public relations (£51,000), followed by finance/                 Reliability/SRE team. Nathan      required him to exercise this
                                         pensions/ insurance (£41,000) and computing/                     attributes the approach to        skill every day.
                                         IT (£40,000).

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                          WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 46                                                                                                                                                                       PAGE 47
HOW HAS A UK DEGREE BENEFITTED INTERNAL GRADUATES?

COMPARISON WITH                                                                                                                                  CASE STUDY:
LOCAL SALARIES                                                                                                                                   YUANNY YAP, MALAYSIA

UK GRADUATES WORKING IN THEIR HOME COUNTRIES                                                                                                     Yuanny’s father studied engineering in the north
EARN SIGNIFICANTLY MORE THAN THE AVERAGE                                                                                                         of England and he was keen for her to follow
GRADUATE SALARIES FOR THOSE COUNTRIES:20                                                                                                         in his footsteps. She studied at the University
                                                                                                                                                 of Leeds for the last two years of her Civil
                                                                                                                                                 Engineering degree; the first two years were at
                                                                                                                                                 INTI University in Nilai, Malaysia, which has
                                                                                                                                                 partnership arrangements with a number of UK
                                                                                                                                                 universities including Reading, Southampton,
                                                                                                                                                 Sussex and Leeds.
NIGERIAN RESPONDENTS EARN      MALAYSIAN RESPONDENTS EARN         AMERICAN RESPONDENTS EARN INDIAN RESPONDENTS EARN   CHINESE RESPONDENTS EARN
722% MORE                      129% MORE                          50% MORE                         83% MORE           202% MORE                  ONE OF THE BEST ASPECTS OF HER EXPERIENCE
                                                                                                                                                 WAS THE TEACHING STYLE IN THE UK. IT WAS
Salaries reported by i-GO respondents working                                  i-GO data indicates international graduates                       NOTICEABLE HOW TEACHERS IN THE UK SPENT
in their home countries were higher than the                                   from UK universities earn more than the general                   MORE TIME WITH STUDENTS AND WERE PREPARED
average graduate salaries for those countries,                                 population of graduates in their home countries                   TO BOOK APPOINTMENTS AND INTERACT WITH THEM.
as well as being higher than overall national                                  at all levels of study.
average salaries, according to available data.                                                                                                   She was also happy with the opportunity to
                                                                                                                                                 work part-time at a local Chinese restaurant,
                                         UK GRADUATE SALARY                   % VARIANCE TO NATIONAL           % VARIANCE TO NATIONAL
           COUNTRY                        (LOCAL CURRENCY)                        AVERAGE SALARY              AVERAGE GRADUATE SALARY            which not only provided money to support her
                                                                                                                                                 studies, but allowed her to gain work experience
           USA (515)                           73,629 USD                                   +56%                        +50%                     and learn Mandarin. Her main challenge
                                                                                                                                                 was becoming accustomed to the distinctive
          CHINA (455)                          196,463 CNY                                  +30%                       +202%                     Yorkshire accent!
      MALAYSIA (336)                           60,517 MYR                                   +53%                       +129%
                                                                                                                                                 Upon return to Kuala Lumpur in 2016, Yuanny        SHE BELIEVES HER UK EDUCATION WAS VERY
       NIGERIA (317)                         3,453,824 NGN                              +4,547%                        +722%                                                                        HELPFUL IN SECURING A JOB: IT IS A COMMONLY
                                                                                                                                                 quickly found an excellent job at a local
          INDIA (242)                         1,054,489 INR                                 +74%                        +83%                     engineering company.                               HELD VIEW THAT ENGINEERING FIRMS PREFER
                                                                                                                                                                                                    OVERSEAS GRADUATES, ESPECIALLY FROM THE
Table 2: Graduates' (from UK Institutions) average salaries, relative to local averages21                                                                                                           UK AND AUSTRALIA, THESE GRADUATES OFTEN
                                                                                                                                                                                                    HAVE BETTER ENGLISH AND INTERACT WELL WITH
It must be noted that sources of local graduate                                Comparing i-GO respondent salary data with                                                                           DIFFERENT CULTURES, AND ARE THEREFORE ABLE
salary data are sparse. The methodologies used                                 national salary data indicates that even in the                                                                      TO SERVE A WIDER RANGE OF CLIENTS.
to gather local graduate salary data varied among                              early stages of their careers, UK graduates enjoy
sources, making true comparison difficult. The                                 significantly higher salaries than average for                                                                       This translates to being able to command a
methodology of i-GO local salary comparisons is                                their home countries. By contrast, the average                                                                       higher salary. Yuanny has no regrets about
in annex 5.                                                                    graduate salary in India, Malaysia and China                                                                         choosing the UK and has maintained close ties
                                                                               appears to be lower than the average salary for                                                                      to the country and her university—in 2018 she
National salary data was sourced from                                          the general population, which could indicate                                                                         revisited for a dream holiday in Scotland and
government statistical databases and can be                                    that local graduates in those countries do not                                                                       keeps in touch with her fellow Leeds alumni.
assumed to be reliable. National salaries show                                 immediately enjoy the same graduate premium
average salaries for people at all stages of their                             as those who studied in the UK.
career and all levels of educational attainment.22

20
     Local graduate salary data sources: Stutern (Nigeria); China Daily (China); Jobstreet (Malaysia); Payscale (India); The Balance (USA).
21
   i -GO salary data was self-reported by respondent. The top and bottom 5% were removed. Only those in full time employment included.
22
    National salary data sources: The National Bureau of Statistics of China; India Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
     India; Department of Statistics Malaysia; National Bureau of Statistics Nigeria; United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                                                                                  WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 48                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PAGE 49
HOW HAS A UK DEGREE BENEFITTED INTERNAL GRADUATES?

    CONTRIBUTION TO                                                                                           COUNTRY FOCUS:
    HOME COUNTRY                                                                                              NIGERIA

    International students who studied in the UK
    feel their university experience enabled them
    to actively contribute to global challenges in
    their home countries.

“
    66% 65% 64%
    FELT THEY WERE BETTER
    EQUIPPED TO ADDRESS ISSUES
    OF SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY
    AND SOCIETY

    STUDYING IN THE UK WAS AN EYE-OPENING
    EXPERIENCE. APART FROM THE STUDIES,
                       “
    I LEARNED A LOT FROM THE CULTURAL
                                          FELT THEY WERE BETTER EQUIPPED
                                          TO ADDRESS ISSUES OF HUMAN
                                          RIGHTS, GOOD GOVERNANCE,
                                          AND SOCIETAL JUSTICE

                                                              “
                                                                           FELT THEY WERE BETTER
                                                                           EQUIPPED TO ADDRESS ISSUES
                                                                           OF EQUITABLE ACCESS TO
                                                                           SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

                                                                    STUDYING IN THE UK HAS BROADENED MY
                                                                    VIEWS ABOUT EDUCATION AND SOCIAL VALUE.
                                                                    I EXPERIENCED A MORE INTERNATIONAL
                                                                                                              89%
                                                                                                              SAY THEY ARE MORE LIKELY TO
                                                                                                              DO BUSINESS INTERNATIONALLY
                                                                                                              BECAUSE OF THEIR STUDY
                                                                                                              EXPERIENCE.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Although it is the largest economy in
    DIFFERENCES AND FROM THE KINDNESS                               ENVIRONMENT AND EXPANDED MY               13% OF GRADUATES ARE SELF-EMPLOYED
                                                                                                                                                                                  sub-Saharan Africa, the Nigerian economy
    OF UK CITIZENS.                                                 NETWORKS. IT TAUGHT ME MORE ABOUT
                                                                                                              8% OF NIGERIAN RESPONDENTS WERE                                     relies heavily on the oil and gas sector and has
    BA, BANKING AND FINANCE, CYPRUS                                 RESPECT, INDEPENDENCE, RESPONSIBILITY                                                                         struggled to diversify into other sectors. Income
                                                                    AND CONFIDENCE. THIS IS THE MOST          UNEMPLOYED 4-7 YEARS AFTER GRADUATING,
                                                                                                                                                                                  inequality is prevalent, and there are more
                                                                    VALUABLE THING TO MOVE MY FUTURE
                                                                    FORWARD, AND THOSE VALUES HAVE BEEN
                                                                                                        “     COMPARED TO A NATIONAL GRADUATE
                                                                                                              UNEMPLOYMENT RATE OF 32%23                                          people living in extreme poverty than in any

“
                “
    RESPECT OF HUMAN RIGHTS IS WHAT
    I VALUE MOST FROM MY EXPERIENCES
                                                                    RECOGNIZED BY MY EMPLOYER.
                                                                                                              73% ARE SATISFIED WITH THEIR CAREERS
                                                                                                                                                                                  other country in the world.24

    IN THE UK.                                                      MBA, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
    BSC, DENTAL TECHNOLOGY, MOZAMBIQUE                                                                        NIGERIAN GRADUATES OF UK INSTITUTIONS
                                                                                                              EARN 8.2X MORE THAN LOCAL GRADUATES

                                                                                                              78% SAY THEY ARE MORE LIKELY TO DO
                                                                                                              BUSINESS/FORM PROFESSIONAL LINKS WITH
                                                                                                              THE UK BECAUSE OF THEIR STUDY EXPERIENCE

                                                                                                              23
                                                                                                                   National Bureau of Statistics Nigeria: https://nigerianstat.gov.ng/download/856
                                                                                                              24
                                                                                                                   https://qz.com/africa/1313380/nigerias-has-the-highest-rate-of-extreme-poverty-globally/

    WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                                                                 WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
    PAGE 50                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PAGE 51
HOW HAS A UK DEGREE BENEFITTED INTERNAL GRADUATES?

COUNTRY FOCUS:
NIGERIA

      Graduates from Nigeria have helped               Graduates from Nigeria educated in the UK      PERCENT OF GRADUATES WHO FEEL THEIR UK
contribute to equality and development in their        return home with the skills, knowledge and     UNIVERSITY EXPERIENCE ENABLED THEM TO
country and are crucial to Nigeria’s economic          motivation to contribute both directly and     ACTIVELY CONTRIBUTE TO:
and social development. The United Nations             indirectly to the nation's development goals
Sustainable Development Goal’s (SDGs) have             and wider SDG targets. Four of the top five
been developed to help end poverty, protect            sectors of employment of Nigerian graduates    EQUITABLE ACCESS TO SUSTAINABLE
the planet and ensure equality, peace and              working in Nigeria relate to addressing the    DEVELOPMENT

                                                                                                      50% 49% 44% 44%
prosperity across the globe. While Nigeria has         challenges identified by the UN: Education
made progress in the past decade, the UN has           (21%), Law (10%), Healthcare/Social Work
noted that one of nation's primary challenges          (10%), and Computing/IT (7%).
to affecting change is technology transfer and
capacity building, particularly concerning data,                                                      CHINA               NIGERIA              PAKISTAN                    MALAYSIA
information and performance management.
                                                                                                      SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY
NEARLY 50% OF GRADUATES FROM NIGERIA

                                                                                                      50% 47% 42% 42%
FELT THEIR EXPERIENCE IN THE UK ENABLED
THEM TO CONTRIBUTE TO NIGERIA’S
DEVELOPMENT ‘A LOT’ OR ‘QUITE A LOT’.
                                                                                                      CHINA               NIGERIA              PAKISTAN                    MALAYSIA
50% FELT BETTER ABLE TO CONTRIBUTE
TO EQUITABLE ACCESS TO SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT AND 47% FELT BETTER ABLE                                                                  HUMAN RIGHTS, GOOD GOVERNANCE AND
TO CONTRIBUTE TO A SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY                                                                SOCIAL JUSTICE

                                                                                                      45% 47% 50% 46%
AND SOCIETY, AND HUMAN RIGHTS, GOOD
GOVERNANCE AND SOCIAL JUSTICE.
Qualitative results indicate the UK’s open
environment helped some graduates by                                                                  CHINA               NIGERIA              PAKISTAN                    MALAYSIA
broadening their worldview and supporting
personal growth. “Being able to study in an
environment that allowed me to express my
                                                                                                                                               Many graduates reported their UK university
thoughts without fear or shame” was the most
                                                                                                                                               experience enabled them to actively contribute
valuable aspect to the study experience, says a
                                                                                                                                               to global challenges in their home countries. The
graduate from Nigeria with a UK qualification
                                                                                                                                               nationalities noted in this infographic represent
in Abnormal and Clinical Psychology (MA). A
                                                                                                                                               among the largest non-EU international student
graduate with an MA in Medical Technology cited
                                                                                                                                               groups in the UK. This gives a sense of the
the “inclusiveness, organisation, and opportunity
                                                                                                                                               magnitude of the impact of a UK education
to learn how to be open minded by living in
                                                                                                                                               in empowering graduates to tackle challenges
another country” as the best part of her experience.                                                                                           around the world.

WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?                                                                                                                              WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
PAGE 52                                                                                                                                                                                          PAGE 53
HOW DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES ENGAGE WITH THE UK?

7   HOW DO
    INTERNATIONAL
    GRADUATES
    ENGAGE WITH
    THE UK?
    The UK produces graduates with a global
    outlook—87% of graduates said they were more
    likely to do business internationally. Furthermore,
    those graduates are more likely to engage with
    the UK in the future. In other words, UK higher
    education is producing global ambassadors for
    the country.

“   I REALLY LIKED THE NETWORK I MANAGED
     TO BUILD... IT WAS VERY INTERNATIONAL                “
     WHICH WAS EXACTLY WHAT I WANTED.
    INDIA, PGT, NOW WORKING IN CANADA

                                                                WHAT DO INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES DO?
                                                                                                PAGE 55
You can also read
NEXT SLIDES ... Cancel