SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS - Explore Key Concepts and Processes - Frog Street

 
SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS - Explore Key Concepts and Processes - Frog Street
SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS
            Explore Key Concepts and Processes
                                            by Marlene Williams, M.Ed.

                                                     ©2013 Frog Street Press
                                      All rights reserved. No part of this product may be
                                reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic
                                 or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any
                                 information storage and retrieval system without permission
                                                  in writing from this publisher.

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SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS - Explore Key Concepts and Processes - Frog Street
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                                                     Science Investigations
                                                           Explore Key Concepts and Processes

                                                                          •   Animales de la granja                            Picture Vocabulary Cards
                                                                          •   Welcome To Zippity Zoo                             • More than 100 in the
                           Literature and                                 •   Bienvendos el zoológico de Zippity Zoo               English Package
                           Informational Text                             •   The Song of The Teeny Tiny Mosquito                • More than 100 English and
                           English Big Book Titles                        •   El canto del mosquito                                100 Spanish in Bilingual package
                           Spanish Big Book Titles                        •   A Chance For Esperanza
                             • Our Senses                                 •   Una oportunidad para Esperanza
                                                                          •   Animal Lives                                     Photo Activity Cards (138)
                             • Los sentidos
                             • Nature’s Giants                            •   La vida de los animales
                                                                          •   Edie’s Backyard Bugs                             Pattern CD-ROM
                             • Gigantes de la naturaleza
                             • Giants Made By People                      •   Los insectos del jardin de Edie
                             • Gigantes hechos por el hombre              •   Critter Hide-And-Seek                            Sequence Cards­ (5 sets)
                             • Food Around The World                      •   Jugando al escondite con los animales
                             • Comidas de todo el mundo                   •   Little Red                                       Instruction Guide (Bilingual)
                             • Machines Large & Small                     •   Gorrita Roja
                             • Maquinas grandes y pequenas
                             • Our Muscles                          Bilingual Big Book Titles
                             • Los músculos                           • How Do Animals Use Their Mouth
                             • Can You Move With Me?                  • ¿Cómo usan la boca los animales?
                             • ¿Ven y muevete asi?                    • How Do Animals Use Their Eyes?
                             • Mysterious Movers                      • ¿Cómo usan los ojos los animales?
                             • Fuerzas misteriosas                    • How Do Animals Use Their Ears?
                             • Farm Animals                           • ¿Cómo usan los oídos los animales?

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                                                               FSPK4461            Science Investigations Guide   © 2013 Frog Street Press, Inc.

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SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS - Explore Key Concepts and Processes - Frog Street
Table of Contents
                      Edie’s Backyard Bugs • Los insectos del jardín de Edie..................................................................................................................... 4
                      The Song of the Teeny Tiny Mosquito • El canto del mosquito..................................................................................................... 8
                      A Chance for Esperanza • Una oportunidad para Esperanza.......................................................................................................10
                      Animal Lives • La vida de los animales.................................................................................................................................................12
                      Critter Hide-and-Seek • Jugando al escondite con los animales ...............................................................................................14
                      Welcome To Zippity Zoo • Bienvendos el zoologico de Zippity..................................................................................................16
                      How Do Animals Use their Ears? • ¿Cómo usan los oídos los animales? .................................................................................17
                      How Do Animals Use their Eyes? • ¿Cómo usan los ojos los animales? ...................................................................................19
                      How Do Animals Use their Mouths? • ¿Cómo usan la boca los animales?..............................................................................20
                      Farm Animals • Animales de la granja .................................................................................................................................................22
                      Food Around the World • Comidas de todo el mundo ..................................................................................................................24
                      Our Muscles • Los músculos ....................................................................................................................................................................27
                      Our Senses • Los sentidos ........................................................................................................................................................................28
                      Little Red • Gorrita Roja .............................................................................................................................................................................31
                      Can You Move with Me? • ¡Ven y muévete asi! .................................................................................................................................33
                      Mysterious Movers • Fuerzas misteriosas ...........................................................................................................................................36
                      Nature’s Giants • Gigantes de la naturaleza........................................................................................................................................40
                      Machines Large and Small • Máquinas grandes y pequeñas ......................................................................................................43
                      Giants Made by People • Gigantes hechos por el hombre............................................................................................................45

                                                           Science Investigations
                                                   Explore Key Concepts and Processes
                                                                                             by Marlene Williams, M.Ed.

                            Frog Street is proud to present the Science Investigation Package, which features
                            numerous resources to support kindergarten and first grade students in their
                            acquisition of science concepts and their practice of process skills.

                            The instruction guide includes fully developed whole class lessons, as well as
                            small group activities and independent or partner workstations. Students will be
                            engaged in conversations about important science concepts while they acquire
                            and use key scientific vocabulary.

                            As students complete various writing activities, they have opportunities to use
                            their newly acquired robust vocabulary and to demonstrate their understanding
                            of key science content in the following areas:
                                              • life science
                                              • earth and space science
                                              • force, motion, and energy
                                              • matter and energy
                                              • scientific investigation and reasoning

                                                     Frog Street would like to thank Dr. Pam Schiller for providing specific
                                                         content within the Science Investigations Instruction Guide.                                                                                                             3
                                                      FSPK4461                 Science Investigations Guide                 © 2013 Frog Street Press, Inc.

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SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS - Explore Key Concepts and Processes - Frog Street
Edie’s Backyard Bugs • Los insectos del jardín de Edie
      Implementing the Vocabulary Cards
      The lessons for each book begin with a list of vocabulary cards. Display the vocabulary
      cards for the book. Keep them available to reinforce both the meaning as well as the
      spelling of the word. Make the vocabulary cards accessible in the classroom to encourage
      students to use the new vocabulary words in their writing.

      Vocabulary Cards:      caterpillar • oruga, entomologist • entomólogo, entomology
      • entomología, fly • mosca, ladybug • mariquita, metamorphosis • metamorfosis,
      mosquito • mosquito, spider • araña, butterfly • mariposa, bee • abeja, dragonfly • libélula,
      grasshopper • saltamontes, ant • hormiga

      Read-Aloud Time – Entomology, the Study of Insects
      Science Focus
         •   Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.
         •   Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.
         •   Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.
         •   Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.
         •   Describe what scientists do.

      Materials: vocabulary cards for caterpillar • oruga, entomologist • entomólogo, metamorphosis • metamorfosis, butterfly
      • mariposa; Sequence Cards for Metamorphosis; Photo Activity Cards #10 look at bugs and things that crawl, #45
      butterfly, #46 ant, #47 beetle, #48 dragonfly, #49 ladybug, #50 stink bug, #51 grasshopper, #52 honeybee, #53 slug, #54
      earthworm, #101 termites, #133 mosquito
         • Explain that insects can be found everywhere—on farms, at zoos, in woodlands and ponds, and even in our
           own backyards.
         • Display the book cover. Read the name of the author and photographer. Tell students that the little girlFSPK4461
                                                                                                                     in this Science Investigations G
           book, Edie, loves bugs. Ask students how many of them love bugs. Explain that Edie wants to be an entomologist •
           entomólogo when she grows up. An entomologist • entomólogo is a scientist who studies insects. The study of bugs
           and insects is called entomology • entomología. Have students repeat the word entomologist • entomólogo several
           times. Display the vocabulary card for entomologist.
         • Read the book, stopping to provide key vocabulary words and display vocabulary cards.
         • Invite volunteers to share their experiences with backyard insects and bugs.
         • Extend students’ conversations by using the Photo Activity Cards to share photographs and key information about
           the specific insects or animals students discuss.
      Reflect: Have students say the word entomologist • entomólogo to a partner and then explain what this kind of
      scientist does.

      Shared Writing – Life Cycle of Butterfly
      Science Focus
         •   Compare ways that young animals resemble their parents.
         •   Observe and record life cycles of animals.
         •   Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.
         •   Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.

      Materials: “Life Cycle of a Butterfly” • “El ciclo de vida de una mariposa” story starter, Sequence Cards for Metamorphosis
         • Invite students to join you in saying “The Life Cycle Chant” • “Cántico del ciclo de vida.” Tell students they will work
           together to write a story about the life cycle of a butterfly.
         • Read the story starter. Use the sequence cards to illustrate each stage in the story.
         • Have students finish the story. Invite them to describe the butterfly that emerges from the chrysalis. Encourage
           students to use details in their sentences. Have them return to the text to identify the places the butterfly visits. Ask
           them to include the butterfly’s favorite food (nectar from flowers) in their story.

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SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS - Explore Key Concepts and Processes - Frog Street
• Transcribe their sentences onto chart paper. Place the story at the Writing Workstation so students can either
            create illustrations to accompany it or write their own sentences about one of the stages.
        Reflect: Do you like the story you helped create? ¿Les gusta el cuento que ayudaron a escribir? Which part of the story do
        you like best? ¿Qué parte del cuento les gusta más?

        Life Cycle of a Butterfly (story starter)
        One spring day a lovely butterfly laid a tiny egg in the cradle of a leaf. She released special glue that made the egg stick
        securely on the leaf. The egg was quiet for several weeks. Shhh!
        One day a caterpillar hatched and began eating the leaves on the plants all around her. She used her many legs to
        crawl from one leaf to the next.
        After many weeks of feeding on the leaves, the caterpillar, which is the larva stage of the butterfly life cycle,
        transformed into a pupa or chrysalis. It spun a silky cocoon around its body. For a while it was impossible to see the
        caterpillar. It looked like she had gone to sleep in her silk blanket, but there was a big change happening inside the
        cocoon. This change is called metamorphosis.
        One day the cocoon split open, and the caterpillar was gone. Something beautiful emerged. It was . . .

        El ciclo de vida de una mariposa (cuento para empezar otro cuento)
        Un día de primavera una linda mariposa puso un huevo chiquito en el doblez de una hoja. Le puso su pegamento
        especial para sujetarlo a la hoja. El huevo estuvo tranquilito por muchas semanas. ¡Silencio!
        Hasta que un día del huevito salió una oruga que empezó a comerse las hojas de las plantas que la rodeaban. Tenía
        muchas patitas y las usaba todas para ir de una hoja a otra.
        Después de muchas semanas de alimentarse de las hojas, la oruga, que es la etapa de larva del ciclo de la mariposa, se
        transformó en una pupa o crisálida. Tejió un capullo de seda alrededor de su cuerpo. Por unos días fue imposible ver a
        la oruga. Parecía que se había quedado dormida en su manta de seda, pero dentro del capullo estaba ocurriendo un
        gran cambio. Este cambio se llama metamorfosis.
        Luego, un día, el capullo se abrió y la oruga ya no estaba, en su lugar salió una cosa muy bonita. Era . . .

        The Life Cycle Chant 				                                                Cántico del ciclo de vida
        Directions: egg (squat down—make self small),                            Instrucciones: huevo (ponerse en cuclillas, hacerse pequeños),
        larva (wiggle), pupa (hug self tightly), 			                             larva (retorcerse) pupa (abrazarse a sí mismos muy fuerte),
        adult (flap wings gracefully) 				                                       adulto (agitar las alas con gracia)
        Egg, larva, pupa, adult, 				                                            Huevo, larva, pupa, adulto
        Egg, larva, pupa, adult, 				                                            Huevo, larva, pupa, adulto
        Egg, larva, pupa, adult, 				                                            Huevo, larva, pupa, adulto
        The life cycle of the butterfly.                                         El ciclo de vida de la mariposa.

        Small Group Lesson – Reinforce Science Vocabulary with Music and Movement
        Science Focus
           • Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.
           • Compare ways that young animals resemble their parents.

        Materials:   Insect Checklist (from the Patterns CD-ROM), Photo Activity Card #47 beetle
          • Display the Photo Activity Card.
          • Invite students to sing “The Insect Song” • “La canción de los insectos.” Refer to the photo as you sing about the
            number of legs, antennae, and wings on an insect.
          • Introduce the Insect Checklist and tell students they will use this song and the checklist to determine if other
            animals have the characteristics of an insect.
        Reflect: Invite students to name the three body parts of an insect. Have them tell a partner.

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                         FSPK0004405          CommonScience
                                       FSPK4461
                                         FSPK4461     Core
                                                      ScienceComprehension
                                                            Investigations
                                                              Investigations GuideGuide© ©
                                                                           Guide         2013
                                                                                           2013
                                                                                              Frog
                                                                                                Frog©Street
                                                                                                       2013
                                                                                                   Street      Frog
                                                                                                          Press,
                                                                                                            Press, Inc.Street
                                                                                                                 Inc.           Press, Inc.

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SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS - Explore Key Concepts and Processes - Frog Street
The Insect Song                                                                     La canción de los insectos
       Tune: “Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes”                                             Tune: “Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes”
       Head, thorax, abdomen,                                                              Cabeza, tórax y el abdomen
       Abdomen.                                                                            y el abdomen.
       Head, thorax, abdomen,                                                              Cabeza, tórax y el abdomen
       Abdomen.                                                                            y el abdomen.
       Six legs, four wings, antennae two,                                                 Seis patas, cuatro alas y de antenas un par.
       Head, thorax, abdomen,                                                              Cabeza, tórax y el abdomen.
       Abdomen.                                                                            ¡Sí señor!

       Science Experience – Explore the Habitats of Insects
       Science Focus
           •   Identify and demonstrate safe practices.
           •   Discuss the importance of safe practices to keep self and others safe and healthy.
           •   Collect, record, and compare information using tools.
           •   Explore that scientists investigate different things in the natural world and use tools to help in their investigations.
           •   Record and organize data and observations using pictures, numbers, and words.
           •   Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.

       Note:   Younger students can practice by pretending to carefully examine the dirt and observe insects in their habitat.
       When they are successful in knowing how to safely conduct this observation, move them to the Outside Science
       Experience (below).
       Materials: tub of “dirt” (brown confetti or sand), plastic insects (placed in dirt), magnifying glasses, clipboards with
       paper, markers
         • Have students work in pairs.
         • Allow them to sort through the “dirt” to find insects. Have them use magnifying glasses to examine the insects.
         • Assign one partner to be the data collector and the other student to be the recorder. Give the recorder a sheet of
           paper attached to a clipboard. Recorders should make a tally mark for each insect the data collector counts.
       Reflect: How many insects did you find? ¿Cuántos insectos encontraron? How did you count them? ¿Cómo los contaron?
       Note: When students have completed the safety lesson (see page 9) and the above experiment with pretend dirt, move
       their investigation outside and have them explore real insects. See Outside Science Experience below.

       Outside Science Experience – Explore the Habitats of Insects
       Materials: yarn, magnifying glasses
         • Have students work in pairs. Give each pair a yard of yarn. Have students find a spot on the playground and make a
           circle with their yarn.
         • Encourage them to conduct a bug search inside their circle.
       Safety Note: Make sure students know not to touch any bugs they may find.
         • Have magnifying glasses available for close-up looks.
       Extend the Investigation: Take photographs of the insects and bugs students find for later viewing in the classroom.

       Independent or Partner Workstation – Characteristics of an Insect
       Science Focus
           • Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.
           • Identify and compare the parts of plants.
           • Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.

       Materials: Insect Checklist (Patterns CD-ROM); photos of insects and bugs; Photo Activity Cards #45 butterfly, #46 ant,
       #47 beetle, #48 dragonfly, #49 ladybug, #50 stink bug, #51 grasshopper, #52 honeybee, #53 slug, #54 earthworm, #101
       termites, #133 mosquito
          • Encourage students to use the Insect Checklist to sort the photos into two groups: insects and bugs.

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• Encourage students to draw an insect and label its body parts.
        Reflect: Were you surprised by any of the photos? Was there a bug that you thought was an insect but found it wasn’t?
        ¿Los sorprendieron las fotos? ¿Había allí algún bicho que ustedes pensaron que era un insecto pero que descubrieron que no
        lo era?

        English Language Learners Strategy: As an alternative to sorting photos into categories of insects and bugs, help
        students learn the names of five new insects and bugs and identify each by looking at a picture. Start with insects with
        which students may already be familiar (mosquito or fly) and gradually add less familiar bugs and insects in an effort to
        build their vocabulary.

        Writing Workstation – Label a Drawing
        Science Focus
           • Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.

        Materials: student journals, Photo Activity Card #52 honeybee, vocabulary cards for this book (see page 4)
          • Invite students to begin an insect journal.
          • Have students draw bees and wasps and label the body parts on each.
        Scaffold: Display the mosquito vocabulary card. Make a simple drawing of a mosquito. Show students how you label
        each part of the insect (legs, head, thorax, abdomen). Then invite students to make their own drawings and labels
        Reflect: Ask students to tell you about their journal entries.

        Independent or Partner Workstation – Explore How Insects Move
        Science Focus
           • Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.
           • Examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs.

        Materials: Insect Concentration Cards (Patterns CD-ROM)
          • Have students use the Insect Concentration Cards to play a game of Insect Charades • Charadas de insectos.
          • Turn the cards facedown. Invite one player to draw a card and then communicate which insect he or she has drawn
            by pantomiming the movements of the insect or by making the insect’s sound (if there is one).
          • When the other player guesses the insect, he or she draws a new card to continue the game.
        Reflect: Which insect was the most difficult to imitate (or guess)? ¿Cuál insecto fue el más difícil de imitar (o adivinar)? What
        made it difficult? ¿Qué lo hizo difícil?

        Small Group Lesson – Explore Spiders Senses
        Science Focus
           • Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.
           • Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.
           • Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.

        Materials: drum, Photo Activity Card #104 spider
          • Revisit page 21 of the book.
          • Remind students that although most spiders have eight eyes, they have poor vision and they have no ears. Have
            students think for a minute about how one would get around with poor vision and no hearing.
          • Explain that spiders navigate by feeling vibrations through the tiny hairs on their legs. Have students remove their
            shoes and stand with their eyes closed, preferably in a spot that is uncarpeted. Move to a new spot in the circle area,
            place a drum on the floor (uncarpeted), and beat it. Challenge students to navigate their way to you by feeling the
            vibrations under their feet.
          • If this scenario is not possible in your setting, have students place their hands on a table to feel the
            vibrations you make as you knock on the tabletop.
        Reflect: How do you think the spider knows there is a bug caught in its web if it can’t see or hear the bug?
        ¿Cómo creen que la araña sabe que hay un insecto atrapado en su telaraña si no lo puede ver ni escuchar?

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SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS - Explore Key Concepts and Processes - Frog Street
The Song of the Teeny Tiny Mosquito •
         El canto del mosquito
         Implementing the Vocabulary Cards
         The lessons for each book begin with a list of vocabulary cards. Display the vocabulary
         cards for the book. Keep them available to reinforce both the meaning as well as
         the spelling of the word. Make the vocabulary cards accessible in the classroom to
         encourage students to use the new vocabulary words in their writing.

         Vocabulary Cards:      mosquito • mosquito, frog • rana, duck • pato, fish • pescado,
         tadpole • renacuajo, crocodile • cocodrilo, dawn • amanecer, midmorning • a media
         mañana, noon • mediodía, dusk • anochecer, night • noche

         Whole Class Lesson – Science Discussion of Food Chain
         Science Focus
             • Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.
             • Examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs.
             • Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among
               living organisms.
             • Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how
               it moves, and what it eats.

         Materials: marble, beach ball, vocabulary cards for the characters in the story
           • Display a marble and a beach ball. Discuss the perspective. Point out that the ball is a giant to the marble. Invite
             students to focus on the size of each animal in the story.
           • Introduce the vocabulary card for each of the characters in the story. Invite students to listen carefully for the
             actions each character takes.
           • Read the story.
           • In the story, each animal that is swallowed is tiny to the animal that swallows it. Each animal that is swallowed sees
             the animal that swallows it as a giant. Introduce the idea of the food chain. Larger animals eat smaller animals
             (toad eats a mosquito, snake eats the toad, hawk eats the snake).
           • Have students listen for the food the frog, the fish, the duck, and the alligator enjoy eating. Discuss the
              interdependence of these living organisms.
         Reflect: Who is a giant to you? ¿Quién es un gigante para ustedes?

         Small Group Lesson – Reinforce Key Vocabulary
         Science Focus
             •   Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.
             •   Examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs.
             •   Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.
             •   Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.
             •   Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what
                 it eats.

         Materials:  vocabulary cards for the five main characters in the story, Photo Activity Cards #35 crocodiles, #42
         Muscovy ducks, #91 goldfish, #133 mosquito, #134 frog
          • Invite a volunteer to point to the mosquito in the cover illustration. Have students name the body parts of the
            mosquito (six legs, two wings, long mouth, three body parts—head, thorax, abdomen).
          • Invite students to sing “The Insect Song” • “La canción de los insectos” (see page 6).
          • Display the vocabulary card for mosquito, and have a student point to the word mosquito in the title. Read the title,
            pointing to each word.

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• Display the vocabulary cards for the five main characters. Have a student read the words.
      Reflect: Ask students to name the animal that likes to eat mosquitoes and other insects.
      Extend: Have students explore other animals in the story using the informational text on the back of the Photo Activity
      Cards. Distinguish the difference between the crocodile (Photo Activity Card) and the alligator (Big Book).

      Whole Class Lesson – Safety in Science, Shared Writing
      Science Focus
          •   Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.
          •   Examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs.
          •   Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.
          •   Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.
          •   Identify and demonstrate safe practices.
          •   Discuss the importance of safe practices to keep self and others safe and healthy.

      Materials:        Photo Activity Cards #46 ant, #51 grasshopper, #52 honeybee, #104 spider
        • Display the Photo Activity Cards. Discuss ways that insects defend themselves from predators (fly or hop away,
          camouflage themselves, spray a noxious scent, play dead, hide in small places, sting or bite). Point out strategies used
          by the insects in the photos.
        • Ask students about their experiences with insect bites. Discuss circumstances surrounding the bite or sting. Point out
          ways to avoid getting bitten or stung (wear protective clothing; stay away from anthills, beehives, and dark,
          damp places; use insect repellent).
        • Make a list on chart paper of things to do if you are bitten or stung (tell an adult; try to identify the bug; apply
          baking soda to stings; use ice packs in 20-minute intervals; go to the doctor if you experience shortness of breath,
          swelling, or dizziness).
        • Have students turn to a partner and share what they learned about insect safety.
      Reflect: Why do insects bite or sting? ¿Por qué los insectos pican?

      Independent or Partner Workstation – Use Vocabulary Words
      Science Focus
          • Observe and record life cycles of animals.
          • Compare ways that young animals resemble their parents.

      Materials: Sequence Cards for Frog Life Cycle
        • Invite students to sequence the stages of a frog’s life cycle, naming each stage (egg, tadpole, adult frog).
        • Invite students to discuss the meaning of the word cycle • ciclo.
      Reflect: Have students explain the life cycle of a frog to a partner.

      Partner Workstation – Practice Identifying Insects
      Science Focus
          • Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.
          • Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.

      Materials: Insect Checklist (Patterns CD-ROM); vocabulary cards for this book (see page 8); photos of insects and bugs;
      Photo Activity Cards #45 butterfly, #46 ant, #47 beetle, #48 dragonfly, #49 ladybug, #50 stink bug, #51 grasshopper ,#52
      honeybee, #53 slug, #54 earthworm, #101 termites, #133 mosquito
        • Ask students to use the Insect Checklist to sort the photos into two groups: insects and bugs.
        • Have students draw an insect and label its body parts.
      Reflect: Have students tell a partner the name of their insect and the names of its body parts.

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SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS - Explore Key Concepts and Processes - Frog Street
Partner Workstation – Vocabulary
        Science Focus
        Understand new vocabulary and use it correctly when reading and writing.

        Materials:    Insect Concentration Cards (Patterns CD-ROM)
          • Have students use the cards to play a game of concentration.
          • Have them name the insect on each card they turn over. Ask them to tell their partner how they know whether or
            not it is an insect.
        Reflect: How many of the bugs can you name? ¿Cuántos insectos pueden nombrar?

        Whole Class – Hunting Like a Frog
        Science Focus
            • Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.
            • Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.
            • Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.

        Materials: clipboards with paper, magnifying glass
          • Tell students they will hunt for insects like a hungry frog during a nature walk.
          • Make a list of bugs that students might observe during a nature walk. Record the students’ predictions on
            chart paper.
          • Give each student a clipboard with paper. Have students jot down notes about the insects they see during the
            nature walk. Use a magnifying glass to give students an up-close look at the insects they spot.
          • Ask: What surprises did you find? ¿Qué sorpresas encontraron? How did you know they were insects? ¿Cómo sabían que
            eran insectos? What were the insects doing? ¿Qué estaban haciendo los insectos?
        Extend: Obtain a live frog or photos of frogs and toads for students to observe. Have students compare frogs to toads.

        Independent or Partner Workstation – Build Vocabulary Words
        Science Focus
            • Identify events that have repeating patterns, including seasons of the year and day and night.
            • Identify characteristics of the seasons of the year and day and night.

        Materials: Sequence Cards for Morning, Noon, and Night; vocabulary cards for this book (see page 8)
          • Invite students to sequence the cards for the repeating pattern of times in the day (morning, noon, night).
          • Display the vocabulary cards. Have students find these words in the text.
        Reflect: Have students explain the daily cycle to a partner.

        A Chance for Esperanza • Una oportunidad para Esperanza

        Implementing the Vocabulary Cards
        The lessons for each book begin with a list of vocabulary cards. Display the vocabulary
        cards for the book. Keep them available to reinforce both the meaning as well as
        the spelling of the word. Make the vocabulary cards accessible in the classroom to
        encourage students to use the new vocabulary words in their writing.

        Vocabulary Cards: waves • olas, ocean • océano, turtle • tortuga, predators •
        depredadores, hatch • saliendo del cascarón, crawl • arrastrarse, survive • sobrevivir,
        protect • proteger

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Whole Class Lesson – Science Concepts, Life Cycle
        Science Focus
           •   Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.
           •   Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.
           •   Compare ways that young animals resemble their parents.
           •   Observe and record life cycles of animals.
           •   Examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs.
           •   Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.
           •   Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.

        Materials: vocabulary card for turtle • tortuga
        Key Vocabulary: life cycle • ciclo de vida, stages • etapas, hatch • salir del cascarón, crawl • arrastrarse,
        patient • paciente
          • Display the book cover. Point out that this a true story about an experience the author had with baby turtles.
          • Tell students this book is about changes that happen to turtles. It provides insight into the life cycle of a turtle.
          • Read the vocabulary cards together. Review the key vocabulary words. Invite students to listen for these words. Read
            the book.
          • Ask where the mother turtle lays her eggs. Return to the text that answers this question. Then ask: Why does she bury
            the eggs deep in the sand? ¿Por qué entierra los huevos profundamente en la arena? Point out that the people who dug
            up the eggs and reburied them in a safer place had to be patient while they waited for the eggs to hatch. Ask
            students about times they have had to be patient.
          • Ask: According to the text, what happens when the baby turtles begin to hatch? ¿Qué pasa cuando las tortugas bebé
            empiezan a salir del cascarón?
        Reflect: Ask why it is so important for the baby turtles to crawl to the sea and not be carried. Invite students to return to
        the text to see how the author explained this.

        Small Group Lesson – Life Science Concepts, Comparing Size
        Science Focus
           • Compare ways that young animals resemble their parents.
           • Observe and record life cycles of animals.

        Materials: globe
          •Display the book. Point out the large turtle on the cover. Ask students what they remember about this story.
          •Reread the book, stopping to discuss the large mother turtle. Ask students to remember her size so they can
        		 compare it to the baby turtles they will meet later in the story.
          •At the end of the story, discuss the respective sizes of the mother and baby turtles.
          •Ask seven students to stand as a group. Tell students that the mother turtle weighs more than all seven students
        		 put together.
          •Take a picture walk through the book to revisit the illustrations of the ocean as it meets the beach. Discuss the vast
           ocean that expands beyond our view and what the characters see. Point out the oceans on a globe.
        Reflect: Have students share a fact they learned about turtles.

        Small Group Lesson – Animal Survival
        Science Focus
           • Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.
           • Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.

        Materials: vocabulary cards for this book (see page 10)
           • Display the book cover. Tell students that the people in this book protect turtles from their many predators.
             Encourage students to listen for the predators that are the natural enemies of turtles. Display the vocabulary card for
             predators • depredadores.
           • Read the book.
           • Invite students to explain why Ivan and the little boy’s mother bury the eggs in the sand.

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• Ask: How does the flashlight help the turtles make it to the water? ¿Cómo ayuda la linterna a las tortugas para que
           lleguen al agua?
       Reflect: Why don’t the people pick up the baby turtles and take them to the water? ¿Por qué esas personas no recogen a las
       tortugas bebé y las llevan al agua?

       Independent or Partner Workstation – Match Mother and Baby Animals
       Science Focus
           • Compare ways that young animals resemble their parents.

       Materials:   Mother and Baby Animal Matching Cards (Patterns CD-ROM)
         • Encourage students to match the illustrations of the mother animals to their babies.
         • Invite them to share the names of the animals with their partner.
       Challenge: Have students name the animal, as well as the name for the baby. For example, the horse’s baby is a foal •
       caballito and an elephant’s baby is a calf • becerro.

       Animal Lives • La vida de los animales
       Implementing the Vocabulary Cards
       The lessons for each book begin with a list of vocabulary cards. Display the vocabulary
       cards for the book. Keep them available to reinforce both the meaning as well as
       the spelling of the word. Make the vocabulary cards accessible in the classroom to
       encourage students to use the new vocabulary words in their writing.
       Vocabulary Cards:        mature • maduro, change • cambio, reproduce • reproducir,
       survive • sobrevivir, extinct • extinto, dinosaur • dinosaurio

       Whole Class Lesson                – Life Cycle of Animals
       Science Focus
           •   Observe and record life cycles of animals.
           •   Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.
           •   Examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs.
           •   Compare ways that young animals resemble their parents.

       Materials: vocabulary cards for this book (see above)
         • Tell students that this book gives information about the lives of animals from their beginning to their middle and
           finally their end. When animals are fully grown they are mature • maduro.
         • Read the book. Discuss the life cycles of the animals.
         • Display the vocabulary cards for this book. Tell students to raise their hands when they hear one of the
           vocabulary words.
         • Reread the book. Focus on the context clues to support students’ understanding of the meaning of the
           vocabulary words.
         • Invite students to share the changes • cambios animals experience as they mature • maduran. Encourage them to go
           back to the text and the photographs to find details and examples to support their responses.
       Reflect: Have students share a fact they learned from the book.

       Small Group Lesson - Writing About Science
       Science Focus
           • Observe and record life cycles of animals.
           • Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.
           • Record and organize data and observations using pictures, numbers, and words.

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Materials:   Sequence Cards for Baby to Adult
           •
           As students listen to the story, encourage them to focus on the life cycle of the human.
           •
           Invite them to sequence the cards from baby to adult, labeling each stage of life.
           •
           Have them draw a family portrait with a baby, child, mother, father, grandmother, and grandfather.
           •
           Point out that the life cycle is often represented in nuclear and extended families.
       Reflect: Have students describe their picture to a partner. Ask them to write the best ideas they shared. How is the life
       cycle of a human like the life cycle of other animals? ¿En qué se parece el ciclo de vida del ser humano al ciclo de vida de otros
       animals?How is it different? ¿En qué son diferentes?

       Independent or Partner Workstation – Building Science Vocabulary
       Science Focus
           • Observe and record life cycles of animals.
           • Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.

       Materials: Mother and Baby Animal Matching Cards (Patterns CD-ROM)
         • Have students match the picture of each baby animal to its mother.
         • Introduce the names of the baby animals in relation to the adult: calf and cow, chick and hen, duckling and duck,
         puppy and dog, kitten and cat, piglet and pig.
       Reflect: Ask students which baby animals look like their mothers and which ones look different.

       Small Group Lesson – Create a Timeline
       Science Focus
           • Observe and record life cycles of animals.

       Materials: Photo Activity Card #74 baby and daddy’s hand
       Key Vocabulary: baby, child, adolescent, adult, elderly
          • Display the Photo Activity Card and ask students to describe what they see. Help them explain that the large hand
            belongs to the daddy and the small hand belongs to a newborn baby.
          • Draw a timeline.
          • Invite students to draw people at different stages of life.
          • Guide them in placing their drawings in appropriate places along the timeline.
       Reflect: Have students walk the timeline with a partner. Encourage them to take turns naming and describing the
       stages of life.

       Independent or Partner Workstation – Where Do Animals Live?
       Science Focus
           • Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.
           • Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.
           • Ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world.

       Materials:  Photo Activity Cards #27 giraffe, #30 monkey, #33 rhinoceros, #34 chipmunk, #36 iguana, #37 blackbird, #44
       woodpecker, #94 whale, #128 fox, #132 horse; Makes Home in Trees T-chart (Patterns CD-ROM)
         • Remind students that many animals live around trees but not all of them make their home in a tree.
         • Provide some examples of animals that do make their home in trees (birds, squirrels, monkeys).
         • Challenge students to sort the animals in the photos into two categories: animals that make their home in trees and
           animals that do not.
       Reflect: Have students compare the number of animals in the two groups.

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Independent or Partner Workstation – Helping Animals in Winter
        Science Focus
           • Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.
           • Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.
           • Identify and explain a problem and propose a solution in his/her own words.

        Materials: wax paper, shortening, pinecones, birdseed, string
           •
           Discuss how some animals need help in finding food in the winter, when food can be scarce.
           •
           Suggest to students that they make pinecone bird feeders for the playground or a nearby park.
           •
           Spread wax paper on the table.
           •
           Place a thin layer of shortening on the wax paper.
           •
           Invite each student to roll a pinecone in the shortening and then in birdseed.
           •
           Attach a string to each pinecone and hang the bird feeders in a tree.
        Reflect: Have students turn to a partner and tell why they made this pinecone feeder. Have them explain
        how they are helping the birds for this winter.

        Critter Hide-and-Seek •
        Jugando al escondite con los animales
        Implementing the Vocabulary Cards
        The lessons for each book begin with a list of vocabulary cards. Display the vocabulary cards
        for the book. Keep them available to reinforce both the meaning as well as the spelling of the
        word. Make the vocabulary cards accessible in the classroom to encourage students to use
        the new vocabulary words in their writing.

        Vocabulary Cards: camouflage • camuflaje, predators • depredadores, habitat • hábitat,
        worm • gusano
        iguana • iguana, prey • presa, record • registrar, observe • observar, grasshopper • saltamontes, zebra • cebra,
        environment • medio ambiente, seal • foca

        Whole Class Lesson – Science Concepts of Camouflage
        Science Focus
           •   Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.
           •   Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.
           •   Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.
           •   Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.

        Key Vocabulary: camouflage • camuflaje, predator • depredador, prey • presa
          • Display the book cover. Introduce the author and photographer.
          • Point out that camouflage • camuflaje, which means blending in with the environment, is one way that animals
            protect themselves from predators • depredadores. Ask a volunteer to describe predators. Explain that humans are
            predators to insects because we often kill them needlessly.
          • Read the book, allowing students to find the hidden critter or critters on each page. Ask students which animal was
            the best hider.
        Reflect: How does a predator use camouflage to help it hunt?¿Cómo un depredador utiliza el camuflaje para ayudarse a
        cazar? How does a prey animal use camouflage to protect itself from getting caught by the predator? ¿Cómo un animal de
        presa utiliza el camuflaje para protergerse y evitar ser atrapado por el depredador?

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Small Group Lesson – Build Vocabulary
      Science Focus
          • Examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs.
          • Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.

      Materials: vocabulary cards for this book (see page 14)
          •
         Display the vocabulary cards. Invite students to look for the word or picture on each page of the book.
          •
         Encourage students to listen to the story as you read it again.
          •
         Have volunteers raise their hands when they hear or see the key vocabulary words.
         Invite each student to tell a partner what the word camouflage • camuflaje means.
          •
      Reflect: Which animal was the most difficult to see? ¿Cuál animal fue el más difícil de ver?

      Small Group Lesson - Explore an Earthworm’s Habitat
      Science Focus
          •   Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.
          •   Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.
          •   Gather evidence, analyze, and record examples of interdependence among living organisms.
          •   Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.
          •   Observe, compare, describe, and sort components of soil by size, texture, and color.

      Materials:    Photo Activity Card #54 earthworm, vocabulary card for worm • gusano, earthworm habitat (see directions
      below), student journals
        • Display the Photo Activity Card and use the information on the back to provide information about earthworms.
        • Point out that earthworms are a vital part of the ecological system. They loosen and mix soil as they burrow through
          the dirt. They break down decaying plants. They provide a source of food for birds.
        • Display the earthworm habitat. Invite students to find the burrows that the worms make. Tell students that the
          habitat will be in the Science Center for a few weeks so that they can observe the worms’ habits and the tunnels they
          make in the soil. Encourage students to record their observations in their journals.
        • Remind students that worms must be protected from the light and air and that they will need their soil dampened
          and food provided twice a week. Explain that the habitat must be covered to keep the earthworms out of the light.
          After students make an observation, they must remember to re-cover the habitat.
        • Have students compare the earthworm and its habitat to those animals in the read-aloud book. Ask: How does the soil
      		 provide the earthworm protection from predators? ¿Cómo protege la tierra al gusano de los depredadores? How does the
      		 earthworm change the soil?¿Cómo cambia la tierra el gusano?
      Reflect: Ask students to describe the worms. Encourage them to tell a neighbor what we must do to keep the
      earthworms safe.

      Making an Earthworm Habitat
      Place a smaller jar (with its lid on) inside of a larger jar (the size pickles come in). Fill the area around the inside jar with
      garden dirt, peat, and sand. Water the soils and let them settle for a few days. Add a dozen earthworms dug up from
      the yard or purchased from a bait shop. Scatter the worms on the surface, and cover them with dead leaves and grass
      clippings. Make holes in the lid of the larger jar and put it on the jar. Cover the jar with a dark-colored blanket or cloth to
      keep the light out. Invite students to check the worms each day to see the progress on the tunnels that the worms will
      build. Moisten the top of the habitat twice a week and at the same time add a few more leaves and grass clippings. Feed
      the worms twice a week with a small amount of moist table food (cake, banana peels, coffee grounds). Make sure that
      students know to replace the cloth after observing the worms.

      Independent or Partner Workstation – Write about Science
      Science Focus
          • Use senses as a tool of observation to identify properties and patterns of organisms, objects, and events in
            the environment.
          • Plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations such as ways objects move.
          • Record and organize data and observations using pictures, numbers, and words.
          • Communicate observations with others about simple descriptive investigations.
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Materials: earthworm habitat (see previous lesson); student journals; vocabulary cards for habitat • hábitat, prey •
         presa, predators • depredadores, camouflage • camuflaje, environment • medio ambiente
           • Invite students to observe the earthworm habitat and record their findings in their journal.
           • Ask: How are their physical characteristics helpful for them in their environment of the soil? ¿En qué les ayudan sus
             características físicas con el medio ambiente de la tierra?
           • Have students draw and write their findings in their journals. Display the vocabulary cards to encourage students
             to use the key vocabulary in their writing.
         Reflect: Have students share their writing with a partner.

         Welcome to Zippity Zoo • Bienvenidos
         al zoológico de Zippity
         Implementing the Vocabulary Cards
         The lessons for each book begin with a list of vocabulary cards. Display the vocabulary
         cards for the book. Keep them available to reinforce both the meaning as well as
         the spelling of the word. Make the vocabulary cards accessible in the classroom to
         encourage students to use the new vocabulary words in their writing.

         Vocabulary Cards: zoology • zoología, monkey • mono, bear • oso, elephant •
         elefante, rock • roca, giraffe • jirafa, iguana • iguana, zebra • cebra, peacock • pavo real,
         duck • pato, eagle • águila, owl • búho, lion • león, tiger • tigre, kangaroo • canguro,
         crocodile • cocodrilo, rabbit • conejo

         Whole Class Lesson – Main Idea, Key Details
         Science Focus
            •   Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.
            •   Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.
            •   Compare ways that young animals resemble their parents.
            •   Examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs.
            •   Find examples of ways rocks, soil, and water are useful.

         Materials:  vocabulary cards for this book (see above)
           • Display the vocabulary cards. Invite a volunteer to name the animals.
           • Preview the book by examining the cover and taking a picture walk. Invite students to share what they notice in
             the photographs.
           • Ask a volunteer to make a summary statement about the book.
           • Read the book.
           • Encourage students to share questions they have about the animals in the book.
         Reflect: Ask students to read through the vocabulary cards and select one word that is not like the other. Help
         students see that most of the cards name animals at the zoo. The rock is different. It is a part of some animals’
         habitats. Ask how rocks are useful to some of these zoo animals.

         Small Group Lesson – Identify Animal Names
         Science Focus
            • Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.
            • Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.

         Materials: Photo Activity Cards #26 tiger, #27 giraffe, #28 zebra, #30 monkey, #33 rhinoceros, #35 crocodiles, #40
         peacock, #95 lion; vocabulary cards for this book (see above)
           • Display the Photo Activity Cards to extend the discussion of key details about animals that live in the zoo.

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• Invite students to listen as you reread the book.
        • Give students the vocabulary cards to match to the book photos.
      Reflect: Have one student select a vocabulary card. Ask volunteers to share the details they remember about
      this animal.

      Small Group Lesson – Problem Solving
      Science Focus
          • Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.
          • Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.
          • Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.

        • Invite students to play a game called Zoo Riddles • Adivinanzas del zoológico. Provide clues that allow students to
          rule out some animals in order to identify a specific animal. Use the following clues as examples:
        • Walking through the zoo, I saw a tall animal with long, skinny legs. What was it? Caminando por el zoológico vi a un
      		 animal alto con patas largas y delgadas. ¿Qué era?
        • Walking through the zoo, I heard a loud roar. What was it? Caminando por el zoológico escuché un rugido fuerte.
        ¿Qué era?
        • Continue the game with clues for other animals (a big animal with big ears, a striped animal with a long tail).
      Reflect: What riddle might we make up about a monkey? ¿Qué adivinanza podríamos hacer sobre un mono?

      Independent or Partner Workstation – Vocabulary Game
      Science Focus
          • Sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics.
          • Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.

      Materials:  Zoo Concentration Cards (Patterns CD-ROM), vocabulary cards for this book (see page 16)
        • Have students use the zoo animal cards to play a game of concentration.
        • As students turn over the animal cards, have them identify the animal and the first letter in the animal’s name.
      Scaffold: Use the vocabulary cards to reinforce the animal names and the letters in each word.
      Reflect: Do any of the animals have a name that begins with the same letter? ¿Alguno de los animales tiene un nombre que
      empiece con la misma letra?

      How Do Animals Use their Ears? •
      ¿Cómo usan los oídos los animales?
      Implementing the Vocabulary Cards
      The lessons for each book begin with a list of vocabulary cards. Display the vocabulary
      cards for the book. Keep them available to reinforce both the meaning as well as the
      spelling of the word. Make the vocabulary cards accessible in the classroom to encourage
      students to use the new vocabulary words in their writing.
                                                                                                                     Frog Street Press, Inc.

      Vocabulary Cards: ears • oídos, hear • escuchar, predator • depredador, prey • presa
                                                                                                                     www.frogstreet.com

                                                                                                                             Printed in China   FSPK0001102

                                                                               BL SC_PERF_ Their Ears_13x13-NS.1 1                                              10/13/09 5:33:59 PM

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Whole Class Lesson –               How Do Animals Use Their Ears?
        Science Focus
           • Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.
           • Examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs.
           • Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.

        Materials: masking tape; Photo Activity Cards #24 bear, #26 tiger, #92 dog, #98 rabbit, #132 horse;
        vocabulary cards for this book (see page17)
          • Display the book cover and read the title. Have students identify the animal on the cover.
          • Ask about the most obvious physical characteristics of the elephant (ears and trunk).
          • Take a picture walk and have students observe the shape of the animals’ ears.
          • Invite students to listen for the way each animal uses its ears. Read the book.
          • Ask volunteers to share what they discovered about animal ears.
          • Display the Photo Activity Cards. Tell students these are some of the same animals we saw in our big book. Share
            additional information from the back of the card about each animal. Focus on how the animal uses its senses to
        		 live, move, and eat.
          • Use masking tape to outline the shape of an elephant’s ear on the floor. The ears of a full-grown African elephant
            are about six feet long and four feet wide.
          • Invite students to see how many of them can fit inside the outline of the elephant’s ear on the floor.
          • Display the vocabulary cards. Have students read the words to a partner and discuss what the words mean.
        Reflect: How do animals use their ears? ¿Cómo usan los oídos los animales?

        Independent or Partner Workstation – Research Animals
        Science Focus
           • Identify parts of plants and parts of animals.
           • Examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs.
           • Investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats.

        Materials:  nonfiction books about animals
          • Encourage students to look through the books.
          • Challenge them to look for information about the animals discussed in the lesson.
        Reflect: What did the book say about bears? ¿Qué dice el libro acerca de los osos? What did it say about lions and tigers?
        ¿Qué dice de los leones y de los tigres?

        Whole Class Lesson – How Do                        Use Our Ears?
        Science Focus
           • Use senses as a tool of observation to identify properties and patterns of organisms, objects, and events in
             the environment.
           • Record and organize data and observations using pictures, numbers, and words.
           • Communicate observations with others about simple descriptive investigations.

           • Tell students they will search for sounds during a nature walk.
           • Before the walk, have students make a list of the sounds they predict they will hear.
           • Lead students on a nature walk in and around the school and ask them to listen for sounds.
           • Upon returning to the classroom, review the list with students.
        Reflect: Which sounds on your list did you hear? ¿Cuáles sonidos de tu lista escuchaste? What sounds need to be added to
        the list? ¿Cuáles sonidos deben ser agregados a la lista?
        Additional Workstations: Pages 28-32 feature additional workstations and lessons that focus on the senses.

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