The Late General Lookout Masuku's Last Meal What it Meant? - TWENTYSIXTHISSUE 17-24NOVEMBER2020

The Late General Lookout Masuku's Last Meal What it Meant? - TWENTYSIXTHISSUE 17-24NOVEMBER2020
                             17 – 24 NOVEMBER 2020

      The Late General
     Lookout Masuku’s
        Last Meal …
       What it Meant?
The Late General Lookout Masuku's Last Meal What it Meant? - TWENTYSIXTHISSUE 17-24NOVEMBER2020

             Inside This week
                          Message to Stakeholders, Page 4

                                 Know Your Rights:
            UN Basic Principles and Guidelines on Reparations 6
   International Consensus on Psychosocial Support During Exhumations,
                                  page 12

                                  Opinion Articles
Excerpts from the Book “Robert Mugabe
KCB: The Black Supremacist”                  General Lookout Masuku: Part II
By Esau Ncube, page 15                       Meaning of the Watermelon, page 29

History of Zambezi Water Project             Biased Judges Destroy the Credibility of the
By Mthembe Hillary Hadebe, page 17           Judiciary
                                             By Tamsanqa Mlilo, page 32
Realities of Life in Zimbabwe
Alois S. Baleni, page 22                     Justice Delayed is Justice Denied
                                             Letter from the UK
Change Must Come Now                         By Vee Ndlovu, page 33
By Rabhelani Mguni, page 23
                                             A View From Matebeleland:
Prevention is Better than Cure               A Political Dilemma II
By Elizabeth George, page 24                 By Mthulisi Hanana, page 35

Intlungu Yomama baseMatebeleland (Xhosa)     Columnist
By Soviet Ncube (Rhoyikazi), page 26         360° Fireside Truth
                                             Page 36
Thusang Bana Basa Qeting Sekolo (Sotho)
By Ozin Nyathi, page 27                      The Role of Government in Business
                                             By Colls Ndlovu, page 39
Ndiswiliila Mujwaangu (Tonga)
By Aleck Munkuli, page 27                    Integrity as an Investment
                                             Strictly Business with Brighton Ithuteng
Injobo Enhle Series 8                        Maladzhi Sibanda, page 41

Covid Alert, page 46
Weekly Word of God: Spiritual Realities with Apostle Ntando Joseph (Advocate), page
The Late General Lookout Masuku's Last Meal What it Meant? - TWENTYSIXTHISSUE 17-24NOVEMBER2020

From the Editor’s Desk

In our previous issue we expressed our anxiety over re-opening of schools without due regard of the twin
challenges of the absence of teachers and the surges in COVID-19 rate of infections. Undoubtedly, the
conditions of service in the education sector remain appalling and a cause for concern. Notwithstanding, our
primary focus was on the learners, who as minors, have no power to decide against the cruelty of risking
their lives now while also destroying their future altogether. We are sending wrong lessons to our children;
that we neither care about their welfare nor their safety nor their future.

We express our solidarity and message of care and sympathy to the schools, learners and their families who
have to undergo the difficult processes of quarantine, suspension of classes and related processes following
the discovery of Covid-19 positive learners. These are undeniably challenging experiences for the school
authorities, learners and their parents or guardians. More-so, to the examination classes. We place utmost
faith in the professionalism and commitment of the health personnel who are managing the situation. With a
positive spirit the affected will overcome this challenge, which is not insurmountable.

May we all maintain our vigilance in the face of the increasing rates of infections and always adhere to the
health safety regulations. Practice social distancing in public and always wear your masks. Contact us on:

                                     FOR MORE INFORMATION:

                                        WhatsApp/SMS/Call us at:

                    +263771733670, +263777918456, +27734061737, +263782318744

                                             Or visit us at:

        @ThePhutheho                                                           thephutheho

         Phutheho – Matebeleland All-Stakeholders People‟s Convention

                     PHUTHEHO CONVENTION NEWS
The Late General Lookout Masuku's Last Meal What it Meant? - TWENTYSIXTHISSUE 17-24NOVEMBER2020

                  PHUTHEHO UPDATE
                       MESSAGE TO STAKEHOLDERS
The      memory       of      the                                               (b) that the Government of
Gukurahundi genocide and the                                                        Zimbabwe appears not
possible healing and resolution                                                     interested in finding a
of the matter remains painful,                                                      lasting solution to these
sensitive and controversial. At                                                     atrocities;
Phutheho we acknowledge all                                                     (c) the National Peace and
heroic efforts to publicise,                                                                    Reconciliation
document, memorialise and all                                                       Commission        (NPRC)
forms of advocacy around the                                                        and other programmes
genocide and ethnic cleansing.                                                      are merely buying time
We need not repeat the risk and       out and so are political parties              and not addressing the
audacity by those few brave men       and progressive people nationally           real issue;
and     women     in     particular   and internationally too. Of             (d) that alleged perpetrators
members of the church and media       course, such a deeply painful and           of the genocide have not
who documented the atrocities         enduring experience have not                been tried in courts and
while     they     were      being    only threatened to widen ethnic             may       eventually     die
perpetrated under a heavy             and regional fault lines in                 without giving evidence
military blackout on information      Zimbabwe but has also sown                  of their alleged acts;
on the affected districts and         division within the victimised          (e) that we owe it to the
population. They dared to             communities themselves to the               victims of Gukurahundi
document and speak out at the         chagrin of the perpetrator and              genocide, both dead and
risk of arrest, disappearance,        beneficiary       from         the          alive, to hold perpetrators
deportation and even death.           Gukurahundi genocide. While we              accountable and deliver
                                      are not taking a particular                 justice.
Notwithstanding       distortions,    position before the Convention,
wilful amnesia and attempts at        nonetheless,    we    note     the   Therefore, resolve to reject any
sanitizing the genocide through       proposals as contained in            form of perpetrator-led process in
the so-called Unity Accord and        proposed Resolution 37 as            the resolution of the Gukurahundi
its supposedly peace dividends,       follows:                             atrocities, to that effect the
villagers,   township     people,                                          Gukurahundi atrocities must be
musicians, writers, painters,         Noting                               resolved on the basis of truth
poets, journalists and academics                                           telling,        acknowledgement,
have continued to keep the matter        (a) that        Gukurahundi       apology, full and comprehensive
alive against severe censorship              atrocities were acts of       reparations, and punishment of
and risks to personal safety and             genocide and crimes           perpetrators.
security. Churches have spoken               against humanity;

Registration and Accreditation

Registration and accreditation for the Matebeleland All-Stakeholders People‟s Convention (Phutheho) is on-
going. Individuals and organisations are welcome to register. Please contact numbers below and any other
The Late General Lookout Masuku's Last Meal What it Meant? - TWENTYSIXTHISSUE 17-24NOVEMBER2020

numbers that have been availed to you at you area to do your registration: WhatsApp/SMS/Call
+263771733670/ +263777918456/ +263771733670/ +27734061737/ +27843544879. You can also register
at: or contact us at:

Phutheho Funding

As has been our practice and resolve that we shall support this initiative from our small contributions, we
send this reminder of the usual request for donations in cash and kind. Please donate via the accounts listed
below to send via Western Union, Money Gram, World Remit and other international money transfer
agencies. For those wishing to donate via Western Union, Money Gram, World Remit, etc., please contact
us through contacts above.

                                  Main donations: in Zimbabwe Dollars

                                             Ecocash Donations

                                          Number: 0772369262
                                       Registered Name: Esau Ncube

                                           Number: 0772747529
                                       Registered Name: Soviet Ncube

We encourage our people throughout the world to open accounts that will request for and receive funding
for the Phutheho. But before anybody can open an account for the Phutheho they must first receive
clearance from the Convention Secretariat that can only be granted upon meeting stringent conditions of
transparency, accountability, and integrity. We urge any person wishing to donate for the Phutheho through
any account not listed here to first check with us whether the account is recognised for the purpose it claims.


We shall not be responsible for any loss suffered by any individual or organisation for any donations
whatsoever made to any account without us having given the green light. Please check with us through the
contacts provided above.

                KNOW YOUR RIGHTS
   Brought to you by the Phutheho Working Group on Justice and Human Rights
Over the coming weeks the Phutheho Working Group on Justice and Human Rights shall be publishing
international human rights instruments to help readers appreciate international human rights standards and
norms to which they are entitled. This will include instruments developed and adopted under the United
Nations, OAU/AU, and SADC, among others, and any other human rights documents from any continent
which may assist in expanding understanding of human rights and freedoms and the principles of
democracy, rule of law and free and fair elections. This week we are bringing you two very important
international agreements, namely the Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and
Reparation and the International Consensus on Psychosocial Support during Exhumations.
The Late General Lookout Masuku's Last Meal What it Meant? - TWENTYSIXTHISSUE 17-24NOVEMBER2020

Both these documents are applicable to the fight for justice on the Gukurahundi Genocide. The Basic
Principles offer guidance on the obligations of the States following human rights violations. The
International Consensus seeks to protect survivors and society in general during exhumations.


Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 60/147 of 16
December 2005
                                                                           the attention of members of the
The General Assembly,                                                      executive bodies of government,
                                                                           in particular law enforcement
Guided by the Charter of the                                               officials and military and
United Nations, the Universal
                                                                           security     forces,    legislative
Declaration of Human Rights,
the International Covenants on                                             bodies, the judiciary, victims and
Human Rights, other relevant                                               their representatives, human
human rights instruments and the                                           rights defenders and lawyers, the
Vienna       Declaration    and       Violations      of   International   media and the public in general;
Programme of Action,                  Humanitarian Law by the
                                                                           3. Requests the         Secretary-
Affirming the importance of           Commission on Human Rights in
                                                                           General to take steps to ensure
addressing the question of            its resolution 2005/35 of 19 April
remedies and reparation for                                                the widest possible dissemination
                                      2005 and by the Economic and
victims of gross violations of                                             of the Basic Principles and
                                      Social Council in its resolution
international human rights law                                             Guidelines in all the official
                                      2005/30 of 25 July 2005, in
and serious violations of                                                  languages of the United Nations,
international humanitarian law in     which the Council recommended
                                                                           including by transmitting them to
a systematic and thorough way at      to the General Assembly that it
                                                                           Governments                   and
the national and international        adopt the Basic Principles and
                                                                           intergovernmental and non-
levels,                               Guidelines,
                                                                           governmental organizations and
Recognizing that, in honouring        1. Adopts the Basic Principles       by including the Basic Principles
the victims‟ right to benefit from    and Guidelines on the Right to a     and Guidelines in the United
remedies and reparation, the
                                      Remedy and Reparation for            Nations                publication
international community keeps
faith with the plight of victims,     Victims of Gross Violations of       entitled Human      Rights:      A
survivors and future human            International Human Rights Law       Compilation of International
generations      and      reaffirms   and Serious Violations of            Instruments.     64th     plenary
international law in the field,       International Humanitarian Law       meeting, 16 December 2005
Recalling the adoption of the         annexed      to  the     present
                                      resolution;                                     ANNEX
Basic Principles and Guidelines
on the Right to a Remedy and          2. Recommends that States take       UN Basic Principles and
Reparation for Victims of Gross                                            Guidelines on the Right to a
                                      the    Basic     Principles   and
                                                                           Remedy and Reparation for
Violations    of    International     Guidelines into account, promote     Victims of Gross Violations of
Human Rights Law and Serious          respect thereof and bring them to    International Human Rights
The Late General Lookout Masuku's Last Meal What it Meant? - TWENTYSIXTHISSUE 17-24NOVEMBER2020

Law and Serious Violations of         Recalling the Declaration of           Affirming that     the      Basic
International  Humanitarian           Basic Principles of Justice for        Principles     and     Guidelines
Law                                   Victims of Crime and Abuse of          contained herein are directed at
                                      Power emanating from the               gross violations of international
Preamble                              deliberations of the Seventh           human rights law and serious
The General Assembly,                 United Nations Congress on the         violations     of    international
                                      Prevention of Crime and the            humanitarian law which, by their
Recalling the           provisions    Treatment of Offenders and             very grave nature, constitute an
providing a right to a remedy for     General Assembly resolution            affront to human dignity,
victims     of    violations    of    40/34 of 29 November 1985 by
international human rights law                                               Emphasizing that       the   Basic
                                      which the Assembly adopted the
found in numerous international                                              Principles      and      Guidelines
                                      text recommended by the
instruments, in particular article                                           contained herein do not entail
8 of the Universal Declaration of                                            new international or domestic
Human Rights, article 2 of the        Reaffirming the          principles    legal obligations but identify
International Covenant on Civil       enunciated in the Declaration of       mechanisms,              modalities,
and Political Rights, article 6 of    Basic Principles of Justice for        procedures and methods for the
the International Convention on       Victims of Crime and Abuse of          implementation of existing legal
the Elimination of All Forms of       Power, including that victims          obligations under international
Racial Discrimination, article 14     should      be    treated      with    human       rights      law     and
of the Convention against             compassion and respect for their       international humanitarian law
Torture and Other Cruel,              dignity, have their right to access    which are complementary though
Inhuman        or       Degrading     to     justice     and      redress    different as to their norms,
Treatment or Punishment, and          mechanisms fully respected, and
                                                                             Recalling that international law
article 39 of the Convention on       that      the       establishment,
                                                                             contains the obligation to
the Rights of the Child, and of       strengthening and expansion of
                                                                             prosecute perpetrators of certain
international humanitarian law as     national funds for compensation
                                                                             international       crimes      in
found in article 3 of the Hague       to victims should be encouraged,
                                                                             accordance with international
Convention respecting the Laws        together with the expeditious
                                                                             obligations of States and the
and Customs of War on Land of         development of appropriate
                                                                             requirements of national law or
18 October 1907 (Convention           rights and remedies for victims,
                                                                             as provided for in the applicable
IV), article 91 of the Protocol
                                      Noting that the Rome Statute of        statutes of international judicial
Additional to the Geneva
                                      the International Criminal Court       organs, and that the duty to
Conventions of 12 August 1949,
                                      requires the establishment of          prosecute       reinforces     the
and relating to the Protection of
                                      “principles relating to reparations    international legal obligations to
Victims of International Armed
                                      to, or in respect of, victims,         be carried out in accordance with
Conflicts (Protocol I) of 8 June
                                      including               restitution,   national legal requirements and
1977, and articles 68 and 75 of
                                      compensation                    and    procedures and supports the
the Rome Statute of the
                                      rehabilitation”, requires the          concept of complementarity,
International Criminal Court,
                                      Assembly of States Parties to
                                                                             Noting that contemporary forms
Recalling the            provisions   establish a trust fund for the
                                                                             of       victimization,  while
providing a right to a remedy for     benefit of victims of crimes
                                                                             essentially    directed against
victims     of     violations    of   within the jurisdiction of the
                                                                             persons, may nevertheless also
international human rights found      Court, and of the families of such
                                                                             be directed against groups of
in regional conventions, in           victims, and mandates the Court
                                                                             persons who are targeted
particular article 7 of the African   “to protect the safety, physical
Charter on Human and Peoples‟         and psychological well-being,
Rights, article 25 of the             dignity and privacy of victims”        Recognizing that, in honouring
American Convention on Human          and to permit the participation of     the victims‟ right to benefit from
Rights, and article 13 of the         victims at all “stages of the          remedies and reparation, the
Convention for the Protection of      proceedings determined to be           international community keeps
Human Rights and Fundamental          appropriate by the Court”,             faith with the plight of victims,
Freedoms,                                                                    survivors and future human

generations and reaffirms the         (b) Adopting appropriate       and    and serious violations of
international legal principles of     effective     legislative      and    international    humanitarian
accountability, justice and the       administrative procedures      and    law that constitute crimes
rule of law,                          other appropriate measures     that   under international law
                                      provide fair, effective        and
Convinced that, in adopting a                                               4. In cases of gross violations of
                                      prompt access to justice;
victim-oriented perspective, the                                            international human rights law
international community affirms       (c) Making available adequate,        and serious violations of
its human solidarity with victims     effective, prompt and appropriate     international humanitarian law
of violations of international law,   remedies, including reparation,       constituting     crimes       under
including       violations       of   as defined below;                     international law, States have the
international human rights law                                              duty to investigate and, if there is
                                      (d) Ensuring that their domestic
and international humanitarian                                              sufficient evidence, the duty to
                                      law provides at least the same
law, as well as with humanity at                                            submit to prosecution the person
                                      level of protection for victims as
large, in accordance with the                                               allegedly responsible for the
                                      that     required      by     their
following Basic Principles and                                              violations and, if found guilty,
                                      international obligations.
Guidelines,                                                                 the duty to punish her or him.
                                      II. Scope of the obligation           Moreover, in these cases, States
Adopts the    following    Basic
                                                                            should, in accordance with
Principles and Guidelines:            3. The obligation to respect,         international law, cooperate with
                                      ensure respect for and implement      one      another     and      assist
I. Obligation to respect, ensure
                                      international human rights law        international judicial organs
respect for and implement
                                      and international humanitarian        competent in the investigation
international human rights law
                                      law as provided for under the         and prosecution of these
and                international
                                      respective bodies of law,             violations.
humanitarian law
                                      includes, inter alia, the duty to:
1. The obligation to respect,                                               5. To that end, where so
                                      (a) Take appropriate legislative      provided in an applicable treaty
ensure respect for and implement
                                      and administrative and other          or under other international law
international human rights law
                                      appropriate measures to prevent       obligations,      States      shall
and international humanitarian
                                      violations;                           incorporate      or      otherwise
law as provided for under the
respective bodies of law              (b)     Investigate     violations    implement within their domestic
emanates from:                        effectively, promptly, thoroughly     law appropriate provisions for
                                      and impartially and, where            universal jurisdiction. Moreover,
(a) Treaties to which a State is a                                          where it is so provided for in an
                                      appropriate, take action against
party;                                                                      applicable treaty or other
                                      those allegedly responsible in
(b) Customary international law;      accordance with domestic and          international legal obligations,
                                      international law;                    States       should       facilitate
(c) The domestic law of each                                                extradition      or      surrender
State.                                (c) Provide those who claim to        offenders to other States and to
                                      be victims of a human rights or       appropriate international judicial
2. If they have not already done
                                      humanitarian law violation with       bodies and provide judicial
so, States shall, as required under
                                      equal and effective access to         assistance and other forms of
international law, ensure that
                                      justice, as described below,          cooperation in the pursuit of
their domestic law is consistent
                                      irrespective of who may               international justice, including
with their international legal
                                      ultimately be the bearer of           assistance to, and protection of,
obligations by:
                                      responsibility for the violation;     victims and witnesses, consistent
(a) Incorporating norms of            and                                   with international human rights
international human rights law                                              legal standards and subject to
                                      (d) Provide effective remedies to
and international humanitarian                                              international legal requirements
                                      victims, including reparation, as
law into their domestic law, or                                             such as those relating to the
                                      described below.
otherwise implementing them in                                              prohibition of torture and other
their domestic legal system;          III.   Gross    violations   of       forms of cruel, inhuman or
                                      international human rights law

degrading       treatment       or    9. A person shall be considered a     or of a serious violation of
punishment.                           victim regardless of whether the      international humanitarian law
                                      perpetrator of the violation is       shall have equal access to an
IV. Statutes of limitations           identified,          apprehended,     effective judicial remedy as
6. Where so provided for in an        prosecuted, or convicted and          provided for under international
applicable treaty or contained in     regardless of the familial            law. Other remedies available to
other      international      legal   relationship     between      the     the victim include access to
obligations,       statutes      of   perpetrator and the victim.           administrative and other bodies,
limitations shall not apply to                                              as     well    as    mechanisms,
                                      VI. Treatment of victims
gross violations of international                                           modalities and proceedings
human rights law and serious          10. Victims should be treated         conducted in accordance with
violations     of     international   with humanity and respect for         domestic      law.    Obligations
humanitarian        law      which    their dignity and human rights,       arising under international law to
constitute      crimes       under    and appropriate measures should       secure the right to access justice
international law.                    be taken to ensure their safety,      and      fair    and     impartial
                                      physical and psychological well-      proceedings shall be reflected in
7.     Domestic     statutes   of                                           domestic laws. To that end,
                                      being and privacy, as well as
limitations for other types of                                              States should:
                                      those of their families. The State
violations that do not constitute
                                      should ensure that its domestic
crimes under international law,                                             (a) Disseminate, through public
                                      laws, to the extent possible,
including those time limitations                                            and      private    mechanisms,
                                      provide that a victim who has
applicable to civil claims and                                              information about all available
                                      suffered violence or trauma
other procedures, should not be                                             remedies for gross violations of
                                      should benefit from special
unduly restrictive.                                                         international human rights law
                                      consideration and care to avoid
                                                                            and serious violations of
V. Victims of gross violations        his or her re-traumatization in the
                                                                            international humanitarian law;
of international human rights         course       of     legal      and
law and serious violations of         administrative         procedures     (b) Take measures to minimize
international    humanitarian         designed to provide justice and       the inconvenience to victims and
law                                   reparation.                           their representatives, protect
                                                                            against unlawful interference
8. For purposes of the present        VII. Victims’ right to remedies
                                                                            with their privacy as appropriate
document, victims are persons                                               and ensure their safety from
                                      11. Remedies for gross violations
who individually or collectively                                            intimidation and retaliation, as
                                      of international human rights law
suffered     harm,       including                                          well as that of their families and
                                      and serious violations of
physical or mental injury,                                                  witnesses, before, during and
                                      international humanitarian law
emotional suffering, economic
                                      include the victim‟s right to the     after judicial, administrative, or
loss or substantial impairment of                                           other proceedings that affect the
                                      following as provided for under
their fundamental rights, through                                           interests of victims;
                                      international law:
acts or omissions that constitute
gross violations of international     (a) Equal and effective access to     (c) Provide proper assistance to
human rights law, or serious          justice;                              victims seeking access to justice;
violations     of     international
                                      (b) Adequate, effective and           (d)     Make      available     all
humanitarian      law.      Where
                                      prompt reparation for harm            appropriate legal, diplomatic and
appropriate, and in accordance
                                      suffered;                             consular means to ensure that
with domestic law, the term
                                                                            victims can exercise their rights
“victim” also includes the            (c)     Access     to    relevant     to remedy for gross violations of
immediate family or dependants        information           concerning      international human rights law or
of the direct victim and persons      violations     and     reparation     serious violations of international
who have suffered harm in             mechanisms.                           humanitarian law.
intervening to assist victims in
distress    or      to     prevent    VIII. Access to justice               13. In addition to individual
victimization.                        12. A victim of a gross violation     access to justice, States should
                                      of international human rights law     endeavour to develop procedures

to allow groups of victims to         unwilling    to     meet      their   assessable       damage,        as
present claims for reparation and     obligations.                          appropriate and proportional to
to    receive    reparation,   as                                           the gravity of the violation and
                                      17. States shall, with respect to
appropriate.                                                                the circumstances of each case,
                                      claims by victims, enforce
                                                                            resulting from gross violations of
14. An adequate, effective and        domestic       judgements      for
                                                                            international human rights law
prompt remedy for gross               reparation against individuals or
                                                                            and serious violations of
violations of international human     entities liable for the harm
                                                                            international humanitarian law,
rights law or serious violations of   suffered and endeavour to
                                                                            such as:
international humanitarian law        enforce valid foreign legal
should include all available and      judgements for reparation in          (a) Physical or mental harm;
appropriate           international   accordance with domestic law
                                                                            (b) Lost opportunities, including
processes in which a person may       and       international      legal
                                                                            employment, education and
have legal standing and should        obligations. To that end, States
                                                                            social benefits;
be without prejudice to any other     should provide under their
domestic remedies.                    domestic        laws     effective    (c) Material damages and loss of
                                      mechanisms for the enforcement        earnings, including loss of
IX. Reparation        for   harm      of reparation judgements.             earning potential;
                                      18. In accordance with domestic       (d) Moral damage;
15. Adequate, effective and
                                      law and international law, and
prompt reparation is intended to                                            (e) Costs required for legal or
                                      taking account of individual
promote justice by redressing                                               expert assistance, medicine and
                                      circumstances, victims of gross
gross violations of international                                           medical       services,     and
                                      violations of international human
human rights law or serious                                                 psychological      and    social
                                      rights law and serious violations
violations     of     international                                         services.
                                      of international humanitarian law
humanitarian law. Reparation
                                      should, as appropriate and            21. Rehabilitation should include
should be proportional to the
                                      proportional to the gravity of the    medical and psychological care
gravity of the violations and the
                                      violation and the circumstances       as well as legal and social
harm suffered. In accordance
                                      of each case, be provided with        services.
with its domestic laws and
                                      full and effective reparation, as
international legal obligations, a                                          22. Satisfaction should include,
                                      laid out in principles 19 to 23,
State shall provide reparation to                                           where applicable, any or all of
                                      which include the following
victims for acts or omissions                                               the following:
                                      forms: restitution, compensation,
which can be attributed to the
                                      rehabilitation, satisfaction and      (a) Effective measures aimed at
State and constitute gross
                                      guarantees of non-repetition.         the cessation of continuing
violations of international human
rights law or serious violations of   19. Restitution should, whenever      violations;
international humanitarian law.       possible, restore the victim to the   (b) Verification of the facts and
In cases where a person, a legal      original situation before the         full and public disclosure of the
person, or other entity is found      gross violations of international     truth to the extent that such
liable for reparation to a victim,    human rights law or serious           disclosure does not cause further
such party should provide             violations     of     international   harm or threaten the safety and
reparation to the victim or           humanitarian law occurred.            interests of the victim, the
compensate the State if the State     Restitution       includes,      as   victim‟s relatives, witnesses, or
has already provided reparation       appropriate:     restoration     of   persons who have intervened to
to the victim.                        liberty, enjoyment of human           assist the victim or prevent the
                                      rights, identity, family life and     occurrence of further violations;
16. States should endeavour to
                                      citizenship, return to one‟s place
establish national programmes                                               (c) The search for the
                                      of residence, restoration of
for    reparation    and     other                                          whereabouts of the disappeared,
                                      employment and return of
assistance to victims in the event                                          for the identities of the children
that the parties liable for the                                             abducted, and for the bodies of
harm suffered are unable or           20. Compensation should   be          those killed, and assistance in the
                                      provided for any economically         recovery, identification and

reburial of the bodies in              (e) Providing, on a priority and      pertaining to the gross violations
accordance with the expressed or       continued basis, human rights         of international human rights law
presumed wish of the victims, or       and international humanitarian        and serious violations of
the cultural practices of the          law education to all sectors of       international humanitarian law
families and communities;              society and training for law          and to learn the truth in regard to
                                       enforcement officials as well as      these violations.
(d) An official declaration or a
                                       military and security forces;
judicial decision restoring the                                              XI. Non-discrimination
dignity, the reputation and the        (f) Promoting the observance of
                                                                             25.    The       application and
rights of the victim and of            codes of conduct and ethical
                                                                             interpretation of these Basic
persons closely connected with         norms, in particular international
                                                                             Principles and Guidelines must
the victim;                            standards, by public servants,
                                                                             be consistent with international
                                       including law enforcement,
(e) Public apology, including                                                human        rights     law  and
                                       correctional, media, medical,
acknowledgement of the facts                                                 international humanitarian law
                                       psychological, social service and
and acceptance of responsibility;                                            and       be       without   any
                                       military personnel, as well as by
                                                                             discrimination of any kind or on
(f) Judicial and administrative        economic enterprises;
                                                                             any ground, without exception.
sanctions against persons liable
                                       (g) Promoting mechanisms for
for the violations;                                                          XII. Non-derogation
                                       preventing and monitoring social
(g)     Commemorations           and   conflicts and their resolution;       26. Nothing in these Basic
tributes to the victims;                                                     Principles and Guidelines shall
                                       (h) Reviewing and reforming
                                                                             be construed as restricting or
(h) Inclusion of an accurate           laws contributing to or allowing
                                                                             derogating from any rights or
account of the violations that         gross violations of international
                                                                             obligations        arising    under
occurred in international human        human rights law and serious
                                                                             domestic and international law.
rights law and international           violations    of    international
                                                                             In particular, it is understood that
humanitarian law training and in       humanitarian law.
                                                                             the present Basic Principles and
educational material at all levels.
                                       X.     Access     to    relevant      Guidelines are without prejudice
23. Guarantees        of     non-      information          concerning       to the right to a remedy and
repetition should include, where       violations    and    reparation       reparation for victims of all
applicable, any or all of the          mechanisms                            violations of international human
following measures, which will                                               rights law and international
                                       24. States should develop means
also contribute to prevention:                                               humanitarian law. It is further
                                       of informing the general public
                                                                             understood that these Basic
(a) Ensuring effective civilian        and, in particular, victims of
                                                                             Principles and Guidelines are
control of military and security       gross violations of international
                                                                             without prejudice to special rules
forces;                                human rights law and serious
                                                                             of international law.
                                       violations     of     international
(b) Ensuring that all civilian   and   humanitarian law of the rights        XIII. Rights of others
military proceedings abide        by   and remedies addressed by these
international standards of       due                                         27. Nothing in this document is
                                       Basic Principles and Guidelines
process,       fairness          and                                         to be construed as derogating
                                       and of all available legal,
impartiality;                                                                from internationally or nationally
                                       medical, psychological, social,
                                                                             protected rights of others, in
(c)     Strengthening          the     administrative and all other
                                                                             particular the right of an accused
independence of the judiciary;         services to which victims may
                                                                             person to benefit from applicable
                                       have a right of access. Moreover,
(d) Protecting persons in the                                                standards of due process.
                                       victims and their representatives
legal, medical and health-care         should be entitled to seek and
professions, the media and other       obtain information on the causes
related professions, and human         leading to their victimization and
rights defenders;                      on the causes and conditions


As the debate around how to conduct exhumations of Gukurahundi genocide victims rages on, there has
hardly been any reference to the role played by psychological work during exhumations and reburials. Yet
this is one of the most important components of exhumations and reburials. Needless to say, exhumations
and reburials are extremely traumatising to family, relatives, community and society in general and therefore
there is always a need for psychological accompaniment. The psychosocial support during exhumations is a
the “whole range of actions and processes which should be taken into consideration and/or developed in
relation to an exhumation at the level of the individual, the family, the community and the society by all the
institutions, teams and professionals who intervene in order to guarantee its reparative nature both for direct
and indirect victims as well as for the society as a whole.” (Garcia, et al, 2010 citing Ecap, et al., 2009).
Exhumations and reburials in Argentine, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, Colombia, Peru, Chile,
Uruguay, Brazil, Paraguay, Venezuela, Mexico and Panama, Kosovo, former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and
other places where mass atrocities and enforced disappearances took place have demonstrated the utmost
need to incorporate psychosocial support at all times throughout the exhumation processes.

Following decades of work and research, and global meetings, experienced international organisations and
specialists in exhumations and reburials, mainly nongovernmental organisations, developed very important
standards known as the International Consensus on Minimum Standards for Psychosocial Work in search
Processes and Forensic investigations of cases of Enforced Disappearance, Arbitrary or Extrajudicial
Executions. These standards reflect the debates, conclusions and recommendations of various forums
including the 1st and 2nd World Congress on Psychosocial Work in Exhumation Processes, Enforced
Disappearance, Justice and Truth. The resulting consensus composed of 16 standards has been embraced
by psychosocial support practitioners across all continents. Without these standards, any exhumations and
reburials of victims of Gukurahundi genocide can only turn out to be a devastating experience for victims,
something that may have long term physical and mental effect on the wellbeing of those involved.

                                      have      disappeared    as      a
STANDARD 1: Search for                consequence      of    hostilities,    STANDARD            3: Active
persons who have been the             combat, armed actions or other         participation of relatives
victims      of       enforced        acts related to armed conflicts
disappearance,    extrajudicial       and other situations of violence,      Efforts must be made to promote
and arbitrary executions              on the basis of the relevant           and      facilitate    the    active
                                      International Humanitarian Law         participation of relatives in the
All efforts must be carried out in    and IHRL standards.                    processes of search for the
order to look for victims of                                                 victims           of       enforced
enforced disappearance and            STANDARD 2: Finding the                disappearance, extrajudicial and
extrajudicial     and     arbitrary   relatives                              arbitrary executions and in the
executions until they are found,                                             forensic investigations, favouring
to clarify the events regardless of   All necessary efforts must be          the existence of spaces where
when they occurred or whether         made to identify, find and             individuals can organize and
prior formal denunciation on the      facilitate the participation of the    reaffirm themselves, as well as to
part of the relatives has taken       possible relatives of victims of       take well- informed decisions in
place, avoiding by all possible       enforced disappearance and             view of the technical and legal
means any obstacles for the           arbitrary     and      extrajudicial   processes that affect their rights
search processes. Moreover, all       executions,     before      starting   to     justice,      memory     and
efforts must be carried out to        forensic investigations and legal      comprehensive reparation.
look for and find persons who         proceedings.

STANDARD 4: Clarifying                needs     for  reparation   of        towards the victims, and the
the event, right to truth and         individuals,  families     and        causes to commit the crimes, as
memory                                communities should be actively        well as the circumstances of the
                                      integrated.                           disappearance or arbitrary or
The investigation of cases of                                               extrajudicial execution.
enforced           disappearance,     STANDARD 7: Protection
extrajudicial    and      arbitrary   and security                          STANDARD 9: Right to
executions and other human                                                  psychosocial care
rights violations should be           To make available all necessary
promoted until the events are         means for guaranteeing the            Psychosocial care should be a
fully clarified. Likewise, the        security of the families of           fundamental        pillar        of
conditions for the victims to         victims        of        enforced     comprehensive reparations and
reconstruct    their     historical   disappearance and to clarify the      the duty to provide humanitarian
memory should be facilitated as       events of the disappearance in        assistance to communities and
part of the process to ensure         conditions of dignity and             relatives of victims of enforced
dignity and non-repetition.           security, especially in context of    disappearances, arbitrary or
                                      armed conflict or of on-going         extrajudicial executions. All the
STANDARD 5: Right to                  human rights violations. All          necessary steps should be
justice                               information obtained throughout       undertaken in search processes
                                      the process, from evidence and        and forensic investigations to
The State must adopt either           proof to       testimonies     and    prevent      new     forms       of
national     and     international    confidential,             personal    victimization     of     relatives,
measures       of      legislative,   information, should be protected      communities        and        their
administrative, judicial or any       in a similar manner.                  companions.
other nature to ensure the full
observance of the individual and      STANDARD 8: Constant                  STANDARD 10: Self-care of
collective rights to justice for      information and transparency          people and intervening teams
victims        of        enforced     of the processes
disappearance, arbitrary or extra-                                          Provisions should be made for
judicial executions, at the           During the process of searching       the comprehensive physical and
individual, family, community         for disappeared persons or            psychological care of the people
and social level.                     victims      of    arbitrary     or   who carry out the technical, legal
                                      extrajudicial executions, and         and psychosocial processes
STANDARD                        6:    forensic     investigations     the   related to the search for victims
Comprehensive reparations             relatives should be constantly        of enforced disappearance, and
                                      informed, in a clear and precise      arbitrary     or     extrajudicial
The rights of victims of enforced     manner, favouring decision-           executions.
disappearance and other human         making about future actions. The
rights         violations        to   right to information includes: (a)    STANDARD 11: Cultural
comprehensive           reparation,   access to know about the process      context
contemplated in national and          of searching for disappeared or
international regulations, must be    executed persons, the forensic        The procedures or protocols of
acknowledged and put into             investigation,     its     actions,   search processes for victims of
practice and the necessary            implications, consequences and        enforced disappearance, arbitrary
actions must be implemented in        rights; this is particularly
                                                                            or extrajudicial executions, and
order to fulfil the rights and        relevant      in      terms      of
demands of victims, relatives and     comprehensive reparation and          forensic investigations should
communities. The psychosocial         the right to justice; (b) progress    take into account and respect the
perspective must be considered        made, limitations and relevant        culture and meanings of the
within the individual and             technical and legal elements; (c)     affected population.
collective processes, and the         access to the findings to
historical             experiences,   elucidate responsibilities, the
expectations and differential         conduct of the perpetrators

STANDARD 12: Gender                   themselves involved in cases of       into the search pro-cesses for
approach                              enforced disappearance, arbitrary     victims         of        enforced
                                      or extrajudicial executions or        disappearances, arbitrary or
The design and implementation         forensic investigations should be     extrajudicial executions, and
of psychosocial work should           provided with special treatment       forensic investigations, whenever
incorporate a gender focus,           that takes into consideration the     the situation requires it, in order
which implies raising awareness       best interest of children.            to contribute to the effectiveness
on the differential impact that the                                         of the technical, legal and
events related to enforced            STANDARD                     14:      psychosocial processes          and
disappearances, arbitrary or          Coordination                          guarantee compliance with the
extrajudicial executions have on                                            legal and scientific national and
women and men, as well as the         Mechanisms to coordinate the          international standards, with the
differential     impact    as     a   actions of all actors involved in     requirement of acting with
consequence of the search             the processes of searching for        transparency, independence and
processes         and     forensic    victims        of        enforced     objectivity.
investigations, and processes of      disappearances, arbitrary or
truth, justice and reparations. It    extrajudicial executions should       STANDARD 16: Scientific
should also seek to raise             be guaranteed. This includes the      standards in forensic work
awareness on the additional and       processes of gathering and
different obstacles faced by          analysing     the     information     To guarantee that forensic work
women and men participating in        available, legal, technical and       complies with national and
these processes and propose           psychosocial actions, as well as
differentiated measures to ensure                                           international scientific, legal and
                                      mechanisms for follow-up and
their participation.                  assessment of all actions to be       technical standards, ensuring that
                                      undertaken.                           steps are taken to individualize,
STANDARD 13:               Work                                             identify and preserve bodily
with     children           and       STANDARD                     15:      remains, regardless of whether or
adolescents                           Independent teams                     not they have been identified.

Children and adolescents who          To incorporate local, national
are victims, or somehow find          and international organizations

                                                                          Mass graves are dotted
                                                                          all over Matebeleland
                                                                          and Midlands

                  OPINION ARTICLES
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News or the organisers of the Phutheho. To the extent that the article is not malicious, a
personal attack, or calculated to injure the character or reputation of any individual, we
publish articles as they come.

Excerpt from “Robert Mugabe KCB: The Black Supremacist” by Esau Ncube,
published February 2020. Available from Amazon and from
A fiendish sequel to the              between the objectives and plans
manuscript, titled Review of the      set out in the so-called Grand
1979 Grand Plan was published         Plan of 1979 and what is
and was discovered after the          happening. What has been
dawn of the 21st Century....          playing out particularly in
When         individuals     from     Matabeleland since 1980 to the
Matabeleland mentioned and            present, bears a frighteningly
condemned it, they were arrested      similar pattern, right down to the
for inciting violence. Mr. George     t, to this document..." The two
Mkhwanazi and Mr. Jethro              manuscripts were authentic. They
Mpofu          of        Imbovane     were meant for restricted            English. The children's education
Yamahlabezulu (a Ndebele rights       circulation among the elite of the   was deliberately designed to
organization) were arrested and       Shona but they were inevitably       crumble at the foundation stage
charged with treason after            leaked out by honest and God         by that deployment. Registry
addressing a public meeting           fearing Shona persons...             officers that issued birth and
where they told delegates not to                                           death certificates were Shona....
take their marginalization and the    The Grand Plan and its Review        Shona civil servants were found
1979 Shona Grand Plan lying           became the epicentre, fomenting      manning government offices
down....                              impregnable hatred, contempt,        throughout both rural and urban
                                      marginalization, discrimination,     Matabeleland as per the dictates
There was very little rationale in    domination     and    abhorrence     of the Grand Plan and its Review
dismissing the 1979 Shona Grand       towards not only the Ndebele but     document.
Plan and its sequel, a fourteen       all the non - Shona tribes of
page manuscript released in 2005      Matabeleland. The plan explained     All infrastructural development
as either a work of fiction or a      the praxis that had seen             projects that were brought by the
sour joke. The temerity with          permeation of every aspect of life   Harare       administration    to
which the plans were crafted and      in Matabeleland by Shona             Matabeleland came with a full
the tenacity with which they were     influence and culture of doing       complement of Shona workers.
implemented disqualified them         things. By the 2000s Shona           After completion of construction
from the epistles of a lunatic or     primary school teachers who          projects most of which took too
the effort of a sheer accidental      could not communicate in any         many years, e.g. the National
scribe.    According      to   Dr.    Matabeleland languages were          University of Science and
Dumisani Maqeda Ngwenya               deployed in the region where         Technology, the Lupane State
(2018:11), "...there is no denying    elementary instruction was better    University, the Joshua Mqabuko
the correlation (by design or         aided by the combination of the      Nkomo airport, the Victoria Falls
coincidentally)      that    exists   child's mother language and          airport, the Shona labourers did

not go back to their homes in         existence of an uncompromising        Hang he did indeed, but not for
Mashonaland. The projects were        and unrepentant Shona society in      adultery. For daring Mugabe and
such that ultimately they would       the Matabeleland church. If not       his murderous cretins, the
benefit people from Mashonaland       so, why was the interpreting not      archbishop      was     damned.
more       than    those   from       done in the Matabeleland              According to Bridgland (2008)
Matabeleland. The above four          languages like Venda, Tonga, and      archbishop Ncube was felled also
examples were a case in point.        Kalanga etc.?                         because he was a Ndebele that
The Universities enrolled more                                              was widely tipped to win the
than     80%     students  from       The Shona Grand Plans instructed      Nobel Peace Prize, a feat which
Mashonaland and the lecturers         churches to conduct services in       ZANU PF's Gukurahundism
were almost entirely Shona. The       Shona... Not surprisingly after the   could not allow a Ndebele to
two airports' employees during        document (Review) had said that       achieve.
and after construction were           the days were numbered for those
almost all Shona.                     priests that were resisting the       The archbishop was crashed out
The Gukurahundism in the Shona        Shonalization of the pulpit and       of his office within the Catholic
grand plans did not spare the         alter, Catholic Archbishop Pius       church and divested of his
church....                            Ncube who had instructed his          archbishop privileges by being
                                      parishes in Bulawayo to use the       removed from the powerful socio
Moyo Ndzimu - Unami (2012)            Ndebele language and not Shona        - political pedestal to which he
criticized    the    church      in   was ensnared by the state in a        had been elevated as the voice of
Matabeleland for complicity in        display     of     an     amorous     the dominated and oppressed in
perpetuating Gukurahundism by         relationship with some woman.         Matabeleland and the Midlands.
being, "outposts of Shona                                                   His removal from his position by
imperialism and tyranny just like     Like many men, the archbishop         the Vatican and his disgrace did
our Universities, police stations     was not the Admirable Crichton        not embarrass his flock and
and government offices". He           but the prompt coverage of the        Matabeleland as much as his
questioned why the Shona should       scandal by the state press was        ignominy and moral divestiture
be “Jew to the gentile and gentile    further proof that the plan was       deprived the victims of ZANU
to the Jew?". His question was        hatched by powerful offices in the    PF's misrule of an influential,
motivated by the tendency of          government. Many asked where          leather - tough and consistent all -
most       Shona     people      in   the press had been when Mugabe        weather ally..
Matabeleland who did not want to      himself had eaten the forbidden
speak isiNdebele, TjiKalanga,         fruit and fathered two children       For       acknowledging        his
TjiNambya... By being Jew to the      (Chatunga and Bona) with his          responsibility not only to his
Jew and gentile to the gentile, St.   married secretary Grace Marufu        flock but to his folk too, the
Paul's message appealed to all        while his wife Sally was suffering    bishop torched a storm. A
races and he did not only win         on her hospital death bed             Gukurahundist storm that swept
souls to Christ but helped the        (Bridgland 2008)...                   him off the pulpit and forced the
converts maintain their identities                                          Vatican to instruct him to shy
as per God's plan...                  The gloves were off and Mugabe        away from politics. Mugabe was
                                      who had previously threatened         then left to his business, free to
Some of the said churches down        Ncube with unspecified action         prance around without any priest
rightly refused to integrate into     was evidently going for the           warning him against villainous
Matabele society. The too             jugular. It was personal. The         and    satanic    conduct.    The
common and daily practice of          savage attack on his privacy by       archbishop revealed (interview on
interpreting sermons and songs        the CIO, the deputy sheriff           7 March 2015) that after his
conducted and sung in Ndebele to      accompanied by ten state              disgrace he was offered by the
Shona was evidence of that            journalists (Sokwanele 2007)          church to stay in Italy. Other
refusal...That     policy     had     spoke volumes of the interest of      bishops offered him sanctuary in
completely nothing to do with         the state in the civil case. Ncube    South Africa and Botswana but
understanding proceedings. It was     was observably being taken to the     he had declined all the offers of
a cocksure and brash statement of     cleaners so that the court of         kindness. He said that he could
defiance,      proclaiming    the     public opinion could hang him.        not accept "living in comfort and

foreign   peace   while    my                                                   Available from Amazon and at
countrymen were languishing in         Excerpt from the book 'Robert  
poverty and abuse by the               Mugabe KCB' by Esau Ncube,
government".                           published   February    2020.

DREAM'. 1980 – 1997.
Issue 1.

                                       to mention a few,2 also strained         their lobby.5 It remains unclear
                                       the infrastructure and demand for        how and why the resuscitation of
                                       water. Indeed, Bulawayo was in           the project saw the cancellation
                                       trouble. Needless to make                of the prefix 'Bulawayo' as the
                                       mention, the BCC had not                 former was christened as
                                       constructed a dam since 19763            Bulawayo             Matabeleland
                                       which meant that the existing            Zambezi Water Project to
                                       dams could no longer sustain the         Matabeleland Zambezi Water
                                       industrial expansion and the             Project. One school of thought
                                       growing settlements. Despite the         suggested that 'We preferred to
                                       afore, the BCC introduced the            call it Matabeleland Zambezi
                                       water rationing regime in 1983           Water Project as a short cut to
                                       and continued to 1985, 1987,             Bulawayo             Matabeleland
In 1980, Bulawayo residence            1988, 1991-934 a move which              Zambezi Water Project. What
witnessed a 'flag and anthem'          was meant to conserve the little         matters is to see the project being
independence as it never               water for Bulawayo.                      implemented that's all.'6 It is
translated to bring water sanity                                                clear that to some people the
and security ascribed to it. The       Faced with all these hardships           name was not of significance,
situation     worsened.      The       the Bulawayo residents, the              hence they needed the results and
demographic       increase     of      business community, academics,           the outcome.
Bulawayo recorded 413 814 in           captains of industry, and the
1982 and 776 786 in 1983 which         BCC revived the Bulawayo                 Contrary to the afore-mentioned,
meant that the growth of the city      Matabeleland Zambezi Water               one noted that the project
was increasing from 4.5% to            Project in view that the                 canceled the prefix Bulawayo to
6.5% per annum.1                       government would accede to               be popular as Matabeleland
                                                                                Zambezi Water Project because
The sudden expansion of
                                         BCC Minutes: Minutes of the housing    'Bulawayo'      nested     tribal
industrial growth and the urban        committee, 4 March 1991.
                                                                                tendencies regionalizing the
                                         M. Musemwa, „Early Struggles over      scheme to the Ndebele, hence the
location at the turn of 1980 like      Water: From Private to Public Water
Mahatshula,          Nkulumane,        Utility in the City of Bulawayo,
                                                                                government was going to neglect
Mganwini, and Cowdry Park just         Zimbabwe, 1894-1924‟, Journal of
                                       Southern African Studies, 34(4), 2008,     A review of MZWT: Historical
                                       pg.881-8.                                document of the MZWT, 1998.
                                         Royal Norwegian Embassy: Report on     W1/24A.
1                                                                               6
 BMZWP-Prefeasibility Study Phase 2,   the projections of BMZWP, 1998.            Interview with V. Godonga, self-
Main Report Vol. 1 1994.               W1/24A.                                  residence, 16 June 2015.

the scheme.'7 It appears that the      end bring water for the city.9        It needs to be highlighted that
project name was not an issue          Indeed, the news became a sigh        major studies by Gwebu and
but well it is hard to dismiss that,   of relief as        they were         Musemwa have argued that the
the post-1983 Civil War                accompanied by widespread             government       through     MAG
indirectly cohered the people in       euphoria as the later promised        hijacked and expropriated the
the region to mainstream the           radical end of water woes. One        Matabeleland Zambezi Water
project's name although it should      senior resident remarked that the     Project from the residents
be emphasized that residences          news of a lobby group to bring        because of the tiff between the
were anticipating to see the           water from the Zambezi to the         region      and     the     central
project being implemented.             city were the best news in ages       government.12 Precisely, given
                                       tantamount to the gospel of           the choice of their argument
However, in the post Unity             independence on the eve of            which is to some extent accurate,
Accord       of     1987,      the     1980.10                               granted that the Civil war was
Matabeleland Zambezi Water                                                   taking place at that time.
Project assumed major strides in       Essentially, at the turn of 1990,     However, their argument fails
its operations and lobby. Despite      the project transcended to be a       the test when checked against the
no evidence to prove his claims        major movement than just a            archival documents from the
P. Sibanda notes, ‘In 1987, after      lobby group. Later developments       Trust suggesting that the
fruitful deliberations with the        saw the formation of the              government never hijacked the
late Dr. Joshua Nkomo, Comrade         Matabeleland Action Group             scheme but rather the pioneers of
Dumiso Dabengwa (the then              popularly known as MAG, which         the lobby group invited the
Home        Affairs      minister)     constituted ZANU PF's political       politicians in the region hence
approached me together with            heavyweights from the region          the MAG derived the powers
other six guys that were thought       that is members of the                from the people. Residents,
to be useful players to water          parliament,      governors     of     MAG, and the pioneers of the
issues in Bulawayo. As such, he        Matabeleland and even the             scheme recommended the project
requested us to look into the          Mayor of Bulawayo.11 This             to the government in view that it
viability of the Matabeleland          meant that the discourse of water     was      to   attract    necessary
Zambezi Water Project as was           scarcity and the Zambezi project      recognition. No doubt, the
instructed by the late Joshua          was reactivated on a broader          project was envisaged to be
Nkomo. I was responsible for           scale. The main objective of          adopted by the government since
coming up with the pipeline            MAG       was     to    spearhead     the pioneers of the scheme like
route which at first bypassed          development in the region be it       Dabengwa (then Minister of
Matabeleland South but such a          infrastructure, land, and to that     Home Affairs) came from the
route had its challenges. This         end water which played a salient      same government.13
was the beginning of a powerful        role in the development. As
inquiry and lobby.'8 Without           representatives of the region,
further ado the lobby group of         they claimed legitimacy over the
the Matabeleland Zambezi Water         scheme on behalf of the people
Project also included the              the owners of the project. Indeed
residents, with the sole aim of        the Matabeleland Zambezi Water
bringing water to the city. As the     Project was later coordinated by
lead runner to the project,            the MAG.
Dabengwa announced that the
project was feasible and the
lobby group was therefore on the                                             12
                                                                                M. Musenwa, „Politics of Water in
crusade to lobby, solicit funds,       9
                                         The Chronicle, May 1988 also see    Post-colonial Zimbabwe, 1980-2007‟
research, advertise and to that        MZWT Newsletter: Lobby group for      (Paper presented at the African Studies
                                       MZWP, 2000.                           Centre seminar, University of Leiden,
                                          Interview with A. Sithole, self-   2008) pg.10-14.
                                       residence, 09 June 2015.                 Executive summary: Main Report-
7                                      11
  Interview with B. Ndiweni, self-        The Chronicle, 14 March 2010;      SWECO feasibility study of 1996; also
residence, 09 June 2015.               Royal Norwegian Embassy: Report on    see A review of MZWT: Historical
  Interview with P. Sibanda, MZWT      the projections of BMZWP, 1998.       document of the MZWT, 1998.
offices, 20 June 2015.                 W1/24A.                               W1/24A.
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