POLICY ANALYSIS POLICY RECOM-MENDA- TIONS - European Cultural ...
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1 POLICY ANALYSIS POLICY RECOM- MENDA- TIONS
POLICY ANALYSIS POLICY RECOM- Authors: Marjolein Cremer (Senior Advocacy Officer, European Cultural Foundation), Maria Francesca De Tullio (Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Antwerp), Pascal Gielen (Professor of Sociology of Culture MENDA- & Politics, University of Antwerp), Violante Torre (Policy Officer, European Cultural Foundation) Contributors: Marcela Arreaga (partner at Holon) and Markel Cormenzana (partner at Holon), Sergi Frías (Lab manager, CoboiLab) TIONS Publisher: Creative Industry Košice, 2021 Co-funded by the Creative Europe Programme of the European Union The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Creative Industry Košice, 2021
01 / POLICY ANALYSIS Violante Torre / Introduction / 12 / The CCSC partners / 14 / How Far did We Go? On Process and Methodologies / 22 / Culture as the Base: For a New Centrality of Culture in Urban Spaces / 32 / Urban Commons: an Alternative Model for Cultural Centres / 40 / Local Participation: How to Make it Meaningful? / 47 / New Visions of Decision-making: Homes of Commons / 54 / The Future of Homes of Commons and CCSC Legacy / 59 / Conclusions / 63
02 / POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction. Commoning Culture and a Commons-based Cultural Europe / Pascal Gielen / 68 / Commoning Culture / 73 / A Commons-based Cultural Europe / 74 01 / Homes of Commons / Maria Francesca De Tullio / 76 / Introduction / 78 / A Participatory Guarantee System as a Certificate for Homes of Commons / 82 / What are Homes of Commons? / 82 / Certifying Homes of Commons — A lesson from ecological farming / 52 / Three Steps Towards a Participatory Guarantee System for Homes of Commons / 91 / Phase 1: The Foundations of Homes of Commons / 92 / Phase 2: Creating an Infrastructure for a Participatory Guarantee System for Homes of Commons / 99 / Phase 3: A Participatory Guarantee System for Commons / 104 02 / Recommendations on Existing EU Programmes and Tools / Marjolein Cremer / 110 / EU-level Participation and Participatory Approaches on Culture / 113 / Creative Europe – a Tool for the Empowerment of Commons and Cultural and Creative Spaces / 117 / Structured Dialogue: Creating a Structural Tool for Participation / 124 / A European Bauhaus for the Commons – Creating a Stronger Evidence Base for Commons and Culture by Connecting EU Programmes and Results More Closely / 131
① 8 9 POLICY ANALYSIS
10 11 Cultural Spaces and Cities as Commons Why culture is key for a better life in cities Violante Torre, European Cultural Foundation
12 Policy Analysis 13 Introduction While many cultural workers and operators advocate for protection, culture has never stopped nourishing our cities This report is the outcome of the Cultural and Creative Cities during these hard times. Cultural events have been made (CCSC) project, which is a policy project co-funded by the Crea- available through digital means; public and private cultural tive Europe programme of the European Union and managed by institutions are publishing their archives in open format. The a consortium of eleven non-profit and public organisations. Seven cultural sector is demonstrating its ability to continuously Urban Labs based in seven European cities form the core of the reinvent itself, even in times of crisis, to provide solutions to project. Bringing together non-governmental cultural organisa- the most acute urban problems, and to allow culture to survive tions and local/regional authorities, they address local challenges as the heart of our communities. We thus feel that advocating and find participatory and commoning solutions to them. for a vision of culture that aims to create empathy, that gives voice to the voiceless, that overcomes social distance and the The CCSC: emptiness of public spaces, is fundamental for the credibility ○ carries a vision of culture at the heart of local communities of Europe and local governments. and at the centre of social life ○ rejects the diminution of culture in contemporary society Taking these premises as a starting point, this report aims to: and swims against the current of the trending alignment of ① Bring together the outputs and the outcomes of the CCSC culture and the market economy and the consequent reduc- project and share the main lessons learned on the work tion of culture to a tool for profit done by the partners of the consortium ○ believes in a more sustainable future for cities – a future in ② Share insights on the two levels on which the CCSC has which the cultural and creative sectors can address urban focused: challenges in cooperation with public authorities ○ The interactions of the EU and local frameworks in wid- ○ embraces alternative city models based on sharing and care. ening the role of culture in urban life It is inspired by – and hopes to inspire – a vision of cities as ○ The conditions and local contextual situations that influ- commons: as shared resources that require attention and ence the presence or obstacles for stronger links between care from its citizens culture and policymaking ○ advocates for a new vision of local participation in which ③ Provide recommendations to the EU for the support and exchange and horizontality – cooperation rather than com- recognition of commons at the local and EU levels: petition in participatory processes – are at the forefront ○ We advocate for the use of the commons as a policy frame- work that can reinforce the much-needed connection be- The CCSC forms a bridge over the national borders of Europe, tween the local and EU levels: on the one hand, by pro- interrogating the local and the European simultaneously, seeing viding shared values between participants; on the other, them as two sides of the same coin. Remaining aware of local by supporting a sense of care over cultural issues and the specificities, and dedicated to solving local problems, it also collective management of cultural spaces, both locally and holds a perspective beyond the local, striving for a European for the EU as a whole presence in local realities based on the valuing of local expertise ○ The outlining of the prototyping of ‘Homes of Commons’, as an inspiration for European policy. as spaces of exchange and co-creation between the EU The need to think about the local and the European togeth- and local levels. er is even more resonant with the outbreak of Covid-19. The cultural sector is one of the true economic victims of this crisis, which has also revealed the already precarious conditions of many cultural workers.
14 Policy Analysis 15 The CCSC Partners coordinated the development of the first Co-Creation Lab with the University of Antwerp and the second Co-Creation Lab with Trans Europe Halles Timelab and the University of Antwerp. It was the coordinator Trans Europe Halles (TEH) is a network of grassroots cultural of several outputs of the project: mainly, the policy analysis, centres in Europe. As the leader of the consortium, Trans Eu- policy recommendations, the toolkit and the prototyping of rope Halles had the important role of project manager, a posi- Homes of Commons. tion which was crucial for the coordination among partners and the division of tasks. TEH was the main coordinator of the fi- Timelab nancial and communication aspects of the project. The network Timelab was the main partner for the methodology-related as- also played a pivotal role in bridging between the consortium pects of the project. It had a crucial role in: and EU institutions and advocating for the perspective and ○ Facilitating peer-learning sessions and exchanges with Ur- needs of the cultural workers and spaces in the project. Finally, ban Labs, based not only on best practices but also on com- it coordinated the production of several important outputs of mon challenges and difficulties. the project, such as the ‘Urban Regeneration Knowledge Base’ ○ Experimenting with participatory platforms and introduc- and the ‘Mapping of European Cultural and Creative Spaces’. ing the consortium to several digital tools. Miro was a vital platform in enabling brainstorming and exchange among The University of Antwerp partners and in international events. The University of Antwerp (UoA) had a leading role in the re- ○ Organising the second Co-Creation Lab (in connection with search side of the project, providing continuous insights and the School of Commons) which developed various method- knowledge about participation, cultural issues and commons. ologies that can help organisations to improve their shared The University closely followed the Urban Labs in their work, approach and perspectives. developed qualitative indicators with the European Cultural Foundation (ECF) and Timelab, and co-coordinated the devel- opment of the charter of principles. It coordinated the devel- opment of the first Co-Creation Lab with ECF and the second Co-Creation Lab with ECF and Timelab. Moreover, UoA co- operated in creating the toolkit and the prototyping of Homes of Commons and worked collaboratively in the development of policy recommendations. It was the coordinator and editor of one of the main outputs of the project: the book ‘Commons. Between Dreams and Reality’. It also established the China-EU Cultural Curatorship Studies Postgraduate Programme which will convey the fruits of the project to a wider audience. The European Cultural Foundation The European Cultural Foundation (ECF) was the key partner for the policy-related aspects of the project. Following the pro- gress of the Urban Labs closely, it guided policy and govern- ance-related questions. It also provided insights and knowledge on the cultural sector and EU policy and programmes, thanks to the expertise it has gained over many years in both fields. It
16 17 The seven Urban Labs The Urban Labs brought together cultural organisations, local Urban Lab CoboiLab authorities and also cultural and creative spaces to explore ur- ban challenges in collaboration with other stakeholders. They Leader: CoboiLab, Spain — Social Innovation Lab organised over thirty workshops and training events for their in Sant boi de Llobregat local stakeholders and handshake partners. Challenge: How might we create a network of en- gaged and empowered citizens to integrate them as co-developers and co-creators in our strategic public innovation projects? Urban Lab Madrid Handshake partners: The influencers (Spain), Dimmons (Spain), Sant Feliu Innova (Spain). Leader: Hablarenarte, Spain Coordinator: Challenge: How can cultural institutions strengthen Marcela Arreaga / firstname.lastname@example.org dialogue with the childhood community? Consider- ing children as beings with rights, how can we im- plement meaningful participatory processes? How can we promote those structures involving citizens, schools, neighbourhood associations and art col- lectives? Urban Lab Timisoara Local stakeholders: Medialab-Prado; Intermediae, Division of Innovation and New Projects of Madrid Leader: AMBASADA, Romania Destino. Challenge: How could community-led organisations Handshake partners: L‘Asilo (Italy), European contribute to create public policies and how could Alternatives, Paris (France), Heart of Glass, Saint they become responsible for their implementation? Helens (UK). Handshake partners: Foundation Novi Sad 2021 – Coordinator: European Cultural Capital (Serbia); Bakelit Multi Art Elena Lasala / email@example.com Centre Foundation (Hungary); Rijeka2020 llc (Cro- atia); City of Leuven – Cultural and Creative Spaces Vaartopia (Belgium); Asociatia Timisoara Capitala Culturala Europeana2021(Romania); Timisoara City Hall (Romania). Coordinator: Andreea Iager-Tako / firstname.lastname@example.org
18 19 Urban Lab Košice Urban Lab Lund Leader: Creative Industry Košice (CIKE), Slovakia Leader: City of Lund, Sweden Challenge: How might CIKE involve stakeholders formulat a vi- sion for the future of the city and, particularly, for the future of the Challenge: This Urban Lab investigates how to enable actors in cultural sector? the cultural and innovation eco-system to cooperate, develop val- ue-chains and reinforce positive actions. Urban Lab Lund also Handshake partners: Creativity Lab (Estonia); Creative Industries investigates the role of the municipality: what methodologies, Styria (Austria); Creative Region Linz & Upper Austria (Austria); activities and exchanges are required to facilitate cooperation. European Centre for Creative Economy (Germany); Creative England (United Kingdom). Local stakeholders: Mejeriet and Stenkrossen (Lund, Sweden), Science Village Art and Science Center (Lund, Sweden). Coordinator: Zuzana Révészová / email@example.com Handshake partners: Giffoni Innovation Hub (Italy), Innovation Plattform City of Kiruna (Sweden), and Maltfabrikken (Ebeltoft, Denmark). Coordinator: Katarina Scott / firstname.lastname@example.org Urban Lab Helsinki Leader: Kaapeli, Finland Challenge: How might Kaapeli activate citizens and shift their role from an audience to co-creators? Kaape- Urban Lab Region Skåne li is investigating public property vs. city property, com- mons property strategies, sustainable heritage with Leader: Region of Scania, Sweden living arts/cultural and creative activities. They are ex- ploring how co-creation works in different cities and Challenge: How can the public administration centres, what the value cultural centres the city and the mobilise and engage different stakeholders in benefits of cooperation on both sides. developing and implementing the regional plan for culture? Handshake partners: The Urban Biedriba Riga (Lat- via) and cultural centre Aparaaditehas (Estonia) and in Handshake partners: Region Midtjylland EstBayArea Development Helsinki-Tallinn (Estonia). (Denmark) and Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy). Coordinator: Coordinator: Raisa Karttunen / email@example.com Ola Jacobson / ola.jacobson@Skåne.se
20 CCSC POLICY FRAMEWORK VISUAL TOOL 21 Step 6 Step 1 Recommendations Use 'commons perspective' to UL's challanges stemming from understand each Urban Lab's (UL) local experiences challenge EU polcies and regulations supporting the ULs' common areas ○ Participatory Guarantee System for Commons ○ Prototyping Homes of Commons 1. Culture as the base ○ Recommendations EU 2. Urban commons programmes and policy Step 2 ○ Policy Toolkit for Homes 3. Strengthening participation Common principles of Commons Step 5 at local level /Find common principles Scale up 4. Bottom-up decision-making among partners/ to EU level Step 4 1. Apply tailor-made UL's progress methodologies and map the Step 3 Choose angles to analyze the common areas. progress of the ULs Choice of angles 1. Policy Regulations 2. Foster exchange, deeper 2. Methodologies understanding of common areas through international events
22 Policy Analysis 23 How Far Did We Go? searchers’ and local stakeholders’ commitments and visions for the project. It is a vital step towards building trust and a collec- On Process and tive vision on the project. ❷ On the basis of the Charter, a series of qualitative indi- Methodologies cators were developed to progressively understand the work of the Urban Labs and reinforce the links between them. ❸ A collective written statement on the Covid-19 Pandemic The commons provide an “important ethical perspective and and its Crisis (CCSC 2020a). This is another example of a shared help us to understand what happens when people collective- statement of values and common principles. It also provides an ly manage and take stewardship over resources without the important depiction of the state of the cultural sector during dominant, centralized roles of either the state or the market” the pandemic, both in terms of the resistance demonstrated by (Bloemen and Hammerstein 2017, 4). cultural realities across Europe and in terms of the necessity of This ethical perspective has important methodological im- EU support for the cultural sector. plications, as it gives a new sense of ownership to local com- ❹ Two policy Co-Creation Labs: Commons Sense in June munities and invites them to think out of the box of current 2020 (22nd, 29th and 30th) and Common Ground, in October 2020 participatory processes. (28th and 29th). Both Co-Creation Labs were designed and im- Interested in the horizontality and sharing inspired by the plemented in a participatory and non-competitive way. Amidst commons, the partners of the CCSC project experimented with a global pandemic, the easiest choice would have been to rely ○ several methodologies, both in the management of the CCSC on methodologies that were easily adaptable to digital events, and within the work of the Urban Labs. such as the hackathon. However, the common agreement of Within the CCSC, we based the research aspect of the horizontality convinced the CCSC partners to go beyond the ○ CCSC on the idea of ‘convoking’ (Khasnabish and Haiven traditional hackathon methodology, which is intrinsically based 2014). In ‘convoking’, academic and policy researchers: on competition over the final price. ○ analyse the practices developed in the local realities while ❺ Toolkit and prototyping Homes of Commons: The same committing to support their strategies in a commoning-in- vision of collaboration and participation was at the heart of the spired approach with local stakeholders collective exercises of the toolkit and the prototyping of Homes engage in making results available through panel discussions, of Commons. With a willingness to go beyond the conceptu- public assemblies and open-source tools alisation of the toolkit as a mere collection of best practices, complement traditional research methods such as documentary the CCSC toolkit supports organisations at the local level in analysis, in-depth interviews and participatory methods with self-recognising themselves as commons, while the prototyping ‘feedback loops’ from local stakeholders. accompanies them in working towards collaborative organisa- tion models. ‘Convoking’ offers several advantages: ① It values local expertise, as it allows partners to agree on rules Methodology: lessons learned for the collective self-management of resources. ❶ Methodologies should reflect the decision-making pro- ② It favours collective bottom-up processes, as it positions itself cesses, which are always a political act. It should never be the against a top-down approach between partners and against other way around. The recent increase of interest in participa- quantitative criteria and performance indicators as evaluation tory methodologies carries the risk of hiding the political di- modalities. mension of participatory processes and of the decision-making These processes resulted in several main outcomes: which surround them in particular. Methodologies alone cannot ❶ A Charter of Principles (CCSC 2020). The Charter states re- reinforce more horizontal and participatory decision-making
24 PEER-LEARNING EXERCISES 25 Lack of trust from the Lack of trust from Tension between regulation Trust municipalities, not enough room to EU: how to spend the & experimentation: without make mistakes and fail. fundings & what to breaking the rules, cross- Freedom is very important. give back? connecting democratic processes In search Create of trust trust Co-cities phase Modeling CoboiLab Kaapeli AMBASADA Hablarenarte Region of Skåne City of Lund
26 PEER-LEARNING EXERCISES 27 TRUST SPEED LEGITIMACY SHARE CO-CREATION LANGUAGE CROSS-SECTOR METHODS BUBBLE POLITICS OWNERSHIP CoboiLab Kaapeli AMBASADA Hablarenarte Region of Skåne City of Lund CIKE
28 Policy Analysis / How Far Did We Go? On Process and Methodologies 29 and create a more collaborative environment between cultural within the project (for example, the importance of accessible lan- workers and policymakers. The ‘technicalities’ and methodolo- guage to reach out to stakeholders unfamiliar with participatory gies of participation are just a one part of the issues which result processes, to invest in horizontality and exchange). from ‘political’ decision-making. For the CCSC project, the po- ❸ Time factor: In value-based processes, the ‘time factor’ is also litical choice in decision-making was the agreement on common important. The discussion of values requires time and resources. values and principles as the basis of our participatory processes, However, it also allows the expression of a plurality of views, represented in our formula of culture as the foundation. This, a benefit which has been proven in the CCSC project to bring in turn, had consequences on the choice of methodologies for more solid bases for cooperation and mutualisation of tools and the project (and, again, not the other way around). practices. In this sense, the partners’ meeting in Košice in Sep- Value-driven exercises, such as the drafting of a collaborative tember 2019 was a pivotal moment for the consortium cooper- manifesto, are fundamental in creating the foundation for a par- ation, as the whole meeting was dedicated to voicing concerns, ticipatory process. It works as the core element that every par- expectations, hopes and values, and the co-writing of the charter. ticipant can go back to in case of doubts or hesitation, or when There are essential steps that should not be forgotten when commitment is wavering. Thanks to the value-driven method- investing in experimentation in participatory processes. ology of the ‘scenario-planning’, the city of Lund, for example, ○ When planning your activities, think of milestones and time- established a strong relationship with local cultural centres and lines that allow flexibility and continuous reorganisation. invested in the tightening of the relationship and the evaluation ○ Do not forget about time and patience. As Urban Lab Skåne of common values with the core group (Scott & Persson 2020). has observed, “When local and regional governments move Urban Lab Hablarenarte exemplifies this tight relationship toward the role of the caller, convener, and facilitator of pro- between decision-making and methodology in their reflection cesses, it is a big shift. It does require both skills, methods, on their work. They learned to: maturity, and structures that make it possible to organize” ① keep always eyes/ears to the unpredicted, open to processes ( Jacobson & Ershammar 2020, 7). changing or evolving in different ways than the ones expected ❹ Risk and experimentation are the best practices: Value ② go back periodically to the main challenge and principles to not them and include them in the methodology of projects, as they lose track. This may be contradictory, but it’s a process of round are key in helping to avoid the usual pitfalls of participatory trip, a constant interpolation of what-we-are-doing / what-we- processes, mainly the homogeneity of the audience and consul- aim-to-do” (Urban Lab Hablarenarte 2020, 3–4). tation over actual participation. Experimentation is not easy: it ❷ Invest in qualitative analysis, always remaining aware of the requires a lot of work in terms of methodology and can at first local context and power positions of the stakeholders. Qualita- result in a sense of estrangement from the participants. Ur- tive analysis allows a deeper connection with local stakeholders. ban Lab Cike courageously acknowledges this. In their second It also works on a long-term dimension, which allows more in- workshop, the actors were very diverse, but the general feeling formal or unregulated realities to develop their expertise, without among the participants was that it was too experimental, and falling into the trap of performativity and quantitative criteria it was hard for the organising team to understand whether this for evaluation. The benefits of a value-driven qualitative analysis was due to the audience heterogeneity itself or from the meth- have been manifold for the CCSC project. One example of this odologies used.1 was the reflection on diversity and inclusion. In participatory ❺ In-person and digital go hand in hand: As with many of the processes, diversity is often measured simply through quantita- realities in Europe, the Covid-19 pandemic has forced the CCSC tive and performance-oriented indicators, such as quantifying partners to rethink their ways of working and to reorganise their the gender and ethnicity of participants. With Urban Labs, the events in a digital format. consortium embraced a much wider definition of diversity. This was based on qualitative reflections of what we value as diversity 1 Interview with Urban Lab Cike coordinator. Interview conducted during the or on what dimensions of diversity we would like to invest in CCSC partners meeting in Malmö, December 2019.
30 Policy Analysis / How Far Did We Go? On Process and Methodologies 31 Digital tools have offered certain advantages in this arduous solved through the digitalisation of events. Similarly, Hablare- situation. They have allowed partners to continue their work narte has children as its primary protagonists, many of whom despite not being able to travel. They have also allowed a wider have only partial access to digital tools and whose access to diversity in events that were initially planned to be in-person. digital tools is directly affected by the means of their families. Event digitalisation also increased the visibility of the Urban ○ However, digital enjoys the important and extremely neces- Labs with an international audience, particularly through the sary advantage today of having a lower impact on the envi- two Co-Creation Labs. It also allowed the reuse of budgets ronment. While the issue of green and sustainable cities was that were initially allocated for travelling as remuneration for not necessarily one of the core topics for the Urban Labs, the a scholarship2 devoted to participation in the first Co-Creation frequent international travel involved in a project of the scale Lab and the co-writing of three reports on its results. of the CCSC project was regarded as an almost contradictory However, several points that can help us to critically assess aspect to the visions of cities as commons, based on the wish and nuance the international enthusiasm for all things digital for a better quality of life for all citizens, and the respect for should be noted: natural resources. The CCSC Charter of Principles states that: ○ Digital is not a substitute for in-person encounters and events. “we interpret culture as the starting point for a new ecolog- The two processes are different and are not completely com- ical awareness of the interaction between humans and the parable. ecosystems we live in, based on fair relationships with other ○ Digital has the potential to reach a wider audience, but it living beings, respect for local communities and a measured lacks the spontaneity and unpredictability that is key for impact regarding natural resources” (CCSC 2020, 5). Fre- a value-based approach. quent international travel over short distances has a strong ○ The time and patience that are vital for building trust are also negative impact on the environment; most importantly, the limited in digital events. The necessary time constraints of short-term nature of the visits involved in this type of travel digital events, which requires shorter working times and more within European projects does not guarantee an important frequent breaks, do not allow the natural building of relation- understanding of the local context. ships that are key in a project the size of the CCSC, where partners come from very different contexts and backgrounds. The main lesson learned from the second phase of the project, ○ The enthusiasm for digital tools among European projects as impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic, is that a mixture of dig- and partly within the cultural sectors often hides an element ital and physical events, according to the requirements and the that many Urban Labs – and especially Urban Labs Ambasada predicted outputs of the event in question, is always advisable: and Hablarenarte – have pointed out: the unfamiliarity with ○ When the event necessitates efficient decision-making and digital tools, or digital illiteracy, and the uneven accessibili- involves audiences that are already familiar with working ty to digital tools which exists in many European countries. with digital tools, the use of digital tools is preferable. Ambasada, which works with low-income communities and ○ Physical events should first and foremost be dedicated to whose work is closely linked with building continuous trust stakeholders who can avoid flying as a means of travel. and exchange in-person, has faced considerable difficulties ○ When the events are supposed to include international stake- in its work due to the pandemic which have been only partly holders, make sure to give enough time for participants to gain a good understanding of the local contexts and their chal- 2 The scholarship was won by six candidates who participated in the lenges and opportunities. Overall, fewer but longer journeys Co-Creation Lab and then worked in pairs to write the final reports of the should be prioritised over shorter and more frequent visits. event. Julia Gouin and Matina Magkou (Report 1); Adrian Pleșca and Mateja Stanislava Rot (Report 2); Kitti Baracsi and Emmanuel Pidoux (Report 3). See the “References” section of this report for details.
32 Policy Analysis 33 Culture as the Base: ○ It values culture as the foundation of life in cities and un- derstands it in a non-competitive way. It understands it “as For a New Centrality of a practical toolbox to signify oneself in the world and to give meaning to the everyday social, political, economic and Culture in Urban Spaces ecological contexts we live in” (Ibid). ○ It thinks of cultural participation and thriving cultural and "We believe that culture is a common creative industries as part of a single overarching framework. good and we see culture as the basis of This framework underpins the idea of culture and cities as societal transformation" / CCSC 2020, 5. ‘commons’: as shared resources and opportunities for both cultural workers and policy-makers. ○ The commons allow us to think of culture as a means to This vision of culture is particularly necessary in light of current achieving a better quality of life in cities through participa- trends in European policy on culture. As Professor Miranda tion and collaboration, taking care not to instrumentalise Iossifidis has highlighted in her analysis of the earlier projects culture as a solution for vaguely defined urban problems.1 and policies of the CCSC project (Iossifidis 2020, 4), culture is often put forward unproblematically as a relatively cheap mag- ❷ Rethinking the relationship between cultural centres and ical solution for solving all urban problems. While “culture as public authorities a shared common resource is often noted, we can observe wildly Earlier policy projects, such as the Culture for Cities and Regions different operationalization of what this might entail: there is (CCR), recommended that municipalities should shift their role slippage between culture as a shared social resource, its ability towards that of facilitators. The CCR, for example, recommend- to bring people together in contexts of socio-economic disparity ed that cities act as a trusted partner and facilitator. This idea and community tensions; and culture as an economic resource, is echoed in the Partnership on Culture and Cultural Heritage, tied to culture-led development” (Ibid). suggesting a shift of the government citizens model towards This is particularly true for the bid-books of European Capi- a provider-customer model (CCR 2017, 39). tals of Culture (ECoC). Here, the focus on creative industries is However, the CCSC analysis of previous projects and pol- mainly on the role of culture in fostering social inclusion, and icies highlights how such trends carry the risk of vagueness “represents the current iteration of policy orientation toward and undifferentiated uses. From different projects, “we can see both ECoC specifically and urban cultural interventions more that such policies can be mobilized for very different aims and generally” whereby ECoC is a catalyst or driver for creative in- have vastly different expressions in diverse contexts. Inter-dis- dustries (Campbell and O’Brien, 2020, 278; in Iossifidis 2020, 39). ciplinary and cross-sectoral collaboration is recommended by all projects, but without being grounded in notions of social ❶ The CCSC position justice, democracy, and the commons, this buzzword becomes While aware of these trends at the European level, the CCSC distances itself from a vision of culture that separates creative 1 (Urban Lab Cike 2020; Jacobson & Ershammar 2020. For an interesting reflec- industries from cultural initiatives investing in participation tion on this point, see glossary of Urban Lab Cike and Skåne. When discussing the and social cohesion. city of Košice’s future cultural strategy, the glossary of Urban Lab Cike (2020, 1) Contrary to the main trends in policy and projects at the states the importance of “the future of the people and their wellbeing as the center European level. of its [i.e., the next cultural strategy] philosophy. We hope that culture in this sense, ○ It interprets culture not as merely a tool for economic growth, through the activities of individuals and organizations working in the field, will but rather as “an engine for bottom-up change” (CCSC 2020, 5). bring the change of the municipal mindset, establish more cooperation and sup- port the infrastructure that will open the governance towards common projects.”
34 Policy Analysis / Culture as the Base: For a New Centrality of Culture 35 in Urban Spaces quite hollow” (Iossifidis 2020, 39–40). Attentive to the risks ○ Community-enabler spaces, when public authorities cannot do it elucidated above, the CCSC partners worked on bridging the Cultural spaces can act as spaces for dialogue and connection gap between policy-makers and cultural actors. The overall ob- and as a methodology for experimenting with policymaking. jective is to understand policymaking as an ecosystem in which For example, the Lund cultural centres of Mejeriet and Sten- cultural representatives and public servants come together and krossen organized a collaboration with policy groups of stu- work in non-competitive, horizontal, and collaborative ways to dents from the university and with city hall, thereby turning provide solutions to urban problems. As in an ecosystem, every cultural spaces into spaces of policy debate (Scott & Persson actor has a role which is in balance with those of others. 2020, 22). As the example of Lund suggests, cultural spaces often are more capable of experimenting more than city ad- ● New roles for cultural spaces ministrations and regions. When a public authority aims to “Culture shapes the common spaces where people come to- attract diversity, it might result in frustration because the gether and builds social ties within communities. We value long-term nature of the process often fails to offer immedi- cultural spaces since they play a vital role in the development ate results ( Jacobson & Ershammar 2020). Cultural centres, of culture and its artistic manifestations while stimulating anchored in the local realities of their neighbourhoods, can the participation of communities” / CCSC 2020, 5. act as a medium for attracting meaningful diversity for par- ticipatory processes. Cultural spaces can have multiple and yet often unexplored roles in the construction of more just cities. ○ A methodology for public authorities to avoid working in silos ○ Open spaces for all When supported by public authorities, cultural spaces can Can opening a space up to the public be enough to reinforce truly act as spaces for experimentation and risk. As Trans Eu- participation? Urban Labs that concretise in a physical rope Halles’ project manager José Luis Rodríguez and Urban space – such as Kaapeli, CoboiLab and Ambasada – have Lab Coboi’s coordinators, Marcela Arreaga and Sergi Frías long reflected on this. Put bluntly, as Kaapeli does in its final Hernández, point out, the strengths of Urban Labs lie pre- report, “opening the doors is not enough” (Huotari 2020, 3). cisely in the coordination of the interests and needs of various actors engaging in co-creation. In this sense, Urban Labs Kaapeli – Opening spaces, building trust can themselves act as a methodology. They are crucial in Within the CCSC, Kaapeli worked from shifting from a model designing and implementing processes based on: of the curated use of space (a strategy where citizens can use ① “The active participation of the people involved the space for a specific purpose) to a wild use (where the space ② The provision that the results should take into account the is open to all for any activity they want). The wild use which experiences and needs of the users they implemented was a huge success. However, as they note, ③ The assumption that the creative process is a complex, merely opening the space would not have been enough on its recursive and collaborative one” (Arreaga, Frías & Rodríguez own. The trust relationship they built with the community was 2020, 3). the key success factor: “If we would have launched the idea by ourselves it wouldn’t have benefitted from the bottom-up feel- ing that it had thanks to this lucky coincidence and it may have died down because no one would have found it or appropriated it. Citizen participation cannot be forced” (Huotari 2020, 3). Opening spaces for all thus comes with a long-term process of building trust with citizens.
36 Policy Analysis / Culture as the Base: For a New Centrality of Culture 37 in Urban Spaces CoboiLab – Finding innovative models awards of grants and undermine trust with the cultural sector. Urban Lab CoboiLab exemplifies this potential and has inspired Romania and Sweden represent two very different configura- other Urban Labs through its role as a provider of tools and tions of policymaking. In Romania, a lack of transparency still a facilitator of processes among different stakeholders. Con- presents an obstacle to the implementation of policies, while tinuously experimenting and working with innovation models, Sweden is faced with overly detailed and sectorial policies.2 CoboiLab acts as both a residential space for cultural and cre- However different the two cases may be, excessive bureaucra- ative workers and as a platform facilitating the collaboration cy slows down the implementation of already existing laws. between companies, knowledge centres, public administration Public authorities, on the other hand, are often confronted and citizenship aiming for social impact and transformation to with a dilemma concerning co-creation and dialogue with the territory of Sant Boi in Spain. The case of CoboiLab shows cultural workers. Urban Lab Skåne points out the difficulty the incredible potential that cultural spaces have in acting both that public authorities often share about their relationship as an infrastructure for cultural expression, and as a facilitator of with cultural representatives and initiatives. “The issue seems processes to co-design, prototype and test innovative solutions. to be that of a tension between regulation and experimenta- tion. How can we, without breaking the rules, cross-connect democratic processes and allow artistic freedom?”3 ○ The first fundamental step in changing how cultural ● The public sector as a facilitator workers and policymakers work together is to introduce One of the central questions for the CCSC project has been the working in layers or ‘by proxy’. This means that each par- search for an overarching understanding of several problems ticipant alternates in the leading role according to their emerging from the relationship between public authorities and expertise. This also implies a need for clarity of language, cultural centres. in which care is taken to clearly define concepts collective- Cultural spaces in Europe often face significant obstacles when ly. Thus, each partner can point out the meaning which interacting with public authorities. each concept has in its local context, and thereby avoid, as far as possible, any vagueness in the use of these terms. ○ A lack of transparency from public authorities, especial- ○ An awareness of the importance of local contexts ena- ly where there is a lack of public record of public/private bles connections rather than preventing them. While property in the city, which prevents experimentation on the the contextual elements in many European projects are ground for cultural actors. As Urban Lab Ambasada in Roma- undermined in the search for ‘best practices’, the CCSC nia acknowledges, there can often be antagonistic relation- highlights how the contextual elements, and particularly ships with the municipality. The relationship between civil the political and cultural contingencies, play a funda- servants and representatives of the cultural sector is far from mental role in the relationship between authorities and being based on principles of co-creation and participation. cultural actors and strongly influence how their relation- For example, discussions over Timisoara 2021 (European ship may vary from that of governor-citizen, provider-cus- Capital of Culture 2021) from the perspective of transparency tomer or collaborators. Urban Lab Lund is a good example have revealed a lack of awareness about the risk of gentri- of this. This Urban Lab worked simultaneously with the fication and centralisation of culture in certain areas of the notions of culture and innovation as framed under the idea city – both of which are risks at the centre of Urban Lab Ambasada’s work – or that of other cultural actors in the city. 2 Interviews with Urban Labs representatives. Interview conducted during the CCSC partners meeting in Košice, September 2019. ○ Excessive bureaucracy (particularly departmental divi- 3 Interview with Urban Lab Skåne coordinator. Conducted during the CCSC sion): Excessive departmental divisions lead to dispersive partners meeting in Košice, September 2019.
38 Policy Analysis / Culture as the Base: For a New Centrality of Culture 39 in Urban Spaces of entrepreneurship. The significance of this choice cannot ban Labs Ambasada and Hablarenarte have been pivot- be fully grasped if we do not consider how strongly the al in this sense through their holistic visions of culture. Swedish context is influenced by an individualistic vision Ambasada worked with urban minorities on inclusion in of culture, understood first and foremost as a personal public spaces, while Hablarenarte strived to link cultural experience. This offers an excellent illustration of the mar- institutions to schools in Madrid. Particularly during the rying of the idea of entrepreneurship as a framework. 4 Covid-19 crisis, the work of these two Urban Labs has ○ Building a trust relationship with public bodies is a fun- been crucial in proving once again the fundamental role damental condition for collaboration between cultural of culture as a common good, which should be funded spaces and policymakers. As was seen in the case of Co- and supported because of its benefits to the community boiLab, this can be induced with the simple but very pow- as a whole. erful act of sharing the working space. For CoboiLab, the sharing of a working space with a public body represent- ative was an effective way of developing an understanding of the other’s perspective and of learning how to align both parties’ objectives into a common strategy. Ambasada – Culture as a common good ○ For public authorities, building trust must involve an in- Ambasada’s choice to focus on the Roma community vestment in multi-stakeholder governance and an ap- shows the flexibility of cultural space and particu- preciation of its ethical dimension: as a public authority, larly of the informal realities involved in working in you cannot decide on your own and you do not have exclu- culture holistically. sive power. Accepting the right to grant decision-making powers to other actors means embracing a more holistic ap- The case of Hablarenarte is crucial in this sense be- proach to culture and rethinking departmental bridging as cause of its promotion and implementation of chil- only the first step in making culture more relevant in cities. dren’s advisory boards within cultural institutions. ○ Think of culture as being linked to social rights and Hablarenarte’s project aims to create and sustain a better quality of life, and never as a field or a depart- channels that guarantee and support the active par- ment per se. Investing in a vision of culture with social ticipation of children in culture. “We must devote rights helps to create the idea of the city as a common our work to promoting a real and well-established good. We should see the act of giving value to culture as collaborative participation that creates not just a crucial dimension to the building of the community, Child-Friendly Cities, but also cities (and of course and not just as an important dimension of the lives of cultural institutions) where children are considered cultural workers. in every aspect of their lives as political subjects” Several Urban Labs did pioneering work in this sense. (Hablarenarte & de Juan 2020, 93). Because culture permeates so many aspects of our social lives and is closely interlinked with both social and cul- tural identities, culture should go beyond the borders of artistic practices, cultural heritage and creative industries, and reach out to the social dimension of urban life. Ur- 4 Interview with Urban Lab Lund coordinator and representatives of the cultural centres of Stenkrossen and Mejeriet. Interviews conducted during the CCSC partners meeting in Košice, September 2019.
40 Policy Analysis 41 Urban Commons: cultural work, even when under the framework of ‘creativity’ and ‘innovation’. How can the commons provide solutions for an Alternative Model more sustainable cultural work and combat precariousness and exploitation without undermining the role of cultural workers for Cultural Centres as artists and creative talents? On the local level, the consortium worked on the concepts "We want to stimulate the creation of of commons as sustainability and commons as exchanges. economic, social and civic value around This provided space to keep on working on creativity but also urban commons, as well as improving to reinforce a sustainable vision of it, inserting the needs and public awareness of commons as a key the wishes of communities as crucial dimensions in the artistic value for societal transformation" work. The need for civil and social sustainability dedicated to / CCSC 2020, 6. respecting and supporting culture in cities was particularly ev- ident across the Urban Labs. The commons allowed the Urban Labs to work on finding a balance between the need for artistic It is undeniable that the above objective is a complex and tortu- autonomy and participation. ous one, but it is also full of possibilities. The flexibility of this The idea of Urban Labs as a methodology (Vega, Hernán- framework certainly offers opportunities for exchange, but the dez & Rodriguez, 2020, 3) is certainly useful in rethinking col- same flexibility can also result in widely heterogeneous inter- laboration at the local level and in making the sustainability of pretations of what the commons are. the commons as tangible as possible. However, the CCSC argues The CCSC consortium experienced precisely this diversity that the role of the commons as a methodology can easily fall flat of definitions of commons, as well as their articulation in dif- when not accompanied by two other necessary steps forward, ferent parts of Europe. Some Urban Labs, such as Ambasada both at the local and EU levels: funding and recognition. and Hablarenarte, were already familiar with the philosophy of the commons. Others such as Cike and Kaapeli relied mostly Funding grassroots initiatives on the idea of creativity, and CoboiLab with that of innovation. on urban commons The challenge was thus to see whether we could find a common The question of how to envision new forms of funding for cul- ground between commons, innovation and creativity, particu- ture at the local and EU levels that would be more inclusive to larly given that the latter feature has long been criticised for informal realities, more open and less constraining, grew to contradicting the idea of commons (Gielen 2018). be one of the core issues of the CCSC. This question is linked The local context played a notable role in the initial phase to the willingness of public authorities to move from being of familiarizing ourselves with the idea of the commons. Ur- a grant-provider to becoming a facilitator, a shift which sever- ban Labs Skåne and Lund, for example, felt that the commons al Urban Labs considered to be crucial, particularly Lund and could only apply to Southern European contexts, as the Swedish Skåne. For both, investment in alternative forms of funding reliance on individual talent and entrepreneurship was inter- represents a key element in the shift towards a new relationship preted as clashing with the more bottom-up and grassroots based on trust with cultural organisations. perspectives on culture in cities. The CCSC project thus worked Some Urban Labs had already been pointing out the need to overcome misinterpretations about the commons at both the to rethink grants at the local level, even prior to the Covid-19 local and EU levels. pandemic. As Hablarenarte noted in reference to the Spanish At the local level, the main challenge was to identify how context, grants can often be delayed by many months, and, as the framework of the commons could benefit a stronger and a consequence, only stable collectives can access them, while more sustainable relationship between local policymaking and
42 Policy Analysis / Urban Commons: an Alternative Model for Cultural 43 Centres / Funding grassroots initiatives on urban commons there is a constant lack of resources for long-term projects.1 We As one of the lessons learned from the CCSC, we argue that therefore feel that the conclusions on flexible grant-making there is an urgent need to provide funding schemes for the com- can benefit many local contexts across Europe. The main need mons. The financing of the commons can only benefit from is for a more flexible grant-making system which involves a more sustainable vision of creativity in cities. It can promote mixed stakeholders. In practice, this means creating funding creative work while reinforcing links with citizenship, without procedures that are less competitive and more participatory at the threat of instrumentalising cultural initiatives and actors the local level. as mere service providers in the more general field of social The drive for alternative funding has been at the centre of Eu- cohesion. ropean projects for quite some time and has already been pres- The report provided by Julia Gouin and Matina Magdou ent in earlier creative European projects and networks across (Gouin & Magdou 2020, 2) on the proposals put forward by the par- Europe. The CCR project, for example, had already suggested ticipants of the Co-Creation Lab highlights several ways forward. flexible grant-making at the local level. Cities could achieve this by “providing grants through calls for projects embodying inter- As they argue, there is a need for: disciplinary skills; […] establishing innovation vouchers, namely ○ More flexibility in the design of the schemes to enable more small grants to encourage companies to access creative services crossover and to give better chances to projects that are work- (design, advertising, artistic intervention etc.)”(CCR, 2017, 24). ing in a cross-disciplinary way or in undefined areas. The CCSC project takes a different direction. It suggests that ○ More experimental funding schemes that can suit different grant-making should not only limit itself to creative services needs and not only support ambitious large-scale projects per se but should include commons. This would allow informal across Europe. As an example, they suggest developing small- collectives to participate in grant-making procedures precisely er grants (of less than €15,000) for cultural spaces which because of their fundamental knowledge of the local realities would facilitate more experimental initiatives to be tested as and communities. pilot schemes, as the first step towards further collaborations, When grant systems are more flexible, they foster greater or as specific help in the case of an unexpected transition forms of collaboration, in which informal realities can freely es- being made. tablish networks. This allows the creation of participatory pro- ○ More grants that are rooted in the concepts of commons, cesses whereby informal realities are acknowledged as experts allowing different arts practitioners to take the initiative and whereby public authorities can benefit from the knowledge and join forces to define a mutual resource or interest that is of the local territory, its problems and its potential. The question important for their work and to propose how to share in its of funding cannot be ignored by European institutions; indeed, development. Urban Lab Cike has truly made steps forward quite the opposite, particularly considering the Covid-19 pan- in this matter. Today Košice is one of the liveliest cultural demic and the disastrous consequences for the sector. centres in Slovakia. The key to this was creating a local grant Within the CCSC, we have worked to rethink European system to support unregulated cultural actors and artists who, funding and have suggested that it can represent a framework with their experience and energy, are necessary to maintain and a source of inspiration for municipal and regional funding a healthy and diverse cultural programme.2 schemes. The necessity to rethink the funding system was so evident among the CCSC partners that it represented one of the three main strands of the digital policy Co-Creation Lab, organised in June 2020 by the CCSC consortium. 1 Interview with Urban Lab Hablarenarte coordinator. Interview conducted 2 Interview with Urban Lab Cike coordinator. Interview conducted during the during the CCSC partners meeting in Košice, September 2019. CCSC partners’ meeting in Košice, September 2019.
44 Policy Analysis / Urban Commons: an Alternative Model for Cultural 45 Centres Recognition of cultural actors’ autonomy isting trends: the precariousness of local cultural activities, the “How could we as artists and cultural actors keep our autono- inaccessibility of funding due to the exclusionary accessibility my and use our resources effectively when we are asked to join criteria which adversely affect smaller and informal realities. more and more co-creative processes with public agencies?” The crisis has demonstrated how unregulated cultural initiatives / Urban Lab Skåne 2020, 4. need to be valued as central actors in the cultural sector. What we need is an alternative approach in terms of participatory Within the CCSC project, we developed two main visions of ‘rec- processes and the relationship which public authorities main- ognition’ that were tightly and necessarily interlinked. Firstly, tain with cultural realities. we understand recognition as a deep self-understanding of the Today, the relationship between public authorities and cul- features and the work in progress of an organisation. Recog- tural workers has two contradictory main results. The first sees nition can mean an organisation’s self-evaluation of its own informal realities being excluded from consultation or exchange characteristics as an effort to understand how close it is to the with municipalities over the future of the cultural sector in cities. values and ideals of commons. The second is the dependence of cultural actors on public funds There is a clear need to provide adequate tools for organ- at the local level, thereby resulting in the problem of the contin- isations in order to help them understand their features and uous ‘delegation’ of the city to the cultural sector. The city thus work towards an alignment with the ideals of commons, and to exploits cultural actors for cultural activities in the city through transform their work towards a sustainable, collaborative and inconsistent funding and inconclusive consultation processes. democratic goal. As we will see in the next chapter, the provi- The issue of cultural autonomy highlights the need for a value sion of these tools lies at the core of the legacy of the project change in the way informality is viewed in the sector at the EU and represents one of the central elements of the project’s rec- level and in the participation in EU projects and calls. ommendations. The first Co-Creation Lab, and in particular the research con- A second yet fundamental side of recognition concerns the ducted by researchers from l’Asilo3 in Naples (de Tullio 2020a), relationship with the local authority. While in the previous were fundamental in terms of outlining several ways forward chapter we underlined the importance of building trust and of whereby local authorities can recognise and give space to bot- building a common language, the work with urban commons tom-up initiatives and informal realities. Key lessons learned has allowed us to advance the recognition of informal realities can be taken from this crucial piece of research, which also and bottom-up work on culture as a necessary and urgent step forms the basis for the next and final chapter of this report, and towards the building of collaboration and understanding be- which constitutes a key element of the policy recommendations tween public officials and cultural workers. of the CCSC. At the core of this issue lies the question of the autonomy of ○ Many commons and creative spaces that work from a com- cultural actors. The acknowledgement and support of cultural mons perspective often lack proper legal recognition (like actors’ autonomy is a fundamental condition for improving foundations or associations) – taking into consideration the the exchange and cooperation of the cultural sector and poli- oppositional/conflict-base of such experiences. Therefore, it cymakers. should be considered important to ‘open up’ more channels As the CCSC consortium wrote in the charter of principles to offer informal/grassroots initiatives access to EU projects. of the CCSC, “Culture also needs its autonomy and its connec- ○ The acknowledgment of unregulated culture should go be- tion to society. We believe culture is only sustainable if it is yond its economic value and focus on its social value as a fun- institutionally and socially protected from precariousness and damental role in urban life. uncertainty” (CCSC 2020, 5). The issue of cultural actors’ autonomy is fundamental in the 3 For more information on l’Asilo and its experience of the commons, see http:// Europe of today. The Covid-19 crisis has only accentuated ex- www.exasilofilangieri.it/. Website accessed on 14 December 2020.
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