NYU PARIS Philosophy of Language - (Inés) Crespo

 
NYU PARIS
                    Philosophy of Language
                                 PHIL-UA 9085
        Instruction Mode: Blended (Online & In-Person)
                     In Paris (on campus, room #406) and via Zoom

SPRING 2021
You may be taking courses at multiple locations this semester. If you are enrolled in this course
100% remotely and are not a Go Local/Study Away student for this course site, please make
sure that you’ve completed the online academic orientation via NYU Classes so you are aware
of site specific support structure, policies and procedures. Please contact the site academic staff
(nyu.paris.academics@nyu.edu) if you have trouble accessing the NYU Classes site.
If you are attending in person, you will be assigned a seat on the first day and are expected to
use that seat for the entire semester due to NYU COVID-19 safety protocol.

Instructor Information
    Instructor name and title: Dr Inés Crespo
    Instructor office address: NYU Paris Campus. 57, bv. Saint-Germain, 75005 Paris. Staff
     room.
    Office hours: on Tuesdays from 10h30 to 11h30 in person in room #406 (TBC) or via
     Zoom. Just send me an email to set up an appointment. The slot mentioned above is
     preferred but not exclusive.
             Topic: Philosophy of language @ NYU Paris - Office Hours (Spring 2021)
             Link: https://nyu.zoom.us/j/95972303647
             Password: The meeting is password-protected. If you've signed up for the
             course, you will get an email with the password.
             Meeting ID: 959 7230 3647
    Email addresses: inescrespo@gmail.com ; ic40@nyu.edu
    Course website: http://inescrespo.altervista.org/nyu.html

Course Information
    Course number and section: PHIL-UA 9085
    Course Title: Philosophy of language
    Course Description: The course provides an introduction to contemporary philosophy of
     language, mainly but not exclusively in the analytic strand. The course is taught in a

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seminar, discussion-based style, and offered to undergraduate students. For details
     about topics to be covered, see section “Topics and Assignments” below.
    Co-requisite or prerequisite, if any: None, but students having taken a first course in
     logic or a first course in philosophy will find it valuable for this class.
    Class meeting days and times: Tuesdays and Thursdays from 9h00 (sharp) till 10h30.
          Classroom number and building: NYU Paris Campus. 57, bv Saint-Germain,
             75005 Paris. Room #406. You will be notified of the feasibility of in-classroom
             meetings. In case this isn't feasible, students in Paris will be invited to come to
             office hours every week.
          Classroom on Zoom:
                       Topic: Philosophy of language @ NYU Paris - Classroom (Spring 2021)
                       Link: https://nyu.zoom.us/j/91805974911
                       Password: The meeting is password-protected. If you've signed up for the
                       course, you will get an email with the password.
                       Meeting ID: 918 0597 4911
     As a sign of respect to all those involved, and to facilitate class interactions , please
     arrive in the classroom or in the Zoom meeting by 8h55.
    Site specific academic calendar: https://www.nyu.edu/paris/calendar.html#Spring21

Course Overview and Goals
The course will allow students to:
    Understand different problems and positions in philosophy of language. See section
     “Topics and Assignments” below for details.
    Acquire an overview of how topics and positions in philosophy of language relate to
     considerations made in linguistics and psychology.
    Grasp and analyse the consequences that a view on language and meaning may have
     on neighbouring aspects of philosophical reflection, such as metaphysics, epistemology,
     and ethics.

Students will develop skills in:
    asking philosophical questions,
    understanding philosophical texts,
    producing and assessing philosophical arguments, from paragraph to essay.

Course Requirements
Class Participation
Students are expected to come to all lectures. Students are expected to read in advance so that
they can meaningfully participate in the discussions in class. Students are expected to actively
participate in class. Meeting this expectations has a significant positive impact on the final
grade.
Assignments
There is one non-graded mandatory assignment and three graded homework assignments.
Assignments should be submitted by email as a PDF by the deadline indicated in the Course
Schedule.
All cases of plagiarism will be penalised and reported to the university administration.
Late submissions will be accepted only with justifiable reasons of health or family emergency.
Delays in submission will be penalised: one day of delay means half a letter grade decrease: an
A becomes an A-, an A- becomes a B+, a B+ becomes a B, and so on...
Assignments you fail to submit are graded 0=F.

Homework 0
Simple questions to get to know each other. Answers of 50-100 words are expected.

Homework 1
Book synopsis of 1000 words max. Open questions. Answers of 500 words max. each (not inc.
ref. and fn.) should be given in a few well-constructed paragraphs.

Homework 2
Argumentative essay, 1000 -1200 words (not inc. ref. and fn.).

Opt. Homework
Short essay of around 1500 words (not inc. ref. and fn.).

Homework 3
Short essay of up to 2500 words (not inc. ref. and fn.).

Assigned Readings
    Ferenc Karinthy (1970) [2008] Metropole (original title: Epepe), trans. from Hungarian by
     George Szirtes, Telegram. A free 14-day loan is available via
     https://archive.org/details/metropole0000kari
    Markus Kracht (2007): Introduction to Linguistics, LING 20, UCLA. v. Autumn 2007.
     http://wwwhomes.uni-bielefeld.de/mkracht/html/ling-intro.pdf (excerpts).
    Plato (360 BCE) [1997]: Complete works. J.M. Cooper (ed.) D.S. Hutchinson (ass.ed.)
     C.D.C. Reeve (trans. Cratylus) Hackett Publishing Co, pp. 141-196.
    Augustine of Hippo (397-400)[1876]: The Confessions of Saint Augustine, E. B. Pusey
     (trans.), Oxford: J. Parker. Excerpts from book I, available online:
     https://www.gutenberg.org/files/3296/3296-h/3296-h.htm

                                             Page 3
 Augustine of Hippo (397) [1890]: St. Augustine's City of God and Christian Doctrine, P.
  Schaff (ed.), New York: The Christian Literature Publishing Co. (Excerpts from Christian
  Doctrine, books I-II). Also available online: http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf102.html
  and http://www.intratext.com/IXT/ENG0137/_INDEX.HTM
 B. Darrel Jackson (1969): The Theory of Signs in St. Augustine's De doctrina christiana,
  Revue d' Etudes Augustiniennes Et Patristiques, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, pp. 9-50.
 F. de Saussure (1916) [1959]: Course in general linguistics. C. Bally and A. Sechehaye
  (eds.), in coll. with A. Reidlinger.. W. Baskin (trans., introduction and notes), New York :
  McGraw-Hill. Introduction: ch. I-V (pp. 4-23). Part 1: ch. 1-II, pp. 65-78. Part 2: ch. I-IV,
  pp. 101-122.
 C. S. Peirce [1991]: Peirce on Signs, Writings on Semiotic by Charles Sanders Peirce, J.
  Hoopes (ed.), The University of North Carolina Press Chapel Hill and London (excerpts:
  On the Nature of Signs; One, Two, Three: Fundamental Categories of Thought and of
  Nature; Sign).
 T. L. Short (2007): Peirce's theory of signs, Cambridge University Press, ch. 1 and 2.
 C. Glymour (2015) Thinking Things Through, An Introduction to Philosophical Issues
  and Achievements. Second Edition, 2015. A Bradford Book. Part I, ch. 1, pp. 3-22.
 J. L. Ackrill, ed. (1987): A new Aristotle reader. Princeton University Press. Aristotle's
  “De Interpretatione” 1-9(35).
 Glymour (2015), op. cit., part I, ch. 2, pp. 33-55.
 Glymour (2015), op. cit., part I, ch. 4, pp. 91-109
 L.T.F. Gamut. Logic, Language and Meaning, Volume I: Introduction to Logic,
  University of Chicago Press, 1991. Translation and revision of Logica, taal en betekenis
  I. Ch.2 (excerpts).
 Glymour (2015), op. cit., part I, ch. 5, pp. 111-134.
 G. Frege (1918) [1956]. The Thought: A Logical Inquiry. Mind, New Series, Vol. 65, No.
  259, pp. 289-311.
 G. Frege (1892) [1952]: On sense and reference. In Translations from the Philosophical
  Writings of Gottlob Frege. P. Geach and M Black (eds.) M. Black (trans.) Blackwell
  Publishing, pp. 56-78.
 B. Russell (1919) Descriptions. An extract from Chapter XVI of his Introduction to
  Mathematical Philosophy. London: Allen & Unwin. Reprinted in A.W. Moore,
  (ed.), Meaning and Reference,Oxford University Press, pp. 46-55.
 W. V. O. Quine (1975). Mind and verbal dispositions. In S. Guttenplan (ed.), Mind and
  Language, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Reprinted in A.W. Moore, (ed.), Meaning and
  Reference, Oxford University Press, pp. 80-91.
 W. V. O. Quine (1992): Pursuit of Truth. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2003. Ch. III. Meaning.
  Reprinted in A.P. Martinich (ed.) The philosophy of language. Oxford University Press,
  3rd ed. Part VII, ch. 8, pp. 446-455.
 L. Wittgenstein (1953) [2009]: Philosophical investigations. G.E.M. Anscombe, P.M.S.
  Hacker, and J. Schulte (trans.) Rev. 4th ed. by P.M.S. Hacker and J. Schulte. §§138-
  142: an anti-mentalist argument; §§143-155: what is it to understand the meaning of an
  utterance?; §§179-202: rules and their application.
Grading of Assignments
  The grade for this course will be determined according to the following formula:
Assignments                                      % of Final Grade
                                                 No grade for this assignment but
Avg HW#0 submitted
                                                 required to stay in the class
Avg HW#1, 2, 3                                   99.00%
                                                 Final grade will be increased by
Excellent participation bonus
                                                 half a letter grade

  Late submissions will be accepted only with justifiable reasons of health or family emergency.

  Assignments you fail to submit are graded 0=F.

  Delays in submission will be penalised: one day of delay means half a letter grade decrease: an
  A becomes an A-, an A- becomes a B+, a B+ becomes a B, and so on...

  A bonus on the final grade—it will be increased by half a letter grade—will be granted to
  students who sustain excellent participation in class. This concerns all students, those
  attending classes in Paris and those attending via Zoom. Excellent participation cannot be
  defined univocally, but its definition in our context comprises at least the following requirements:
                  class absences or late arrivals in class are properly justified, i.e. no unjustified
         absences or late arrivals;
                  submissions are submitted on time;
                  mandatory readings are up-to-date;
                  questions prompted by the course instructor or by a fellow student are relevantly
         answered, i.e., answers show that the student is up-to-date with the mandatory readings,
         and that the student has been engaged in the previous discussions which have taken
         place in class.

  Letter Grades
  Letter grades for the entire course will be assigned as follows:
         Letter Grade                         Points                             Description

               A                                 16-20                           Outstanding

               A-                                 15                               Excellent

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B+                               14                             Very Good

             B                                13                                Good

             B-                               12                             Satisfactory

             C+                               11                           Above Average

             C                                10                               Average

             C-                                9                           Below Average

             D+                                8                            Unsatisfactory

             D                                 7                              Low Pass

             D-                                6                              Low Pass

             F                                 5                                 Fail

View Grades
Students will be informed of their grades in written form.

Course Schedule
Class meeting days and times: Tuesdays and Thursdays from 9h00 (sharp) till 10h30.
            Classroom number and building: NYU Paris Campus. 57, bv Saint-Germain,
               75005 Paris. Room #406.
            Classroom on Zoom:
                       Topic: Philosophy of language @ NYU Paris (Spring 2021) - Classroom
                       Link: https://nyu.zoom.us/j/91805974911
                       Meeting ID: 918 0597 4911
As a sign of respect to all those involved, and to facilitate interactions in this blended in-person
and online teaching environment, please arrive in the classroom or in the Zoom meeting by
8h55.
Topics and Assignments
N.B.: The planning might be updated as we move along. You will receive a notification, should
that happen. Time specifications for assignment submissions should be read in Paris time.
   #                                                                                       Assignment
session
                Date                   Topic                        Reading
                                                                                              Due

          Wed 27 Jan 2021                                                                HW#0 by 9h00

                                                           Watch The secret history
                                                           of writing (2020)
                                                           This syllabus and hopefully
1         Thu 28 Jan 2021   Introduction
                                                           most of Karinthy (1970)
                                                           Watch L'alphabet de Bruly
                                                           Bouabré (2004)

2         Tue 2 Feb 2021    A brief intro to linguistics   Kracht (2007), excerpts

3         Thu 4 Feb 2021    Discussion of Epepe            Karinthy (1970)

          Fri 5 Feb 2021                                                                 HW#1 by 17h00

                            Signs: conventionalism
4         Tue 9 Feb 2021                                   Plato's Cratylus
                            and naturalism
                                                                                         Read as well
                            Signs: conventionalism                                       Glymour (2015)
5         Thu 11 Feb 2021                                  Plato's Cratylus
                            and naturalism                                               part I, ch. 1 up to
                                                                                         and inc. p. 23.
                                                           St Augustine's
                                                           Confessions, book I and
6         Tue 16 Feb 2021   Augustine's picture 1          Christian Doctrine, books
                                                           I-II, Darrel Jackson (1969)
                                                           (opt but recommended)
                                                           St Augustine's
                                                           Confessions, book I and
7         Thu 18 Feb 2021   Augustine's picture 2          Christian Doctrine, books
                                                           I-II; Darrel Jackson (1969)
                                                           (opt but recommended)
                            The arbitrariness of the
8         Tue 23 Feb 2021                                  FdS (1916), excerpts
                            sign 1
                            The arbitrariness of the
9         Thu 25 Feb 2021                                  FdS (1916), excerpts
                            sign 2
                                                           Peirce [1991]; Short
                            A more dynamic view of
10        Tue 2 Mar 2021                                   (2007), ch. 1-2 (opt but
                            signs 1
                                                           recommended)
                                                           Peirce [1991]; Short
                            A more dynamic view of
11        Thu 4 Mar 2021                                   (2007), ch. 1-2 (opt but
                            signs 2
                                                           recommended)

                                                 Page 7
Linguistic signs get       Kracht (2007), on syntax
12   Tue 9 Mar 2021
                       articulated in sentences   and semantics
13   Thu 11 Mar 2021   Discussion

                                                  Watch D'une langue à
                                                  l'autre (2004)
     Sat 13 Mar 2021                                                            HW#2 by 14h00
                                                  Aristotle's De
                                                  interpretatione 1-9(35),
14   Tue 16 Mar 2021   Aristotle's De Int
                                                  Glymour (2015) part I, ch.
                                                  2, pp. 33-55.
                                                  Glymour (2015) part I, ch.
15   Thu 18 Mar 2021   Aristotle's syllogistics
                                                  2, pp. 33-55.
                                                  Gamut (1991), part I, ch. 2
16   Tue 23 Mar 2021   Propositional logic
                                                  (excerpts) (TBC)
                                                  Glymour (2015) part I, ch.
17   Thu 25 Mar 2021   Frege's logical world 1
                                                  5 (TBC)
                                                  Glymour (2015) part I, ch.
18   Tue 30 Mar 2021   Frege's logical world 1
                                                  5 (TBC)
                                                  Watch L'enfant sauvage
                                                  (1970)
                                                                                Optional HW by
     Wed 31 Mar 2021
                                                                                20h

19   Thu 1 Apr 2021    Frege's Thought 1          Frege (1892) (excerpts)

20   Tue 6 Apr 2021    Frege's Thought 2          Frege (1892) (excerpts)

                       Frege's sense and
21   Thu 8 Apr 2021                               Frege (1892) (excerpts)
                       reference 1
                       Frege's sense and
22   Tue 13 Apr 2021                              Frege (1892) (excerpts)
                       reference 2
                       Russellian definite
23   Thu 15 Apr 2021                              Russell (1919)
                       descriptions 1
                       Russellian definite
24   Tue 20 Apr 2021                              Russell (1919)
                       descriptions 2
                       Quine's take on meaning
25   Thu 22 Apr 2021                              Quine (1975) and (1992)
                       1

26   Tue 27 Apr 2021   Quine's take 2             Quine (1975) and (1992)

                                                  Watch Traduire (2011)

     Wed 28 Apr 2021                                                            HW3 by 9h00

                       Wittgenstein, PI: §§138-
                                                  Wittgenstein (1953), Stein
27   Thu 29 Apr 2021   142: an anti-mentalist
                                                  (1997)
                       argument,
Wittgenstein, PI: §§143-
                            155: what is it to         Wittgenstein (1953), Stein
28       Tue 4 May 2021
                            understand the meaning     (1997)
                            of an utterance?
                            Wittgenstein, PI: §§179-
                                                       Wittgenstein (1953), Stein
29       Thu 6 May 2021     202: rules and their
                                                       (1997)
                            application

Course Materials
Required Textbooks & Materials
      Novel: Ferenc Karinthy [1970] (2008) Metropole (original title: Epepe), trans. from
       Hungarian by George Szirtes, Telegram. A free 14-day loan is available via
       https://archive.org/details/metropole0000kari

      Reader: available as a PDF on the course website, it might be updated as we move
       along. You will receive a notification, should that happen.

Optional Textbooks & Materials
      Optional materials will be posted on the course website. Here is a non-exhaustive list:

             W. Aspray (1990). Computing Before Computers. Iowa State University Press,
              Ames, 1990. Ch. I.
             D. Holdcroft (1991): Saussure: Signs, System and Arbitrariness. Cambridge
              University Press.
             J. Maat (2011): "Language and semiotics." In: The Oxford handbook of
              philosophy in early modern Europe, D.M. Clarke and C. Wilson (eds.). Oxford
              University Press.
             R. A. Markus (1957): St. Augustine on Signs, Phronesis, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 60-83.
             W.V.O. Quine (1960): Word and Object. MIT Press. Ch.II. Pp. 26-79.
             B. Russell (1905): On denoting. Mind, Vol. 14, No. 56, pp. 479-493
             H.P. Stein (1997). The fiber and the fabric. An inquiry into Wittgenstein’s views
              on rule- following and linguistic normativity. University of Amsterdam, ILLC
              Dissertation Series. Ch. 5.
             C. Tornau (2019), Saint Augustine, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
              (Summer 2020 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL:
              https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2020/entries/augustine/, section 5.4.
             L. Wittgenstein (1965). The Blue and Brown Books. Harper Perennial.

Resources
        NYU Classes (nyu.edu/its/classes)

                                              Page 9
   Databases, journal articles, and more: Bobst Library (library.nyu.edu)
      Assistance with strengthening your writing: NYU Writing Center (nyu.mywconline.com)
      Obtain 24/7 technology assistance: IT Help Desk (nyu.edu/it/servicedesk)

Co-curricular Activities (opt but strongly encouraged)
             The secret history of writing (2020): https://youtu.be/B9mmojTDgDg
             L'Alphabet de Bruly Bouabré, by N. Aviv (2004).
             D'une langue à l'autre, by N. Aviv (2004). A discussion meeting will be proposed
       as a non-mandatory activity.
             L'enfant sauvage, by F. Truffaut (1970): https://vimeo.com/215596192 -- A
       discussion meeting will be proposed as a non-mandatory activity.
             Traduire, by N. Aviv (2011). A discussion meeting will be proposed as a non-
       mandatory activity.

Course Policies

Hygiene/Physical Distancing policies
    Students will be assigned/choose a seat on the first day of class. For NYU COVID-19
       Safety protocols, please use the same seat for the duration of the semester.

Attendance and Tardiness
Studying at Global Academic Centers is an academically intensive and immersive experience,
in which students from a wide range of backgrounds exchange ideas in discussion-based
seminars. Learning in such an environment depends on the active participation of all students.
And since classes typically meet once or twice a week, even a single absence can cause a
student to miss a significant portion of a course. To ensure the integrity of this academic
experience, class attendance at the centers or online through NYU Classes if the course is
remote synchronous/blended, is expected promptly when class begins. Unexcused absences
will affect students' semester participation grade. If you have scheduled a remote course
immediately preceding/following an in-person class, you may want to discuss where at the
Academic Center the remote course can be taken. Students are responsible for making up any
work missed due to absence. Repeated absences in a course may result in failure.

Students are responsible for making up any work missed due to absence. This means they
should initiate email and/or office hour discussions to address any missed lectures and
assignments and arrange a timeline for submitting missed work.

Classroom Etiquette/Expectations
    Class starts at 9h00 sharp. As a sign of respect to all those involved, and to facilitate
     interactions in this blended in-person and online teaching environment, please arrive in
     the classroom or in the Zoom meeting by 8h55.
 No eating in class, regardless of whether you attend the class in Paris or via Zoom.
    Leaving class to go to the bathroom without asking permission or yawning in class is
     considered rude, regardless of whether you attend the class in Paris or via Zoom.
    If you are not using your cell phone to follow the lesson on Zoom, cell phones should be
     turned off. Phubbing is completely unacceptable, regardless of whether you attend the
     class in Paris or via Zoom.
    If you are not using your laptop or tablet to follow the lesson on Zoom, read texts or take
     notes, laptops must be turned off. Leisurely use of laptops or tablets is unacceptable.
    Students should be respectful and courteous at all times to all participants in class. Make
     sure to let your classmates finish speaking before you do.
    If you attend the class on campus in Paris, try to speak so that both those in the
     classroom and those attending via Zoom can hear you.
    If you attend the class via Zoom, please be mindful of your microphone and video
     display during class meetings. Ambient noise and some visual images may disrupt class
     time for you and your peers.

Late Assignment
Late submissions will be accepted only with justifiable reasons of health or family emergency.

Incomplete Grade Policy
An “incomplete” is a temporary grade that indicates that the student has, for good reason, not
completed all of the course work. This grade is not awarded automatically nor is it guaranteed;
rather, the student must ask the instructor for a grade of “incomplete,” present documented
evidence of illness, an emergency, or other compelling circumstances, and clarify the remaining
course requirements with the instructor.

In order for a grade of “incomplete” to be registered on the transcript, the student must fill out a
form, in collaboration with the course instructor and the academic administration at the site; it
should then be submitted to the site’s academic office. The submitted form must include a
deadline by which the missing work will be completed. This deadline may not be later than the
end of the following semester.

Academic Honesty/Plagiarism

As the University's policy on "Academic Integrity for Students at NYU" states: "At NYU, a
commitment to excellence, fairness, honesty, and respect within and outside the classroom
is essential to maintaining the integrity of our community. By accepting membership in this
community, students take responsibility for demonstrating these values in their own conduct
and for recognizing and supporting these values in others." Students at Global Academic
Centers must follow the University and school policies.

The presentation of another person’s words, ideas, judgment, images, or data as though
they were your own, whether intentionally or unintentionally, constitutes an act of
plagiarism.

NYU X takes plagiarism very seriously; penalties follow and may exceed those set out by
your home school. All your written work must be submitted as a hard copy AND in
electronic form to the lecturer. Your lecturer may ask you to sign a declaration of authorship
form.

                                              Page 11
It is also an offense to submit work for assignments from two different courses that
is substantially the same (be it oral presentations or written work). If there is an overlap of
the subject of your assignment with one that you produced for another course (either in the
current or any previous semester), you MUST inform your professor.

For guidelines on academic honesty, clarification of the definition of plagiarism, examples of
procedures and sanctions, and resources to support proper citation, please see:

       NYU Academic Integrity Policies and Guidelines
       NYU Library Guides

Religious Observances
Students observing a religious holiday during regularly scheduled class time are entitled to miss
class without any penalty to their grade. This is for the holiday only and does not include the
days of travel that may come before and/or after the holiday.

Students must notify their professor and the local Academics team in writing via email at least 7
days before being absent for this purpose.

Inclusion, Diversity, Belonging and Equity
NYU is committed to building a culture that respects and embraces diversity, inclusion, and
equity, believing that these values – in all their facets – are, as President Andrew Hamilton has
said, “...not only important to cherish for their own sake, but because they are also vital for
advancing knowledge, sparking innovation, and creating sustainable communities.” At NYU
PARIS, we are committed to creating a learning environment that:

• fosters intellectual inquiry, research, and artistic practices that respectfully and rigorously take
account of a wide range of opinions, perspectives, and experiences; and

• promotes an inclusive community in which diversity is valued and every member feels they
have a rightful place, is welcome and respected, and is supported in their endeavours.

Moses Accommodations Statement
Academic accommodations are available for students with documented and registered
disabilities. Please contact the Moses Center for Student Accessibility (+1 212-998-4980 or
mosescsd@nyu.edu) for further information. Students who are requesting academic
accommodations are advised to reach out to the Moses Center as early as possible in the
semester for assistance. Accommodations for this course are managed through the site
sponsoring the class once you request it.

Instructor Bio/About Your Instructor
I am a Global Lecturer at NYU Paris. I am interested in the normative constraints at the basis of
linguistic expression, and in the epistemology of disciplines concerned with natural language.
You can also read