The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Research for Development Systems for Global Impact

 
The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Research for Development Systems for Global Impact
The GCARD Road Map
  Transforming Agricultural Research
for Development Systems for Global Impact
The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Research for Development Systems for Global Impact
The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Research for Development Systems for Global Impact
The GCARD Road Map
           Transforming Agricultural Research for
       Development (AR4D) Systems for Global Impact

GFAR                                                  CGIAR
The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Research for Development Systems for Global Impact
The GCARD RoadMap is a product of the Global Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR)
   and has been endorsed by the GFAR Steering Committee. GCARD 2010 was co-organized
  by GFAR in collaboration with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
                             (CGIAR) and Agropolis International.

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                                      ISBN 978-92-5-106908-0

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                                          © FAO 2011
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The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Research for Development Systems for Global Impact
Contents

Executive Summary                                                                    5
1    The New Context of Agricultural Research for Development                        6
2    Why a Road Map?                                                                 9
3    What is required of AR4D systems to increase their impact in development?      11
4    The Challenges and Opportunities in Transforming AR4D                          12
5    Who needs to be involved?                                                      14
6    Strategic Elements of the GCARD1 Roadmap,
     (defining actions, required roles, desired outcomes and milestones)            17
    6.1   Inclusively defines key AR4D priorities and actions, driven by evolving
          national, regional and global development                                 17
    6.2   Invests in ensuring equitable partnership and accountability among
          all stakeholders of agricultural innovation and developmental change      20
    6.3   Actively achieves increased investments in human, institutional and
          financial resources for AR4D systems to meet demands in development       22
    6.4   Develops required institutional capacities for generation, access and
          effective use of agricultural knowledge in development                    24
    6.5   Effectively coordinates linkages relating agricultural innovation to
          development programmes and policies                                       26
    6.6   Demonstrates its value and gains recognition by society through
          involvement of stakeholders in effective demonstration and reporting      28
          of outcomes

7    Roadmap Conclusion                                                             30
Annex 1: Acronyms                                                                   32
The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Research for Development Systems for Global Impact
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The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Research for Development Systems for Global Impact
Executive Summary

The Global Conference on Agricultural Research                                                     agriculture and food-related development needs.
for Development (GCARD) is organized by the                                                        It proposes a six-point plan for transforming
Global Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR),                                                      agricultural research for development around
in association with the reform process of the                                                      the world, requiring actions from all those involved
Consultative Group on International Agricultural                                                   in the generation, access and use of agricultural
Research (CGIAR). The GCARD process is                                                             knowledge:
radically reshaping agricultural innovation
and its significance in meeting key Millennium                                                     1     The need for collective focus on key priorities,
Development Goals.                                                                                       as determined and shaped by science and
                                                                                                         society,
The global fragmentation and under-resourcing
                                                                                                   2     The need for true and effective partnership
of public innovation, education and advisory
                                                                                                         between research and those it serves,
processes and weak linkages with wider
development processes and with farmers, NGOs                                                       3     Increased investments to meet the huge
and the private sector, are major bottlenecks                                                            challenges ahead and ensure the required
constraining the value and impact of agricultural                                                        development returns from AR4D
innovation on the lives and livelihoods of the poor.                                               4     Greater capacities to generate, share and make
                                                                                                         use of agricultural knowledge for development
The contributions and dynamic interaction of
                                                                                                         change among all actors
thousands of stakeholders from all sectors have
created the GCARD Roadmap, providing a clear                                                       5     Effective linkages that embed research in
path forward for all involved. The Roadmap                                                               the wider development context and actions
highlights the urgent changes required in                                                                enabling developmental change
Agricultural Research for Development (AR4D)                                                       6     Better demonstration and awareness of
systems globally, to address worldwide goals of                                                          the development impact and returns from
reducing hunger and poverty, creating opportunity                                                        agricultural innovation
for income growth while ensuring environmental
sustainability and particularly meeting the needs of                                               The Roadmap shows that this transformation
resource-poor farmers and consumers.                                                               is the responsibility of all those who care
                                                                                                   about the future of agriculture and its role in
The GCARD Roadmap establishes an inclusive,                                                        development. “Business as usual” is no longer
rolling process of reform and capacity development                                                 an option; the time for action is now.
that aims to mobilize the full power of agricultural
knowledge and innovation towards meeting

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The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Research for Development Systems for Global Impact
1   The New Context of Agricultural
    Research for Development
    Past successes in agricultural research and
    technology adoption have enabled a growing
    populace to avoid mass starvation and created
                                                                            development investment and capacity, AR4D
                                                                            systems in many countries are weak and ill-
                                                                            equipped to deal with these huge challenges.
    much-needed food supplies. Yet, according to                            Average agricultural research investments as a
    FAO and the World Bank, around a billion people                         percentage of agricultural GDP in developing
    still go hungry every day and 1.4 billion live in                       countries4 are 0.58%, compared with 2.4% in
    extreme poverty. Two thirds to three quarters of                        developed economies. By contrast, a few fast-
    the poor eke out a living from agriculture and they,                    growing economy (FGE) countries have seen
    and the urban poor, critically need to increase                         very rapid growth in AR4D with consequent
    their net incomes and purchasing power and                              improvement in food productivity; China, India and
    depend on sustainable productivity growth in                            Brazil together now account for nearly half of all
    agriculture for affordable food. For the poorest                        public AR4D investments in developing countries.
    people, GDP growth originating in agriculture is
    about four times more effective in raising incomes                      The GCARD1 process strongly recommended that
    of extremely poor people than GDP growth                                a radical restructuring and urgent revitalization of
    originating outside the sector1. However, at present                    AR4D systems is now urgently required for many to
    we are not effectively realizing this potential, nor                    effectively contribute to a significant reduction of
    are we creating sufficient opportunity for those                        hunger and malnutrition, to growth out of poverty
    who lack their own land or who seek livelihood                          and to addressing the many new challenges
    opportunities beyond primary production alone.                          emerging in agriculture. Moreover, GCARD1
                                                                            achieved a remarkable consensus that “business
    The Global Conference on Agricultural                                   as usual” is not an option for AR4D and that these
    Research for Development (GCARD 1), and the                             aims can be achieved only if:
    preceding analyses, consultations and discussions
    culminating in the Montpellier Conference in                            i) All stakeholders work more effectively
    March 20102, set out to address the key challenges                         together to address needs identified as most
    and opportunities facing agricultural research,                            important for the poor and see themselves
    technology generation, knowledge dissemination                             as true partners in AR4D, all playing their
    and delivery systems. It identified the changes                            best possible roles to help create large scale
    required in research and innovation systems so                             development impacts worldwide on the lives
    that millions of hitherto unreached resource-poor                          and livelihoods of millions
    smallholder farmers and consumers can benefit                           ii) The capacities and investments required are
    from environmentally sustainable productivity                               put in place to conduct necessary research,
    growth and improvement in systems that can                                  and transform its outputs into development
    increase their food security and incomes to tackle                          outcomes
    the root causes of poverty, particularly in rural
                                                                            1 World Bank (2008) World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Develop-
    areas3.                                                                   ment. pp384
                                                                            2 All reports and papers from the GCARD process can be accessed at http://
                                                                              www.egfar.org/egfar/website/gcard
    GCARD1 recognized that, after decades of                                3 GCARD (2010), Transforming Agricultural Research for Development. Report
                                                                              of the Global Author Team: U Lele, J Pretty, E Terry and E Trigo. pp264 www.
    stagnation in public-funded agricultural                                  egfar.org
                                                                            4 the less economically-developed countries

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The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Research for Development Systems for Global Impact
iii) The millions of resource-poor small                                                                 agenda, with the required enabling
     farmers in diverse environments, along                                                              environment to transform innovation into
     with all other actors in value chains and food                                                      development outcomes
     systems, including consumers, form part of
                                                                                                   Transforming all AR4D systems thus requires
     innovation processes from the outset, so that
                                                                                                   attention to both:
     the generation of new knowledge is more
     responsive to development needs and research                                                  1 Collective research and knowledge sharing
     outputs are more relevant and accessible to the                                                 on key outcome-focused themes globally
     poorest.
                                                                                                   2 Transformation and strengthening
iv) AR4D and related knowledge-sharing                                                               of agricultural innovation systems in
    actions with key outcome-focused themes                                                          developing countries
    are embedded in the wider development

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The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Research for Development Systems for Global Impact
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Why a Road Map?

The GCARD clearly showed that AR4D systems
need urgent transformation to better meet
the needs of the poor and in particular those of
resource-poor farmers and rural communities.
GCARD 1 participants adopted the concept
of a “Road Map” to address these challenges.
Participants recognized that, rather than hoping
for changed behavior in others, all stakeholders
must play their own respective roles and commit
                                                                                                              are driven by the needs of poor farmers and
                                                                                                              consumers and recognizes the needs of poor
                                                                                                              producers for associated mechanisms to enable rapid
                                                                                                              adoption of advances and equitable market access.
                                                                                                              It brings a major focus on improving national AR4D
                                                                                                              systems across all sectors, supported by international
                                                                                                              actions, including those of the reformed CGIAR and
                                                                                                              the restructured FAO.
                                                                                                                                                                            2
themselves to action in improving AR4D, as a                                                                  Agriculture and rural development are highly
major contributor to goals of eradicating hunger                                                              context-specific and AR4D needs differ around
and poverty while ensuring environmental                                                                      the world. Most of the world’s poor and hungry
sustainability 5.                                                                                             people live in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa,
                                                                                                              but development needs are present worldwide and
The GCARD Roadmap is a plan for urgent,                                                                       are changing rapidly with socio-economic shifts.
collective action in AR4D, derived from the                                                                   All are influenced by climate change. AR4D must
views and analyses expressed through the                                                                      recognize the multifunctional role of agriculture
GCARD process. It matches solutions with short                                                                and consider the inter-relationships between
and long-term goals that can be reached through                                                               poverty, food and nutritional security, health and
many paths. This roadmap has three major                                                                      environmental resilience. Mobilizing and generating
objectives, to: i) reach a consensus on important                                                             agricultural knowledge has a fundamental role in
needs in transforming agricultural research for                                                               fostering better-informed policy choices and must be
development and the solutions required to satisfy                                                             strengthened at all levels to increase food supplies
those needs; ii) provide an inclusive mechanism by                                                            sustainably, keep production costs and food
which to look forward and iii) provide a common                                                               prices low, yet ensure high net returns to farmers
framework to plan and coordinate actions for                                                                  and protect the environment worldwide. These
development impact.                                                                                           are challenging interactions, requiring collective
                                                                                                              action and sharing of knowledge, but particular
To address these challenges far-reaching changes                                                              trade-offs and benefits will vary depending on
are required from all key stakeholders, through                                                               the socio-economic and agro-ecological contexts
a coherent stepwise approach over a sustained                                                                 concerned and the policies followed. There are
period. Changes in perceptions and behaviour                                                                  many lessons to be learned between regions from
will be required to bring tangible change in AR4D                                                             successes and failures elsewhere.
system structure and function. These will need to
be objectively monitored and evaluated through                                                                Transforming AR4D requires clear links between
end-user perceptions and real impact. Successive                                                              improved knowledge and its greater impacts in
GCARD cycles will hence become important                                                                      development, with innovation pathways, desired
mutually accountable vehicles, for reporting and                                                              milestones and targets. These must also consider
evaluating progress in transforming AR4D and its                                                              the learning and development required around
development impact.                                                                                           new approaches and knowledge, while taking into
                                                                                                              consideration farmers’ risks, options and choices.
The Road Map provides a plan for collaborative                                                                These pathways need to be defined by individual
action for transforming and strengthening AR4D                                                                developing countries in the context of their own
systems globally, in which all stakeholders have                                                              development needs, plans and commitments. The
vital roles to play. Millions of smallholders are                                                             Roadmap is policy-informing, not policy prescriptive
reliant on agriculture for their livelihoods and for                                                          and choices on production systems and institutional
opportunity for economic growth. The Roadmap                                                                  roles are made by sovereign governments. The
thus particularly emphasizes innovations that                                                                 GCARD aims to inform such choices through
                                                                                                              collective learning and feedback.
5 As proposed by Ismail Serageldin, Synthesis statement, GCARD 2010.

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What is required of AR4D systems to
increase their impact in development?

From GCARD1 it was possible to define the
characteristics of a well-functioning AR4D
system (Box 1). This creates clear expectations
for all involved in the innovation process, from
                                                                                                 a clear need to avoid past failures of AR4D systems,
                                                                                                 to contribute to achieving national development
                                                                                                 targets and to ensure benefits to resource-poor
                                                                                                 smallholder farmers and poor consumers and thus
                                                                                                                                                                3
intended beneficiaries to advanced research and                                                  help meet key Millennium Development Goals
building out from national commitments. There is                                                 (MDGs).

  Box 1: A well-functioning AR4D system is one that is committed to action for impact and that:

  1. Inclusively defines key AR4D priorities and actions, driven by evolving national, regional
     and global development needs
  2. Invests in ensuring equitable partnership and accountability among all stakeholders in
     agricultural innovation and developmental change
  3. Actively achieves increased investments in human, institutional and financial resources for
     AR4D systems to meet demands in development;
  4. Develops required human and institutional capacities for generation, access and effective
     use of agricultural knowledge in development;
  5. Effectively coordinates linkages relating innovation to development programmes and
     policies;
  6. Demonstrates its value and gains recognition by society through involvement of
     stakeholders in effective demonstration and reporting of outcomes.

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4
The Challenges and Opportunities
in Transforming AR4D
The constraints and opportunities of AR4D
have been well documented in previous analyses,
including the World Development Report 2008 and
the 2009 report from the International Assessment
of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology
                                                                                                  2 Inadequate attention to the many contextual
                                                                                                    factors required, including enabling policy
                                                                                                    environment, good governance, institutional
                                                                                                    and human resource capacity, capital
                                                                                                    investment for trade, infrastructure, finance,
for Development6, as well as in the regional and                                                    mobilization of farmer and community
global reports and synthesis report developed                                                       entrepreneurship and management of related
through the GCARD process.                                                                          risks, all of which impact on agricultural
                                                                                                    production and productivity of smallholder
The major challenges to be                                                                          farmers.
overcome include:                                                                                 3 A poor linkage between research processes
                                                                                                    and the development agenda, in particular
At the national level in many developing                                                            the wider enabling policies, investments and
countries:                                                                                          mechanisms of rural development, as well
1 A lack of political commitment to invest in                                                       as wider issues such as nutrition, health and
  AR4D resulting in a huge gap in investment                                                        markets.
  and capacity required in AR4D.                                                                  4 A lack of involvement of all relevant
                                                                                                    stakeholders in agricultural research,
6 Agriculture at a Crossroads: The Global Report, (2009) International Assess-                      technology development and learning
  ment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development
  Eds: BD McIntyre, HR Herren, J Wakhungu, RT Watson. pp606, Island Press                           frameworks and actions.

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5 The difficulty of defining national AR4D                                                              as a major driver of economic and social
  priorities and actions and lack of effective                                                          development for both the rural and urban poor
  mechanisms to put these priorities into                                                               and new investments and funding mechanisms
  action through national and regional AR4D                                                             following the recent food price crisis
  organizations, to build equitable partnerships
                                                                                                  2 Growth of ICTs and new roles of advisory
  and to conduct relevant research addressing
                                                                                                    services hastening knowledge access even in
  poverty, food security and environmental
                                                                                                    remote areas
  sustainability needs.
                                                                                                  3 Growing inclusion of resource-poor farmers
At the regional level:                                                                              in markets and strengthening of small rural-
                                                                                                    based enterprises and producer companies,
6 The difficulties encountered in integrating
                                                                                                    creating opportunities for economic growth.
  actions at regional level, due to the
  complexity of social, cultural, political and
                                                                                                  At the regional level
  environmental factors among nations.
                                                                                                  4 Integrated regional policies to improve
7 Under-resourced regional organizations
                                                                                                    collective actions, such as the CAADP Pillar IV in
  and networks, with limited ownership and
                                                                                                    Africa
  involvement across the range of national
  AR4D stakeholders, compared to what is now                                                      5 Value of multi-stakeholder Regional Fora in
  required.                                                                                         facilitating actions for development along the
                                                                                                    agriculture, food and nutrition value chain
8 A lack of wider international political
  commitment to support regionally-organized                                                      6 Collective actions addressing shared
  actions and development organizations and to                                                      challenges on a larger scale e.g. the Rice-
  share technological innovations                                                                   Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic
                                                                                                    Plain, international research for development
At the global level:                                                                                programmes, action-oriented networks and
                                                                                                    issue-based consortia.
9 The as yet incomplete reform of the CGIAR
  and challenges in creating operational
                                                                                                  At the global level
  synergies between CGIAR centers and with their
  partners.                                                                                       7 Political recognition of the role of AR4D

10 Insufficient commitment to collaborative                                                       8 Reform of international agencies such as the
   actions on a global scale and the need                                                           CGIAR and FAO, to become more smallholder
   for integrated, synergetic mobilization of                                                       producer and impact oriented.
   international stakeholder networks and                                                         9 Growing recognition of GFAR as the open
   research and development initiatives.                                                            and inclusive mechanism for action among
11 Impacts of inequitable trade worldwide,                                                          all stakeholders and the GCARD being the
   compounded with emerging issues with                                                             common instrument for achieving change
   strong adverse effects such as climate change,                                                 10 Increased role of the fast-growing economies
   water scarcity and trans-boundary diseases, each                                                  as providers of technologies and learning
   leading to increased vulnerabilities of the poor.                                                 opportunities for other regions.

                                                                                                  11 Technologies for more developed agriculture,
Yet there are many opportunities,
                                                                                                     including those developed by both science and
for example:
                                                                                                     farmers and technologies for processing and
                                                                                                     value addition that are now finding increasing
At the national level
                                                                                                     application in developing countries.
1 Renewed recognition in government policies
  of the role and impact of agriculture

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5
Who needs to be involved?

The GCARD2010 identified the stakeholders that
need to be mobilized at the national, regional and
international levels to meet these challenges with
each as an owner of the process of transforming the
                                                                                  knowledge in development; e.g. the UN
                                                                                  agencies, national rural development
                                                                                  institutions, ICT providers, micro-finance
                                                                                  and micro-insurance agencies, farmers
generation and use of agricultural knowledge and                                  organizations and legislatures and those
technologies for development. Here we consider                                    concerned with related agendas e.g.
the needs and aims of resource-poor farmers and                                   health, nutrition, trade and environmental
consumers to be at the centre of the AR4D system:                                 sustainability;

•   Civil society, including in particular smallholder                    •       Donors and other development assistance
    farmers and farmer cooperatives/producer                                      agencies, including bilateral and multilateral
    companies, community organizations and non-                                   institutions, development banks and investors;
    governmental organizations at all levels, from                                and private foundations;
    local to national, regional and international and                     •       The media.
    with particular need for inclusion of women
    and the more vulnerable groups;                                       Rather than starting from a technology and its
                                                                          potential promise, transforming AR4D requires
•   National publicly funded agricultural research,                       thinking based on delivering the outcomes
    education and advisory institutions and                               desired by and for the poor and how knowledge
    institutional combinations of these roles;                            generation, access and use can help lead to these.
•   Private sector, including small, medium                               Old models of linear innovation pathways and
    and large agricultural input and agri-food                            institutional silos no longer hold in today’s rapidly
    enterprises, service providers, banks, insurers                       changing agricultural systems and stakeholders are
    and the agribusiness and marketing sectors and                        interconnected in multiple directions and pathways
    ethnic diasporas now spread across the world;                         across a spectrum of interactions, depending on
                                                                          the context concerned.
•   National policymakers of economically
    developed and developing countries and in                             The GCARD process has redefined the role of
    regional political and technical organizations;                       the Global Forum for Agricultural Research
•   Multi-stakeholder Regional Fora, mobilizing                           (GFAR) as the open and inclusive multi-stakeholder
    advocacy, institutional transformation,                               mechanism for catalyzing these changes. GFAR is
    knowledge sharing and regional actions                                not an implementing agency in itself, but brings
    towards large-scale development impacts.                              together the AR4D institutions, stakeholder
                                                                          networks and practical programmes active across
•   Institutions of international agricultural
                                                                          all sectors to address their common strategic
    research, in particular the CGIAR, the national
                                                                          needs in: i) policy advocacy, ii) inter-regional and
    institutions in fast-growing economies,
                                                                          global partnership, iii) institutional strengthening
    advanced research institutions and professional
                                                                          and iv) knowledge sharing. The role of the GFAR
    societies addressing agricultural and associated
                                                                          mechanism in the transformation of agricultural
    fundamental science;
                                                                          research for development systems worldwide is
•   Those supporting the use of agricultural                              a crucial function, recognized in the G8 L’Aquila

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Statement on Food Security, 2009. This Roadmap
establishes the common path to do so, relevant
to and involving all sectors and stakeholders and
in a frame built through subsidiarity, from local/
national needs and actions, to regional and hence
to the global frame.

As the main international agricultural research
system, the Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research (CGIAR) also has a critical
role to play in furthering these changes. The
reform of the CGIAR towards outcome-oriented
programmes in a more open and inclusive
international system creates tremendous
opportunity to add value to national capabilities
and for working in collective actions via equitable
partnerships addressing agreed national and
regional development objectives. These principles
and the new focus of the CGIAR are laid out in the
CGIAR’s Strategy and Results Framework (SRF),
which defines the goals and expectations of the
reformed system and how it aims to work with
partners and other stakeholders. The GCARD
itself provides a crucial mechanism of public
accountability for the value of the reformed CGIAR
system and its programmes, to help shape and
strengthen the value of the reformed system to
better meet its purpose and the needs of national
partners of all forms.

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Strategic Elements of the GCARD1 Roadmap
Defining actions, required roles, desired outcomes and milestones
The GCARD Road Map aims to transform AR4D globally, from its current fragmented status to more
coherent and cohesive systems for greater impact. Its goal is that agricultural knowledge, science and
technology should play their fullest possible roles in removing poverty, hunger and malnutrition from
the world. To do so, collective actions are required to develop each of the six essential characteristics of
well-functioning AR4D systems defined through the GCARD 2010 process:
                                                                                                                                                              6
Inclusively defines key AR4D priorities and actions, driven by
evolving national, regional and global development
(a) Strategic elements
AR4D systems need to be focused towards
                                                                                                   and income needs of the rural poor and the food
                                                                                                   demand of increasingly urbanized populations,
                                                                                                                                                             6.1
                                                                                                   while ensuring the sustainability of production and
achieving defined development impacts,
                                                                                                   food systems.
recognizing the complex realities in which these
occur. Defining national development priorities and                                                The GCARD 2010 process has identified key
effective AR4D actions among diverse partners is                                                   AR4D themes and actions on a global scale,
not a straightforward process. It requires political                                               reflecting the research and development needs of
will to frame innovation in a way that learns                                                      developing countries through a multi‐stakeholder
from the past. It requires changed mandates that                                                   review and consultation organized by the
take a broader view of agricultural innovation,                                                    Agricultural Research Fora in each region of the
new operational norms and methodologies                                                            world (AARINENA, APAARI, CACAARI, EFARD, FARA
which are both standardized and flexible, better                                                   and FORAGRO), together with issues identified by
planning and learning from actions and better                                                      the analyses of the CGIAR and the international
use of existing knowledge into these processes. It                                                 agricultural development priorities agreed by
requires accountability to those served by AR4D,                                                   Governments through the processes of FAO,
as well as those paying for the work. Priorities                                                   the World Bank and other UN agencies. Despite
need to integrate science with development                                                         obvious regional and contextual differences, global
in consideration of issues such as sustainable                                                     integration and GCARD discussion of these analyses
intensification, better access to safe, nutritious                                                 has found considerable congruence in priorities
food by vulnerable communities, increasing                                                         identified in key areas where AR4D actions are
agricultural incomes through value-adding post-                                                    most required and the form and function these
harvest management and creating entrepreneurial                                                    should take. These now need to be taken back into
opportunities for resource-poor smallholder                                                        national and regional contexts and mapped against
farmers and producers. In these processes,                                                         the incidence of poverty, food and nutritional
better use of existing knowledge and generating                                                    insecurity, environmental degradation, etc. and
new knowledge are themselves essential tools                                                       potential partnerships entailed, to determine
for understanding policy trade-offs and useful                                                     where interventions can bring greatest benefits
synergies, to meet both the pressing nutrition                                                     and impacts.

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Improved foresight is essential if development
                                                  needs and future priorities are to be prioritized
                                                  and create a clear view of new challenges as they
                                                  begin to emerge. Forward-looking, anticipatory
                                                  research and analysis needs to integrate a range of
                                                  perspectives on key issues, making use of the best
                                                  available data and interpretations from different
                                                  sources and directly integrating the diverse views
                                                  of farmers and other stakeholders on specific
                                                  problems, so that important issues are examined
                                                  through multiple ‘lenses’. Each approach here may
                                                  resolve only part of the story, but together they
                                                  can produce collective best-bets on future needs,
                                                  recognizing the benefits and trade-offs among
                                                  potential policy options. Climate-change analyses
                                                  already show the value of such an approach.

                                                  (b) Required Roles
                                                  National institutions in charge of research priority
                                                  setting must; i) connect with strategic planning
                                                  and work from a basis of desired development
                                                  outcomes identified in rural development, food
                                                  security and agricultural plans and commitments,
                                                  ii) adopt an inclusive process involving all relevant
                                                  stakeholders and centred on meeting the needs
                                                  of the poor, iii) ensure a diversity of options are
                                                  considered including use of traditional knowledge,
                                                  conventional approaches and new technologies,
                                                  iv) determine actions based on available skills and
                                                  resources including those from the private sector
                                                  and the civil society and v) evaluate technologies
                                                  and knowledge that can be accessed from external
                                                  sources.

                                                  Multi-stakeholder regional and sub-regional
                                                  fora must be strengthened to better include
                                                  the perspectives of diverse stakeholders and
                                                  help shape innovation policies and capacities in
                                                  each region. This strengthening requires strong
                                                  engagement with all stakeholder constituencies,
                                                  commitment and funding support from national
                                                  and regional development organizations and
                                                  support from international agencies working across
                                                  and into regions. AR4D fora must engage with
                                                  regional policy organizations and development
                                                  banks to derive regional agricultural research and
                                                  innovation priorities, which in turn are embedded
                                                  into wider development processes. Opportunities

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for sharing information, including success stories                                                 (c) Desired outcomes and
and stimulating regional collective actions, should                                                milestones
be examined to enhance both speed and efficacy of
                                                                                                   •     Current and future AR4D agenda and priority
change. Potential technologies and actions need to
                                                                                                         setting at National, Regional and Global
be cross-linked through discussion and agreement
                                                                                                         levels to be an evolutionary and inclusive
among partners that can help fulfill each part of the
                                                                                                         process among all AR4D stakeholders, based
processes required.
                                                                                                         on use of the best available knowledge.
At inter-regional/global level, the GFAR                                                                 By GCARDs 2 and 3, milestones will be
mechanism should catalyze and mobilize                                                                   measured as:
the linkages and processes required among                                                                i) Experiences and learning in establishing
international research implementers such as                                                                 National, Regional and Global multi-
the CGIAR, advanced research institutions, the                                                              stakeholder planning and monitoring
institutions of the fast-growing economies and                                                              systems for AR4D prioritization and
international policy bodies such as FAO and UNDP                                                            implementation.
so that these add capacity and value to national
and regional prioritization processes through                                                            ii) Number and quality of Regional and Global
expert advice, analysis and awareness on issues and                                                          Partnership Programmes and initiatives,
opportunities affecting the potential of AR4D to                                                             including, those of the CGIAR, addressing
better meet national development needs.                                                                      common and cross-cutting challenges
                                                                                                             through innovative multi-stakeholder
The need for improved foresight must be                                                                      actions in agreed frameworks;
addressed by mobilizing expert analyses within
countries to analyze specific themes of concern and
                                                                                                   •     Future agricultural scenarios projected by
bringing together, via GFAR and the regional Fora
                                                                                                         multi-stakeholder cross-referenced analyses,
and on a coherent and regular basis, the diverse
                                                                                                         to better identify new knowledge needs and
national and international initiatives to examine
                                                                                                         shape research required.
relevant development scenarios through different
lenses, learning from the outcomes of the different                                                      i) Foresight academy consortia established
models and perspectives employed. Alongside this,                                                           to address future needs in national and
wide stakeholder consultation will be mobilized                                                             regional contexts.
through national and regional fora, to ‘ground-                                                          ii) Coordinated foresight actions established
truth’ the realities and impacts of trends among                                                             at international level to stimulate and
poor rural communities.                                                                                      integrate diverse analyses of key issues and
                                                                                                             their projections.

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6.2
  Invests in ensuring equitable partnership and accountability
  among all stakeholders of agricultural innovation and
  developmental change

  (a) Strategic elements                                                   and services. Intellectual property is emerging
                                                                           as a key element to consider in ensuring access
  Food security and agricultural development are
                                                                           to agricultural innovation of all forms. Clarity is
  the responsibilities of sovereign governments.
                                                                           needed at all levels as to who benefits from new
  Development impacts depend on national
                                                                           approaches and how those least able to pay can
  strategies and commitments around national
                                                                           still be included or protected in the application
  innovation systems. These must involve public,
                                                                           of new technologies in order to avoid further
  private, community and civil society actors and
                                                                           exacerbating the problems of the poor.
  reconcile their different aims and interests through
  common principles of partnership; developing                             The international architecture of agricultural
  shared objectives, agreed roles and responsibilities,                    research is changing rapidly. In line with
  transparency, trust and understanding and mutual                         the Paris and Accra Declarations, the active
  accountability for success.                                              participation of developing countries in the
                                                                           design, implementation and definition of targets
  Effective and equitable partnership is essential
                                                                           for international research and in establishing
  to reduce fragmentation in the system and enable
                                                                           shared objectives and commitments, is essential
  each actor to deliver their best value in a wider
                                                                           for maximizing value addition and impact from
  frame of actions towards impact.
                                                                           international actions. In return, identifying
  For this, the interests of intended beneficiaries;                       global targets can be useful catalysts in helping
  in particular poor farmers and consumers must                            countries to revisit their research and development
  now be represented directly in the shaping and                           objectives and frameworks and examine how
  implementation of research. Farmers are also                             best international AR4D might help deliver
  innovators and should be seen as partners in                             desired national outcomes. Advanced research
  innovation systems, bringing great returns for the                       institutions (ARIs) are important partners to
  poor and sparking new lines of upstream research.                        national systems, either directly or via international
                                                                           research intermediaries and leading-edge
  Traditional partners in the sharing of knowledge                         science has much to offer if harnessed towards
  and learning are rapidly being enhanced or                               development objectives. ARIs now include
  at times even displaced by ICTs while service                            institutions of the fast growing economies (FGEs)
  delivery is increasingly provided by private and civil                   and it is important to determine how these new
  rather than public organizations. ICTs are having a                      international actors can best support AR4D
  tremendous impact in breaking through barriers                           capabilities in other countries and participate in
  of language, culture and institutional separation                        inter-regional activities.
  to provide many new linkages and opportunities,
  even in remote locations.                                                (b) Required Roles
  The increasing role of the private sector, NGOs                          True partnership requires investment of time and
  and professional farmer organizations as service                         attention and equitable relationships that have to
  providers linking science and society must be                            accommodate vastly different scales of resources
  recognized in entrepreneurial opportunities, as                          and very diverse perspectives, knowledge and
  well as all being key contributors in generating and                     contexts. National AR4D policymakers and
  transforming knowledge into innovative products                          research institutions must develop bottom-up

  20                     THE GCARD ROAD MAP        T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h   for   D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s   for   G lo b a l I m pac t
decentralized processes to engage effectively with                                                opportunities and implications of the new AR4D
communities and stakeholders, to better understand                                                architecture in addressing and resourcing major
their needs and perspectives and integrate                                                        themes.
these into effective and equitable partnerships.
Strengthened Regional Fora, equitably inclusive                                                   (c) Desired outcomes and
of all sectors, will catalyze international actions                                               milestones
between countries and inclusive partnership with
actors such as farmers organizations, NGOs and the                                                Development outcomes enhanced through
private sector (SMEs, input suppliers and markets),                                               national AR4D systems that fully recognize the
into regional and inter-regional actions geared to                                                multi-stakeholder nature of innovation in their
meeting development objectives. International                                                     planning, delivery and learning and work through
Centers in and beyond the CGIAR, including                                                        common principles of effective partnership:
ARIs and FGEs, must exploit to their fullest their
                                                                                                  •     Documented shifts in research funding &
partnership potential with national systems, regional
                                                                                                        monitoring systems to incorporate partnership
and global networks and the private and other
                                                                                                        principles.
sectors and development organizations, so that
each plays it’s most effective role, complementing                                                •     Equitable Partnership Principles and IP
and adding value as a global pool of capabilities                                                       procedures put into practice at all levels, within
and with clear strategies for enabling transition                                                       the new AR4D architecture and equitable
of innovations and roles to national partners. For                                                      partnerships fostered by strengthened multi-
success, funding bodies will need to invest more in                                                     stakeholder Regional Fora.
the equitable formulation of and learning from AR4D                                               •     Change in attribution and reward systems
processes and not just their implementation. GFAR,                                                      used by AR4D institutions to better value
through mentoring the GCARD process, will catalyze                                                      development objectives and contributions of
structured in-depth consultations to examine the                                                        each partner.

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6.3
  Actively achieves increased investments in human, institutional
  and financial resources for AR4D systems to meet demands in
  development

  (a) Strategic elements                                                                         National Agricultural Research and Innovation
                                                                                                 Systems should consider their investment
  The CGIAR estimates that to deliver
                                                                                                 commitments in light of the new societal needs
  developmental outcomes on the scale required
                                                                                                 and priorities identified, via inclusive processes
  to meet the major challenges that lie ahead
                                                                                                 involving all relevant stakeholders. National
  and in view of the enormous investment backlog
                                                                                                 systems should develop strategies on what
  already caused by the under-funding of the
                                                                                                 technologies and knowledge can be generated
  past two decades, it will be necessary to triple
                                                                                                 or mobilized nationally, what capacities and
  the global scale of investment in AR4D over
                                                                                                 investments are needed to do so and how to access
  the next 15 years7. Beyond direct national AR4D
                                                                                                 new capabilities, technologies and knowledge from
  investments, increased national investments and
                                                                                                 external and international sources.
  aid flows will also be needed in the wider rural
  development (e.g. in rural infrastructure, water                                               International and national funding agencies
  access and education) and food systems required to                                             together need to greatly increase their investments
  achieve large-scale impacts from AR4D outcomes.                                                from the 2010 base, while also improving
                                                                                                 expenditure quality and accountability. Financial
  For agricultural innovation to deliver effectively
                                                                                                 support for AR4D must provide flexibility for
  towards desired development outcomes, it is also
                                                                                                 institutions to innovate and recognize the
  essential to pursue more integrated and effective
                                                                                                 long-term nature of research and development
  investments, based on the principles of Paris and
                                                                                                 investments. More integrated strategies must
  Accra. This also requires coherent and effective
                                                                                                 be developed for improving the effectiveness of
  investments among AR4D actors supporting
                                                                                                 aid flows for national and global AR4D systems,
  national actions and their outcomes, including
                                                                                                 explicitly aligning bilateral and multilateral
  the CGIAR, the ARIs and the research centers in
                                                                                                 investments in research with those in wider
  the FGEs. Increased funding will require strong
                                                                                                 development.
  evidence-based advocacy to demonstrate the
  value of increased and sustained investment in                                                 Regional fora should document and track
  research, training and delivery systems.                                                       investments and returns from research and
                                                                                                 development investments, building from national
  (b) Required Roles                                                                             to regional commitments, linking with the policy
                                                                                                 and investment bodies responsible and working
  Government commitments must lead these
                                                                                                 with governments, regional development banks
  processes and stimulate efforts from others, also
                                                                                                 and supporting donors as well as the farmer,
  mobilizing contributions from the private sector
                                                                                                 private and NGO sectors. Regional and global
  and civil society and international development
                                                                                                 intergovernmental policy organizations must
  assistance and AR4D actors.
                                                                                                 commit to increase well-coordinated investment
                                                                                                 and human resource development in AR4D
                                                                                                 and help ensure that national and international
  7 A Draft Strategy and Results Framework for the CGIAR. For discussion at                      efforts attain the levels of investment required
    the Global Conference on Agricultural Research for Development (GCARD)
    20 March 2010, CGIAR http://alliance.cgxchange.org/strategy-and-results-
    framework-and-mega-programs
                                                                                                 to meet nationally-established targets towards
                                                                                                 key MDGs. Multi-country arrangements must be

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developed within and between regions and sub-                                                       (c) Desired outcomes and
regions, to increase the spillover effects of existing                                              milestones
investments and capacities, making use of new
                                                                                                    National research investments reach a target
‘South-South’ opportunities for sharing knowledge
                                                                                                    value of 1% of agricultural GDP by 2025 and
and advances.
                                                                                                    rural development investments to reach 10% of
International research actors including CGIAR,                                                      agricultural GDP by the same date.
ARIs and research centers in FGEs have valuable
                                                                                                    To achieve these, GFAR constituencies must work
roles to play, in mobilizing and leveraging
                                                                                                    together to address the vast investment gaps in
investments for international research and in
                                                                                                    AR4D and linking research investments to wider
advocating the need to build national AR4D
                                                                                                    development commitments:
system capacities to effectively fulfill and sustain
actions required. Experiences of FGEs in the                                                        •     Advocating, monitoring and reporting
development of agricultural research, education                                                           investment commitments by both developing
and advisory systems can also provide valuable                                                            and developed countries from the baseline year
supporting arguments for leveraging national and                                                          of 2010.
international resources and investments in AR4D
                                                                                                    •     Mobilizing expertise to help national, sub-
systems globally.
                                                                                                          regional and regional research organizations to
GFAR provides the inclusive and objective                                                                 improve and track the quality and performance
mechanism and GCARD the regularized process                                                               of AR4D investments and partnerships, with
required for monitoring investments and high-                                                             enhanced accountability for results.
level advocacy for increased investment in the                                                      •     Advocating the strong potential contribution of
sector, on behalf of all AR4D stakeholders                                                                AR4D into high-level policy fora.

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6.4
  Develops required institutional capacities for generation, access
  and effective use of agricultural knowledge in development

  (a) Strategic elements                                                 infrastructure/facilities and societal worth need to
                                                                         be provided to attract the best talent at all levels
  The need for greatly increased local and                               and to retain trained researchers and advisers. It
  national capacities of AR4D actors is clear and                        is important that young people themselves help
  urgent in many countries, most critically so in                        express what changes are needed in agricultural
  countries recovering from protracted conflict or                       education and incentives to make careers more
  crisis. Developing the required new AR4D capacities                    attractive and valued and better recognize
  demands better analysis of needs and concerted                         the range of roles now required in AR4D. This
  policies and actions at all levels along the                           also requires a shift in thinking and knowledge
  innovation pathways concerned. The reform and                          generation to bring best opportunity in roles
  strengthening of national AR4D systems must help                       that will bring aggregate value to agricultural
  them to be more inclusive, more coherent, more                         production, including marketing, processing
  focused and more accountable to those they serve.                      and distribution and their associated innovation,
                                                                         knowledge and financing needs.
  Agriculture is an ageing and undervalued
  profession in many countries and special attention                     Research and innovation value and reward
  must be given to encouraging young people into                         systems, for both institutions and employees,
  careers in all aspects of AR4D and to encouraging                      need to be radically revised to take better
  and involving women into roles in AR4D, in                             account of development value and ‘client’
  particular into senior positions. Better career                        relevance, encourage collective capacities and
  incentives, including financial reward systems,                        foster coherence, integrate new approaches with

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agricultural realities and increase the contribution                                               public, private and civil actors and the required
of agricultural science to society.                                                                policy and investment commitments to:

Actors and capacities involved in the                                                              •     Better meet development demand, particularly
dissemination of knowledge and sharing of                                                                recognizing the needs of the disadvantaged;
learning are changing significantly. Civil society
                                                                                                   •     Promote better AR4D incentives, including
and the private sector are playing increasing roles
                                                                                                         new value and skills rewards systems directly
and research/extension/education institutional
                                                                                                         relevant to development;
divides are disappearing. Farmer’s own innovation
is increasingly recognized in participatory                                                        •     Improve awareness, mentoring and rewards to
research and experiential-learning, but these                                                            attract the brightest and best into agricultural
need to be linked to wider AR4D knowledge                                                                careers.
and input access for farmers to benefit from the                                                   Regional and global intergovernmental
range of opportunities available. The new roles                                                    organizations, CGIAR, ARIs and FGEs must
and partnerships of those compiling, integrating                                                   optimize capacity development through coherent
and transforming agricultural knowledge into                                                       and shared actions, targeting countries where
innovative practices, technologies and enterprises,                                                the needs are greatest and quickly overcoming
need to be adequately resourced and supported to                                                   capacity needs through learning from experiences
deliver the impacts at scale that are now required.                                                and capabilities elsewhere. The convening role
Developing collective capacities to engage with                                                    of Regional and Global Fora and their functions
markets through producer companies and enabling                                                    in the sharing of knowledge and innovation
inputs on farm and in value addition processes,                                                    between regions is crucial in facilitating capacity
such as by micro-finance and micro-insurance, are                                                  strengthening and networking of skills where
increasingly important capacity requirements for                                                   required to support national development
market supply and quality needs to be met.                                                         processes and hasten development through inter-
                                                                                                   regional learning.
Regional capacity development partnership
is needed to: i) generate economies of scale in
collaborative AR4D, ii) foster inter-country and                                                   (c) Desired outcomes and
inter-regional cooperation, learning and exchange                                                  milestones
of experiences and develop national capacities                                                     Effective scale of national AR4D systems
and iii) promote more effective regional and sub-                                                  established to meet agriculture-related
regional collaborative research and networking                                                     development needs, educational systems linked
to make better use of available resources and                                                      directly with agricultural innovation and new
enhance capacity development in the smaller and                                                    value systems for a development outcome focus:
weaker national systems. Countries devastated
by protracted conflicts are particularly vulnerable                                                      i) National policies integrate roles of education,
and warrant particular attention in rebuilding                                                           research and advisory institutions, with
trust systems and capacities in AR4D, as essential                                                       curricula and reward systems revised to better
elements of both enhancing their food security and                                                       meet new and future AR4D career needs,
rebuilding communities and livelihoods.                                                                  particularly for women;

                                                                                                         ii) Concerted international platforms/networks
(b) Required Roles                                                                                       enable learning and tangible capacity
                                                                                                         outcomes between countries and regions;
At national scale, clear policies and principles
for capacity development must be applied to                                                              iii) Capacity needs of states emerging from
transform and build up national systems, linking                                                         protracted conflict addressed via learning from
education systems directly with research and                                                             experiences elsewhere and mobilization of
advisory institutions and bringing together                                                              international supporting efforts.

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6.5
  Effectively coordinates linkages relating agricultural innovation
  to development programmes and policies

  (a) Strategic elements                                                    that successful agricultural systems, and in turn
                                                                            agricultural knowledge, play in development,
  To contribute effectively towards development
                                                                            societal growth and stability. A more holistic
  outcomes, it is essential that the generation and
                                                                            approach is needed, going far beyond productivity
  use of new agricultural knowledge is linked with
                                                                            alone, to integrate food security and nutrition,
  the enabling environment required, in particular
                                                                            livelihoods and environmental sustainability,
  to enable resource-poor producers to grow from
                                                                            recognizing the mutual synergies and trade offs in
  poverty through on- and off-farm opportunities
                                                                            achieving each. An example of such an integrated
  related to agriculture and food (e.g. in market
                                                                            policy and practical approach already exists in
  opportunity, producer companies, microfinance,
                                                                            Africa, with the Comprehensive African Agricultural
  value addition, land access etc.) to translate
                                                                            Development Programme (CAADP) and within this
  innovations into changes and impacts on the
                                                                            the Framework for African Agricultural Productivity.
  ground and in particular among the intended
  beneficiaries of research: the hitherto un-reached                        Wider perspectives themselves throw
  farm households, consumers and public. Poor                               up innovative AR4D, for example in value
  linkages between research processes and those                             addition, reducing food chain losses and greater
  enabling wider rural development and between                              understanding of constraining factors such as land
  national, multilateral and bilateral development                          rights that may otherwise negate AR4D impacts
  assistance in support of these, are collective failings                   for the poor. For all stakeholders in poor-farmer
  of AR4D systems around the world.                                         agriculture & food systems and along value chains
                                                                            to be able to take advantage of new knowledge, we
  Resolving these needs requires a clear outcome-
                                                                            need greater understanding of the organizational
  based approach, integrating research into
                                                                            requirements of collective actions and enterprises.
  development processes and linking actions in each.
                                                                            This requires organization from local through to
  Outcome based planning and coherent actions,
                                                                            global levels, to better articulate collective needs
  aligned with national strategies and plans, must
                                                                            and demands and engage more effectively with the
  make use of pathways of innovation and research
                                                                            shaping and implementation of AR4D.
  that address the value chain from seed to plate
  and aim to increase returns to poor farmers at
  all levels, as well as identifying and developing                         (b) Required Roles
  viable alternative livelihood opportunities for                           GFAR stakeholders should examine the policy
  those unable to take up innovation products                               and investment linkages between innovation
  and be competitive producers. This also enables                           and development at all levels; country by country
  identification of key interventions required to                           and region by region and work to ensure that i)
  remove blockages and barriers to large-scale                              AR4D investments and innovation pathways are
  impacts.                                                                  directly contributing towards wider development
                                                                            commitments and ii) that development policies
  Closer linkages with other development sectors
                                                                            take full account of agricultural research and
  are required, particularly with health and nutrition,
                                                                            knowledge sharing in their formulation. Some
  education, governance, infrastructure and
                                                                            FGEs provide useful illustrations of the returns
  finance, recognizing the vital multiple functions
                                                                            to be obtained from such an approach and their

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