The Development of Education National Report of Iraq 2001 - International Bureau of Education - By Ministry of Education

 
International Bureau of Education

The Development of Education
   National Report of Iraq

               By
       Ministry of Education

             2001
Contents

 Subject                                                  Page
 1:Overview of the Development of the Educational          1
    System in Iraq at the End of the Twentieth Century.

   1-1:Major Reforms and Innovations Introduced in         2
       the Educational System During the Last Ten
       Years:                                              2
        (a)The Legal Framework of Education.               3
        (b)The      Organization,    Structure     and
           Management of the Educational System.           8
        (c)Evaluation     Policies,   Methods      and
           Instruments.                                    8
        (d)Objectives and Principal Characteristics of
           Current and Forthcoming Reforms.
                                                           9
    1-2:Major Quantitative and Qualitative Achieve-
        ments Attained Over the Last Ten Years in           9
        Terms of :                                          9
        (One) Access to Education.                         10
        (Two) Equity in Education.                         10
        (c) Quality and Relevance of Education.
our)        Participation by Society in the
 Process of      Educational Change.                       12

   1-3:The Lessons Learned in the Process of Changing
       and Reforming the Educational System:
       Approaches and Strategies Adopted and the
       Major Difficulties Encountered.                     12

   1-4:The Main Problems and Challenges Facing
       National Education at the Beginning of the
       Twenty–first Century.                               14
2:Educational Content and Learning Strategies for the   14
  Twenty–first Century.
                                                        14
  2-1:Curriculum Development, Principles and
      Assumptions:                                      14
       (a)Who Makes Decisions about Curriculum          14
          Issues                                        18
       (b)Curriculum Planning and Design.
                                                        19
       (c)Teaching and Learning Strategies.
                                                        19
       (d)Assessment Policies and Instruments.
                                                        19
  2-2:Changing and Adapting Educational Content:        20
      (a)Factors Motivating Curriculum Reforms.         20
      (b)Principal Institutions Participating in the
          Process of Change.                            20
      (c)Nature of Change.
       (d)Strategies Adopted in the Implementation
          of Curriculum Reforms .                       23
      (e)Achievements, Problems Encountered and
          Solution Adopted to Overcome them.

 3:Documentary References Used for the Preparation
   of the National Report.
1:Overview of the Development of the
  Educational System in Iraq at the End of the
  Twentieth Century:
       Iraq was the cradle of the first human civilizations. The
Sumerian, the Akadian the Assyrian and the Babylonian civilizations
flourished in Iraq. With the advent of Islam and the flourishing of the
Arab-Islamic civilization, which reached its peak during the Abbasids,
Baghdad became the world center of culture, knowledge and
creativity, attracting scholars, men of letter and intellectuals from all
over the world.
     Iraq, during the last three decades, has witnessed a general
revival in all aspects of life, including the educational system which is
favoured with special attention owing to its vital role in the process of
cultural growth of the society. The major developments and
achievements, which have been realized, constitute one aspect of the
giant and numerous accomplishments achieved by the revolution in all
aspects of the political, economic, social and cultural sectors.
       The Constitution of Iraq emphasizes that the State guarantees
the right of free education, at all levels – primary, secondary and
university – for all citizens, imposes compulsory at the primary level
and ensures the eradication of illiteracy.
        Moreover, the Ministry of Education has undertaken intensive
efforts to develop the educational process so that it may keep up with
the educational innovations at the international level. These persistent
efforts comprise the application of new trends in all fields, such as:
educational plans curricula, textbooks, evaluation and examinations,
teachers pre–service and in–service training, strengthening the relation
between education and productive work, educational technologies,
athletic and artistic activities, extra–curricular programmes, non–
formal education as well as open education.
       The Ministry has also pursued implementation of the Great
National Religious Campaign for teaching the recitation and
interpretation of the Holy Quran at all educational level so as to
achieve the desired educational revival throughout its spiritual, moral,
scientific, educational and humanitarian dimensions.
Undoubtedly, the circumstances which Iraq has undergone, and
is still undergoing, since 1990, as a result of the continuous military
aggression and the unjust blockade which involves all major and
minor aspects have left negative consequences and hindered the
natural development and progress of the educational system.
However, the process did not stop and the efforts have been continued
to pursue the new criteria of progress and apply the most up–to – date
educational concepts and methodologies.

1-1: Major Reforms and Innovations Introduced in
     the Education System During the Last Ten Years:

     (a): Legal Framework of Education:
        The educational legislatinos aim at ensuring the State’s
supervision over the educational policy, as well as organizing,
financing and orienting the various types of general education in
accordance with the educational philosophy, general educational
objectives and the aims of the various educational levels. This is
achieved by means of legislating laws, regulations and instructions
which organize the various aspects of the educational process
particularly those concerning free education of various types at all
levels, compulsory primary education, granting professional and
transportation allowances to supervisory, administrative and teaching
staffs. These legislations determine the rules govering students’
behaviour and discipline, organize the work of the various school
committees, extra–curricular activities as well as general and school
examinations.
        Recently, a number of regulations which contribute to the
development of the educational process have been issued, the most
prominent of which is the Parent–Teacher Councils Regulation.
Certain laws, regulations and instructions have been amended. These
include: Laws and Regulations concerning Gifted Schools,
Examinations, Foreign students, Teachers’ Institutes, Fine Arts
Institutes, Educational Television and Scouting.
(b): The Organization, Structure and Management of
     the Educational System:
       The Ministry of Education undertakes the responsibility for
managing the educational system and the direct supervision on general
education at all levels (kindergartens, primary, secondary, vocational
and Teachers’ pre–service training). All short–term and long-term
decisions concerning the educational policy and plans are taken by the
Minister of Education, who depends in his           decision–taking on
the findings and recommendations of the specialized educational
seminars and forums as well as the various educational studies.
       According to the Ministry of Education Law No. (34) for the
year (1998), the organizational structure of the Ministry comprises the
Minister’s Bureau, three Undersecretaries Bureaus (the senior, the
technical and the administrative), Department of Legal Affairs, and
(18) Directorates General; each including specialized Departments.
The Central Directorates General are:
       -Directorate General of Educational Planning.
       -Directorate General of Primary and Basic Education and
         Kindergartens.
       -Directorate General of Secondary Education.
       -Directorate General of Athletic Education.
       -Directorate General of Administrative and Financial Affairs.
       -Directorate General of Curricula.
       -Directorate General of Educational Inspection and
         Supervision.
       -Directorate General of Evaluation.
       -Directorate General of the Production of Educational
        Prerequisites.
       -Directorate General of Cultural Relations.
       -Directorate General of Teachers’ Pre-service Training.
       -Directorate General of Vocational Education.
       -Directorate General of Computers .
       -Directorate General of Educational Technologies.
       -Educational Training and Development Institute.
       -Directorate General of Kurdish Education.
       -Educational Researches and Studies Center.
       -Directorate General of Night and Private Education.
Besides, there are a number of Higher Committees, such as:
the Higher Committee for Curricula, Teaching Aids and
Examinations, the Permanent Body for General Examinations and the
Higher Council of Scouts and Guides, At the provincial level, there
are (21) Directorates General in the Governorates comprising
technical and administrative Departments which counterpart those of
the central Directorates General. Each of these (21) Directorates
General undertakes the responsibility for general education in its
Governorate as far as the implementation and follow–up of
educational plans, provision of teaching staffs, supervising schools at
the various educational levels and preparing the necessary school
buildings.
        The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
undertakes the administration and the organization of Higher
Education. However, universities in Iraq are autonomous in most
financial, administrative and technical matters.
        A number of other Ministries, such as: the Ministry of Labour
and Social Affairs, the Ministry of Industry, the Ministry of Health,
the Ministry of Oil and the Ministry of Transport and
Communications, administer vocational training centres to qualify
skilled manpower.
        Here follows the organizational structures of both the Ministry
of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific
Research illustrating the Directorates General and Major Services
rendered by both Ministries, in addition to the educational ladder in
Iraq according to age and class in both general and vocational
education.
(c): Evaluation Policies, Methods and Instruments:
        In the field of evaluation and examinations, the Ministry
undertakes to draw the policies relating to conducting general and
school examinations as well publicizing and evaluating their results.
It, also, supervises the designing of achievement tests to assess the
educational outputs. The Ministry carries out other tasks in this
respect, such as, endorsement of certificates, keeping their records and
issuing regular instructions to run school examinations.

(d): Objectives and Principal Characteristics of Current
     and Forthcoming Reforms :
        The Ministry of Education is keen to implement the
educational policy concerning general education at all levels and
suggest development plans as regards structures, programmes and
methodologies with view to link them to the needs and demands of the
economic and social development plans. Thus, the Ministry follows
up the teaching–learning process through the coordination between the
Centeral Directorates General and the Directorates General of
Education in the Governorates. This can only be achieved within the
framework of multiple objectives based on developing open thinking
according to innovative educational procedures governed by advanced
educational legislations and well-qualified manpower and teaching
staffs. Reform polices should take into consideration the development
of teaching–learning methodologies and teaching aids as regards:
individual differences among the students, caring for the gifted and
those with special needs, activating non–formal and open education
programmes, improving the concept of educational guidance within
the framework of democratization of education, realizing individual
and societal persistent commitment towards teaching and learning as
well as providing safe and sound environment. The Ministry has, also,
paid due attention to innovations at both regional and international
levels, experimented them after being adapted to the Iraqi
environment and circulated them in the light of their success
indicators depending on field follow–up as a means of assessment and
evaluation.
1-2: Major Quantitative and Qualitative Achievements
    Attained Over The Last Ten Years in Terms of:

    (a): Access to Education:
        Table (1) indicates the quantitative development in
kindergartens, primary, secondary, vocational and teachers` training
education. During the school year 1999 – 2000, The total number of
students at all levels amounts to (4.458.006), the total number of
schools amounts to (12. 358) and the total number of teachers amounts
to (228. 172).

    (b): Equity in Education:
         The educational system in Iraq is based on certain values and
principles, derived from the religious, human and national
characteristics of society. The most prominent of these are the belief
that Man is a supreme value and that education is a social process,
sensitive to time and place factors as well as dependent on social
ideology, needs and available material and human resources. Within
this framework, the State ensures the right to free education for all
citizens at all levels, compulsory education at the primary level,
eradication of illiteracy, provision of equal opportunities as well as
disseminating education of all types and relating it to the aims of
development so as to guarantee bringing up a scientifically and
educationally integrated human being who believes in the unity of the
Arab Nation and its Immortal Mission and possesses the spirit of
optimism. challenge and collaboration .
         In implementation of the principle of democratization of
education, the State undertakes to provide equal learning opportunities
for all citizens (males and females) without discrimination for sex,
race or religion, encourage talent and creativity in all intellectual,
scientific and artistic activities, with special attention to females and
inhabitants of rural and remote areas, overcome economic and social
obstacles so as to facilitate enrollment of learners in educational
institutions as well as promote the role of education in fostering
understanding , cooperation and peace at the international level and
respect for the rights of man and his basic freedoms .
(c): Quality and Relevance Of Education:
        The Ministry pays due attention to the quality of education.
Thus, it seeks to revise its content and develop it so as to keep up with
the demands of the age. It also looks towards providing curriculum
and textbooks according to the international quality standards. In this
respect, the Ministry is keen to link educational curriculum to the
students’ daily-life realities by concentrating on their functional and
practical aspects and associate knowledge with the local society issues
with a view to upbring generations capable of meeting the
development needs and the demands of the twenty–first century. This
aim can be achieved by developing educational methodologies,
enhancing the concepts of participation and cooperation as well as
adding new expertise, competencies and skills aiding them to cope
with the Age of Information Revolution and Universality Of
Knowledge.

(d):Participation by Society in the Process of Education
    Change:

         Educational sector in Iraq has witnessed everincreasing efforts
to strengthen the cooperation with the society in the field of
Education. The Ministry has endeavoured to achieve educational,
cultural and scientific cooperation with all educational and scientific
institutions and take part in the educational forums, meetings and
conferences held by the relevant ministries and institutions. The
Ministry has, also, made use of the innovative trends available in the
educational documents, particulary those concerned with informatic
technologies, curriculum, evaluation, teachers’ pre-service and
in–service training.
1-3: The Lessons Learned in the Process of Changing
    and Reforming the Educational System: Approaches
    and Strategies Adopted and the Major Difficulties
    Encountered:
         Despite the negative aspects of the unjust blockade and
sanctions imposed on Iraq, great efforts have been made to keep on
the educational process and ensure the provision of its essential pre-
requisites. In order to realize its objectives, education has to orient its
utmost care towards educating children and youth as well as meet the
necessary materialistic and technical needs in addition to the qualified
manpower. The only way to carry out this task can be through
intensifying all forms and types of educational efforts and effectively
investing all the available resources with a view to provide a stable
materialistic and psychological background for education. What we
have aforementioned is a basic demand, which can only be met by the
complete lift of the unfair blockade which contradicts the basic
principles stipulated upon in the United Nations Chart , Human
Rights Chart, Child Rights Conventions and all the educational
recommendations which direct education towards developing
individuals’ personality so as to parctise his role by means of enjoying
his full cultural ,social and economic rights .

1-4: The Main Problems and Challenges Facing National
     Education at the Beginning of the Twenty-first
     Century:
       The educational system in Iraq faces a number of inter–related
problems which hinder the achievement of its objectives. Perhaps, the
most important problems are:

   -Providing and maintaining adequate school buildings to meet the
     quantitative and qualitative development in the educational
     system.
   -Providing sufficient number of qualified teachers to meet
    the increasing needs of education at           various   school
    levels.
-Providing instructional materials and prerequisites, particularly
    stationery and school furniture.
  -Providing curricula, teaching aids and educational technologies
   which require considerable financial resources.
  -Developing evaluation and examination techniques by
   introducing modern technologies, as they require substantial
   funds as well as a high degree of knowledge and enthusiasm on
   the part of teachers.
  -Aggravation of the problem of droupouts in general and
   vocational education owing to the economic effects of the
   blockade on the family’s income and the social effects arising out
   of the weakened belief in the benefits of education .
  -The emergence of some undesired behavioural and psychological
   problems in the educational domain.
  -Weakness of students’ motivation towards                 learning.
  -Weakness of teaching staffs’ motivation towards their profession.
  -Weakness of parental follow up for their children’s school
   performance.
  -The loose relationship between the local community and school
   due to the parents’ engagement in daily-life concerns.
  -The interruption of the continuity of the scientific and cultural
   interaction with the outside world as a result of the blockade, in
   addition to the liquidation of most of the cultural agreements
   between Iraq and other countries.
  -Effects of malanutrition and anemia on the health conditions of
   children, pupils and students are reflected in symptoms of
   weakness ,fatigue ,inactivity, inability to practise educational
   activities and follow-up lessons as well as luck of concentration.
   This has imposed double efforts on teachers and increased the
   number of dropouts as a result of violent sickness and
   unadaptablity to study environment.

        These problems and obstacles were due to the unjust economic
blockade imposed on Iraq as well as the great damages inflicted by the
military aggression in 1991 which aimed at destroying the
infrastructures and vital facilities which in their turn have severely
affected the educational sector. However, Iraq is determined to pursue
its educational plan quantitatively and qualitatively.
2: Educational Content and Learning Strategies
   for the Twenty–first Century.
   2-1: Curriculum Development: Principles and Assumptions.

(a) : Who Makes Decisions about Curriculum Issues :

        The High Committee for the Development of Curricula and
Teaching Aids and Examinations undertakes to plan, design, approve
and revise the curriculum as well as approve textbooks and teachers’
guides. The Committee comprises a number of the Ministry Directors
General in addition to specialized academics in various subjects from
the Iraqi Universities Professors.

(b): Curriculum Planning and Design :

         Designing and revising curricula constitute one of the major
priorities of the educational process which aims at the learners’ full
development, with a view to assisting him in adapting to the social,
economic, scientific and technical changes in modern societies.
Designing curricula as well as editing textbooks and teachers’ guides
and manuals depend upon the educational philosophy and objectives.
Curricula and textbooks are taught accordig to the time–tables
approved for each educational level. Tables Nos. (2), (3) and (4)
include the study plans approved for the various levels of general
education.

(c): Teaching and Learning Strategies:

       Teaching and Learning Strategies can be summed up as
follows:
-Rasing the educational outputs standards by means of:
       - Adopting a flexible educational ladder.
       - Qualifying and training teachers.
       - Revising curriculum and textbooks.
       - Improving the teaching–learning environment.
Table No. (2)
                 The Study Plan for the Primary Stage

                    First       Second      Third    Fourth    Fifth    Sixth
Subject
                    year        year        year     year      year     year
Islamic Education   4           4           4        4         4        4
Arabic Language and 11          11          11       11        7        7
Calligraphy
English Language    -           -           -        -         4        4
Mathematics         6           6           6        6         5        5
Civics              -           -           -        3         1        1
History             -           -           -        -         2        2
Geography           -           -           -        -         2        2
Social and Moral 1              1           1        1         -        -
Education
Science             4           4           4        3         3        3
Agricultural        -           -           -        1         1        1
Education
Art Education       2           2           2        2         1       1
Physical Education  3           3           3        2         2       2
Music and Anthems   1           1           1        1         1       1
Family Education    -           -           -        -         1       1
Total               32          32          32       34        34      34

    Notes:
    First: Double-shift schools follow the above- mentioned plan.
    Second: Two class periods are alloted to agricultural education in
            rural schools, provided that the second class period is taken
            from science class periods in the fourth, fifth and sixth
            classes.
    Third: Christianity is taught two class periods a week in schools
            where the majority of students are Christians.
    Fourth: Students practise extracurricular activities in the practical,
            artistic and athletic fields according to a schedule to be
            prepared for this purpose.
Table No. (3)
            The Study Plan for the Intermediate Stage

Subject                     First year       Second year          Third year
Islamic Education           3                3                    3
Arabic Language             6                6                    6
English Language            6                5                    5
History                     2                2                    2
Geography                   2                2                    2
Civics                      1                1                    1
Mathematics                 5                5                    5
Algebra                     -                -                    3
Geometry                    -                -                    2
General Science             4                -                    -
Chemistry                   -                2                    2
Physics                     -                2                    2
Biology                     -                2
Man and Human               -                                     2
Health
Art Education               2                1                    1
Physical Education and 2                     2                    2
Military training
Total                       33               33                   33
Family Education for 1                       1                    1
Girls
Total                      34               34                   34
Notes:
First: Double-shift schools follow the above-mentioned plan.
Second: Night schools follow the same plan except for the
          omission of physical education and military training periods.
Third: Two class periods are alloted to practical activities in the
           schools applying the vocational arts sections experiment.
Fourth: Students practice extracurricular activities in the scientific,
           educational, social, literary ,artistic, athletic ,agricultural and
           industrial fields according to a schedule to be prepared for
           this pupose.
Table No. (4)
                 The Study Plan for the Preparatory Stage
Subject                 4thyear     5thyear     6thyear    5thyear        6thyear
                        General     Literary    Literary   Scientific     Scientific
Islamic Education       3           3           3          3              3
Arabic Language         5           8           8          4              4
Kurdish Language        -           2           -          2              -
English Language        5           6           6          5              5
History                 2           3           3          -              -
Geography               2           3           3          -              -
Sociology               -           2           -          -              -
Economics               -           2           3          -              -
Mathematics             3           2           2          6              5
Chemistry               3           -           -          4              4
Physics                 3           -           -          4              4
Biology                 3           -           -          4              4
Physical Education      1           2           1          2              1
Military Training and
Civil Defence
Art Education              1         1            1        1               1
National Education         1         1            1        1               1
Total                      32        35           31       36              33
Family Education for 1               1            1        1               1
Girls
Health Education For 1               1            -        1               -
Girls
Total                      34        37           32       38              33
      Notes:
      First: Double-shift schools follow the above- mentioned plan.
      Second: Night school follow the same plan except for the omission
                of physical education class periods and adding them to
                Arabic language class periods.
      Third: Students practise extracurricular activities in the scientific;
                educational, social and practical fields according to a
                schedule to be prepared for this purpose.
      Fourth: One class period is allotted to national education and added
                to the study plan of sixth and fifth classes (scientific and
                literary).
- Improving Educational and school administration.
       - Developing evaluation and examination techniques.
       - Increasing the role of supporative bodies.

-Achieving compatibility with labour market through:
      -Developing the concept of vocational education as well as
        raising its standard and enhancing its role.
      -Improving the services rendered by educational and
        vocational guidance.

-Keeping up with scientific and technical development through:
      -Paying due attention to science and technology education.
      -Developing students’ scientific and critical thinking.

-Interacting with the International cultural progress through:
       -Getting acquainted with others’ cultural and humanitarian
         experience in the field of curricula and methodology.
       -Interacting with humanitarian thinking and future demands.

(d): Assessment Policies and Instruments:
       School and general examinations aim at measuring and
evaluating students` achievement. Evaluation and examination
instruments are periodically revised and developed by a specialized
committee. School examinations are applied to measure students`
performance throughout the year. The Ministry also holds three
general examinations:

       -At the primary level: to qualify graduates for admission to
        the secondary level (intermediate education ).
       -At the intermediate level: to qualify graduates for admission
        to the various branches of the preparatory level.
       -At the preparatory level: This examination terminates with a
        certificate qualifying its holder to pursue postsecondary
        education or join labour market.

       As regards the policies adopted in this field, they comprise the
development of:
-The quality of school tests and examinations by improving
        their standards according to the concepts and instruments
        used by questions banks for comprehensive evaluation.
       -The content and mechanism of the general examination at the
        preparatory level.
       -The instruments of school evaluation by adopting the
        concepts, principles and procedures of diagnostic evaluation.

2-2:Changing and Adapting Educational Content:

(a): Factors Motivating Curriculum Reforms:
       The most effective factors, that may lead to develop curricula
contents so as to be compatible with the changing demand of the
individual and society, are the following:
       - Caring for individual differences.
       - Fostering critical thinking.
       - Applying problem-solving and experimental techniques.
       - Linking scientific knowledge to life.
       - Improving textbooks quality by:
               - Continual revision of content, design and printing.
               - Experimenting textbooks.
               - Inclusion some contemporary educational concepts,
                  such as: popular, environment, hygenic and traffic
                  education.

(b): Principal Institutions Participating in the Process of
     Change:
        The Ministry central authorities are mainly concerned with
bringing about the desired changes in the content and strategy of
education as well as laying down its plans and supervising their
implementation and follow up. Many specialized educational
committees and bodies are constituted to tackle the educational issues.
The most important ones are: The Consultative Body which comprises
the educational leaders in the Ministry headquarters, undertakes to
take definite decisions as regards the major trends and indicators in
the field of curricula, evaluation, examinations ,educational plans and
teachers’ training strategies…etc.; the Permanent Body for
Examinations which shoulders the responsibility of drawing the
general examinations, taking relevant decisions as regards the
approval of the questions specifications, organizational procedures,
results issuance and suggesting the necessary recommendations to
develop school and general examinations; the Higher Committee for
Curricula, Teaching Aids and Examinations undertakes to plan and
revise Curricula; the Higher Committee for Pre-service and In-service
Training undertakes to qualify and train teachers and employees.

(c):Nature of Change:
       At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the educational
system is witnessing qualitative changes in all branches of the
educational process, including:
       - Educational policy (philosophy and objectives).
       - Educational structure.
       - Curricula and textbooks.
       - Educational technologies.
       - Educational facilities and school buildings.
       - Pre-school education (Kindergartens).
       - Compulsory and Basic Education.
       - Illiteracy and adult education.
       - Educational evaluation (school and general examinations).
       - Computer services, (Informatics, computer education).
       - Educational administration.
       - Educational Innovation.
       - Inclusion of productive work in education.

(d):Strategies Adopted to the Implementation of
   Curriculum Reforms:
     We can sum up the adopted strategies as follows:
       -Regarding the student as the centre of the educational
        process, which aims at improving his standards by enriching
        his teaching programmes with knowledge.
     -Providing education for all.
     -Developing learning centres prerequisites.
-Providing Basic Schools with teaching materials.
     -Developing the educational programmes.
     -Introducing computer in teaching and learning.
     -Paying due attention to science, mathematics and foreign
       languages curricula since they represent the starting point to
       overall cultural progress.
     -Paying due attention to the process of evaluation in the various
       fields, particularly in relation to educational programmes and
       students’ achievements.

(e): Achievements, Problems Encountered and Solutions
     Adopted to Overcome them:

        Proceeding from the national responsibility shouldered by all
State Institutions, among which is the Ministry of Education towards
students as regards the ensurance of their sound education, it deems
necessary that change and reform measures should continue, and all
efforts have to be directed to face the challenges imposed by the
various forms of blockade. Yet, in order to confront these challenges,
the students’ welfare should be an end to which all the educational,
social and cultural objective of the country are targeted. Therefore,
students have received due attention by all. Such attention is
strategically embodied into welfare programmes depending on the
unique Iraqi management procedures by means of alternatives. This
welfare has become a distinct feature in the lives of Iraqis,
necessitated by the tasks to be assumed by youth in terms of building
and progress.

        In order to facilitate the process of teaching at all educational
levels, the state has succeeded in providing the essential prerequisites
through the following procedures:

       -Supplying damaged schools with desks, blackboards, records,
        teaching aids, laboratory equipment and school library books
        by means of central compensation, making transference
        among schools or receiving donors’ presents.
-Reprinting several textbooks by benefiting from some
         agreements in this respect.
       -Allocating amounts of money with the Memorandum of
        Understanding to provide the prerequisites of the damaged
         schools.
       -Providing students with stationery, pencils and copybooks in
        token prices.
       -Manufacturing children dummies, dolls and teaching aids
        locally.
       -Arranging in-service courses to improve the teachers’
        efficiency so that they can keep up with the most up-to-date
        innovations in the field of youth education and welfare.
       -Enhancing co-ordination with international and humanitarian
        organizations particularly UNESCO and UNICEF in the field
        of school rehabilitation and provision of some basic
        prerequisites.
       -Applying innovative projects at all educational levels to
        improve education quality.
       -Preparing programmes for the talented and gifted students to
        develop their creative aptitudes and skills.

         Besides, there are numerous major problems and obstacles due
to the unjust economic cultural and scientific blockade imposed on
Iraq as well as the aforementioned severe damages inflicted by the
treacherous thirty–state aggression in 1991. These difficulties have
their negative consequences, which affected the students’ educational
activities and the progress and advance which characterized the
educational system in form and content. Yet, the educational process
continued in Iraq. Moreover, great efforts are invistingly exerted to
make it cope with the educational innovation movement all over the
world.
3: Documentary References used for the Preparation of
   the National Report:

     -Al–Bazzaz, Hikmat Abdullah; et al., Education and
      Revolution – 1968 / 1993, Baghdad, al–Rafidain press,
      1993.

     - Ghaidan, Kadhim; et al., Education for A ll - Report of
       the Government of Iraq, Baghdad, 2000.

     -Ministry of Education, Trends and Indicators of Education
      Sector in Iraq, Baghdad, 1981.

     -Ministry of Education, Education During the Revolution
      Age, Baghdad 1978.

     - Ministry of Education, Education Objectives in     Iraq,
       Baghdad 1990.

     - Ministry of Education, Future Trends and Indicators of
       Educational 1990 – 2000, Baghdad, 1990.

     - Ministry of Education, Educational Policy     in   Iraq,
       Educational Research Centre, Baghdad, 1990.

     - Ministry of Education, Struggle and Building Conference:
      Trends and Indicators, Educational Research Centre,
      Baghdad, 1992.
Statistical Summary of Education in Iraq for the Academic Year 1999- 2000
                                                        (Excluding Autonomous Region) by Sex and Educational Level

Data
        Sex                      Students and pupils number                Teachers number                    Schools number

              Stage             Total    Female        Male        Total        Female        Male    Total     Co –      Female    Male
                                                                                                              education
Kindergarten                    67701     33106        34595       4517          4517            -     563       563           -      -
Primary                        3224602   1433495      1791107     154642        112393        42249   8505      6289         990    1226
Secondary                      1051905   404713       647192      60225         36486         23739   2941       526         1014   1401
Industrial                      51534      2923        48611       5474          2315          3159    163        5           10    148
                  Vocatio

Agricultural                     2080        -          2080        286           56            230     10        -            -     10
Commercial                       8390     5917         2473        1117          901           216      61        4           42     15
Domestic                                  969            -          47            47            -       2        -             2      -
Total                           62973    9809          53164       6924          3319         3605    236        9            54    173
Teachers                        37452    25795         11657       1590          1038          552     77        -            49     28
Institutes
Central                         10573     4503         6070          12           10            2      30        3            14     13
Fine arts                       2800       934         1866         265          149           116     6         1            3      2
                  Institutes

Total                           50825    31232         19593       1867          1197          670    113        4            66     43
Total number                   4458006   1912355      2545651     228175        157912        70263   12358     7391         2124   2843

                                                                                         10
AGE       4 5     6 7 8 9 10 11          12 13   14           15       16        17               18       19       20       21       22 23

                                                                               AGRICULTURAL
                                                                          1         2            3

                                                                                INDUSTRIAL                          COLLEGES AND HIGHER INSTlTUTES

                                                                       1            2        3

                                                                               Commercial

                                                                          1         2        3
             1         2 Class   1 2 3   4    5   6   1   2   3                SCIENTIFIC

                                                                           1            2        3

                                                                      1          2           3

                                                                               LITERARY
                                                                                                 TEACHERS` INSTITUTES

                                                                                                       1                2

                                                                                                               1        2        3        4        5

                                                                                                       TEACHERS` TRAINING INSTITUES

                                                                                                           1            2        3        4        5

                                                                     INSTITUTES Of FINE ARTS

4
    LEVEL   KINDERGARTEN            PRIMARY           INTERMEDLATE                   SECONDARY                                        HIGHER EDUCATION
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