Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018 - Ajuntament de ...

 
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018 - Ajuntament de ...
PMQAB
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018 - Ajuntament de ...
Ajuntament de Barcelona
Hàbitat Urbà - Medi Ambient i Serveis Urbans
Gerència Adjunta de Medi Ambient i Serveis urbans

Roman Llagostera, gerent-adjunt de Medi Ambient i Serveis Urbans, Ajuntament de Barcelona

Management:
Ricard Alsina, director d’Intervenció, Innovació i Qualitat Mediambiental, Medi Ambient i Serveis Urbans,
Hàbitat Urbà, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Josep M. Selvas, cap del Departament d’Intervenció Ambiental, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Joan Marc Craviotto, Departament d’Intervenció Ambiental, Ajuntament de Barcelona

Drafted by:
Barcelona Regional. Agència Desenvolupament Urbà
Gerència Adjunta de Medi Ambient i Serveis Urbans

Co-ordination:
Jose Lao, cap d’estratègies energètiques, Barcelona Regional
Josep M. Selvas, cap del Departament d’Intervenció Ambiental, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Joan Marc Craviotto, Departament d’Intervenció Ambiental, Ajuntament de Barcelona

Collaborators:
Oriol Teixidó, enginyer químic, Barcelona Regional
Albert Carbonell, biòleg i tècnic de SIG, Barcelona Regional
i l’equip tècnic i administratiu de Barcelona Regional

Special thanks to:
Pilar Rodríguez, Direcció d’Intervenció, Innovació i Qualitat Mediambiental, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Fermí Vallbé, Direcció d’Intervenció, Innovació i Qualitat Mediambiental, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Adrià Gomila, Direcció de Serveis de Mobilitat, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Carlos López, Direcció de Serveis de Mobilitat, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Victòria Plumed, Direcció de Serveis de Mobilitat, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Roberto Ríos, Direcció de Serveis de Mobilitat, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Isabel Montané, Direcció de Serveis de Mobilitat, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Maria Simeón, Direcció de Serveis de Mobilitat, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Carlos Vázquez, Direcció de Serveis de Neteja i Gestió de Residus, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Cristina Castells, Agència d’Energia de Barcelona, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Manel Torrent, Agència d’Energia de Barcelona, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Irma Soldevilla, Agència d’Energia de Barcelona, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Elisabet Gallardo, Agència d’Energia de Barcelona, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Xavier Llebaria, Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Víctor Peracho, Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Marc Rico, Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Carles Chico, Departament de Coordinació d’Obres a l’Espai Públic - Hàbitat Urbà, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Carolina Puig, Departament de Coordinació d’Obres a l’Espai Públic - Hàbitat Urbà, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Àngel López, Departament Vehicle Elèctric, Hàbitat Urbà, Ajuntament de Barcelona
Isabel Hernàndez, Generalitat de Catalunya
Xavier Guinart, Generalitat de Catalunya
Meritxell Margarit, Generalitat de Catalunya
Susana Gil, Generalitat de Catalunya
Jordi Vila, Port de Barcelona
Joaquim Cortés, Port de Barcelona
Santiago Alonso, AENA
Manuel Casas, AENA
Programa Escoles + Sostenibles

APRIL 2015
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018 - Ajuntament de ...
PMQAB

Pla de millora de la qualitat de l’aire de Barcelona 2015-2018

                                                            English

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Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018 - Ajuntament de ...
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018 - Ajuntament de ...
PMQAB

INDEX

1. Introduction                                                           6
2. Aims                                                                   6
3. Legislation                                                            7
4. Air quality in Europe: 2003-2012                                       8
5. Air quality in Barcelona: 2004-2013                                    13
  5.1. Nitrogen oxides: NOX                                               14
  5.2. Particulate matter smaller than 10µ: PM10                          18
6. Method and model                                                       25
7. Main results of the modelling: 2013                                    27
8. Plans and initiatives for improving air quality                        31
  8.1. Measures relating to urban services:
       Barcelona City Council                                             31
  8.2. Measures relating to communication and
      environmental education.Barcelona City Council                      32
  8.3. Measures for local entities established in the PAMQA action plan   33
  8.4. Barcelona’s urban mobility plan (PMU) for 2013-2018:
      Barcelona City Council                                              38
       8.4.1. PMU scenario: 2018 trend                                    39
       8.4.2. PMU scenario: Action in 2018                                40
       8.4.3. PMU initiative areas                                        41
       8.4.4. Results of the PMU E-S3 scenario                            43
  8.5. The Barcelona Self-Sufficiency Strategy
       for 2015-2024: Barcelona City Council                              44
  8.6. Barcelona Port                                                     46
  8.7. Barcelona Airport                                                  49
9. Trend scenario: 2018-T                                                 51
10. Action scenario: 2018-A                                               59
11. Additional action scenario: 2018-A+                                   57
  11.1. Results of the concentrations model: 2018-A+ scenario             59
  11.2. Maps: 2018-A+ scenario                                            61
12. Conclusions                                                           66
13. Annexe                                                                67
  13.1. Considerations adopted in the
        modelling of the 2018 scenario                                    67
  13.2. DMI of vehicles 2013 and 2018-PMU
        around the Eixample station                                       68

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Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018

    1. INTRODUCTION                                                                                       2. AIMS

    One of the problems of large urban ag-               PM10 in Barcelona kept within the limits         The main aim of this plan is to establish a
    glomerations involves local concentrations           in 2013, but it exceeded them in previous        few strategic guidelines that cross-cut the
    of specific airborne pollutants, such as             years, so it is a pollutant that requires con-   various spheres influencing air quality, to
    nitrous oxides (NOx) and suspended parti-            tinual monitoring. Such emissions are gen-       direct efforts for improving this quality in
    cles (principally PM10 and PM2.5). Generally,        erated by the combustion of hydrocarbons,        the most effective way.
    these contaminants are found in the air              but they can also be released into the air
    due to emissions from road traffic, indus-           through the effect of physical factors, such     To achieve this objective, a strategic plan
    trial centres, domestic discharge and other          as the rolling of vehicle tyres over asphalt,    for 2015-2018 has been developed for im-
    sources. Once released into the air, these           the abrasion of the asphalt itself, the use      proving the air quality in Barcelona and
    pollutants are subject to the various ef-            of brakes in vehicles, dust from building        quantitatively assessing the progress that
    fects of transport and chemical changes,             work or demolitions and the re-suspension        can be made in this parameter by 2018, ta-
    together with other substances also pre-             of road dust. Particulate matter is classed      king into account the plans and measures
    sent in the atmosphere.                              as total suspended particles (TSP; aerody-       to be implemented over the next few years,
                                                         namic diameter ≥ 100μm) and PM, which in-        which may affect, directly or indirectly, air
    As in other urban agglomerations such as             cludes various size categories; for example,     quality in the city of Barcelona.
    Paris, London, Berlin and Rotterdam, NO2             PM10 corresponds to particles up to 10µm in
    concentrations in Barcelona and its metro-           diameter and PM2.5 encompasses particles         Furthermore, the purpose of this document
    politan area have been exceeding the limits          under 2.5µm in diameter.                         is to determine the adequacy of the action
    established by the EU for the protection of                                                           taken when it comes to compliance with
    human health. That means measures need                                                                European regulations on NO2 and PM10 con-
    to be adopted at all levels to improve air                                                            centration levels in all parts of the city.
    quality, from legislators to the business
    sector, not to mention the citizens them-                                                             This document is meant to serve as a tool for
    selves.                                                                                               strategic planning in Barcelona that allows
                                                                                                          the City Council to take a step forwards in
    One of the main emissions sources is the                                                              managing and improving air quality in the
    combustion of hydrocarbon fuels: petrol,                                                              city.
    diesel, liquefied petroleum gas and natu-
    ral gas. These hydrocarbons react with the
    oxygen and nitrogen in the air to generate
    greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) and
    are responsible for pollutants with local ef-
    fects, such as NOx, particulate matter, car-
    bon monoxide (CO), volatile organic com-
    pounds (VOCs) and sulphur dioxide (SO2).

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3. LEGISLACIÓN

Act 22/1983, of 21 November, on the pro-       EC, Directive 2002/3/EC and Council Deci-
tection of the atmospheric environment,        sion 97/101/EC), with the exception of Di-                   Table 1: Limit values for the pollutants NO2 and PM10.
establishes guidelines that must be fol-       rective 2004/107/EC, on arsenic, cadmium,
lowed to improve environmental quality. In     nickel, mercury and polycyclic aromatic                       Pollutant              EU limit values                            Alert threshold
this context, there arose the subsequent       hydrocarbons (PAHs). This regulation also
Decree 226/2006, declaring several mu-         introduces the measurement of suspended
nicipalities in the counties of Barcelonès,    particles of under 25 microns in diameter
Vallès Oriental, Vallès Occidental and Baix    (PM2.5) and its air quality objectives.
                                                                                                             NO2                    Hourly:                     Annual mean:   Hourly:
Llobregat as areas with special protection
                                                                                                                                    200 µg/m3                   40 µg/m3       400 µg/m3
for the atmospheric environment. Later,        EU Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air                        (RD 102/2011)
the then Department of Environment and         quality and cleaner air for Europe was im-                                           (Allowed exceedance                        (over three consecutive
                                                                                                                                    limit: 18 times per year)                  hours)
Housing (now the Department of Territory       plemented in Spain through Royal Decree
and Sustainability) approved, on 10 July       102/2011, on improving air quality which,
2007, the action plan to improve air quality   for its part, consolidated Royal Decrees
in those municipalities declared as areas      1073/2002, 1796/2003, 812/2007 and Act
with special protection for the atmospheric    37/2007. Therefore, the current reference
environment by Decree 226/2006 of 23 May.      legislation for assessing air quality con-
                                               sists of EU Directive 2008/50/EC and Royal
Therefore, the metropolitan zone has been      Decree 102/2011. The concentration limits                     PM10                   Daily (24h):                Annual mean:
declared an area with special protection       established by the EU and implemented in                                             50 µg/m3                    40 µg/m3
                                                                                                             (RD 102/2011)
for the atmospheric environment by Decree      its member states are as follows:
                                                                                                                                    (The limit value of 50
226/2006 of 23 May for pollutant nitrogen                                                                                           µg/m3 must not be
dioxide and for suspended particulates                                                                                              exceeded more than 35
                                                                                                                                    times a year or the 90.4
under 10 microns in diameter. This is the                                                                                           percentile must be equal
result of having repeatedly exceeded the                                                                                            to or under the limit
                                                                                                                                    value* of 50 µg/m3)
concentrations of these contaminants in
levels greater than those admissible under
current legislation.

In 2008, the European Parliament and Coun-
cil approved Directive 2008/50/EC, of 21
May, on ambient air quality and cleaner air
                                               Source: DTES, Department of Territory and Sustainabi-
for Europe. This directive consolidates the    lity at the Generalitat of Catalonia. [*] The 90.4 percen-
previous legislation (Directive 96/62/EC,      tile has to be applied to sampling stations with fewer
                                               than 90% of valid measurements.
Directive 1999/30/EC, Directive 2000/69/

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Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018

    4. AIR QUALITY IN EUROPE: 2003-2012
                                                                                                                                                                     Nitrogen dioxide

    The reduction in terms of NOX emissions                                                                                                                          There has been a clear downward trend in
    in Europe, according to the latest report            Figure 1: PM2.5, PM10, NOX, SOX, NH3, NMVOC, CO and CH4 emissions trends in the EU                          airborne NO2 concentrations over the last
    on air quality in the region (Air Quality in         from 2003 to 2012.                                                                                          decade in most European countries and at
    Europe - 2014 report, European Environ-                                                                                                                          all types of measuring stations. The reduc-
    mental Agency), is still far from reaching                                                                                                                       tion in terms of NOX emission (30% betwe-
    acceptable air quality levels. The report             Index % 2003                                                                                               en 2003 and 2012) is more pronounced than
    reviews trends in local pollutants in Euro-                                                                                                                      the decrease in annual mean NO2 concen-
    pean cities, from 2003 to 2012, based on                                                                                                                         trations (of 18%) in the EU-28.This differen-
    actual concentration measurements, along                                                                                                                         ce is mainly attributed to the higher per-
    with data on anthropogenic emissions, in             100                                                                                                         centage of NO2 emitted directly from diesel
    an area comprising 38 European countries,                                                                                                                        vehicles.
                                                           90
    including 28 EU member states and certain
    other countries that are members of the                80                                                                                                        In the period 2003-2012 and in the avera-
    European Environmental Agency.                         70                                                                                                        ge for the EU-28, it can be seen that there
                                                                                                                                                                     has been a fall in the annual mean NO2 va-
    The main conclusion of the report is that              60                                                                                                        lue of -0.5 µg/m3/year in urban background
    the most problematic pollutants for human              50                                                                                                        and industrial stations, -0.7 µg/m3/year
    health present in the EU are particle matter                                                                                                                     in traffic areas and -0.2 µg/m3/year in the
    and ground-level ozone, followed by BaP                40                                                                                                        background level.
    and NO2. On the other hand, from the point             30
    of view of ecosystem protection, the most
                                                           20
    harmful contaminants are O3, NH3 and NOX.
                                                           10
    Note that the most problematic pollutant
                                                            0
    in Barcelona is currently NO2, having been
                                                            2003        2004        2005       2006        2007        2008        2009    2010        2011   2012
    PM10 in the recent past. For this reason, the
    Strategic Plan for Improving Air Quality in
                                                                     SOx        NOx           NH3          PM10         PM2,5          NMVOC      CO          CH4
    Barcelona for 2015-2018 focuses exclusi-
    vely on these two contaminants.

                                                         Source: Air Quality in Europe – 2014 report, European Environmental Agency.

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Figure 2: PM10 and NOX emissions trends by sector for the EU-28 members from 2003                Figure 3: Box plot of the annual mean NO2 levels in Europe (EU-28). Period 2003-2012.
to 2012.

 NOx                                                      PM10

                                                                                                 Source: Air Quality in Europe - 2014 report, European Environmental Agency box plot: upper and lower whiskers:
                                                                                                 upper and lower data limits; bottom line of the box: first quartile (25% of the data); top line of the box: third quartile
       Transport          Commercial, institutional and domestic combustion                      (75% of the data); point: arithmetic mean; red line: legislated value.
       Industry           Use of solvents and products
       Other              Energy ex. industry
                          Agriculture

Source: Air Quality in Europe – 2014 report, European Environmental Agency [Gg = 1.000 tones].

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018 - Ajuntament de ...
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018

     Figure 4: Box plot of the annual mean NO2 levels in Europe (EU-28). 2012.                                                    Figure
                                                                                                                                  Gràfic 55:/ Mean
                                                                                                                                              Gráfico 5 / Graphic
                                                                                                                                                   annual          5: Concentracions
                                                                                                                                                          NO2 concentrations in Europe.en
                                                                                                                                                                                        2012.
                                                                                                                                                                                          mitjana anual d’NO2 a Europa.
                                                                                                                                  Any 2012 / Concentracions en mitjana anual d’NO2 a Europa. Any 2012 / Concentracions
                                                                                                                                  en mitjana anual d’NO2 a Europa. Any 2012

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Annual mean nitrogen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          dioxide values for 2012,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          based on daily means with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ≥ 75% in µg/m3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ≤ 20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20-30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  30-40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40-50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  > 50

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No data available

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Countries/regions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  not included in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  data-exchange process

     Source: Air Quality in Europe - 2014 report, European Environmental Agency Box plot: upper and lower whiskers:
     upper and lower data limits; bottom line of the box: first quartile (25% of the data); top line of the box: third quartile
     (75% of the data); point: arithmetic mean; red line: legislated value.

                                                                                                                                  Font / Fuente
                                                                                                                                  Source:       / Source:
                                                                                                                                          Air Quality     Air Quality
                                                                                                                                                      in Europe – 2014in report,
                                                                                                                                                                         EuropeEuropean
                                                                                                                                                                                 – 2014 report, European Environmental
                                                                                                                                                                                          Environmental  Agency.       Agency / Air Quality in Europe
                                                                                                                                  – 2014 report, European Environmental Agency / Air Quality in Europe – 2014 report, European Environmental
                                                                                                                                  Agency

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Particulate matter

A general downward trend can be seen in        Gràfic 6 / Gráfico 6 / Graphic 6: Diagrama de caixes de les mitjanes anuals de                                               Font / Fuente / Source: Air Quality in Europe – 2014
                                                                                                                                                                            report, European Environmental Agency. Diagrama de
the airborne PM10 concentrations in the pe-    Figure  6: Box(EU-28).
                                               PM10 a Europa           Període
                                                              plot of PM 10
                                                                               2003-2012
                                                                            annual       / Diagrama
                                                                                   means in          de caixes
                                                                                            Europe (EU-28).    de les
                                                                                                            Period    mitjanes anuals
                                                                                                                   2003-2012.                                               caixes: puntes superior i inferior: extrems superior i
                                               de PM10 a Europa (EU-28). Període 2003-2012 / Diagrama de caixes de les mitjanes                                             inferior de les dades, caixa línia inferior: primer quartil
riod 2003-2012, as well as a reduction in PM                                                                                                                                (25% dades), caixa línia superior: tercer quartil (75%
emissions. Most stations recorded a decre-     anuals de PM10 a Europa (EU-28). Període 2003-2012.                                                                          de les dades), punt: mitjana aritmètica; línia vermella:
                                                                                                                                                                            valor legislat / Air Quality in Europe – 2014 report,
ase of -1 µg/m3/year or more in the period                                                                                                                                  European Environmental Agency. Diagrama de caixes:
2003-2012 and only 2% of stations recorded                                                                                                                                  puntes superior i inferior: extrems superior i inferior
                                                                                                                                                                            de les dades, caixa línia inferior: primer quartil (25%
an increase.                                                                                                                                                                dades), caixa línia superior: tercer quartil (75% de les
                                                                                                                                                                            dades), punt: mitjana aritmètica; línia vermella: valor
                                                                                                                                                                            legislat / Air Quality in Europe – 2014 report, European
On average, the urban background stations                                                                                                                                   Environmental Agency. Diagrama de caixes: puntes su-
recorded a drop of -0.7 µg/m3/year in annual                                                                                                                                perior i inferior: extrems superior i inferior de les dades,
                                                                                                                                                                            caixa línia inferior: primer quartil (25% dades), caixa
mean and -0.9 µg/m3/year in the 90.4 per-                                                                                                                                   línia superior: tercer quartil (75% de les dades), punt:
centile, whereas the traffic stations recor-                                                                                                                                mitjana aritmètica; línia vermella: valor legislat.
ded decreases of -1.0 and -1.5 µg/m3/year,
respectively.

                                               Source: Air Quality in Europe - 2014 report, European Environmental Agency Box plot: upper and lower whiskers:
                                               upper and lower data limits; bottom line of the box: first quartile (25% of the data); top line of the box: third quartile
                                               (75% of the data); point: arithmetic mean; red line: legislated value.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           11
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018

     Figure 7: Box plot of the 90.4 percentile of PM10 daily means in Europe (EU-28). 2012.                                          Figure 8: Percentil
                                                                                                                                     Gràfic 8: 90.4 percentile
                                                                                                                                                         90,4 deofles
                                                                                                                                                                    PM    daily means
                                                                                                                                                                      mitjanes
                                                                                                                                                                       10       diàriesinde
                                                                                                                                                                                          Europe.
                                                                                                                                                                                            PM10 a2012.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Europa. Any 2012.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    90.4 percentile of the PM10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    concentration in 2012,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    based on the daily mean
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    with valid measurements of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ≥ 75% in µg/m3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ≤ 20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20-40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            40-50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            50-75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            > 75

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No data available

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Countries/regions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            not included in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            data-exchange process

     Source: Air Quality in Europe - 2014 report, European Environmental Agency Box plot: upper and lower whiskers:
     upper and lower data limits; bottom line of the box: first quartile (25% of the data); top line of the box: third quartile
     (75% of the data); point: arithmetic mean; red line: legislated value.

                                                                                                                                     Source:
                                                                                                                                     Font: AirAir Quality
                                                                                                                                               Quality    in Europe
                                                                                                                                                       in Europe    - 2014
                                                                                                                                                                 – 2014    report,
                                                                                                                                                                         report,   European
                                                                                                                                                                                 European   Environmental
                                                                                                                                                                                          Environmental   Agency.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Agency.

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5. AIR QUALITY IN BARCELONA: 2004-2013

In Barcelona in 2013, the annual mean NO2      November and defined by the Order of 20            as one of the systems for evaluating the                The location of the various monitoring sta-
concentrations at both of the city’s sam-      June, 1986. It has a pyramidal structure           atmospheric environment.                                tions in Barcelona is shown below accord-
pling stations in areas of intense traffic     with the base formed by the measuring            • Locating air-pollutant emission sources                 ing to the pollutants measured (NO2, PM10,
exceeded the European threshold .Even          points and the apex being the receiving            and having information available for as-                PM2.5) and whether they are traffic, indus-
so, in recent years there has been a down-     and data coordination centre. A measuring          sessing any potential impact.                           trial or background measurement stations:
ward trend in the recorded concentrations      point is the zone in the region that houses
of this pollutant.                             the sampling and pollutant analysis equip-
                                               ment, manual and automatic alike.                Figure 9: Location map of XVPCA stations in Barcelona.
2013 was the first year when the PM10 con-
centration levels recorded at all sampling     The main aim of this network is to moni-
stations were below the European thresh-       tor air quality, i.e. record the concentration
olds. Although it could be argued that Bar-    levels of major atmospheric pollutants and
celona already complies with the regu-         from the results of these measurements,
lations, measures still need to continue       determine whether corrective measures
being taken, to prevent the pollutant from     are necessary. The network, therefore, is
exceeding its established limits once again.   extremely useful for:

This strategic plan focuses on NO2 and PM10    • Understanding temporal trends in air
because these are the only contaminants          quality levels in the region.
that are or have been recorded at levels       • Informing citizens of the state of air
above the European limit values in recent        quality and its trends.
years. They are therefore the only ones that   • Taking action in areas where health pro-
have to be the subject of any plans drawn        tection limit values are exceeded or at
up under the applicable regulations.             risk of being exceeded.
                                               • Drawing up maps of territorial vulner-
The main tool for assessing air quality is       ability and capacity (as an instrument to
the XVPCA (Network for Monitoring and            guide regional planning).
Forecasting Air Pollution), co-managed         • Complying with current regulations re-
in Barcelona by the city’s Public Health         garding the protection of the atmospher-
Agency and the Generalitat of Catalonia.         ic environment. The standards regulat-
                                                 ing air quality establish the measuring
The XVPCA is a system for detecting the          of atmospheric pollutant concentrations
concentration levels of major pollutants.
It was set up following Act 22/1983, of 21                                                      Source: Barcelona Regional Only fixed measuring stations (F) have been considered; indicative measuring stations
                                                                                                (i) have not been included.

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Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018

     Below is a review of the concentration lev-          indicate that the annual mean European
     el trends of nitrogen oxides and particles           threshold was only exceeded at two sta-      Figure 10: Location of the NO2 measuring stations in Barcelona, indicating those sta-
     of under 10 microns in diameter, measured            tions: Eixample and Gràcia - Sant Gervasi    tions that exceeded the annual mean European threshold in 2013.
     at Barcelona’s XVPCA stations.                       (in 2012 there were four). This represents
                                                          an important improvement. On the other
     5.1. NITROGEN OXIDES: NOX                            hand, the maximum hourly limit was not ex-
                                                          ceeded at any station.
     65% of the nitrogen oxides emitted in Cata-
                                                          Below are the two stations that in 2013
     lonia come from motor vehicles, though
                                                          exceeded the maximum annual mean con-
     transport may represent as much as 70% of
                                                          centration.
     all emissions in urban areas. Nitrogen ox-
     ides (NOx = NO + NO2) are generated at high
     temperatures (for example, during hydro-
     carbon combustion) as oxygen and nitro-
     gen in the air react with one another. Part
     of this reaction produces NO and another
     results in NO2. After combustion, some of
     the NO, once released into the air, can be
     transformed into NO2 through a process
     known as oxidation. This process is caused
     by certain chemical reactions involving the
     NO present in the air and sunlight, as well
     as other external factors.
     The EU has established mean annual and
     hourly concentration limits for NO2. The
     first states that mean annual NO2 values
     must not exceed 40 μg/m3 and the second                                                            NO2 concentration measuring stations
     states that the fixed NO2 hourly limit of 200                                                           Within the European threshold

     µg/m3 must not be exceeded more than 18                                                                 Exceeding the European threshold (40 μg/m3)

     times per year.                                                                                                                                                                                                      	
  
                                                                                                       Source: Barcelona Regional Only fixed measuring stations (F) have been considered; indicative measuring stations
     The NO2 measurements recorded in 2013                                                             (i) have not been included.
     for the various XVPCA stations in Barcelona

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Table2: Number of stations in Barcelona in 2013 by type and municipality.NO2 measurement.                               Figure 11: Annual mean concentrations of NO2 [2012 and 2013].

                 Suburban-         Suburban-       Suburban-        Urban-bac-         Urban-           Total
                 background        industrial        traffic         kground           traffic                                                      Annual mean concentrations of NO2 [2012 and 2013]
  Barcelona
                                                                                                                                                                        Barcelona (Eixample)
                                                                          2               5                7                                                                  70

                                                                                                                                                                              60
Source: DTES. Only fixed measuring stations (F) have been considered; indicative measuring stations (i) have not been
included.                                                                                                                                                                     50
                                                                                                                               Barcelona (Parc de la                                                          Barcelona (Gràcia - Sant
                                                                                                                                    Vall d'Hebron)                                                                   Gervasi)
                                                                                                                                                                              40

The following figure shows the annual mean                  that all the stations recorded improved                                                                           30

NO2 concentration levels recorded at the                    concentrations in 2013 (blue) with respect                                                                        20

seven stations in 2013. If the blue and green               to 2012 (green). The figure also shows the                                                                        10
lines are compared, it can be generally seen                annual mean legislated limit (red line).
                                                                                                                                                                               0

                                                                                                                          Barcelona (Palau Reial)                                                                    Barcelona (Poblenou)

                                                                                                                                                    Barcelona (Sants)                             Barcelona (Ciutadella)

                                                                                                                           EU limit (40 ug/m3)          XVPCA-NO2 (2012)           XVPCA-NO2 (2013) [variable arranged from highest to lowest]

                                                                                                                        Source: Barcelona Regional with data from the DTES. Only fixed measuring stations (F) have been considered; indica-
                                                                                                                        tive measuring stations (i) have not been included.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 15
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018

     Below are the details of the levels record-
     ed by the stations in Barcelona since 2005.                                                                              Figure 12: Annual mean NO2 concentrations in Barcelona, 2013-2005.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  NO2	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2012]
                                                                                                                                                                          Immissió	
  
                                                                                                                                                                          Concentration      <	
  Límit	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                     < EUElimit
                                                                                                                      Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  NO2	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2012]
                                                                                                                                                                                                            U                                 Immissió	
  >	
  Limit	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Concentration      > EUElimit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         U                         Limit	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   EU limitEU                         	
  
                               Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  NO2	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2013]                                                                                                                                                                                           Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  NO2	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2010]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  NO2	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2011]
                        Immissió	
  <	
  Límit	
  EU               Immissió	
  >	
  Limit	
  EU              Immissió	
  
                                                                                                            Limit	
   EU <	
  Límit	
  EU                   Immissió	
  >PROMIG	
  
                                                                                                                                                                          	
  Limit	
  EUBARCELONA
                                                                                                                                                                                              Limit	
  EU                                                                                          Immissió	
  <	
  Límit	
  EU                   Immissió	
  >	
  Limit	
  EU            Limit	
  EU
                                                                                                                                                                                                Immissió	
  <	
  Límit	
  EU                           Immissió	
  >	
  Limit	
  EU               Limit	
  EU
                    PROMIG	
  MEAN
                 BARCELONA    BARCELONA
                                   VALUE                                                                      PROMIG	
  BARCELONA                                                                                                                                                                  PROMIG	
  BARCELONA
                                                                                                                                                                                                 PROMIG	
  BARCELONA
                                                                                                                                                                             Barcelona	
  (Ciutadella)
                       Barcelona	
  (Ciutadella)                                                             Barcelona	
  (Ciutadella)                                                                                                                                                            Barcelona	
  (Ciutadella)
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Barcelona	
  (Ciutadella)
                        Barcelona	
  (Eixample)                                                               Barcelona	
  (Eixample)                                         Barcelona	
  (Eixample)                                                                                               Barcelona	
  (Eixample)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Barcelona	
  (Eixample)

        Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)                                      Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)                                                                                                                                     Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)
                                                                                                                                                          Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐ Barcelona	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                      Sant	
  Gervasi)
                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)

                      Barcelona	
  (Palau	
  Reial)                                                         Barcelona	
  (Palau	
  Reial)                                                                 Barcelona	
  (Palau	
  Reial)                                                          Barcelona	
  (Palau	
  Reial)
                                                                                                                                                                            Barcelona	
  (Palau	
  Reial)
           Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)                                               Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)                                                       Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)                                                Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)

                        Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)                                                               Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)                        Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)
                                                                                                                                                                                               Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)                                                                             Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)

                             Barcelona	
  (Sants)                                                 ug/m3	
  [Barcelona	
  
                                                                                                            2013] (Sants)                                                    Barcelona	
  ug/m3	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                          (Poblenou)[2012]
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Barcelona	
  (Sants)                                                               ug/m3	
  [Barcelona	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2011] (Sants)                                                                  ug/m3	
  [2010]
                                                          0   10    20     30      40     50        60       70       80        90   	
          0   10       20       30      40       50       60
                                                                                                                                                                                    Barcelona	
  (Sants)
                                                                                                                                                                                                           70       80       90     	
        0   10    20      30     40      50        60        70       80       90    	
            0   10    20     30     40      50       60       70       80       90    	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ug/m3	
  [2012]
                               Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  NO2	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2009]
                                                                                                           2013] Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  NO2	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2008] Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  NO2	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2007] Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  NO2	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2006]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  NO2	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2005]
                        Immissió	
  <	
  Límit	
  EU               Immissió	
  >	
  Limit	
  EU             Limit	
   EU <	
  Límit	
  EU
                                                                                                              Immissió	
                                    Immissió	
  >	
  Limit	
  EU                 Limit	
   EU 0 <	
  Límit	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Immissió	
         10 EU20                   30   40 >	
  Limit	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Immissió	
      50 EU 60                   70       EU80 <	
  Límit	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Immissió	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Limit	
              90 EU                       Immissió	
  >	
  Limit	
  EU         Immissió	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Limit	
  EU<	
  Límit	
  EU               Immissió	
  >	
  Limit	
  EU        Limit	
  EU
                    PROMIG	
  MEAN
                 BARCELONA    BARCELONA
                                   VALUE                                                                       PROMIG	
  BARCELONA                                                                          PROMIG	
  BARCELONA                                                                     PROMIG	
  BARCELONA                                                                PROMIG	
  BARCELONA

                       Barcelona	
  (Ciutadella)                                                              Barcelona	
  (Ciutadella)                                                                    Barcelona	
  (Ciutadella)                                                               Barcelona	
  (Ciutadella)                                                         Barcelona	
  (Ciutadella)

                        Barcelona	
  (Eixample)                                                                Barcelona	
  (Eixample)                                                                      Barcelona	
  (Eixample)                                                                 Barcelona	
  (Eixample)                                                            Barcelona	
  (Eixample)

       Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)                                         Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)                                              Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)                                         Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)                                   Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)

                     Barcelona	
  (Palau	
  Reial)                                                           Barcelona	
  (Palau	
  Reial)                                                                Barcelona	
  (Palau	
  Reial)                                                           Barcelona	
  (Palau	
  Reial)                                                     Barcelona	
  (Palau	
  Reial)

          Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)                                                 Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)                                                      Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)                                                 Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)                                           Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)

                       Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)                                                                 Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)                                                                      Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)                                                                 Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)                                                            Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)

                             Barcelona	
  (Sants)                                                 ug/m3	
  [2009]
                                                                                                            2013]
                                                                                                            Barcelona	
  (Sants)                                                               ug/m3	
  [2008]
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Barcelona	
  (Sants)                                                          ug/m3	
  [2007]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Barcelona	
  (Sants)                                                            ug/m3	
   [2006]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Barcelona	
   (Sants)                                                        ug/m3	
  [2005]
                                                          0   10    20     30     40      50       60        70       80       90    	
          0   10       20      30       40      50       60        70       80       90    	
          0   10    20     30      40      50        60       70       80       90    	
             0   10    20     30     40     50        60       70       80       90   	
      0   10    20     30     40     50       60   70    80      90   	
  

     Source: Barcelona Regional with data from the DTES (Department of Territory and Sustainability of the Generalitat of Catalonia). Only fixed measuring stations (F) have been considered; indicative measuring stations (i) have not been included.

16
PMQAB

Table 3: Annual mean NO2 concentrations at Barcelona’s XVPCA stations. Data in μg/m3.

                                                                                                                                                                                                       2004   2005       2006    2007    2008   2009        2010     2011   2012      2013
                                            EU limit →              52                50                48               46               44             μg/m3    42     Màxim de mitjana anual   40                        40                         40                          40
                                                                                                                                                         μg/m3               Mitjana anual
Name of XVPCA station                            [∆]              2004              2005               2006             2007           2008                  2009Mínim de mitjana anual2010
                                                                                                                                                         μg/m3                                                            2011                    2012                        2013
Sants-Montjuïc                                   UT                 36                49                31              47                45                      41                              41                        40                         37                          33
Poblenou                                         UT                 40                43                47              42                47                      51                              45   2004   2005          43
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2006    2007    2008   2009   42   2010     2011   2012   402013
                                                                                                                                                         μg/m3           Màxim de mitjana anual
Parc de la Vall d'Hebron                         UF                 --                --                 --              --               36             μg/m3    40         Mitjana anual        37                        33                         31                          27
                                                                                                                                                         μg/m3           Mínim de mitjana anual
Palau Reial                                      UT                 --                --                 --              --               --                       --                             --                        32                         36                          32
Gràcia - Sant Gervasi                            UT                 67                83                74              63                63                      63                              64                        66                         61                          54
                                                                                                                                                                                                       2004   2005       2006    2007    2008   2009        2010     2011   2012      2013
Eixample                                         UT                 60                68                68              66                65             μg/m3    62     Màxim de mitjana anual   --                        65                         61                          56
                                                                                                                                                         μg/m3               Mitjana anual
La Ciutadella                                    UF                 43                48                47              46                42             μg/m3
                                                                                                                                                                  46     Mínim de mitjana anual
                                                                                                                                                                                                  46                        40                         42                          35

Source: DTES. Department of Territory and Sustainability of the Generalitat of Catalonia [Δ] UT = Urban-traffic, UB =
Urban-background. Exceedance of the European threshold is indicated in red.                                              Figure 13: Trends in average NO2 concentrations at the stations in Barcelona.

                                                                                                                                     Number of station           NO2 [Maximum value of the annual mean]              NO2 [Annual mean]          NO2 [Minimum value of the annual mean]             Nu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Annual rate
If we take the average of the mean annual                    -2.39% in annual values since 2004, a fig-
concentrations at Barcelona’s seven NO2                      ure that represents an average reduction
measuring stations, it can be seen that                      of -1.0 µg/m3 per year. This mainly ongo-
the mean concentration was 39.6 µg/m3                        ing trend can be seen from the following
in 2013, revealing a downward trend of                       figure.

                                                                                                                         Source: Barcelona Regional Only fixed measuring stations (F) have been considered; indicative measuring stations
                                                                                                                         (i) have not been included.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              17
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018

     The maximum levels of the annual means                                                                                                                                      5.2. PARTICULATE MATTER SMALLER
     shown in the previous figure (red line) are          Figure 14: Percentage of stations in Barcelona that exceeded EU limits (NO2).                                          THAN 10µM: PM10
     the maximum values reached in the con-
     sidered stations each year. In the case of                                                                                                                                  Particulate matter is usually generated
     NO2, the red line shows the annual mean                                                                                                                                     by traffic, as a result of the combustion of
     concentrations in the stations of Gràcia -             100%                                                                                                                 certain fuels, but it may also be present
                                                                               NO2:
     Sant Gervasi and Eixample (they alternate               90%    % stations that exceeded
                                                                                                                                                                                 in the air from activities that have noth-
     according to the year), while the minimum                       the limits / total stations
                                                                                                                                     80%                                         ing to do with combustion, such as public
                                                             80%
     annual mean levels mainly correspond to                                                                                                                                     works or re-suspension of particles previ-
                                                             70%                                                 67%       67%
     the station in Parc de la Vall d’Hebron.                                                             60%                                                                    ously deposited on the ground (e.g. when
                                                             60%                                                                                          57%
                                                                                                                                                                                 vehicles circulate on the road); this latter
     Note that it is the red line that indicates             50%
                                                                                                                                                43%
                                                                                                                                                                                 phenomenon is more intense during in
     compliance or non-compliance with Eu-                             40%           40%           40%                                                                           periods with little rain.
                                                             40%
     ropean air quality threshold and this line                                                                                                                      29%
                                                             30%
     reflects a reduction of -1.97% per year,                                                                                                                                    Note however that there is a significant
     data that shows the improving trend of                  20%                                                                                                                 contribution of particulate matter from
     recent years.                                           10%                                                                                                                 outside the city; this is input from the re-
                                                              0%                                                                                                                 gional background. The particles may be
     In general, 29% of the fixed XVPCA meas-                         2004           2005          2006   2007   2008     2009       2010      2011       2012       2013
     uring stations in Barcelona in 2013 ex-
     ceeded the maximum levels admitted by
     legislation. The following figure shows the          Source: Barcelona Regional Only fixed measuring stations (F) have been considered; indicative measuring stations (i)
                                                          have not been included.
     drop in this percentage since 2010. It also
     shows the increase from 2004 to 2010,
     principally because the European an-
     nual mean threshold for NO2 has become
     much stricter since 2004; the threshold
     decreased from 52 µg/m3 in 2004 to 40 µg/
     m3 in 2010.

18
PMQAB

solid or liquid and include dust, metals,                   ual measurements), then the above-men-
ash, cement and pollen. The definition of                   tioned daily exceedance threshold will                      Figure 15: Location of the PM10 measuring stations in Barcelona; it can also be seen
PM10 implies that the particles have a di-                  not be applied and the 90.4 percentile will                 that no station exceeded the average mean PM10 threshold in 2013.
ameter of under 10 µm.                                      be evaluated instead and it will have to be
                                                            under or equal to 50 µg/m3. This means
European legislation sets an annual mean                    that some particulate-matter measuring
concentration level as well as a daily                      stations exceed the percentile levels set
mean. The first establishes that an annu-                   out under the new decree, where they are
al mean value of 40 μg/m3 must not be ex-                   not in exceedance under the regulations
ceeded. The second states that the daily                    and the calculation method of the previ-
mean of 50 µg/m3 must not be exceeded                       ous decree.
more than 35 times in a year.
                                                            Below is a location map for the PM10
Note too, that, under Royal Decree                          measuring stations.
102/2011, where the number of valid daily
particulate matter readings is under 90%
(a typical situation in stations with man-

Table 4: Number of stations per type in Barcelona in 2013. PM10 measurement.

                 Suburban-         Suburban-       Suburban-         Urban-            Urban-            Total           PM10 concentration measuring stations PM10
                 background        industrial        traffic       background          traffic                                Within the European threshold
  Barcelona
                                        1                                4                 5              10                  Exceeding the European threshold (40 μg/m3)

Source: DTES. Only fixed measuring stations (F) have been considered; indicative measuring stations (i) have not been   Source: Barcelona Regional Only fixed measuring stations (F) have been considered; indicative measuring stations
included.                                                                                                               (i) have not been included.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           19
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018

                  In Barcelona in 2013, ten fixed PM10 meas-                                                                                                                                            The following figure details the levels re-
                  uring points were installed and none re-               Figure 16: Annual mean PM10 concentrations [2012 and 2013].                                                                    corded by the stations since 2005. In ad-
M10               corded   values
                      XVPCA-
                  tablished
                              riable exceeding    the threshold es-
                                     d'ordenació de                                                                                                                                                     dition, the symbol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           *  shows the stations
                        PM10 for annual mean Límit   concentrations
                                                         EU (40                                           Immissió de PM10 en mitjana anual [2012 i 2013]                                               which complied with the European annual
                  (this(2012)
                         has been true since 2010).       In addition,
                                                       ug/m3)                                                                 Barcelona (Plaça de la                                                    mean levels but failed to meet the daily
 de la Universitat)                                           40                                                                   Universitat)
 ple)
                  none    of these    recorded     values   exceeded
                                                              40                                                                    50                                                                  mean exceedance thresholds.
  rdaguer)        the corresponding daily mean threshold      40                           Barcelona (Parc de la                    45
  - Sant Gervasi) (this threshold was exceeded in 40                                                                                                          Barcelona (Eixample)
                                                              2012 by                         Vall d'Hebron)                        40
                                                              40                                                                    35
  ou)
                  two   stations  and   in 2011  by  three).  40
                                                                                                                                    30
ell)                                               40
Universitària)                                                                                                                      25
                 The following figure shows the annual
                                                   40 mean
oya)                                               40                                                                               20
                 PM10 concentration levels recorded
e la Vall d'Hebron)                                40
                                                         in                    Barcelona (IES Goya)                                 15                                     Barcelona (IES Verdaguer)
               2012 and 2013 at the XVPCA stations in Bar-                                                                          10
               celona. Also shown on the figure, marked by                                                                           5

                 *
               a , are those stations that, although com-
               plying with the European average mean
                                                                                                                                     0

               concentration threshold, did not meet the
                                                                                     Barcelona (Zona                                                                       Barcelona (Gràcia - Sant
               daily mean exceedance thresholds.                                      Universitària)                                                                              Gervasi)

                                                                                                  Barcelona (Port Vell)                                       Barcelona (Sants)

                                                                                                                              Barcelona (Poblenou)

                                                                             EU limit (40 ug/m )
                                                                                              3
                                                                                                              XVPCA-PM10 (2012)          XVPCA-PM10 (2013) [variable arranged from highest to lowest]

                                                                         Source: Barcelona Regional with data from the DTES. Only fixed measuring stations (F) have been considered; indica-
                                                                         tive measuring stations (i) have not been included.

                                                                         Note for PM10: The asterisk * indicates sampling stations that did not comply with the maximum limits established for
                                                                         daily PM10 concentration measurements, even though their annual concentrations were below the maximum stipulated
                                                                         mean.

          20
PMQAB

Figure 17: Annual mean PM10 concentrations at the stations in Barcelona, 2013-2005.

                                                                                                                                                         Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  NO2	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2012]

                   Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  PM10	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  
                                                                                         Mitjana	
  
                                                                                                                                               Immissió	
  Mitjana	
  
                                                                                                                                               Concentration     	
  Limit	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Concentration            > EUE   UEU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     limit        Limit	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  EU
                                                                                                                                                                             anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  PM10	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2011]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     limitEUE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            U                        	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  PM10	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2010]
                 Immissió	
  	
  limit	
  EUImmissió	
  
                                                                                          Limit	
  	
  limit	
  EU Immissió	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Limit	
  	
  limit	
  EU         Limit	
  EU
                     PROMIG	
  
                     MITJANA
                 BARCELONA MEANBarcelona
                                   VALUE                                                       PROMIG	
  Barcelona                                                        PROMIG	
  Barcelona                                                       PROMIG	
  Barcelona
                                                                                                                                                Barcelona	
  (Ciutadella)
    Barcelona	
  (c/	
  Lluís	
  Solé	
  i	
  Sabaris)                    Barcelona	
  (c/	
  Lluís	
  Solé	
  i	
  Sabaris)                          Barcelona	
  (c/	
  Lluís	
  Solé	
  i	
  Sabaris)                        Barcelona	
  (c/	
  Lluís	
  Solé	
  i	
  Sabaris)
                     Barcelona	
  (Eixample)                                               Barcelona	
  (Eixample)                                                 Barcelona	
  (Eixample)
                                                                                                                                                  Barcelona	
  (Eixample)                                                                        Barcelona	
  (Eixample)
    Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)
                      Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Goya)
                                                                          Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)
                                                                                            Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Goya)
                                                                                                                                                          *
                                                                                                                                                     Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)
                                                                                                                                Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐ Sant	
  Gervasi)
                                                                                                                                                                        Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Goya)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    *
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Goya)
                Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Vergader)                                        Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Vergader)                                          Barcelona	
  
                                                                                                                                                                     Reial)(IES	
  Vergader)
                                                                                                                                               Barcelona	
  (Palau	
                                                                        Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Vergader)
       Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)                               Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)                                     Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)                                   Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)
                                                                                                                                     Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)
         Barcelona	
  (Plaça	
  Universitat)
                    Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)
                                                                                Barcelona	
  (Plaça	
  Universitat)
                                                                                           Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)
                                                                                                                                                           Barcelona	
  (Plaça	
  Universitat)
                                                                                                                                                                 Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)
                                                                                                                                                 Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    *Barcelona	
  (Plaça	
  Universitat)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)
                      Barcelona	
  (Port	
  Vell)                                           Barcelona	
  (Port	
  Vell)                                                 Barcelona	
  (Port	
  Vell)                                               Barcelona	
  (Port	
  Vell)
                                                                                                                                                       Barcelona	
  (Sants)                                                                             ug/m3	
  [2012]
                           Barcelona	
  (Sants)
       Barcelona	
  (Zona	
  Universitària)                                   Barcelona	
  
                                                                                                 Barcelona	
  (Sants)
                                                                                           (Zona	
  Universitària)
                                                                                                                                                         *                   Barcelona	
  (Sants)
                                                                                                                                                         Barcelona	
  (Zona	
  Universitària)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    *50 60 (Zona	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Barcelona	
  (Sants)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 *
                                                                                   ug/m3	
     [2013]                                                          ug/m3	
  [2012]  0      10     20                   30      40             ug/m3	
  [2011]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Barcelona	
    70Universitària)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80        90                                                  ug/m3	
  [2010]
                                                      0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                                  	
      0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                                       	
   0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                                         	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mitjana	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     	
  
                   Mitjana	
  anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  PM10	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2010]
                                                                                          Mitjana	
  
                                                                                                2009]anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  PM10	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2008] anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  PM10	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  
                                                                                                                                                                 Mitjana	
                                                               Mitjana	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              [2007]anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  PM10	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2006]anual	
  de	
  la	
  immissió	
  de	
  PM10	
  a	
  Barcelona	
  [2005]
                 Immissió	
  	
  limit	
  EUImmissió	
  
                                                                                         Limit	
  	
  limit	
  EU Immissió	
  
                                                                                                                                                                    Limit	
  E	
  limit	
  EUImmissió	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Limit	
  	
  limit	
  EUImmissió	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Limit	
  	
  limit	
  EU   Limit	
  EU
                     PROMIG	
  
                     MITJANA
                 BARCELONA MEANBarcelona
                                   VALUE                                                       PROMIG	
  Barcelona                                                         PROMIG	
  Barcelona                                                      PROMIG	
  Barcelona                                                         PROMIG	
  Barcelona
    Barcelona	
  (c/	
  Lluís	
  Solé	
  i	
  Sabaris)
                     Barcelona	
  (Eixample)
                                                                           Barcelona	
  (c/	
  Lluís	
  Solé	
  i	
  Sabaris)
                                                                                            Barcelona	
  (Eixample)
                                                                                                                                                           *
                                                                                                                                                      Barcelona	
  (c/	
  Lluís	
  Solé	
  i	
  Sabaris)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     *
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Barcelona	
  (c/	
  Lluís	
  Solé	
  i	
  Sabaris)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Barcelona	
  (Eixample)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Barcelona	
  (c/	
  Lluís	
  Solé	
  i	
  Sabaris)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Barcelona	
  (Eixample)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          *
                                                                                                                                                                        Barcelona	
  (Eixample)
    Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)
                      Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Goya)
                                                                                *
                                                                           Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)
                                                                                             Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Goya)
                                                                                                                                                      Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)
                                                                                                                                                                         Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Goya)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Goya)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Barcelona	
  (Gràcia	
  -­‐	
  Sant	
  Gervasi)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Goya)
                Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Vergader)                                         Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Vergader)                                             Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Vergader)                                            Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Vergader)                                              Barcelona	
  (IES	
  Vergader)
       Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)
                                                                                *Barcelona	
  (Plaça	
  Universitat)
                                                                              Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)
                                                                                                                                                           *Barcelona	
  (Plaça	
  Universitat)
                                                                                                                                                         Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)                                   Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)                                     Barcelona	
  (Parc	
  Vall	
  d'Hebron)
         Barcelona	
  (Plaça	
  Universitat)
                    Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)
                                                                                * Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)                                                              Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Barcelona	
  (Plaça	
  Universitat)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Barcelona	
  (Plaça	
  Universitat)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Barcelona	
  (Poblenou)
                      Barcelona	
  (Port	
  Vell)
                                                                               * Barcelona	
           (Port	
  Vell)
                                                                                                                                                           *             Barcelona	
  (Port	
  Vell)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     *            Barcelona	
  (Port	
  Vell)                                                 Barcelona	
  (Port	
  Vell)
                           Barcelona	
  (Sants)
       Barcelona	
  (Zona	
  Universitària)
                                                                               *             Barcelona	
  (Sants)                                                             Barcelona	
  (Sants)                                                     Barcelona	
  (Sants)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Barcelona	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Barcelona	
  (Sants)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Zona	
  Universitària)
                                                                                     ug/m3	
  [2010]
                                                                              Barcelona	
  (Zona	
  Universitària)
                                                                                               2009]                                                          ug/m3	
  
                                                                                                                                                          Barcelona	
     [2008]
                                                                                                                                                                       (Zona	
  Universitària)                                     Barcelona	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ug/m3	
  (Zona	
  Universitària)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    [2007]                                                         ug/m3	
     [2006]                                                         ug/m3	
  [2005]
                                                         0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                               	
          0     10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                                 	
        0     10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                                	
          0     10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                               	
         0    10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                   	
  

Source: Barcelona Regional with data from the DTES: Department of Territory and Sustainability of the Generalitat of Catalonia Only fixed measuring stations (F) have been considered; indicative measuring stations (i) have not been included.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018

     Table 5: Annual mean PM10 concentrations at Barcelona’s XVPCA stations. Data in μg/m3.

                                                EU limit →            40                40               40              40           40            40            40            40           40           40
      Name of XVPCA station                          [∆]            2004              2005             2006             2007         2008          2009         2010           2011         2012         2013
      Zona Universitària                             UF               34                33               34              33           31            34            27            29           28           20
      Sants-Montjuïc                                 UT               52               49                62              54           44            48          34(*)          39(*)        38(*)         25
      El Port Vell                                   SI               --                --               --             40(*)        36(*)         34(*)          28            29           32           24
      Poblenou                                       UT               --                --               --              54           45            46            32            32           31           25
      Plaça de la Universitat                        UT               46               47                52              43           43           40(*)          34           37(*)         33           27
      Parc de la Vall d'Hebron                       UF               --                --               --              --          33(*)         34(*)          25            25           24           19
      IES Verdaguer                                  UF               --                --               --              --            --           33            29            32           31           26
      IES Goya                                       SF               --                --               --              33           30            --            29            30           27           20
      Gràcia - Sant Gervasi                          UT               50               48                49              46           39           40(*)          33           37(*)        38(*)         26
      L'Eixample                                     UT               55               55                59              49           43            41            --            34           33           27
      C. Lluís Solé i Sabarís                        UF               --              39(*)              42             38(*)        38(*)          --            --             --           --           --

     Source: DTES, Department of Territory and Sustainability of the Generalitat of Catalonia [Δ] UT = Urban-traffic,   If we consider the PM10 measuring stati-        sents an average reduction -2.6 µg/m3 per
     UB = Urban-background, SB = Suburban-background, SI = Suburban-industrial In red are the values exceeding
     the European annual mean threshold; stations marked with an asterisk (*) are those that exceeded the daily limit   ons in Barcelona, in 2013 the mean con-         year. The maximum annual mean values
     values: LVd or P90.4, even though the annual means were below the EU limit.                                        centration was 23.9 µg/m3, a drop of -7.3%      (red line) also fell at a similar rate.
                                                                                                                        with respect to the 2004 value. This repre-

22
PMQAB

12     2013

12     2013

              Figure 18: PM10 concentration trends averaged over the XVPCA stations in Barcelona.                                                       Figure 19: Percentage of XVPCA stations in Barcelona that exceeded the EU limits
                                                                                                                                                        (PM10).

nual mean]              Number of station    PM10 [Maximum value of the annual mean]     PM10 [Annual mean]   PM10 [Minimum value of the annual mean]
                                                                                                                                                          100%
                                                                                                                      Annual rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             PM10:
                                                                                                                                                           90%                 83%       83%                                                        % stations that exceeded
                                                                                                                                                                    80%                            78%                  78%
                                                                                                                                                           80%                                                                                      the limits / total stations
                                                                                                                                                                                                              70%
                                                                                                                                                           70%

                                                                                                                                                           60%

                                                                                                                                                           50%

                                                                                                                                                           40%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              *
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         *
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             30%
                                                                                                                                                           30%

                                                                                                                                                           20%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   *
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   11%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20%

                                                                                                                                                           10%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0%
                                                                                                                                                            0%
                                                                                                                                                                    2004      2005       2006      2007      2008       2009      2010       2011       2012          2013

              Source: Barcelona Regional Only fixed measuring stations (F) are considered; indicative measuring stations (i) have                       Source: Barcelona Regional Only fixed measuring stations (F) have been considered; indicative measuring stations
              not been considered.                                                                                                                      (i) have not been included.

              As can be seen in the two following figu-                                since 2009 and in 2013 it was 0%, a per-                         Note: 2010, 2011 and 2012 (marked with *): Although none of the stations exceeded the average EU limit, they did
                                                                                                                                                        exceed the daily limit values: LVd or P90.4 (this latter value is only considered at stations registering under 90%
              res, the percentage of stations exceeding                                centage indicating that no station excee-                        valid measurements).
              the PM10 limits has dropped drastically                                  ded the European threshold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018

     Climate has also had an effect on these fi-
     gures, particularly in recent years, as this         Figure 20: Trend of annual mean wind speeds recorded at Barcelona Fabra
     pollutant is heavily influenced by meteo-            Observatory.
     rological conditions. The following figure
     shows how from 2009 to 2010 the concen-
     tration of PM10 dropped significantly, whi-
                                                              5
     le average wind speed increased. This is                      Wind speed (m/s)

     exactly the opposite of what happened in               4.8
                                                                    4.63
     2010 to 2011.                                          4.6

                                                            4.4                       4.32
                                                                                                                  4.27
                                                                              4.17           4.17                               4.21   4.20
                                                            4.2                                            4.05
                                                                                                    3.99                 4.01
                                                              4

                                                            3.8

                                                            3.6

                                                            3.4

                                                            3.2

                                                              3
                                                                    2004      2005    2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011   2012   2013

                                                          Source: Meteocat.

24
PMQAB

6. METHOD AND MODEL

For the purposes of regionally modelling air      at street scale. It calculates the dispersion
quality levels, a detailed inventory had to be    and concentration of pollutants from any          Image 1: Diagram of emission layers introduced using ADMS-Urban by means of ArcGIS.
made of the pollutant-emission sources dis-       emission source, including traffic, indus-
tributed throughout the region and not just       trial, domestic, commercial, airport and boat
within the studied municipality, as the con-      emissions and enables the calculation of
taminants may travel long distances from the      hour-by-hour, daily and annual mean con-
places they are emitted from. It was through      centrations, as well as exceedances of pol-
this inventory and all the environmental vari-    lutants such as NOx, NO2, O3, PM10 and PM2.5.                                                                         Road
                                                                                                                                                                        traffic
ables (e.g. wind regime, precipitation, relief,
                                                  ADMS-Urban is a specific tool to help in de-
building configuration and source concentra-
                                                  cision making for medium- and long-term
tion) that the NO2 and PM10 contamination lev-
                                                  policies aimed at improving air quality in cit-                                                                                   s
els were calculated on an hour-by-hour basis.                                                                                                                              Buse
                                                  ies and metropolitan areas.
The work was conducted under the frame-
                                                  The model is used by many cities and re-
work of the 2013 Barcelona Local Pollution        gions, including London, Beijing, Shanghai,                                                                                  Airpo
                                                                                                                                                                                        rt

Evaluation study, using data collected and        Hong Kong, Budapest, Strasbourg, Rome
processed for developing an inventory of          and California. It also has been used in the
                                                                                                                                                                                        ort
regional-scale geo-referenced emissions           Generalitat of Catalonia’s action plan for im-                                                                                  The p

with information broken down by sector to a       proving air quality, as well as in the prepara-
scale suitable for working on a contaminant       tion of documents on air quality in Catalonia                                                                                            ial,
                                                                                                                                                                                    merc
dispersion model.                                                                                                                                                            Com            nd
                                                  delivered to the European Commission by                                                                                   d o m   e stic a r
                                                                                                                                                                                         secto
                                                                                                                                                                                 s trial
The emissions inventories in most of the sec-     the Catalan government.                                                                                                 in d u

tors were drawn up using EMEP/EEA GB2013.         The model is based on current dispersion                Emissions
                                                                                                                                                                                             trial
                                                                                                               map                                                                      Indus es
COPERT software was used alongside real           models, including the following:                                                                                                         sourc

vehicle emissions measurements for drawing                                                                                                                                                        n activ
                                                                                                                                                                                                         ities
                                                                                                                                                                                           tractio

up the road traffic emissions inventory.          • Advanced Gaussian concentration model-                                                                               Other
                                                                                                                                                                               servic
                                                                                                                                                                                     es: ex

                                                    ling.
To model the dispersion of the pollutants NOX,    • Street canyon effect modelling based on               Concentrations
                                                                                                                    map
NO2 and PM10 the ArcGIS software was used,          the Danish OSPM model.
in addition to the ADMS-Urban modelling pro-      • Chemical reaction modelling according to
gramme. ArcGIS is a GIS (geographic informa-        the CBM IV mechanism.
tion software) tool that allows databases to
be linked with geographic information.            The following figure provides an example
                                                  of the emission layers implemented using
ADMS-Urban programme is a pollutant dis-          ADMS-Urban by means of GIS tools and the
persal model that can be used for urban                                                             Source: Barcelona Regional.
                                                  subsequent result presented in the form of a
and metropolitan environments, as well as         concentrations map.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 25
Plan to improve air quality in Barcelona 2015-2018

     Contaminant dispersion model
     Current situation

     The method used to calculate concentra-              • It uses an hourly processing module of           ous sources. It also considers the photo-      A considerable quantity of regional data ne-
     tions is based on the ADMS-Urban contam-               flow and turbulence across the zone de-          chemical reactions resulting from inci-        eds to be known before the reality can be
     inant dispersion model and offers the pos-             rived from the relief. The module utilised       dent solar radiation.                          simulated. On the one hand, there are the
     sibility of modelling the chemical reactions           is Flowstar, which incorporates a specific     • It has a system of smart virtual receptors.    intrinsic features of the region and, on the ot-
     that occur between various chemical spe-               OSPM for assessing the street canyon             In addition to a regular grid of points dis-   her, the composition and behaviour of the va-
     cies present in the atmosphere, together               effect produced by the network of roads          tributed throughout the region, it allows      rious emission sources scattered throughout
     with the effect of solar radiation.                    between buildings, derived from the re-          the automatic assignment of measuring          the zone need to be known. Note that in the
                                                            circulation of air and turbulence caused         points on roads and motorways to im-           annual pollutant dispersion simulation, the
     The model also uses algorithms to assess               by traffic in that built-up area.                prove the level of detail.                     hourly, daily and monthly emissions produ-
     the wind speed at various altitudes, the tur-        • It takes into account the reactions be-                                                         ced by the various sources have also been
     bulences which are created using the vari-             tween the various chemical present in          The diagram in the following figure shows the    introduced.
     ous configurations of the land and the air             the atmosphere and emissions from vari-        method to follow for modelling air quality:      To calibrate and validate the model, real data
     currents generated in the streets. Moreo-
                                                                                                                                                            from the XVPCA measuring stations are com-
     ver, it allows you to add hourly, weekly and                                                                                                           pared hour by hour using the virtual mea-
     monthly pollutant emissions timetables                                                                                                                 surements introduced into the model at the
     from several sources, a variable that ena-           Image 2: Method diagram for modeling air quality.
                                                                                                                                                            same geo-referenced locations. This analysis
     bles the study of emissions trends over                                                                                                                allows the modelling parameters to be ad-
     time, as well as their impact on concentra-                                                                                                            justed for obtaining concentration results as
     tions.                                                                                                                                                 close to the reality as possible.
                                                                 BASELINE                  DISPERSION          VALIDATION AND              RESULTS
                                                               INFORMATION                   MODEL              CALIBRATION
     This model is directly linked to a geographic                                                                                                          Note that the reality is not a mathematical
     information system (GIS) and an emissions                                                                                                              model and that there are variables outsi-
                                                                STRUCTURAL
     database that allows you to quantify and                      INPUT
                                                                                        •GAUSSIAN
                                                                                                              MODEL VALIDATION        MAP OF POLLUTANT      de configurable behaviour patterns, which
                                                                                        DISPERSION MODEL                              CONCENTRATIONS
     geographically locate the pollutant emis-                                                                AND CALIBRATION                               include situations such as traffic jams on
                                                                 EMISSIONS              •CHEMICAL             FROM REAL               AND AN ANALYSIS
     sions sources even more accurately.                                                REACTIONS             CONCENTRATION           OF POLLUTANTS         atypical days, fires and demolition.
                                                                INVENTORY
                                                                                                              DATA                    ACCORDING TO

                                                               BACKGROUND
                                                                                        •STREET CANYON                                THEIR SOURCES         Pollutant dispersion model
     The main features of the model are:                                                MODELLING
                                                              CONTAMINATION                                                                                 Future scenarios
     • It is specific for analysing pollutant con-                REAL                                                                                      With the model calibrated and validated for
                                                              CONCENTRATION
       centrations in urban and metropolitan                      DATA                                                                                      2013, as explained in the 2013 Barcelona Lo-
       environments with a resolution down to                                                                                                               cal Pollution Evaluation document, air qua-
       street-scale.                                                                                                                                        lity was modelled for the year 2018, for both
                                                          Source: Barcelona Regional.
     • It is based on an advanced Gaussian pol-                                                                                                             trend and action scenarios, including measu-
       lutant dispersion model.                                                                                                                             rements from the various plans and program-
     • It incorporates a meteorological preproc-                                                                                                            mes that have an effect on local pollution in
       essor.                                                                                                                                               Barcelona.

26
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