The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement - Cognition Education Group

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The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement - Cognition Education Group
Approach to Unleashing
Education Improvement

The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement - Cognition Education Group
Getting to
 Approach to Unleashing
 Education Improvement

 Arran Hamilton | John Hattie

The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement - Cognition Education Group
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The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement - Cognition Education Group

About Corwin                                                               iv
About the Authors                                                           v


    Part 1 Overview of the Implementation Challenge                        3

         1.1 Why Is Education Reform Hard?                                  3

         1.2 Toward an Implementation Science for Education                 7

    Part 2 The VISIBLE LEARNING G.O.L.D. Model                             10

         Overview                                                           10

    Phase 1 Goal Hunt                                                       12

         1.1–1.3 Hunting for an Education Challenge Worth Solving          13

         1.4 Map the Causal Drivers                                        15

         1.5 Set the Quantifiable Improvement Goal                         16

    Phase 2 Opportunity Sift                                                19

         2.1 Reverse Engineer from Causal Drivers to Opportunity Sketches   20

         2.2 Develop a Theory of Improvement                                22

         2.3 Iterating Your Theory of Improvement                           22

         2.4 Develop Your Success Map                                       29

    Phase 3 Lift Off                                                        32

    Phase 4a Double Back                                                    34

    Phase 4b From Double Back to Double Up                                  38


The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement - Cognition Education Group

In 2008, Professor John Hattie published Visible Learning, a synthesis of more than 800 meta-studies
covering more than 80 million students. The book revealed what education variables have the biggest
impact on learning and created a new mindset that has swept educators around the world. Applying the
Visible Learning® methodology means that students are taught to know what they need to learn, how to
learn it, and how to evaluate their own progress. Using the Visible Learning approach, teachers become
evaluators of their own impact on student learning. The combination causes students to drive their own
learning. Since 2008, Professor Hattie has teamed with highly influential educators to expand the Visible
Learning canon with books, including Visible Learning into Action, Visible Learning for Teachers, Visible
Learning for Mathematics, and Visible Learning for Literacy.

Visible Learning+ is the model of professional learning that takes the theory of Hattie’s research and puts
it into a practical inquiry model for teachers and school leaders to ask questions of themselves about the
impact they are having on student achievement. Visible Learning+ is a result of the collaboration between
Professor John Hattie and Corwin to help educators translate the Visible Learning research. Through a
global network of partners, Visible Learning+ professional learning is implemented in over 20 countries in
North America, Europe, and the Pacific.

Learn more at

About Corwin

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The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement - Cognition Education Group
About the Authors

                    r. Arran Hamilton is Group Director of Education at Cognition Education. His early
                   career included teaching and research at Warwick University and a period in adult and
                   community education. Dr. Hamilton transitioned into educational consultancy more
                   than 15 years ago and has held senior positions at Cambridge Assessment, Nord Anglia
                   Education, Education Development Trust (formerly CfBT), and the British Council. Much
                   of this work was international and has focused on supporting Ministries of Education
                   and corporate funders to improve learner outcomes. He currently oversees the design
                   and delivery of Cognition Education’s portfolio of education improvement programs,
                   with live projects in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands.

                   Professor John Hattie is Laureate Professor at the Melbourne Graduate School of
                   Education at the University of Melbourne and Chair of the Australian Institute for
                   Teaching and School Leadership. His areas of interest are measurement models and
                   their applications to education’s problems, and models of teaching and learning. He
                   has published and presented over 1,000 papers, supervised 200 thesis students, and
                   published 31 books, including 18 on understanding and applying the Visible Learning®


We would like to thank Dr. Brian Hincho, Dr. Shaun Hawthorne, Mary Sinclair, and Christophe Mullings
from Cognition Education; Ariel Curry and Julie Smith from Corwin; and Distinguished Professor Viviane
Robinson and the eight anonymous reviewers who commented on an early draft of this paper. Any remain-
ing errors or omissions are entirely our own.

The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement - Cognition Education Group

Achieving an Olympic Gold is the pinnacle of                 distilling these into 270+ separate influences on
success for world-class athletes. But running,               student achievement. These data are now publicly
say, 100 meters in under 11 seconds is fiendishly            available for all on the Visible Learning MetaX, avail-
difficult. It requires elite performance and get-            able at
ting to gold requires both the what and the how.
                                                             Like the Olympic coaches and their athletes, this
The what consists of the burgeoning research on
                                                             means educators now have access to a good
the “running economy”: the efficiency of different
                                                             (enough) compass to point (broadly) in the direc-
running gaits, training regimes, diets, and equipment/
                                                             tion of education gold. We know what works best
attire to enhance performance on the track.
                                                             or rather what has worked well previously in a range
The how consists of athletes’ approaches to imple-           of different contexts. Educators can use these data
menting these learnings, in order to give them crit-         to make forward-looking probability estimates, or
ical edge. It involves the support of a coach who            bets, about what is more (or less) likely to work well
can advise on technique, and often the method                in their contexts in the future.
of implementation is highly scientific. It starts with
                                                             However, one of the key remaining challenges for
the analysis of athlete-specific data and leads to
                                                             educators is that tricky question of how. An unan-
the development and testing of hypotheses (or
                                                             ticipated outcome of the Visible Learning project is
hunches) about how to improve, based on review
                                                             that (in some contexts) it has encouraged educators
of global research. This involves large doses of trial
                                                             to simply pick the interventions with the highest
and error because what works best for Usain Bolt
                                                             effect size—irrespective of whether these address
does not necessarily work best for Tyson Gay or
                                                             education challenges they genuinely have in their
Florence Griffith-Joyner.
                                                             local context. This is the equivalent of a sports
What + How = Impact.                                         coach blindly changing their runner’s footwear—
                                                             based on the global data, rather than by looking
In our world of education, there are many parallels.         closely at the specific areas of improvement that
Like Olympic coaches, every educator and educa-              their athlete needs.
tion system seeks gold for their learners. Although
in this case, gold is at least a year’s growth for a         A second conundrum that educators then face is
year’s teaching input.                                       how to implement the identified approaches with
                                                             fidelity. Too often, this has proved fiendishly diffi-
Educators are also becoming increasingly adept at            cult. Either the original program designers provided
drawing on the burgeoning research on what works             no explicit guidelines on how or those guidelines
best to enhance their performance. Through the               just didn’t seem to work quite as intended in the
Visible Learning research, we have harvested and syn-        new context. In fact, one of the most pressing prob-
thesized the findings of more than 96,000 research           lems we face in education is the challenge of repli-
studies involving more than 300 million students:            cation, particularly at scale.

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING® Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement - Cognition Education Group
We do not yet have a well-developed science                    • Goal Hunt—agreeing on what needs to be
of improvement that enables educators to                         improved
                                                               • Opportunity Sift—agreeing on the mechanisms
                                                                 that provide opportunity for improvement;
• identify education challenges worth solving;
• develop (or select) interventions that are likely to         • Lift Off—implementing the improvement; and
  have impact;
                                                               • Double Back—measuring the impact and agreeing
• implement with fidelity;                                       on where to go next, so that, ideally, we can also
• evaluate to determine whether there has been                   Double Up to scale the impact.
  impact; and
• iterate to enhance impact.
                                                               This has most similarity to the idea that “teachers
This paper is about that challenge of selection and            are to DIIE for”; that is, educator impact comes from
implementation. Our key purpose is to sketch out               excellent Diagnoses, choosing high-probability
some protocols to enhance the probability that the             Interventions, ensuring Implementation fidelity and
quest for gold will actually lead to gold.                     appropriate dosage, and conducting Evaluations
                                                               of the impact on the learning lives of students (see
In keeping with the theme of this collection of                Hattie & Zierer, 2018).
papers, we call our implementation approach the
G.O.L.D. Method. As we will unpack, this involves              On our journey, we will traverse the following
four phases:                                                   waypoints:

                                 Part 1 Overview of the Implementation Challenge

 Why Is Education Reform Hard? This section celebrates the wonderful success that governments have made in
 scaling education for all but laments that progress is slowing and that improvement is getting ever harder.

 Toward an Implementation Science for Education, which surveys a range of promising approaches that are
 currently being piloted in education, including Deliverology and Spiral of Inquiry. We argue that there are golden
 nuggets in each that could benefit from being extracted and re-blended.

                                    Part 2 The Visible Learning® G.O.L.D. Model

 Overview of G.O.L.D. This introduces the key phases and stages.

 Goal Hunt. This phase outlines processes for the identification of education challenges worth fixing. In other
 words, this is about hunting for the right issues to address.

 Opportunity Sift. This suggests protocols for sketching, building, and validating theories of improvement. In
 other words, this is about designing effective interventions.

 Lift Off, which is where interventions are implemented.

 Double Back. This is about evaluating the effectiveness of what you have done to identify how you can double
 up the impact.

 Finally, we include our observations about moving from the Double Back phase to Double Up, that is, to achieve
 impact at scale.

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement - Cognition Education Group
      Overview of the Implementation Challenge

1.1 Why Is Education Reform Hard?

Let’s start with some good news. The last 170 years                   • The Access Challenge. There are still 263
has, educationally speaking, been a resounding                          million children (one in five adolescents and
success. When school systems first emerged, the                         disproportionately girls) around the globe that are
trailblazers were like bush runners. They had no                        not currently in school (UIS, 2019).1 This is more
path, no world-class coaches, and no custom-made                        than the combined child-age population of the
“running shoes.” Despite this, those early pioneers                     United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, the
ran like the wind and quickly massified education.                      Netherlands, Scandinavia, Australia, and
                                                                        New Zealand.
Since the 1850s, governments around the world
have moved from an era of no publicly funded uni-                     • The Equity Challenge. In developed countries,
versal education to single-room primary schools,                        where access to schooling is universal, education
and then to the complex modern schools we see in                        outcomes are still too much of a lottery—with an
many parts of the world today. Governments have                         average of 14% of students in OECD countries
literally pumped hundreds of trillions of dollars into                  failing to graduate high school (OECD, 2019,
this endeavor. Schools have been built. Teachers                        Secondary graduation rate indicator). This
have been identified, trained, and hired. And                           nongraduation rate includes 21% of boys in the
according to World Bank data, currently 89% of                          United Kingdom, 18% of boys in the United States,
children across the globe have had access to some                       and 17% of boys in Australia.
form of schooling (UNESCO UIS, 2018).
                                                                      • The Future Skills Challenge. Employers and
In many countries, education is the single biggest                      educators regularly lament that the education
area of public investment, with governments now col-                    system seems to have been built for a bygone
lectively spending more than USD $3.46 trillion per                     factory era and that it does not equip young people
annum on both basic and higher education (Hattie &                      with the skills they need for the world of today, let
Hamilton, 2020). The global spread of schooling has                     alone tomorrow.
been one of the greatest successes of our era.

The global spread of schooling has been one of                        In many countries, policymakers appear very con-
the greatest successes of our era.                                    scious of the fact that their collective investments
                                                                      in education are not bearing enough fruit. There is
Despite these successes, many stakeholders remain                     also growing concern about the potential for mass
unhappy because of the following hurdles:                             unemployment as algorithms become primed
    Many of these children have previously had some access to primary-level education.

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement - Cognition Education Group
to undertake the more “routine” tasks like stock              There can be many positive consequences of some
picking, pathology, and legal review (Ford, 2017).            of this, but GERM is premised on the belief that it is
The historian-cum-futurologist Yuval Noah Harari              optimal to primarily focus on the levers external to
(2019) talks with great seriousness about the                 the school and classroom. The opposite has been
likely emergence of a useless class whose current             equally as fraught—the belief in a school leader or
employment activities could be entirely automated             teacher’s right to autonomy to choose their own
but who lack the creative and critical thinking skills        teaching adventure, the focus on how to teach
to reinvent themselves. Indeed, the one thing our             rather than on the impact of this teaching, the
machine colleagues can’t (yet) do is emulate the              denial of expertise among educators, and the false
uniquely human skills of curiosity, creativity, col-          belief that all educators are equal in their impact so
laboration, critical reflection, and communication            leave them alone.
that will likely be the key to success for future
                                                              However, as nations increasingly use international
generations (Fullan & Scott, 2014; Jefferson &
                                                              rankings like the Programme for International
Anderson, 2017).
                                                              Student Assessment to measure the comparative
                                                              virility of their respective national education sys-
Recognizing the risks, education policymak-
                                                              tems, we are witnessing greater convergence. The
ers across both the developing and developed
                                                              standardization of the measuring instrument seems
worlds keep themselves busy with the task of
                                                              also to be encouraging the standardization of pol-
designing and implementing education reform.
                                                              icy prescription.
That playbook of reform varies from time to time
and place to place, but as Pasi Sahlberg laments,             As one of us has argued elsewhere (Hattie, 2015),
it is increasingly looking like a Global Education            many of these system-level reforms are largely
Reform Movement (GERM) (Sahlberg, 2015),                      barking up the wrong tree or, rather, they don’t
which is a standardized toolkit of policy inter-              bark high enough. National education systems are
ventions that centers on the initiatives tabulated            a composite of five interlocked layers, as shown
in Table 1.                                                   in Table 2.

Table 1 The GERM Model of Education Improvement

              Policy                                                Prescription

 Standardized Teaching           • National teaching standards
 and Learning
                                 • National curriculum
                                 • Common data standards

 Market-Based Reforms            • School inspectorate
                                 • School league tables
                                 • Teacher performance-related pay
                                 • Parental choice
                                 • School autonomies

 Test-Based Accountability       • National standardized testing, linked to market-based reforms

 Focus on Literacy and           • Increasing teaching hours for math, reading, writing, and science

Source: Sahlberg, 2015.

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Table 2 The Five Layers (or Levels) of Education Improvement

             Layer                                                          Description

    Level 1: Big Picture        • Purpose of education, e.g., basic human right, economic productivity, and equal
                                • National education challenges, e.g., ensuring all children get a quality education,
                                  increasing literacy rates, reducing truancy, zero tolerance to bullying, and unlocking
                                  creativity and unique human skills

    Level 2: Education          The policy instruments that are used to effect change at Levels 3 and 4:
    System Surface
                                    • Education funding, facilities, curriculum, school governance structures, assessment
                                      system, teacher recruitment and training processes, data monitoring systems,
                                      class size, length of school day, number of minutes devoted to specific subjects,
                                      budget for teacher professional development, and level of centralization versus

    Level 3: Education          What teachers actually do in classrooms and what they believe (espoused theories vs.
    System Deep                 theories in practice):
                                    • Teachers’ theory of learning and their role in it, how they interact with
                                      learners, how they provide empathy, how they give and receive feedback,
                                      how they gather evidence and reflect on their strengths and areas for development,
                                      how they collaborate with each other, and the micro-pedagogies they employ

    Level 4: The Learner        • What and how children learn; the facts, values, and skills that are transmitted and the
                                  fidelity of transmission (or the neurons that fire and wire together)

    Level 5: The Legacy         • The level of long-term contribution that schooling makes in equipping young people
    Effect                        with skills for life versus the impact of other formal and informal mechanisms for
                                  learning, e.g., environmental context, family, peers, voluntary associations, and TV
                                • The fadeout/degradation of learning over time, i.e., how much of what children
                                  learn in school is used and useful for life?

The implicit assumption behind many current and                         ecosystem and life outcomes. And the assumed
recent national education reform initiatives is that                    direction of that relationship is school transmitting
there is a direct causal chain or golden thread that                    to life rather than vice versa.2
is cast down from Level 1 and that sways vigorously
at Level 5. In other words, the assumption is that                      Our sense is that what happens at Level 3 has
policymakers set goals; these goals are converted                       a very strong impact on Level 4 and that this, in
into uniform instruments; these instruments, once                       turn with various out-of-school influences, has
implemented, significantly impact, and for the bet-                     some impact in laying appropriate foundations for
ter, what teachers do in classrooms. It is further                      Level 5. However, we are not at all convinced that
assumed that this change in teacher behaviors then                      much of what happens at Levels 1 and 2 has any
directly results in children learning faster, harder,                   significant impact on Levels 3–5. Our contention is
and better and that there is a causal relationship                      that both segments operate, too often, in parallel
between what goes on in this whole schooling                            universes.

    Not all educational theorists hold with this view, however, from Dewey to Illich to Beane to Yong Zhao, to name a few.

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

There are many explanations for why the growing              differently, multiplied by the number of change
global body of research about what works trans-              agents that can help them on their journey. No
lates into limited impact in schools and classrooms.         wonder that Larry Cuban (1998) in his analysis of
First, education is often a highly politicized area          the impact of John Dewey’s progressive educa-
of public service delivery (Nordstrum et al., 2017).         tion movement in the United States concluded
This means that new programs can sometimes be                that even at its peak no more than 25% of teach-
implemented based on political or ideological con-           ers had fully converted to using student-centered
siderations and without any clear linkage to the evi-        approaches. The majority did not change anything
dence on what works or any evaluation of actual              at all and many of those teachers who said they
impact. In the United States, for example, federal           were progressivists employed hybrid approaches
funding for education programs has rarely been               that retained many of the features of their preexist-
tied to impact data (Slavin, 2002).                          ing teaching practice.

Second, even where appropriate and research-
based interventions have been identified, achiev-            The success of any educational reform is directly
ing implementation with fidelity is extremely                proportional to the number of teachers who are
difficult (Berman & McLaughlin, 1975; Cuban,                 willing to question their own approaches and to
1993; Darling-Hammond & Snyder, 1992; Elmore                 look seriously at ways of doing things differently,
& McLaughlin, 1998; Rivlin & Timpane, 1975;                  multiplied by the number of change agents that
Robinson, 2018). Interventions and approaches                can help them on their journey.
that researchers agree on paper should be effec-
tive often do not produce the intended results or
                                                             To overcome these challenges, we need to widen
significantly change what educators do in the class-
                                                             our focus from what works to how we can make it
room (Cohen & Moffitt, 2009; Correnti & Rowan,
                                                             work. We need to ask what works best for whom
2007; Rowan, Correnti, Miller & Camburn, 2009).
                                                             and under what conditions; or why it worked earlier
Ultimately, the success of any educational reform            and how we can make it work again. In short, we
is directly proportional to the number of teachers           need a science of improvement (including effec-
who are willing to question their own approaches             tive implementation of those improvements) for
and to look seriously at ways of doing things                education.

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

1.2 Toward an Implementation
Science for Education

In the parallel field of health, implementation                      new approach aligned with health care
science has had a reasonably long history. Methods                   professionals’ worldviews, it was more likely
for effective rollout and scale-up of health reforms                 to be implemented with enthusiasm (Aarons,
have been iterated and improved since the 1960s                      Green, & Miller, 2012). Ergo, implementation
(Pressman & Wildawsky, 1984; Wandersman et al.,                      must tackle beliefs.
2008). These approaches emerged because empir-
                                                                 3. Practitioners should not have sole
ically tested health intervention programs were not
                                                                    responsibility for implementing research-
having the desired impact, once implemented in
                                                                    based interventions. Instead, accountability
primary care settings.
                                                                    for success also lies with the researchers and
                                                                    program developers, who should work in
The research in health care suggested                               tandem (Meyers et al., 2012).

                                                              In our business of education, implementation sci-
   1. The actual process of implementation                    ence has had a relatively short history. The Hand-
      strongly influenced whether there                       book of Implementation Science for Psychology in
      was impact (Kelly, 2012; Meyers                         Education, edited by Kelly and Perkins, was pub-
      et al., 2012).                                          lished in 2012. This was the first weighty tome on
                                                              the psychology of education implementation.
   2. There is a powerful relationship
      between the beliefs and values of health                There are also several promising improvement
      care practitioners and the outcome                      methodologies for education that are being piloted
      of implementation; that is, when the                    in a range of education contexts (Table 3).

Table 3 Overview of Some Promising Education Improvement Methodologies

  Methodology                           Description                                         Reference

 Deliverology      Developed by Sir Michael Barber, this approach             Barber, M., Kihn, P., & Moffit, A.
                   focuses on scaled implementation of an agreed              (2011). Deliverology 101: A field
                   approach, with fidelity. The framework is intended         guide for educational leaders.
                   to be generic (i.e., can be used within and beyond         Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
                   education) but has been employed in educational
                   contexts in the United States.
                   Verdict: Strong on governance, implementation, and
                   scalability processes but limited focus on protocols for
                   selecting appropriate interventions or for engaging
                   with stakeholders’ beliefs and values. More suitable
                   for top-down change.


“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING® Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.


  Methodology                           Description                                       Reference

 Positive          Centers on grassroots exploration and fact finding to    LeMahieu, P. G., Nordstrum, L., &
 Deviance          identify positive outliers or “deviants” to whatever     Gale, G. (2017). Positive deviance:
                   issue stakeholders seek to resolve. The idea is to       Learning from positive anomalies.
                   catalogue positive deviant behaviors that can be         Quality Assurance in Education,
                   replicated and scaled up.                                25(1).
                   Verdict: Strong on innovating problem solving
                   by scaling up pockets of effective practice, but         Pascale, R., Sternin, J., & Sternin,
                   limited focus on how stakeholders select their issue,    M. (2010). The power of positive
                   how they should scale up, or how to address the          deviance: How unlikely innovators
                   fact that many instances of positive deviance are        solve the world’s toughest
                   nonreplicable.                                           problems. Boston, MA: Harvard
                                                                            Business Press.

 Spiral of         Developed by Helen Timperley, Linda Kaser, and           Timperley, H., Kaser L., & Halbert, J.
 Inquiry           Judy Halbert, the Spiral of Inquiry provides frontline   (2014). A framework for transforming
                   educators with six subroutines to enhance student        learning in schools: Innovation
                   learning outcomes: scanning, focusing, developing a      and the spiral of inquiry. Victoria,
                   hunch, learning, taking action, and checking.            Australia: Centre for Strategic
                   Verdict: Strong on identification of areas for
                   improvement and the development, implementation
                   of local action research projects to implement and
                   measure improvement and on privileging stakeholder
                   beliefs. Less focus on specific implementation
                   processes or on scaling up.

 Agile for         Range of approaches, including Simon Breakspear’s        Breakspear, S. (2017). Embracing
 Education         Teaching Sprints, which have been adapted from           agile leadership for learning: How
                   the generic Agile model and applied to educational       leaders can create impact despite
                   settings.                                                growing complexity. Australian
                                                                            Educational Leader, 39(3), 68–71.
                   Verdict: These frameworks have similar focus and
                   benefits to the Spiral of Inquiry model and are
                   valuable process drivers for school or departmental
                   professional learning communities to undertake fast
                   improvement cycles. They may have less value in
                   driving system-wide reform.

 Reduce            This is a body of school improvement research            Robinson, V. M. J. (2018). Reduce
 Change to         and processes developed by Viviane Robinson. It          change to increase improvement.
 Increase          proposes a highly selective improvement focus and        Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
 Improvement       offers protocols for coaches to engage with and
                   understand stakeholder beliefs around change.
                   Verdict: Wonderfully strong on “less being more”
                   and on mechanism for engaging with rather
                   than bypassing educators’ theories of action and
                   their beliefs. Less coverage on the processes
                   of implementing, evaluating, and scaling up

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Methodology                            Description                                       Reference

 Hexagon Tool      A six-part planning tool for schools to identify local     Blase, K., Kiser, L., & Van Dyke, M.
                   needs and then evaluate prebuilt programs and their        (2013). The hexagon tool: Exploring
                   suitability for the local context. Focus areas are need,   context. Chapel Hill, NC: National
                   fit, resources, evidence, readiness, and capacity.         Implementation Research Network,
                                                                              FPG Child Development Institute,
                   Verdict: A useful thinking tool to support individual
                                                                              University of North Carolina at
                   schools to select evidence-based programs,
                                                                              Chapel Hill.
                   but it does not specifically address or support
                   implementation or evaluation, postselection.

 Learning to       Developed by researchers at the Carnegie Foundation        Bryk, A. S., Gomez, L. M.,
 Improve           for the Advancement of Teaching, this methodology          Grunow, A., & LeMahieu, P. G.
                   provides a framework for the identification of areas for   (2015). Learning to improve: How
                   improvement, improvement hypothesis development,           America’s schools can get better at
                   and Agile-like improvement cycles.                         getting better. Cambridge,
                                                                              MA: Harvard Education Press.
                   Verdict: A powerful set of tools with a strong focus
                   on starting local and then scaling. Also advocates
                   involvement of external researchers/coaches to work
                   alongside those implementing improvement.

Other promising approaches include the following:               While there are encouraging case studies sup-
                                                                porting the effectiveness of these approaches,
  • Collective Impact (Kania & Kramer, 2011), which             there are (as yet) no meta-analyses that review or
    focuses on establishing a centralized infrastructure,       compare the impact of these different methodol-
    dedicated staff, and structured processes.                  ogies at scale. There is a significant gap in both
  • Scaling Up Education Reform (Bishop,                        the literature and the Visible Learning MetaX
    O’Sullivan, & Berryman, 2010), which centers on             database.
    establishing goals, developing new institutions,
    spreading reform, gathering evidence of impact,             At present, the best that we can do is harvest
    and creating opportunities for all stakeholders to          the golden nuggets from these approaches to
    take ownership of the reform.                               improvement and synthesize them into a practi-
  • Many publications by Michael Fullan and Andy                cal set of (hunch-based) principles and tools that
    Hargreaves on scaling up (including Hargreaves              educators can use to support more effective
    & Fullan, 2012).                                            education implementation runs.

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING® Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

                             The VISIBLE LEARNING®
                                 G.O.L.D. Model


Each of the approaches to effective improve-                   What we set out to do in the remainder of the
ment outlined in the previous section has its own              paper is to fashion these nuggets into an explicit
in-built “twist” or areas of emphasis. There are,              improvement methodology that we call the Visible
however, some commonalities between all these                  Learning® G.O.L.D. Model (see Table 4).
approaches. To some degree, they each empha-
size the importance of carefully carrying out the              We make no claim that G.O.L.D. is revolutionary.
following steps:                                               It merely takes the best tools and processes that
                                                               we have (shamelessly) scavenged from the imple-
                                                               mentation methodologies outlined in the previ-
   1. selecting the area for improvement;
                                                               ous section and blends these with trial-and-error
   2. developing (or identifying and localizing) one           insights that our teams have gleaned from direct
      or more interventions to generate impact;                involvement in large-scale improvement programs
   3. implementing the agreed interventions,                   in the United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates,
      using robust project management tools and                Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, and the
      approaches; and                                          Pacific Islands.

   4. leveraging the scientific method to gather               Our hunch is that these processes and tools will
      data during implementation, to verify and                be most valuable to educators that wish to embark
      enhance impact.                                          on large-scale improvement or what can be called

Table 4 The Visible Learning® G.O.L.D. Model

     Phase 1 Goal Hunt         Phase 2 Opportunity Sift            Phase 3 Lift Off        Phase 4 Double Back

 Finding/diagnosing an        Systematically                   Implementing the agreed   Explicitly and scientifically
 education challenge          investigating mechanisms         improvement strategies    measuring the impact
 worthy of everyone’s time    for improvement to agree                                   and agreeing where to
 and effort                   on the best-fit approach                                   go next

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Education Challenges. As Table 5 outlines, these                    even a whole system. These tools will also be of
are highly complex problems with severe impact                      use to individual schools, where they are united in
on future quality of life (e.g., employability, health,             identifying and addressing an agreed whole-school
dignity, adaptability, resilience, happiness, and life              education improvement initiative.
expectancy) and where stakeholders agree that they
want to make resolution their number one crusade.                   We now unpack the four phases of G.O.L.D. and
Approaches to resolution often involve the estab-                   present some practical tools that can be used to
lishment of a taskforce or guiding coalition that                   support successful resolution of substantial educa-
works with and across multiple schools—sometimes                    tion challenges.

Table 5 Defining Education Challenges

                                                                                                Education Challenges:
                                                           Education Improvement:           highly complex and high risk,
                      Education Enhancement:               more complex, addressed            requires highly structured
                       addressed by educators             by local groups of educators           intervention via, e.g.,
                       as part of what they do                via, e.g., professional        G.O.L.D. thinking approach
                         in their classrooms                   learning community              and additional resources

 Perceived         Some potential risks to quality       Moderate risk to quality of life   Significant risk to quality of
 Impact            of life if not tackled                if not tackled                     life if not tackled

 Confidence        Data often white noise or             Often long-term underlying         Usually incontrovertible
 in the Data       statistical anomalies                 pattern in the data                evidence

 Stakeholder       No agreement that a problem           Agreement that the problem         Strong agreement that the
 Consensus         exists                                exists but there are               problem exists, but there are
                                                         differences of opinion about       differences of opinion about
                                                         how to solve it                    how to solve it AND often
                                                                                            limited time

 Resourcing        Does not require external             Benefits from external             Obvious to everyone that it
 and               intervention                          intervention, i.e., help from      requires external intervention
 Reversal                                                outside the system
                   Problem usually                                                          Problem almost never
                   self-correcting                       Problem rarely self-correcting     self-correcting

 Complexity        Relatively easy to solve              Difficult to solve                 Fiendishly difficult to solve—
                                                                                            solutions often generate
                                                                                            unanticipated consequences

 Scale             Classroom                             School                             Multiple schools

Source: Copyright © Cognition Education (2020). All rights reserved.

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING® Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Phase 1 Goal Hunt

    Education challenges are often complex to define and fiendishly difficult to resolve. Change
    initiatives are more likely to be successful when

       • the benefits of change have been clearly defined,
       • there is strong consensus that the education challenge needs resolving,
       • there is deep understanding of the causes, and
       • stakeholders explicitly map out what success looks like.

    Therefore, we need to be clear before we embark on change that the goals are worthwhile to
    warrant the time and investment in attempting systematic change. This means we need to
    undertake a Goal Hunt.

    A Goal Hunt is a comprehensive inquiry:
       1.1 The inquiry starts with the clear purpose of identifying education challenges that are worth
       everyone’s time and effort in solving; that is, what is it are we trying to make better?
       1.2 During a Goal Hunt, education challenges are systematically detected, catalogued,
       reviewed against local and global evidence, and ranked; that is, are we sure we have identi-
       fied the most appropriate area to make better? And are we sure that we haven’t bitten
       off more than we can chew?
       1.3 Ideally, the fullest range of stakeholders participate in the Goal Hunt process and they are
       given the opportunity to state their preferences and share their beliefs; that is, do we ALL
       agree that solving this education challenge is the best use of our time and resources? Are
       we all committed to making this better?
       1.4 Stakeholders work collaboratively to build and validate causal models to diagnose and
       explain WHY their selected education challenge exists; that is, do we share the same beliefs
       about the cause of this education challenge? What are the different potential causal
       explanations we need to keep in mind for when we move to the Opportunity Sift phase?
       1.5 Stakeholders collaboratively set the (provisional) improvement goal, that is, this is where
       we are now, and this is where we are going to get to, and this is the measure we are
       going to use.

    And if you can’t find an education challenge that most stakeholders agree is worth resolving, put
    down your hunting implements and get back to the day job.

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

In the following subsections, we outline how you                   when looking at challenges in the educational land-
might bring a Goal Hunt to life in your context.                   scape is “What’s the worst that could happen if we
                                                                   did nothing?” Table 6 illustrates some of the edu-
                                                                   cation challenges uncovered by goal hunters in dif-
1.1–1.3 Hunting for an Education                                   ferent contexts.
Challenge Worth Solving
                                                                   The next step is to identify which (if any) education
To bring about change you must have a clear sense                  challenges are worthy of systematic resolution/
of what you want to change and why. At the system,                 remediation. One way of addressing this is to
district, or school level, the first step is to establish a        employ the collective wisdom of the crowd and ask
G.O.L.D. Team that meets, explores, analyzes, and                  all relevant stakeholders (including educators, stu-
then sifts and sorts all the potential education chal-             dents, parents, and community members) to liter-
lenges. This is akin to the way that Coach Glen Mills              ally vote on which education challenge they think is
identified stride frequency and balance as the key                 the most important to resolve.
challenges or improvement areas for Usain Bolt.
                                                                   There are two very good reasons for doing this.
The initial role of this hunting party is to find as               The first is that, as Sir Francis Galton discovered
many challenges as there are worthy of resolution,                 when he asked the crowd at a country fair to guess
as possible. The question that we ask ourselves                    the weight of an ox (while individual guesses or

Table 6 Identifying Education Challenges Worth Solving

                                                      GOAL HUNT

                   Education Challenge                                            Potential Consequences

                                                                                What’s the worst that could
                                                                                happen if we did nothing?

 Teacher recruitment and retention                                 • Reduced quality of math and science lessons
    • Difficulty in recruiting qualified math and science          • Fewer students opting for science/technical careers
                                                                   • Higher lifetime cost of teacher training
    • 50% of teachers leaving profession after 5 years

 17% of graduating students not achieving the                      • Students are unable to progress to higher education
 minimum standard of literacy
                                                                   • When students enter the workforce they are limited
                                                                     to routine roles that are susceptible to automation

 Information and communication technology (ICT)                    • There will be insufficient functioning ICT equipment
 equipment in the school district is reaching end of life            across our schools
 and needs to be replaced
                                                                   • Our learners may not develop ICT skills

 9% of students are not regularly attending school                 • Student learning is hampered
                                                                   • Students do not graduate from school
                                                                   • Restricted employment opportunities in adulthood

 Teacher professional development is at an all-time low            • Quality of teaching is significantly affected
 in offerings and quality
                                                                   • Student learning outcomes are significantly

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

opinions were generally wide of the mark), the                 challenges against one another, it is also important
mean average of all guesses or opinions was                    that you look at the quality of evidence you have at
extremely close to the ox’s true weight (Galton,               your disposal to make your collective rankings. Do
1907). What Galton uncovered was the collective                you have any of the following conditions?
wisdom of the crowd, that is, when we combine
the mean average of everyone’s intuition, often                • High Confidence, for example, a significant
it is not far from the empirical truth. The second               amount of quantitative and qualitative data that
is that, in our educational context, by engaging                 have been collected from various sources, which
with all stakeholder groups, people will be more                 are mutually corroborative.
likely to buy in to the idea that the highest-ranked
education challenges are crusades worthy of sig-               • Medium Confidence, for example, some robust
nificant investment of their own time and energy.                data exist, but there are gaps that require leaps
We are also more likely to be able to determine                  of faith, or there are strong data, but they pull in
stakeholders’ belief and value processes, which                  different directions.
will be useful later, as we design and then imple-             • Low Confidence, for example, while there is strong
ment our intervention.                                           intuition and consensus that the problem might
                                                                 exist, there is no hard supporting evidence. Are
One way of undertaking the voting exercise, if
                                                                 judgments entirely based on gut reaction?
stakeholders have identified a very long list of
potential challenges, is by comparison of matched              You will also want to consider whether the educa-
pairs; for example, the following box shows the                tion challenges you have uncovered are related
comparison of a pair of education challenges.                  to outcomes or inputs. An outcomes challenge
                                                               is one where the existing education system is
  % of students
 9                      versus    ICT equipment in            resulting in reduced life chances for learners
 are not regularly                 the school district         (e.g., lower employability, health, dignity, adapt-
 attending school                  is reaching end of
                                   life and needs to be
                                                               ability, resilience, happiness, and life expec-
                                   replaced                    tancy). Whereas an inputs challenge is when
                                                               there is some change in the education operation
                                                               system that indirectly threatens the possibility
The idea is that every education challenge is com-
                                                               of an outcomes crisis down the line (e.g., chal-
pared to every other education challenge, and
                                                               lenges in recruitment and retention of teachers
the total number of votes for each comparison is
                                                               or school leaders).
then tallied and ranked. Stakeholders are asked to
choose which item from each pair that they rate has
the greatest priority for resolution. This process is
repeated until every option has been pitted against                      Going from Deductive
every other option. The ratings are then aggregated                          to Inductive
into an overall ranking of perceived importance.
                                                                  The method for education challenge identi-
An important aspect of this process is that it                    fication that we have outlined in the text is
involves strong involvement from local stakehold-                 deductive. It starts with stakeholders laying
ers, thereby ensuring that whatever priority inter-               down ideas and then looking at the evidence
ventions emerge clearly come from the community                   to see whether or not this conforms to their
that will go on to lead resolution.                               perception of reality. One potential down-
                                                                  side to the deductive method is that it might
However, vote counting alone might lead to the
                                                                  encourage stakeholders to identify superfi-
identification of inappropriate education chal-
                                                                  cial or unimportant education challenges.
lenges. As you pit your list of identified education

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

suggest that you then attempt to define the chal-
  Another approach is to undertake your edu-                  lenge as explicitly as possible. For example, if your
  cation challenge hunt inductively. This means               selected challenge is that 9% of students are not
  that you don’t prejudice your search for a                  attending school regularly, you will want to identify
  worthwhile education challenge with precon-                 whether there are any patterns in the demographic
  ceptions about what needs to be fixed and                   of that 9% and/or the duration of absenteeism, as
  then take a public vote. Instead you go on                  shown in Table 7.
  a data hunt. You start by looking at metric
  data, undertake learning walks, and collect
                                                              1.4 Map the Causal Drivers
  teacher and student voice data to identify/
  diagnose a range of potential education                     In order to resolve an education challenge, we
  challenges. You can then consider which                     need to develop and test hypotheses (or hunches)
  of the challenges have the most severity of                 about the potential causes. This requires the
  impact.                                                     G.O.L.D. Team to consider all the possible causal
                                                              factors that could be contributing to the education
  Depending on the resources at your disposal,
  you could divide your G.O.L.D. Team into
  two separate hunting parties (i.e., deductive               One way of identifying the causal factors to an iden-
  and inductive); compare and synthesize the                  tified challenge is called The Five Whys approach,
  results from both at the end.                               which was originally developed by Sakichi Toyoda
                                                              and was used within the Toyota Motor Corporation
                                                              (Ohno, 1988). It involves asking and collecting data
If you can’t find an education challenge big enough           about each hypothesized link in the causal chain.
to be worth solving, we would suggest that you dis-           The box on the following page illustrates an exam-
band your G.O.L.D. Team.                                      ple using the Five Whys approach.

But if you have identified an education challenge             The idea is that you ask as many “why” ques-
for which there is near-unanimous agreement, we               tions as you can think of and then use these to

Table 7 Education Challenge Breakdown Structure

    Challenge                  Breakdown Structure                             What Does This Mean?

 9% of students      • Not regularly attending is defined as        • Our challenge group is 64% of 9% or 5.76%
 are not regularly     missing two days in any single week;           of the student body.
 attending             and/or more than four days in any single
                                                                    • Most of our nonattenders are adolescent
 school                term
                                                                      boys from lower SES (socioeconomic status)
                     • Of nonattending cohort—36% only just           group.
                       meet the threshold definition; 64% are
                                                                    • We don’t know the causes/whether there
                       persistently not attending
                                                                      are patterns in those causal mechanisms.
                     • 82% of nonattenders are boys between
                                                                    • But given that majority of nonattenders
                       ages 13 and 17
                                                                      share similar demographic features, it is
                     • 63% of nonattenders are low SES group          reasonable to speculate that there may
                                                                      be an overlap in the underlying causal
                     • Student voice collection was
                       inconclusive—students unwilling/unable
                       to articulate the reason for their absence

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Five Whys Approach
  Education Challenge: 9% of children are not coming
  to school and it’s interfering with their learning              Define the problem

                                                                Why is it happening?

  1. Why? They don’t want to come.                                                 Why is that?

  2. Why? They can’t relate the learning to their lives.                                   Why is that?

  3. Why? It’s boring and not contextualized.                                                     Why is that?

  4. Why? Our teachers are not differentiating to their                                                  Why is that?

  5. Why? Our teachers have not been trained and
     supported to do this.

build a causal model. It is extremely likely that,              verification methods you undertake might vary
depending on their different worldviews/beliefs,                considerably depending on the nature of your edu-
stakeholders will come up with multiple five-                   cation challenge. Sources of data might include
ways. This process provides a window into                       global research including Visible Learning MetaX,
stakeholder beliefs, and it is important to inter-              student voice, learning walks, parent inter-
rogate each model and come to a shared                          views, teacher observation, and locally adminis-
understanding.                                                  tered surveys.
In Figure 1, we illustrate how the collective or
                                                                At the end of the review process, the G.O.L.D.
majority view can be presented in the form of a
                                                                Team redraws their path analysis to reflect what
path analysis. However, you will notice that in the
                                                                they have uncovered from their research. This
illustration we have only peeled back one layer
                                                                finalized causal driver map will be central to the
of causation on each of these potential “whys”
                                                                crafting of interventions or solutions during the
(system-level discovery teams may find it bene-
                                                                Opportunity Sift stage.
ficial to add at least one more layer of “whys”
that directly map to the big six factors listed in
Figure 1).
                                                                1.5 Set the Quantifiable
You could also present your analysis as a fishbone              Improvement Goal
diagram or an issue tree. However, what you have
mapped out is just a theory. You now need to collect            The final stage of the Goal Hunt involves setting,
data to see whether your hunches about the                      agreeing, and locking specific and measurable suc-
causes of the education challenge are plausible.                cess criteria for the selected education challenge
Table 8 shows how each potential causal variable                (Table 9). As Peter Drucker once said, “What gets
can be investigated and recorded. However, the                  measured gets improved.”

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 1 Example Path Analysis

               No public


                                 Parents cannot fund,
                                    e.g., uniforms/
                                  School environment
                                    perceived to be

                      Parents do not place
                       value on education
                       for their childrean

         Poor-quality learning

Source: Copyright © Cognition Education (2020). All rights reserved.

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING® Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Table 8 Causal Driver Verification

      Causal                     Causal                    Sources of                Outcome of               Variable
     Variable                  Hypothesis               Verification Data            Verification             Remains?

  No public          Students are not attending         Student             Not verified. All students live   Removed
  transportation     school because the                 geolocations        within 30 minutes’ walk from
                     transportation infrastructure                          schools, within the district.
                                                        Bus routes
                     is inadequate

  Poor-quality       Students are not attending         Student voice       Verified. Students                Remains
  learning           school because they do not                             consistently reported
  experiences        enjoy their classes and do                             that they found lessons
                     not believe what they study                            unengaging. Lesson
                     is relevant                        Curriculum          observations also suggested
                                                        review              disengagement.

Source: Copyright © Cognition Education (2020). All rights reserved.

Table 9 Setting the Success Criteria

     Current           “To Be”
    Situation          Situation        By When                                Measured How

 9% of              97% of             December        • School attendance register data
 students are       students are       2022
                                                       • Regular attendance defined as 7 or fewer absences during
 regularly not      regularly
                                                         school year
 attending          attending
 school             school

                                        Justification of Selection of “To Be” Values

 Review of regional comparator data suggests that on average 3% of students regularly do not attend school. Our
 goal is to achieve the same rate of attendance as regional comparators.

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Phase 2 Opportunity Sift

   Attempts to resolve large-scale education challenges are more likely to be successful when:

      • interventions are explicitly designed;
      • the designs draw on global and local research, rather than intuition alone;
      • a range of alternative interventions are proposed, reviewed, ranked, and refined by local stakeholders;
      • the review process includes analysis of “human factors” including cognitive biases and the degree to
        which the proposed intervention aligns with or contradicts stakeholders’ existing worldviews;
      • the selected intervention has an evidence base that suggests a high probability of success and that the
        approach is adaptable to the local context; and
      • stakeholders build an explicit and phased success map, with measurable improvement targets.

   Therefore, before we blindly rush ahead and implement any approach or intervention, we need to review and
   sift all the potential opportunities or options to select and design the approach that has the highest probability
   of being effective within the local ecosystem.
   This means we need to undertake an Opportunity Sift.

   An Opportunity Sift is a systematic solutions-design exercise:

      2.1 It starts by going back to the causal drivers that were hypothesized and validated during step 1.4 in
      our Goal Hunt. The idea is to sketch out all the different opportunities and options for blocking, weaken-
      ing, or reversing the causal drivers of an education challenge; that is, what are ALL the different ways
      and tools we can use to fix this? And what evidence is there that these ways will work for us?
      2.2 Next comes the development of a theory of improvement. This takes the best opportunity sketches
      from step 2.1 and maps them out into a full delivery model that details the resources, activities, and out-
      puts and how each of these contributes to solving the education challenge; that is, how are we going to
      make this happen? What resources do we need? Who is going to do what?
      2.3 We need to recognize that it’s unlikely we will have developed the perfect theory of improvement the
      first time. Therefore, we need to explore all the ways it can be iterated and consider the human factors (aka
      local beliefs and values) and whether our improvement model engages with these; that is, what are all
      the different ways we could wiggle (iterate) our design and which wiggles do we think will result in
      better impact? And does what we propose to do align with the way our stakeholders think and feel?
      2.4 Finally, we need to develop a success map. This builds on the baseline and quantifiable improvement
      goal targets you already set in step 1.5. It builds these out into a full results framework that sets short-,
      medium-, and longer-term targets for each activity, output, and outcome; that is, how and when are we
      going to measure whether we are on track?

   At the end of the Opportunity Sift process, you will have identified the best options for improvement and built
   these into a cohesive improvement initiative, ready to Lift Off.

“Getting to G.O.L.D.: The VISIBLE LEARNING® Approach to Unleashing Education Improvement” by Arran Hamilton and John
Hattie. Copyright © 2021 by Corwin Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

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