SSRG International
    International        Journal
                  Conference     of CivilResearch
                             on Current  Engineering  (SSRG-IJCE)
                                                  in Engineering    - Special
                                                                 Science and Issue ICCREST
                                                                              Technology     - April 2018


RAJKUMAR RAMESH#1                                            MUTHURAJ RAMALINGAM2,
#1 Assistant Professor,                                        B.E Final year student, Department Of Civil
Department Of Civil Engineering,                             Engineering, A.C.T. College of Engineering &
A.C.T. College of Engineering & Technology,                  Technology, Chengalpet, India.
Chengalpet, India.                                           REVATHI KOMAGAN3
rrajkumarrao@gmail.com                                          Assistant Professor,
                                                             A.C.T. College of Engineering & Technology,
Abstract— Ceramic generated during its production            Chengalpet, India.
can cause severe problems in environmental pollution
due to its dumping and disposal methods. On the other        of construction industries to attain the strength,
hand demand of natural sand were increased which             economical and durability requirements. In which,
increases its cost of procurement and decreases its          aggregate is one of the most essential materials in use
general availability. This study investigates the            for concrete production as it strongly influences
effective utilization of ceramic waste as partial            concrete properties. Very few research has been done
replacement for fine aggregates and coarse aggregates        on using ceramic tiles waste as the partial replacement
in concrete. A total of 9 different mix proportions were     of fine aggregates and coarse aggregates in the
casted, in which the control mix reflects the                production of structural concrete. Ceramic production
conventional concrete, and other mixes containing            in India contributes million tonnes per year and it also
cement, water and partial replacement of coarse              ranks in the top list of countries for tile production in
aggregate and fine aggregate by crushed and powdered         the world. Thus huge amount of production in ceramic
tile (in 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% proportions). These          industries satisfy its high demand but it failed to
different mix proportions were cast, cubed, cured and        effectively reuse its waste and these waste from this
crushed to find out the effective mix. The specimens         industries also causes severe environmental pollution.
were tested on the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days of curing   Hence, the need for its reuse in other industries is
for to find out the compressive, split tensile and           becoming unavoidable issue. Building construction
flexural strengths of concrete. Based on results of          industry can be the end user of all types of ceramic
mechanical properties it was found that ceramic tile         wastes and it also positively reflects on environmental
wastes can be replaced up to only 25% as waste tiles         problem. From structural point of view, ceramic
in concrete and replacing above this limit shows             wastes were found to be performing better than
negative effects on mechanical properties of the             conventional concrete, in various properties such as
concrete and slump value.                                    durability, density, compressive strength, and
Keywords— Conventional concrete, Compressive                 permeability [1]. From economic point of view, now a
strength, Split tensile strength, Flexural strength,         day’s fine and coarse aggregates contribute a bigger
Mix proportions.                                             portion of costs in the construction industry. Thus
                                                             concrete made by tile aggregate is more economical as
    I.        INTRODUCTION                                   compared to conventional concrete. As an estimate for
                                                             making 1m3 of concrete by replacing 20% normal 20
Conventional concrete is a compound material
                                                             mm aggregates with tile aggregates about 16% money
consists of coarse aggregate (crushed stones or
                                                             can be saved on total amount of 20 mm aggregates [2].
gravels), fine aggregate (sand) and binder (hydrated
                                                             Replacing a waste material of similar characteristics is
cement). Its use has been found for over a centuries in
all types of construction works. Now a days, variety of      a major economic gain, while being more eco-friendly.
new and innovative materials have been developed in          The present study is an attempt towards find out the
the field of concrete technology to fulfill the demand       possibility of incorporating ceramic wastes as partial

ISSN: 2348
Seventh Sense- 8352
               Research Group                www.internationaljournalssrg.org
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SSRG International
        International        Journal
                      Conference     of Civil Research
                                 on Current   Engineering  (SSRG-IJCE)
                                                       in Engineering    - Special
                                                                      Science and Issue ICCREST
                                                                                   Technology    - April 2018

substitute of aggregates in the making of concrete. The      conventional concrete. The physical properties of
core objective of the study is to effectively utilize the    coarse aggregates were investigated in accordance
ceramic waste in concrete and to replace the fine and
coarse aggregate with various percentages in M25             D. Ceramic waste
grade concrete and also to find the compressive, split       In general, ceramic waste is available from large
tensile, flexural strength of concrete made by ceramic       ceramic product manufacturing units and from routine
tile waste.                                                  construction activities. Roughly 550 - 650 kg of tile
                                                             wastes were procured from an Indian ceramic
    II.        MATERIALS AND METHODS                         company (Aravind Ceramics Tiles Industries Pvt. Ltd.,
                                                             Chengalpattu). Ceramic wastes were reduced up to 20
 A. Cement                                                   mm size by manually using steel hammer which used
                                                             as a replacement material for coarse aggregate. Some
Cement is fine material having very high cohesive and        part of ceramic tile wastes were reduced to less than 4
adhesive properties which makes the capable of               mm size and it can sieved by using 4.75 mm sieve and
bonding material fragments into an entirely compact.         tile wastes which are passing through this sieve can be
The most commonly used cement in construction                used directly as a replacement material for fine
industry is Portland cement and hence Ordinary               aggregate without any additional work. Physical
Portland Cement of 43 grade has been selected for the        properties of fine, coarse, ceramic fine and ceramic
study. The properties of cement was summarized in            coarse aggregate shown in Table.2
Table.1. It is entirely dry, powdery (very fine) and free
from lumps. The cement used in the study according           E. Water
to the Indian specification must satisfy the IS code IS:     Water is an important element for concreting and
8122 - 1989 (restated 1999) [3].                             curing because it enhances chemical reaction with
                                                             cement and it also gives the strength to cement
                                                             concrete. Therefore the quantity and quality of water
           Table 1 Properties of Cement                      are needed to be looked into very sensibly. Potable
                                        Cement test          bore water free from any such type of foreign matters
 Sl. No       Material Properties
                                          results            (acids, alkalies, organic and inorganic materials) and
              Initial Setting time      30 Minutes           having pH value of 7.0 ± 1 was used. Water which is
    2           Final setting time      520 minutes          used need to confirm the requirements of IS: 456 -
              Standard Consistency                           2000 [5] and the same water will be used for mixing
    3                                       40%
                       Test                                  of concrete and curing of specimens as well.
    4           Specific Gravity            2.70
    5               Fineness                 5%              F. Concrete Mix Proportions
                                                             M25 grade of concrete was designed by following the
B. Fine aggregate
                                                             specification given in the IS 10262: 2009 [6]. A total
Fine aggregate is a vital component of concrete. Those       of nine concrete mix proportions were cast, including
sizes from 4.75 mm to 150 microns are named as fine          a control concrete mix (CC) and four replacement
aggregate. The purpose of the using fine aggregate is        concrete mixes, each using ceramic fine aggregates
to fill the voids in the concrete and to act as a            (CFA) concrete: CFA-25, CFA-50, CFA-75 and CFA-
workability agent. In general fine aggregates are the        100 for river sand replacements and four replacement
river sand which is the commonly used material for the       concrete mixes, each using ceramic coarse aggregate
fine aggregates but the shortage of the material created     (CCA) concrete; and CCA-25, CCA-50, CCA-75 and
a great problem in the construction industries.
                                                             CCA-100 for gravel replacements. Mix proportion
C. Coarse aggregate                                          ratios by weight are summarized in Table 3. Mix
                                                             proportions like 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight
The sizes from 20 mm to 4.75 mm are used as coarse           of river sand and gravel were replaced by ceramic fine
aggregate. Mechanically crushed angular granite of 20        and coarse aggregates respectively. A constant
mm nominal size from the nearby source was used as
                                                             water/cement (w/c) ratio of 0.5 by weight was
coarse aggregate. It was free from impurities such as
clay particles, dust, organic matter, inorganic matter       adopted, to ensure workability and durability of the
and other inert matter etc. The coarse aggregate             concrete. Concrete mix containing, ceramic waste
preferred for Concrete was typically angular in shape,       aggregates were mixed in air dry condition to control
well graded, and smaller than maximum size suited for        mixed in saturated surface-dry condition. The ceramic

ISSN: 2348
Seventh Sense- 8352
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International Conference
     SSRG International      on Current
                        Journal          Research in Engineering
                                of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE)Science andIssue
                                                                  - Special Technology (ICCREST-2018)
                                                                                 ICCREST  - April 2018

                                         Table 2 Properties of aggregates

                                 Natural             Natural          Ceramic fine          Ceramic coarse
                             fine aggregate      coarse aggregate      aggregate              aggregate
                              4.75 mm to             20 mm to         4.75 mm to              20 mm to
                              150 micron             4.75 mm          150 micron              4.75 mm
      Fineness modulus           3.36                  2.26              3.10                   1.28
        Bulk density
                                 1749                  1597                 1721                1580
          (kg/ m3)
      Water absorption
                                  2.2                  1.66                  6                   4.7
       Specific gravity           2.65                 2.78                 2.63                 2.54

                          Table 3 Mix proportions of control and ceramic concrete

                                               Fine Aggregate       Coarse Aggregate
          Mix                Cement                (kg/m3)              (kg/m3)
                                                                                                W/C (%)
       Proportions           (kg/m3)          River
                                                           CFA      Gravel         CCA
          CC                  472.5           660.65        0       1106.6           0             0.5
        CFA-25                472.5           495.49     165.16     1106.6           0             0.5
        CFA-50                472.5           330.32     330.32     1106.6           0             0.5
        CFA-75                472.5           165.16     495.49     1106.6           0             0.5
        CFA-100               472.5              0       660.65     1106.6           0             0.5
        CCA-25                472.5           660.65        0       829.95         276.65          0.5
        CCA-50                472.5           660.65        0       553.3          553.3           0.5
        CCA-75                472.5           660.65        0       276.65         829.95          0.5
        CCA-100               472.5           660.65        0         0            1106.6          0.5

Seventh Sense
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       SSRG          Conference
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                                      Civil Engineering  Engineering Science andIssue
                                                                      - Special   Technology
                                                                                                - April 2018

tile wastes and natural aggregates were thoroughly              specimen between the loading surfaces of a CTM and
washed to get rid of debris from the materials. A 1:1:2         the uniform rate of load was applied until the specimen
concrete mix of cement, fine and coarse aggregates was          fails. The maximum load to failure at which the
adopted, and batching was conducted by weight. For all          specimen breaks and the pointer starts moving back is
mixes, one hundred and eight (108) concrete cubes of 150        noted. The average mean value of compressive
mm dimensions, cylindrical specimens of 150 mm                  strength of 3 specimens for each mix proportions at the
diameter and 300 mm height were cast and prism                  age of 7 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28 days are shown
specimens of 150 mm height, 150 mm width and 700 mm             in Fig. 2. Results clearly shows that, compressive
length were cast respectively. Thus, following the              strength of cubes were increased by cube age and 25%
procedures of IS: 516-1959 [8] for determining the              replacement of waste tiles in both fine (33.97 N/mm2)
compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural       and coarse aggregate (32.33 N/mm2) shows maximum
strength respectively, cubes, cylinders and prism were          compressive strength compared to other mix
tested in triplicates, after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of curing.   proportions. Increasing percentage of waste tile in
The specimens were demolded after 24 hours of casting           concrete shows less compressive strength. Replacing
and cured in water at room temperature until respective         of aggregates over 25% of waste tile negatively
curing age. Compression Testing machine (CTM) of                influences on compressive strength which may be due
1500 kN capacity was used for the strength determination        to lack of moisture in concrete. Outcomes from this
of Cubes and cylinders. For the strength determination of       study was supported by [10].
prism, Universal Testing Machine (UTM) of 2000 kN
was used. Workability of each mix proportions was               C. Split tensile strength test
measured through slump cone test according to IS 1199-           The split tensile test is another method for
1959 (Reaffirmed 2004) [9].                                     determining strength and performance of concrete
                                                                under tensile stress and also gives its progressive
     III.      RESULTS
                                                                cracking pattern [11]. The average mean value of split
A. Slump value test                                             tensile strength results of control concrete mixes with
                                                                ceramic fine aggregate and ceramic coarse aggregate
The effect of waste ceramic tile aggregates content             substitution are shown in Fig. 3. The split tensile
into the concrete mix on the workability of the fresh           strength of concrete cubes was tested by using 150 mm
concrete mix expressed as the slump value for                   x 300 mm cylinder specimens. The test was carried out
different mix proportions were shown in Fig. 1.                 by placing a cylinder specimen between the loading
Results shows that different mix proportions like CC,           surfaces of a CTM and the uniform rate of load was
CFA-25, CFA-50, CFA-75, CFA-100, CCA-25, CCA-                   applied until the specimen cracks. The extreme load to
50, and CCA-75 were ranged from 82 to 120 mm                    failure at which the specimen breaks and the pointer
where CCA-100 shows very poor slump value less                  starts moving back is noted. Results clearly shows
than 50 mm. Poor slump value in CCA-100 endorsed                that, tensile strength of cylinders were increased by
by glazy surfaces of ceramic coarse aggregate. Thus,            number of curing days and 25% replacement of waste
glazy surface fail to bind with other materials in              tiles in both fine and coarse aggregate shows
concrete which sufficiently reflects on low slump               maximum tensile strength (3.7 N/mm2) when
value. Increasing proportions of ceramic waste tile as          compared to other mix proportions . Increasing the
aggregates leads into poor slump value when                     percentage of waste tile in concrete shows less tensile
compared to control concrete. Mix proportions like              strength. Substituting of aggregates over 25% by using
CFA-25 and CCA-25 were found to be better in slump              waste tile negatively influences on tensile strength
value when compared to control and other mix                    which may be due to lack of moisture in concrete.
proportions.                                                    Increasing proportions of waste tile in concrete reflects
                                                                decreasing in strength and this results are from this
B. Compressive strength                                         study supported by author [12].
The finding of compressive strength has received a
                                                                D. Flexural strength test
large amount of attention because the concrete is
mainly meant to withstand compressive stresses.                 Flexural strength is a measurement that indicates the
Compression Testing Machine (CTM) of 2000 kN                    resistance of a material to failure when placed under a
capacity was used to find out the Compressive strength          load. Rectangular concrete samples were placed under a
of cubes. The compressive strength of concrete cubes            two point loading testing setup and the tests were carried
was tested by using 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm cube               out confirming to IS: 516-1959. The specimens were
specimens. The test was carried out by placing a cube           tested for flexural strength and the average mean value

ISSN: 2348
Seventh Sense- 8352
               Research Group                   www.internationaljournalssrg.org
                                                  www.internationaljournalssrg.org                        Page 22
SSRG International
                                                      International        Journal
                                                                    Conference     of CivilResearch
                                                                               on Current   Engineering (SSRG-IJCE)
                                                                                                    in Engineering     - Special
                                                                                                                   Science       Issue ICCREST
                                                                                                                           and Technology      - April 2018

                                  140                                                                                                      40

                                                                                                         Compressive Strngth (N/mm2)
                                  120                                                                                                                       7th day   14th day     21th day    28th day
              Slump Value (mm)                                                                                                             35
                                  100                                                                                                      30
                                   80                                                                                                      25
                                   60                                                                                                      20
                                   40                                                                                                      15

                                                        Mix proportions
                                                                                                                                                                Mix proportions

                                           Fig 3.1 Slump test for all mix proportions                                                           Fig 3.2 Compressive strength test results

                                  4                                                                                                    6
                                                     7th day   14th day    21th day     28th day                                                      7th day    14th day     21th day      28th day

                                                                                                        Flexural Strength (N/mm2)
Split Tensile strength (N/mm2)

                                  2                                                                                                    3
                                  0                                                                                                    0

                                                           Mix proportions                                                                                       Mix proportions

                                               Fig 3.3 Split tensile test results                                                               Fig 3.4 Flexural strength test results

                                                   ISSN: 2348 - 8352                        www.internationaljournalssrg.org                                                Page 23
SSRG International
    International        Journal
                  Conference     of CivilResearch
                             on Current   Engineering (SSRG-IJCE)
                                                  in Engineering    - Special
                                                                 Science      Issue ICCREST
                                                                         and Technology     - April 2018

of three specimens for each mix proportions were              [5] IS: 456 -2000: Indian Standard “Plain and
recorded at the age of 7 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28             reinforced concrete” –code of practice.
days. The increase in the strength of various mix             [6] IS 10262–2009: Indian Standard “Guidelines
proportions over the control concrete is shown in Fig.             for concrete mix design proportioning” – code of
4. Results shows that, replacement of 25% of ceramic               practice
fine (4.31 N/mm2) and coarse (4.78 N/mm2) mix                 [7] H.Higashiyama, F. Yagishita, M. Sano, O.
                                                                   Takahashi, Compressive strength and resistance
concrete were found be high in flexural strength when              to chloride penetration of mortars using ceramic
compared to control and other mix concrete.                        waste as fine aggregate. Constr. Build. Mater.
Enhancing proportions of tile waste as aggregate,                  26, 96–101, (2012).
similarly results in lower flexural strength. Mix             [8] IS: 516-1959: Methods of Tests for strength of
proportions like CFA-100 and CCA-100 shows very                    concrete.
poor flexural strength when compared to control               [9] IS 1199-1959: Methods of Sampling and
concrete which is due to low binding properties of                 analysis of concrete.
ceramic tile. Findings from this study was supported         [10] V. Lopez, B. Llamas, A. Juan, J.M. Mora´ n, I.
by [13].                                                           Guerra, Eco-efficient concretes: impact of the
                                                                   use of white ceramic powder on the
                                                                   mechanical properties of concrete, Biosyst.
                                                                   Eng. 96, 559–564. 2007.
    IV.      CONCLUSION                                      [11] Ofonime A. Harry and Ifiok E. Ekop,
This study assessed the mechanical properties of ceramic           Compressive strength characteristics of tile
waste aggregate concrete, in an effort to determine its
                                                                   waste concrete, International journal of
                                                                   engineering sciences & research technology,
suitability for construction. The workability of ceramic
                                                                   5(8) 268-273, 2016.
waste concrete was comparable to the control concrete,       [12] P.O. Awoyera, Nonlinear finite element analysis
which ranged between average to high workability in                of steel fibre reinforced concrete beam under
nature. Mix proportions like CCA-100 and CFA-100 mix               static loading, J. Eng. Sci. Technol. 5(8) in press.
was an exception. Slump value gets reduced when replacing          2016
higher percentage of ceramic waste aggregate. Mechanical     [13] Paul O. Awoyera, Julius M. Ndambuki, Joseph
performance of the CFA-25 & CCA- 25 concretes was                  O.      Akinmusuru,       David     O.      Omole,
                                                                   Characterization of ceramic waste aggregate
better than that of the control concrete. The highest              concrete, Housing and Building National
compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural          Research Center. 1-6, 2016.
strength was achieved by replacing 25% of the natural
aggregate with CCA and CFA individually. The mechanical
properties of ceramic waste aggregate concretes improved
as the replacement percentage of natural aggregates was
only at 25% beyond this replacement it shows poor
mechanical properties of concretes. Concrete made with
ceramic waste aggregate as a replacement for some portion
of the natural aggregates can be considered a suitable
alternative for conventional concrete.


[1] O. Zimbili, W. Salim, M. Ndambuki,. A Review
     on the Usage of Ceramic Wastes in Concrete
     Production. World Academy of Science,
     Engineering and Technology International
     Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural,
     Construction and Architectural Engineering, 8
     (1), 91-95. 2014.
[2] P. Singh, R. K. Singla, Utilization of Waste
     Ceramic Tiles as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete.
     Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering
     Science and Technology (JMEST), 2(11), 3294-
     3300. 2015.
[3] IS: 8122- 1989 (restated 1999): Specification for
     43 grade ordinary Portland cement.
 [4] IS 383 -1963: Indian Standard “Specification for
     coarse and fine aggregates from natural’s
     sources for concrete”.

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