Values and Benefits of Heritage - A research review

 
Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009
                                                                                                             July 2009

                  Values and Benefits of Heritage
                  A research review
                  ___________________________

                Compiled for Heritage Counts 2009
                by the Heritage Lottery Fund’s
                Policy and Strategic Development
                Department
                Gareth Maeer, garethm@hlf.org.uk
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Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

Values and benefits of heritage: A research review
This paper is the fifth annual research review update prepared by the HLF Policy and
Strategic Development department. It sets out the key information from a range of
external reports, which are relevant to our sectors.

The update has been based on our ongoing collection and sifting of new research
during the course of the year. Updates for this year are in bold text.

The report is again structured around the values and benefits of heritage, matching the
‘Cultural Value’ framework of intrinsic value and instrumental benefit.

The topics covered are:

     1. Valuing heritage – studies looking at the public’s attitudes towards heritage and the
        ways that people value heritage;
     2. Heritage visits – both the numbers of people visiting heritage across the MLA,
        historic building, parks, countryside and IMT sectors, and the quality of their
        experience.
     3. Social benefits of heritage projects
     4. Economic benefits of heritage

As in previous years, we have only looked to include research that features quantitative
results, or larger-scale, in-depth qualitative studies. When reviewing evaluation studies that
assess the impact of funded projects and programmes, we have tried to only include studies
that carried out primary research with final beneficiaries, and have excluded research that
only involves contact with project managers. We’ve only included evidence from the UK.
We’ve excluded conceptual explorations of value and impact, discussions of impact
methodologies or frameworks and research that is small-scale and/or anecdotal.

1.       Valuing Heritage

     •    An estimated 95% of the Scottish adult population agree or strongly agree that
          woodlands in Scotland are an important part of the country’s natural and
          cultural heritage – based on a survey of 1,000 people aged 16 or over in 2006.1

     •    The Scottish Executive Architecture Policy Unit undertook research in 2004 that
          found 64% of people saying the built environment impacted on how they felt and on
          their quality of life.2

     •    A report commissioned by CABE and published in 2004 looked at the value of public
          spaces.3 85% of people surveyed felt that the quality of public space and the built
          environment has a direct impact on their lives and on the way they feel.

     •    A MORI survey of 4,000 adults for MLA found that 82% of people think it is important
          for their local town or city to have its own museum or art gallery (MLA, 2004).4

     •    The BBC undertook research through IPSOS-RSL in 2003 in preparation for the
          Restoration series5. A self-completion questionnaire was completed by 4,578 people.
          Two-thirds said they were interested in the history of their local buildings. 63% said
          we do not do enough in the UK to look after historic buildings. Three quarters were

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Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

        concerned about the current loss of historic buildings. 66% feel depressed by empty,
        derelict buildings. 64% claim to prefer old buildings over new ones.

    •   A survey of 1,300 people in London undertaken by MORI for EH found 81% of
        people are interested in how the built environment looks and feels, with over a third
        saying they are ‘very interested’6. MORI asked “How interested would you say you
        are in the way buildings and public spaces look and feel to use?”: 34% said they
        were very interested, 47% fairly interested and only 2% not at all interested.

Going beyond these quantitative studies, environmental economists have attempted to
quantify public valuations of heritage, by using “willingness to pay” studies. This is a survey-
based technique that aims to understand the value that people place on resources that are
not directly sold in a market.

A research project between EH, HLF, DCMS and Dept Transport by consultants Eftec found
29 valuation studies that are directly applicable to historical sites, built heritage and
archaeological sites, world-wide (Eftec, 2005) .7 Relevant studies in the UK are: -

    •   Pollicino and Maddision (2002) surveyed residents near Lincoln Cathedral in order to
        elicit their WTP to change the cathedral’s exterior cleaning cycle from 40 years to 10
        years8. The study provided respondents with a well defined valuation scenario which
        emphasised that only the appearance of the cathedral would change. Mean WTP of
        Lincoln residents (from a sample of 220 households) was found to be almost £50 per
        household per year, whilst WTP of residents in nearby towns (108 households) was
        found to be almost £27 per household per year. Aggregate WTP for improvement in
        Lincoln Cathedral’s appearance was calculated to be £7.3 million per year.
    •   Garrod et al. (1996) considered the benefits associated with the renovation of historic
        buildings in Grainger Town, Newcastle. The area contains mostly early 19th Century
        buildings, 40% of which are listed9. A contingent valuation study was undertaken that
        sought the WTP of Newcastle residents in terms of a tax increase to pay towards the
        restoration of buildings. Of the 162 survey sample, 47% of respondents were willing
        to pay a positive amount to the restoration programme. Mean WTP per household
        per year was found to range between £10 and £14. This would be enough to pay for
        an annual restoration fund of £1m – over and above the benefit of the work for
        owners and occupiers.

    •   In the mid-1990s Admovicz Willis & Garrod undertook a study looking at the WTP for
        both use and non-use values of the canal network. This gave a WTP per household
        of £6.66 per year, which – when grossed up – valued the canal system at £145
        million per year (considerably less than BW’s public subsidy)10.

We are not aware of any similar review in the MLA sector, but know of these individual
studies: -

    •   There has been more extensive work of this kind in the area of nature conservation
        and landscape. A comprehensive review was carried out for Defra by Eftec and
        published in 200611. An earlier Eftec / Entec study12 reviewed studies that have used
        environmental economics to value the external benefits of undeveloped land. Eftec
        have also published further research for Defra on WTP for possible environmental
        and landscape impacts in mainly upland areas, as a result of CAP reform13. Moran
        (2005) has provided a summary of landscape demand studies14 and most recently,

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Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

        an Eftec (2007) study for the Department of Transport has set out to estimate
        transferable monetary values for the impacts transport schemes have on
        natural landscape – to feed in to the New Approach to Appraisal (NATA) for
        assessing transport policies and strategies in England.15

    •   Spectrum Consultants for the British Library (2004)16. A survey of 2,000 people n the
        UK found an annual WTP for the Library of £363m, against a public subsidy of £83m.
    •   A similar but local study undertaken by Jura Consultants for MLA North West and
        Bolton Metropolitan Borough Council (2005)17. This valued Bolton’s museum, library
        and archive service at an annual £10.3m, against a cost of the service of £6.5m.
    •   Eftec (1999) reported the findings from a CV study which considered the benefits of
        preservation of recorded heritage18. The study looked at the Surrey History Centre
        (SHC) in Woking. This is a local authority run archive which collects and preserves
        materials relevant to all aspects of Surrey, with items dating from the 12th Century to
        the present day, which is used mainly for tracing family history. The study sought
        respondent WTP from two possible scenarios: (i) WTP to prevent closure of the SHC
        resulting in the loss, possible dispersion to other institutions or sale of recorded
        heritage, and; (ii) closure of the centre to all users, but materials would be preserved.
        It found that users were WTP £35 per year to prevent closure of the Centre, with
        even non-users prepared to pay an average of £13 per year.

Property prices are another way to gauge people’s WTP for heritage – if we find that house
prices are higher close to certain types of heritage (all other things being equal) then this
represents a ‘dividend’ that people are willing to pay to live in the vicinity of that heritage.
Studies in the UK that we know about are: -

    •   The Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) used data for over 53,000
        residential sales in Aberdeen between 1984 and 2002 to estimate the economic
        impact of proximity to a public green space on property prices. The research found
        that location on the edge of a park could potentially attract a premium of up to 19%.
        Generally, larger parks with an array of facilities and amenities were found to have
        the most significant positive impact.19

    •   A 2007 CabeSpace report, “Paved with Gold”, drew on contingent valuation survey
        results that showed pedestrians prepared to pay more for better streets.20

    •   A report carried out by Arad Consulting and Cardiff Business School provides
        evidence of house price impacts associated with heritage-based repairs in south
        Wales. House prices were found to have increased faster in areas where properties
        have been well conserved, when compared to general property price inflation in
        neighbouring areas. The research also included survey work with estate agents,
        finding that property market professionals are likely to place a premium on heritage
        features in housing and expect properties with these features to fetch a higher
        market price, all else being equal.21

    •   An earlier report from CABE Space showed that higher property value was
        associated with the presence of a high quality park. In some cases this uplift was as
        much as 34%, though a more typical figure is 5 to 7%22.

    •   A number of studies of local property markets by British Waterways have shown that
        properties with a direct view of a well-kept waterway can command a premium of up
        to 20%. Moreover, there is still a premium – albeit smaller – up to half a mile away
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Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.        July 2009

          from the canal.23 Using a conservative estimate of a 3 – 5% uplift, Ecotec research
          for British Waterways has calculated that the canal network in Wales has a total
          impact of £44 - £74 million on canal side (within 200m) property values.24

      •   The Nationwide Building Society ‘Hometrack’ survey compares price of historic
          homes with modern counterparts. For a pre-1919 property the uplift is 20%, and this
          rises to 34% in the case of a Jacobean property.25

2.        Visits to heritage attractions

2.1       DCMS ‘Taking Part’ Survey

‘Taking Part’ is the National Survey of Culture, Leisure & Sport. Run by DCMS, and
undertaken by BMRB Research. The survey was launched in July 2005 and achieves an
annual sample size of 29,000. It is a continuous national survey of adults (aged 16 and over)
who live in a representative cross-section of private households in England.

Third and fourth year results were published in December 2008 and August 2009.26

When broken down by sector, 78.6% of 2008/09 survey respondents had attended at least
one type of historic environment site in the previous 12 months; 64.9% had attended a
museum/gallery at least once; 53.5% had visited a public library, 30.9% had participated in
moderate intensity sport in the last week; More than four-fifths (80.8%) had participated in
the arts in the past 12 months.

The two tables below shows historic environment participation by priority groups, with
confidence intervals in brackets.

Taking Part: Annual Participation – Historic Environment
                                       2005/06 %             2006/07 %                2007/08 %
                                      (confidence)          (confidence)             (confidence)
Black and minority ethnic             50.7 (+/- 2.4)        48.3 (+/- 2.9)           54.1 (+/- 2.4)
Limiting disability                   59.5 (+/- 1.5)        60.2 (+/- 1.7)           60.9 (+/- 1.4)
Lower socio-economic                  57.1 (+/- 1.2)        57.3 (+/- 1.4)           59.4 (+/- 1.2)
All adults                            69.9 (+/- 0.8)        69.3 (+/- 1.0)           71.1 (+/- 0.8)

Taking Part: Annual Participation – Museums and Galleries
                                       2005/06 %             2006/07 %                2007/08 %
                                      (confidence)          (confidence)             (confidence)
Black and minority ethnic                                   33.6 (+/- 2.4)           39.3 (+/- 2.3)
                                      35.5 (+/- 2.3)
Limiting disability                   32.1 (+/- 1.4)        31.1 (+/- 1.5)           33.2 (+/- 1.4)
Lower socio-economic                  28.3 (+/- 1.0)        28.2 (+/- 1.1)           30.6 (+/- 1.0)
All adults                            42.3 (+/- 0.8)        41.5 (+/- 0.9)           43.6 (+/-0.8)

Taking Part: Annual Participation – Libraries & Archives (Year 1 only)
Attendance       All     Limiting        Lowest three socio-     White       Black     Asian     Mixed      Other
Area                     Disability      economic groups
Libraries –      48%     42%             39% / 36% / 45%         47%         57%        59%       51%        61%
attendance
Archive –        6%      5%              3% / 4% / 4%            6.1%        4.1%       3.5%      5.4%      3.4%
attendance
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Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.    July 2009

 The survey also includes questions about possible barriers to engagement. The reasons
 shown below were those most cited for the heritage sectors in Year 1, by people who had
 not attended in the previous 12 months.

 Taking Part: Year 1 Reasons for non-participation
                         Not really      Not enough       Health not       No need to      Never occurred
                         interested         time            good               go              to me
                                                           enough
 Historic                   29%              29%            13%                 -                  -
 environment
 Museums                    33%              27%              8%                -                  -

 Libraries                  19%              16%               -              30%                  -

 Archives                   19%                -               -              50%                 14%

 For more details see
 http://www.culture.gov.uk/reference_library/research_and_statistics/4828.aspx

• English Heritage commissioned the Centre for Economics and Business Research
  (cebr) to undertake detailed quantitative analysis of historic environment results from the first
  12 months of Taking Part. The main Cebr findings were that access to a vehicle, a person’s
  social and economic background, their health (rather than disability) and whether they were
  taken to a heritage site as a child, are the main factors related to whether or not they visit a
  historic site.27

• Arts Council England (ACE) has carried out a similar analysis of the year one Taking Part
  arts attendance figures. Taking Part indicated that 84 % of the population rarely or only ‘now
  and then’ attend arts activities. The analysis, by social scientists at Cambridge University,
  found that two of the most important factors influencing participation are education and
  social status. Gender, ethnicity, age, region, having young children and health were also
  found to be important, but income, social class and disability were shown to have little or no
  significant effect.28

• The first findings from the Taking Part child survey were reported in October 2007.
  2,918 interviews with 11 – 15 year olds took place between January and December 2006.
  Virtually all respondents had engaged in at least one form of cultural or sporting opportunity
  during the last 12 months. 72% had visited a historic environment site; 55% had attended a
  museum or gallery and 72% had visited a library. 61% had engaged in a cultural activity at
  least once a week. Less than one per cent of children had only engaged in a cultural or
  sporting sector inside school lessons.

• On behalf of DCMS, Freshminds has undertaken an extensive literature and data review
  and carried out qualitative research to try to identify which drivers are most important for
  widening cultural participation. Providing opportunities for socialisation was reported to be
  key to driving demand among excluded audiences. In addition to this, childhood exposure
  and education are shown to be key drivers for all groups.29

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Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

2.2 Attractions Monitor

England 2008

The 1,817 visitor attractions that responded to VisitEngland’s 2008 English visitor attractions
survey, reported that they had received a total of 163 million visits that year. 30

Visitor Attraction                Attractions                  Number of visits to responding
Category                           Sample                      England Attractions (millions)
Country parks                              69                                15.9
Farms                                      58                                 3.5
Gardens                                   121                                10.1
Historic properties                       489                                21.8
Leisure/theme parks                        33                                17.3
Museums/art galleries                     520                                43.2
Steam/heritage railways                    25                                 1.4
Visitor/heritage centres                   85                                 4.4
Wildlife attractions/zoos                  84                                17.6
Workplaces                                 68                                  2
Other attractions                         148                                18.2
England                                  1,817                               163.4

Scotland 2008

The 682 visitor attractions that responded to VisitScotland’s 2008 Scotland visitor attractions
survey, reported that they had received a total of 43 million visits that year. 31

Visitor Attraction Category                      Attractions      Number of visits to responding
                                                  Sample              Scottish Attractions
Castle/Fort                                          56                       3,213,043
Country/Forest Park                                  26                       11,950,197
Garden                                               40                        945,200
Heritage/Visitor Centre                              99                       6,299,224
Historic House/Palace                                49                       1,252,027
Historic Monument/Archaeological Site                30                        606,997
Industrial/Craft Workplace                           13                         82,444
Museum/Art Gallery                                   234                      11,347,178
Nature Reserve/Wetlands/Wildlife Trips               26                        755,098
Other Historic Property                              13                        374,839
Steam/Heritage Railway                                3                         80,222
Place of Worship                                     23                       1,409,000
Safari Park/Zoo/Aquarium/Aviary/Farm                 17                       1,735,126
Other                                                12                       1,119,931
Distillery/Vineyard/Brewery                          45                        945,200
Total                                                682                      43,174,846

2.3 Other studies

Earlier work to quantify visits to heritage attractions has largely been superseded by the
Taking Part survey with its much larger sample size. However they do offer some interesting
comparisons, and some of the categories are slightly different.

    •   An LSE study for MLA32 claimed that over 42 million visits are made each year to
        major museums and galleries in the UK.
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Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

    •     In Heritage Counts 2005, English Heritage reported that there were 58 million tourist
          visits to heritage sites in England in 2004. 33 Heritage Counts 2005 referred to
          research carried out by VisitBritain in ten emerging national markets (Russia, China
          and selected countries of Eastern Europe and Asia) which found that as many as
          72% of visitors from Russia and 66% of visitors from China stated that visits to
          ‘castles, churches, monuments and historic houses’ were the top choice of those
          who were planning or were very likely to come to Britain.34
    •     A 2004 MORI survey for MLA also interviewed 4,000 adults and found: 59%
          attendance for cinema, 51% for libraries, 37% at a well-known park/garden, 37% a
          museums/art gallery, 33% a famous cathedral/church, 32% a historic building, All of
          these are higher than the 28% who said they visited a live sporting event in the past
          12 months and the 25% or less who visited zoos and theme parks.35
    •     The last GB Day Visits Survey, carried out in 2003, recorded 1,26bn day visits to the
          countryside per year, with 62% of the population claiming to have made a trip to the
          countryside in the past 12 months.36 This compares with 59% of those surveyed for
          the England Leisure Visits 2005 survey.37

    •     Analysis for the NW Regional Development Agency, drawing on the NW
          Staying Visitor Survey has estimated that some 22.7m annual visitors to the
          NW are motivated by heritage – including a desire to visit heritage visitor
          attractions as well as towns and cities.38

    •     From a telephone survey of 650 visitors, it has been found that 90% of
          international visitors to Scotland and 61% of UK visitors, visit castles, historic
          houses and palaces during their visit to Scotland.39 An earlier survey of 300
          passengers on the Superfast Ferry service between Rosyth and Zeebrugge
          found that landscape and scenery was the top reason for visiting Scotland and
          that almost 50% mentioned visits to castles/ historic sites and Scotland’s
          history and heritage as reasons for visiting Scotland.40
    •

    •     CABE has claimed that over half the UK population – some 33 million people – make
          more than 2.5 billion visits to urban green spaces each year.41
    •     BW has estimated that 270 million visits are made to the canal network in Britain
          each year.42

Summary of estimated leisure participation in UK (% of population)
                              % participating in last    Source
                              12 months
Historic Environment                    78.6% (England)                 DCMS Taking Part August 09
Cinema                                  62% / 55% / 59% / 62%           ACE 2001/ ACE 2003 / MLA
                                                                        2004 / Film Council 2009 (for
                                                                        2008)
Countryside                             62%                             GB Day Visits Survey 2003
                                        59% (England)                   England Leisure Visits Survey
                                                                        2005
Urban space                             52%                             CABE
Library                                 45%                             ACE 2001
                                        51%                             MLA 2004
                                        53.5% (England)                 DCMS Taking Part (Aug 09)
Museum/gallery                          38%                             ACE 2001
                                        37%                             MLA 2004
                                        64.9% (England)                 DCMS Taking Part (Aug 09)

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Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

Well known park/garden                  37%                             MLA 2004
Famous Cathedral/church                 33%                             MLA 2004
Historic property                       32%                             MLA 2004
Live sport                              28%                             MLA 2004
Zoo / reserve / wildlife park           25%                             MLA 2004
Theme Park                              23%                             MLA 2004
Exhibition                              21%                             ACE 2001
Waterways                               16%                             BW 1998

Summary of estimated leisure visits in UK (per year)
                                   Visits per year                        Source
Cinema                                      164m                          Film Council for 2008
Urban space                                 2,500m                        CABE / ODPM 2002
Countryside (day visits)                    1,260m                        GB DVS 2003
                                            700m (England)                ELV 2005
Waterways                                   160m                          BW 1998
                                            10m visitors
All heritage sites                          58m                           EH 2005
Museum/gallery                              42m                           LSE, 2006
                                            100m (17m adult visitors)     NMDC, A Manifesto for
                                            40.4m (DCMS                   Museums, March 2004
                                                                                             43
                                            sponsored national            DCMS 2009 for 2008
                                            museums)
                                                                                 44
Library                                     328m                          CIPFA 2009 (for 2007/08)
Historic house                              16.6m                         EH / SVVA 2004
Famous Cathedral/church                     13.3m                         EH / SVVA 2004
Well known park/garden                      10.2m                         EH / SVVA 2004
Castle                                      7.11m                         EH / SVVA 2004
Archives                                    1m
                                            150m online requests
                                            to National Archive           CIPFA 2001/0245
                                            digital census site 2003

2.4       Visitor and user perceptions

Some results from visitor and user surveys carried out by various organisations are publicly
available.

      •   Research for the Renaissance in the Regions programme includes a visitor survey
          conducted at 45 museums, with over 16,000 interviewees.46

      •   The Audit Commission’s best value user satisfaction surveys for 2006/07 include
          results for museums and galleries, libraries and parks/open spaces, based on survey
          results from local residents in 149 local authorities in England.47 This found: -
             o 71% satisfaction with libraries
             o 43% satisfaction with museums and galleries
             o 72% satisfaction with parks and open spaces
          For comparison, satisfaction with overall service provided by the local authority was
          51%; with household waste collection 79%; 54% with local transport and 55% with
          sports and leisure facilities.

      •   Demos cite the government’s Public Library Service Standard as finding that 94% of
          library users judged the service good or very good.48
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Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

3.        Social benefits of heritage

Using a framework adopted by the culture consultancy Burns Owen Partnership49 in work
from MLA, we’ve divided this section into: -

      •   Impacts on individuals
      •   More specifically, impacts on individual’s physical health
      •   Group-level impacts for communities

3.1       Research evidence for impacts on individuals

      •   There is widespread agreement that the strongest evidence of impact on individuals
          is found in what might be called ‘personal development’ e.g. new skills, new
          experience, improved confidence, changed attitudes; education support.50 The
          evidence for all these impacts overlaps considerably with that for ‘learning’.

      •   In a review for MLA, Demos refers to Renaissance in the Regions research as
          indicating a link between museums and galleries and creativity. A study in Bristol and
          Tyne & West museums found 81% felt inspired to creativity by their participation in a
          museum project. Results from the Renaissance in the Regions research cited above
          – on inspiration and knowledge & understanding – point to a similar conclusion.51

      •   In 2006-07, the charity Groundwork supported 6,000 projects across the UK,
          involving over £127m of investment and 460,000 participants. Projects mainly involve
          local people in neighbourhood regeneration - often targeting green spaces and other
          socially inclusive public spaces. In an evaluation of 27 projects, 83% of respondents
          to resident surveys said they feel their neighbourhood is better following
          Groundwork’s involvement; 92% of respondents to participant surveys feel they
          personally benefited from their experience; 53% of respondents feel more likely to
          participate in local groups, clubs or organisations since being involved with
          Groundwork and 83% of respondents feel better able to influence decisions affecting
          their local area.52

      •   An evaluation of The Veterans Reunited Programme, which brought together
          different generations within the UK to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the end
          of WWII, has provided evidence of positive impacts for individuals.53 The scheme
          reached over 11 million people and over 1000 participants completed evaluation
          forms. From this evidence, 78% felt the experience gave them enjoyment, inspiration
          or creativity, 39% developed new or better skills and 64% experienced progression in
          either activity or changed their behaviour. Most striking, 82% of veterans involved in
          the programme felt more respected as a result or had pride in their contribution and
          39% felt differently about themselves and their abilities.
      •   Matarasso (1998) undertook an evaluation of the social benefits of public library
          community initiatives looking at 18 projects and including interviews with 69 project
          participants54, whilst Linley & Usherwood (1998) undertook a ‘social audit’ of libraries
          in Newcastle and Somerset, speaking to 180 users and non-users55. Between them
          these studies identified the benefits of libraries to individuals as: -
              o Personal development: supporting basic literacy; schoolwork; self-confidence
                  and aspirations; well-being. In the Matarasso study, 45% of interviewees took
                  up training after a library project.
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Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

             o     Empowerment. Raising individual’s awareness of rights and services
                   available to them; providing a way out of isolation, particularly for older
                   people.

      •   In recent years, there has been a growing research interest in the impact of
          volunteering (as opposed to participating) in heritage related projects:

             o     Research into volunteering for Museums Galleries Scotland has found
                   that the most frequently reported impacts on volunteers are associated
                   with the generation of human capital. Survey respondents used words
                   and phrases such as “personal development”; “skills development”;
                   “building confidence and self-esteem”; “IT skills” and “social skills
                   development. Impacts on social activities and networks was also
                   frequently cited – with words such as “opportunities to remain involved
                   with the local community”; “social contact”; “social activity” and
                   “support network” being used. The majority of volunteers in the sector
                   were found to be aged 55 and over and the greatest benefit was said to
                   be a sense of achieving something useful.56

             o     Baseline research into the impact of volunteering with the Liverpool’08
                   (European Capital of Culture) has found that the primary motivations for
                   volunteering the programme are civic pride, desire to “give something
                   back” and a wish to turn around negative perceptions of Liverpool. The
                   cultural and social opportunities available to volunteers are secondary,
                   although those surveyed were enthusiastic about these. Early feedback
                   is suggesting that involvement has widened volunteers cultural
                   interests; helping them develop more confidence and skills and it is
                   becoming a significant part of their lives. The volunteers tend to be
                   older people, retired from work and to come from ABC1 socio-economic
                   groups and have a higher education level than the Liverpool average.57

3.2       Health

      •   A systematic literature review for Volunteering England on the health benefits
          of volunteering found nearly 25,000 related articles and drew on evidence from
          87 of them. It concluded that there is qualified evidence that volunteering can
          deliver health benefits, including decrease mortality and improve self-rated
          health, mental health, life satisfaction, the ability to carry out activities of daily
          living without functional impairment, social support and interaction, healthy
          behaviours and the ability to cope with one’s own illness. It could particularly
          benefit feelings of self-worth. There is evidence that it can help people adapt to
          a declining importance of major roles in life and it is important for older people
          to stay active and socially engaged. A number of studies showed that more
          hours spent volunteering yields greater health benefits up to a certain
          threshold.58

      •   A report for DCMS on the value of libraries (BOP 2009) suggests that
          there is now a strong body of evidence demonstrating a strong correlation
          between literacy levels and a variety of physical and mental health and well-
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Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

          being outcomes. Therefore if libraries could robustly evidence their literacy
          and learning outcomes, it would be reasonable to posit that this will generate
          additional health and well-being benefits. For example, research with the
          British Cohort Study 1970 data has found that women who had poor literacy
          skills at age 21 who improved their skills by age 34 were less likely to have
          symptoms associated with depression compared to those that had remained
          with poor literacy levels (17 per cent to 34 per cent – literacy); less likely to
          report that they ‘never’ exercised (14 per cent to 31 per cent – numeracy); and
          less likely to report that they had poor health or long-term health problems (25
          per cent to 38 per cent – literacy). However, to tell a compelling story about the
          impact of the “new” public library more in-depth research needs to be carried
          out.59

3.3       Health benefits of public space / built environment

      •   CABE (2004) has used health evidence to bolster the case for urban public parks,
          citing evidence about rising obesity, young people’s health, the establishment of
          adult patterns of exercise in early life and the health benefits of walking.60

      •   CABE (2004) also quotes one study that found mental health improvements for
          inhabitants following improvements to the built environment of one new town.61

3.4       Health and Biodiversity

      •   English Nature (2002) has looked at the impact of biodiversity on psychological well-
          being, citing studies demonstrating connections between nature and social agendas
          such as mental health and social development 62

      •   CABE (2004)63 similarly quotes studies demonstrating, variously,
                o How natural views lower blood pressure and stress.
                o The benefits of green exercise for public health and reducing healthcare
                   costs
                o How urban parks and trees provide fresh air and a cooling effect.

      •   Some of the most thorough research in this area has been carried out for the
          Countryside Recreation Network by the University of Essex, which undertook “to
          explore the synergy in adopting physical activities whilst being directly exposed to
          nature.”64 The researchers term this ‘Green Exercise’. Quantitative analysis of ten
          countryside case studies, looked at the impacts on the health of 263 participants.
          The findings demonstrated improvements in mental health measured through self-
          esteem and mood profiles such as depression, dejection, tension and anxiety. One
          of the activities, canal boating in Scotland, had a clear heritage connection though
          the others were more typical countryside activities such as walking, mountain-biking,
          fishing, horse-riding and conservation work.

      •   The charity, Mind, commissioned the University of Essex to undertake two further,
          smaller scale studies. Of a survey of 108 people involved in Mind green exercise
          group activities, 94% said taking part had benefitted their mental health. In the
          second study, twenty members were taken on two different walks – one in the
          countryside where 90% reported an increase in self esteem, the second through a
          shopping centre, which 44% said reduced their self esteem.65

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Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

      •   A detailed review of the literature exploring links between green space / biodiversity
          and increased levels of physical activity is contained in ‘Natural Fit’ – a report
          published in 2004 by the RSPB and endorsed by the Faculty of Public Health66. This
          includes references to medical research and case studies looking at whether green
          space can increase levels of physical activity, and the links between wildlife and
          wellbeing. The report also quotes a Cabinet Office figure of £8.2bn for the cost of
          physical inactivity in England (a combination of NHS costs, work absence and early
          mortality). Using this figure as a starting point the report proposes a model for
          estimating the cost savings provided by local green space.

      •   In the ten years that BTCV’s “Green Gyms” have been in operation, they have
          involved 10,000 local volunteers in improving 2,500 green spaces. A national
          evaluation, carried out between July 2003 and August 2007, has drawn on survey
          responses from 700 participants, 194 of which completed forms on initiation and a
          second at least 3 months later. 60% of participants were found to be new to
          volunteering. 99% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that their involvement
          had improved their health and self-confidence. Those who initially recorded
          themselves as being of lowest physical and mental health, said they experienced the
          greatest improvements.67

      •   The first set of data from the national Greenstat survey of park users was released in
          July 2007. The Park Life report summarises responses from almost 20,000 people.
          16% say that they visit their park to keep fit; 10% to improve their health; 45% to
          walk and 12% to play sport or games. 7 out of 10 travel to their park on foot or
          cycle.68

3.5       Community impacts

      •   In contrast to the greater consensus on how it can make a difference to individuals,
          there is much less agreement and understanding of how heritage and culture can
          contribute to community concepts such as social capital, cohesion, social inclusion,
          cultural diversity and civil renewal. According to one review, there is neither an
          agreed understanding of how these community impacts arise, nor is there any strong
          empirical evidence to demonstrate these impacts. According to BOP, “most
          reviewers conclude that the evidence for group-level impacts is less compelling than
          that for individual impacts.” 69

      •   The route put forward between heritage/culture and these objectives is often through
          concepts of identity / understanding (of others and self) and respect. For example,
          BOP says, “Most reviews conclude that there is the potential for social impacts on
          groups and communities, such as:
             o improved social cohesion (through the provision of) safe, equitable
                 and non-market social space (Goulding, 2004)70
             o community empowerment via increased individual awareness of rights
                 and benefits
             o improved cohesion through a greater understanding and sense of
                 identity.

      •   Evaluations of two large-scale community heritage projects have provided evidence
          for social cohesion impacts. The Refugee Communities History Project, ran between
          2004 and 2007, drawing on £740,000 of HLF and Trust for London funding. Refugee
                                                                                                       13
Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

        Community Organisations were involved in recording oral history interviews and
        staging local exhibitions. 85% who visited the local exhibitions said the experience
        had given them a greater understanding of refugee communities and 85% said it
        helped them to see the positive contributions made by refugees. These results,
        however, are based on a relatively low sample of 73 respondents.71

    •   The social impact of “Community Archives” has been the focus of a recent research
        study. Around 3,000 community archives are estimated to exist in the UK today,
        supported by around 30,000 volunteers. Findings from 46 questionnaires indicate
        community archives can promote understanding, tolerance and respect between
        generations and between diverse communities; promote active citizenship, provide
        training opportunities and life skills and create pride and interest in communities that
        have been marginalised.72

    •   83% of the first almost 20,000 respondents to the national Greenstat survey think
        that parks and open spaces are focal points for communities.73

    •   Other work that has used standardised questionnaires to gauge visitors or project
        participants sense of what impacts they perceived for themselves. Demos for MLA
        (2006) quote the Renaissance in the Regions visitor survey result that indicated 45%
        of people felt more tolerant towards other people and their cultures and ideas as a
        result of their visit. The same research points out the social function of museums and
        galleries, with two-thirds seeing them as appealing places to meet.74

    •   An evaluation of the WWII commemoration programme, Veterans Reunited, reported
        that 46% felt differently about other people and their community after participating in
        the programme and 14% were said to have a more positive appreciation of diversity.
        A specific evaluation of the ‘Their Past your Future Strand’ of the programme found
        that 95% of students who took part had gained a deeper understanding of the
        contribution of veterans and people who lived through the war and – as a
        consequence – had come to think differently about them.75

    •   Research carried out by SQW for the BTCV People’s Places Award Scheme looked
        at impacts on local environments, communities and individuals. Most projects
        funded by the scheme were concerned with creating, improving or better utilising
        local green areas and public open space. The evaluation showed that these types of
        projects have positive impacts on life in communities and successfully raising
        environmental awareness76.

    •   A recent study on public spaces, social relations and well being in East London
        explored how ‘unexceptional’ hard spaces such as streets and markets are used and
        how they enable contact between different groups and enhance well-being.77 The
        study involved discussion groups, interviews and observation. The report concluded
        that for many, hard spaces were equally as important social arenas as green spaces
        and demonstrated that people’s desire to stay in a locality was often influenced by
        the casual social encounters that took place in public spaces.

    •   Earlier work by Matarasso and Linley & Usherwood on libraries pointed to the role of
        libraries in promoting social cohesion: libraries were seen as a key neighbourhood
        resource and intercultural meeting place, which raised the profile of marginalised
        groups, enable different groups of people to meet and share interests; and provide

                                                                                                       14
Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

              an intercultural space. They also claimed that libraries were seen as a community
              landmark that contributed to local image and how people felt about their area.78

4.        Economic benefits / regeneration

      Work on the way that heritage contributes to economic / business activity in local areas can
      be divided into four: -

          •   The impact associated with one-off physical conservation / restoration projects
          •   The impact associated with the day-to-day operations of a heritage attraction /
              facility.
          •   The benefits to local areas of heritage-based recreation and tourism
          •   How heritage and cultural institutions make a place more attractive for businesses
              and workers

4.1       Heritage restoration

          •   In the US, Rypkema has cited work showing that conservation / restoration work to
              heritage buildings has a greater local economic impact due to the greater tendency
              for it to involve local sourcing of labour and materials. However, no work of a similar
              scale appears to exist in the UK.79

          •   A survey undertaken by the National Heritage Training Group (NHTG) of over
              1,000 buildings professionals found that 36% had carried out work on pre-1919
              buildings in the previous year and this made up 35% of their workload.80

4.2       Direct operational impacts

          •   The LSE study on museums and galleries in Britain, using a survey of 22 institutions,
              found the operational turnover of the sector to be around £1bn a year (about 1% of
              the total UK economy), and direct employment to be over 9,000. Of the total income,
              £200m is self-generated from donations and trading income.81

          •   Demos82 quotes another MLA publication83 which states that the museum, libraries
              and archive sector employs 70,000 staff, has total income of £1.3bn a year and total
              expenditure of £2.4bn p.a.

          •   The Arts and Humanities Research Centre evaluation of the economic impact of five
              research projects which it has funded, provides some figures on direct economic
              impacts including number of jobs created.84

          •   VivaCity!85, a study undertaken by Oxford Economic Forecasting for the City of
              London, looked at the economic impacts associated with the operation of 28 festivals
              and institutions that form the ‘City Arts Cluster’. These include the Barbican, Tate
              Modern, St. Paul’s, Tower of London, Museum of London, Guildhall Art Gallery and
              London Symphony Orchestra. It found that, in gross terms, the City Arts Cluster
              contributes £325m to UK GDP each year.

          •   On a rather smaller scale, a recent evaluation of Nadair Trust projects looked at the
              ongoing economic impacts they are having for the Argyll Islands86 whilst an
              evaluation of the Scottish Natural Heritage LEADRER+ projects economic impacts.87
                                                                                                             15
Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

       •   In a 2006 survey of Scottish organisations involved with natural heritage,
           responding organisations reported that their volunteers contributed a total of
           91,149 hours per month to the natural heritage equating to a contribution to
           around £14m per annum to the Scottish economy. 88 A study for the Historic
           Environment Advisory Council for Scotland (HEACS) in 2008 found that 18,564
           historic environment volunteers contributed £28m per annum.89 A survey of
           organisations belonging to Museums Galleries Scotland found that the 84
           responding organisations involved 2,515 volunteers, with a notional economic
           value of nearly £300,000 a month in high season. Nearly ¼ of responding
           organisations are run entirely by volunteers. 90

4.3 Recreation / tourism

       •   Recreation-linked economic impacts have been researched in a large number of
           studies by various organisations. These include: -
               o A report by LSE on the impact of the first five years of Tate Modern found it
                  had contributed between £75m and £140m to the local economy creating up
                  to 4,000 new jobs about half of which are focused in Southwark.91
               o A further LSE study on National Museums Liverpool (NML) – a consortium of
                  8 city museums. NML was calculated to have an impact of between £65.9
                  million and £74.6 million per year on the north west economy, with at least
                  1,600 Merseyside jobs dependant on the museums. The cultural role of the
                  museums in developing local pride in the city and its history were also found
                  to be important to longer term regeneration.92
               o The refurbishment of the De La Warr Pavillion, Bexhill has been found to
                  have a total economic impact of £16m p.a. in the town.93
               o A study of the Eden Project in 2002 revealed that the new attraction had
                  received just under 2 million visitors in 2001/2, with an estimated direct
                  economic impact of £155 million94
               o A study for English Heritage and DEFRA on the public benefits of grant
                  funded historic farm building and dry stone wall repairs in the Yorkshire Dales
                  National Park has reported that funded work between 1998 and 2004 has
                  injected between £7.08m and £9.12m into the local economy, with every £1
                  expenditure on repair work on buildings resulting in a total output within the
                  wider local area of £2.48 (£1.92 for walling.)95
               o Work by the National Trust in the South West, North East, Cumbria and
                  Wales which showed that 40% of employment in tourism ‘depended on’ a
                  high quality environment, rising to 60%/70% in some rural areas.96 Latest
                  studies in Wales have focused on the impact of the Coastal and Marine
                  Environment and of National Parks.97
               o A study looking at the economic impact of museums in Northern Ireland98.
               o A study undertaken by Ecotec has found that on average, “medium
                  historic” cathedrals such as Chester and Carlisle, employed some 45
                  people and supported some 55 other gross additional jobs as a result of
                  visitor spend.99
               o Baseline research on the impacts of Liverpool 08 – European Capital of
                  Culture – involved a survey of 676 city residents living in 4 different
                  neighbourhoods during summer 2007. It found that 94% recognised the
                  Liverpool 08 logo but only 1/3 of respondents said they knew a
                                                                                                          16
Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

                 reasonable amount or more about what it involves. However, when
                 asked about particular ’08 events, recognition was higher. 74% had
                 heard of the St George’s Hall re-opening and 41% had attended the
                 Matthew Street festival. 58% believed Liverpool would be a better place
                 by 2008 due to the ’08. Across all four communities, respondents felt
                 Lvierpool was improving although there was less optimism about the
                 future in deprived neighbourhoods.100
            o    Further research monitoring the economic impacts of Liverpool ’08 has
                 not shown a rise in the number of jobs in retail and in tourism (two
                 sectors potentially associated with ECoC impact) between 2000 and
                 2007, whilst overall total employment has grown in the city at or above
                 the national growth rate. However, early indications on impacts on
                 visitor figures is positive - at the start of 2008, there was a high
                 proportion of first time visitors to the city (24%) although only 12%
                 spontaneously mentioned the European Capital of Culture when asked
                 about their reasons for visiting.101
            o    Analysis for the NW Regional Development Agency has concluded that
                 heritage motivated visits by people from outside the region results in
                 over £1b of extra spend to the NW economy each year and that historic
                 townscapes have greater economic impact than historic landmarks.102
            o    Research for the Historic Environment Advisory Council for Scotland
                 (HEACS) in 2008 found that tourism expenditure attributed to the
                 historic environment (in this case excluding National Parks, National
                 Scenic Areas and Ancient Woodlands) supports in excess of 37,000 FTE
                 employees in Scotland and £1.3b to Scotland’s national GVA. Including
                 the built heritage construction sector and indirect and induced effects,
                 it is estimated that the historic environment sector supports in excess
                 of 60,000 FTE employees in Scotland.103
            o    the South West Economy Centre’s report in 2000 for the South West
                 Museums, which estimated that the value of museums to the regional
                 economy was around £25m each year.104
            o    British Waterways studies of the Kennet & Avon, Forth & Clyde/Union Canal
                 in Scotland, the Huddersfield Narrow Canal and the Rochdale Canal. The BW
                 study of the Kennet & Avon Canal was updated in 2006 with the number of
                 jobs dependent on the canal estimated at nearly 1,000.105
            o    Recent research has found that visitors to the canals in Wales give rise to
                 some £34 million expenditure per year along the canal corridors,
                 supporting over 800 full-time equivalent jobs. The wider “quality of life”
                 benefits associated with the use of the waterways in Wales and their
                 contribution to environment, landscape and heritage are estimated to
                 have an annual value of between £10.6 million and £18.8 million per
                 year.106
            o    Work by English Heritage and Defra that assessed the economic benefits to
                 local businesses of farm building repairs funded through the Environmentally
                 Sensitive Area scheme (ESA) in the Lake District107.

    •   Of a slightly different nature, a number of studies have been done on the
        ‘environmental economies’ of the South West108, North West109, North East110 and
        West Midlands111. These combine recreation-linked economic activity with other
        economic activities including land management and – in some cases –
        environmental technologies and waste treatments. Research for Scottish Natural
        Heritage has found that output from activities that depend on the natural
                                                                                                       17
Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.   July 2009

              environment is estimated at £17.2b a year which is 11% of total Scottish
              output. This output supports 242,000 jobs which is 14% of all full time jobs in
              Scotland.112

4.4       Places for business

          •   There is less research in this area, and what there is tends to concentrate on how
              businesses and employees prefer to be based in attractive places with good cultural
              facilities.

          •   A 2007 CABE report, “Paved with Gold”, tested a method for calculating the extra
              financial value of good street design on 10 case study London high streets, using a
              design quality scoring system. Controlling for other variables, the research found
              direct links between street quality and both retail and residential prices.113

          •   Liverpool Vision was launched in 1999 as England’s first Urban Regeneration
              Company with a ten year city-wide strategy to reverse Liverpool’s economic
              decline. The city’s retail and business offer has been transformed, with
              emphasis on place shaping, not just space creating. Outputs include 1,300
              jobs created, 5 hectares of land brought back into use and £170m of private
              investment. In 2006, Liverpool was England’s 5th most visited city – with
              625,000 international visitors spending an estimated £198m.114

          •   An evaluation of Penryn Townscape Heritage Initiative, which involved £1.4m
              of public investment in regenerating the town centre between 1999 and 2006,
              has found that the heritage-led scheme has created 37 FTE gross direct jobs
              and 12.69 FTE net additional jobs. Penryn is in the 20 most deprived wards in
              England and 25% of commercial properties in the town centre were vacant at
              the start of the scheme.115

          •   CABE has also previously used research to show that:
                o Well-planned improvements to public spaces within town centres can boost
                   commercial trading by up to 40 per cent and generate significant private
                   sector investment.116
                o Small businesses choosing a new business location rank open space, parks
                   and recreation as a number one priority.117

          •   An impact study for the Norwich HEART Development plan – a scheme which
              plans to advance heritage redevelopment in the city – has predicted that one
              project that plans to invest £11m in developing St Andrews Hall as a regional
              hub would yield a return of £166m after ten years, Another project to invest
              £495,000 in public realm and retail space improvements in the “Lanes” area of
              Norwich was calculated to have an anticipated return of £16.68m over the
              same period.118

          •   Similarly, British Waterways has undertaken work which attempts to assess the
              impact of waterway environmental improvements on commercial property markets.
              Though no link can be made with commercial rents, waterside locations – particularly
              in city centres such as Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester and London – have been
              found to provide a ‘unique selling point’ for new development which unifies separate
              components can bring development to market more quickly.119 British Waterway’s
                                                                                                             18
Values and benefits of heritage: A research review by HLF Policy & Strategic Development Dept.                        July 2009

            report on the economic impact of water development schemes was completed May
            2007.120

       •    Other studies have attempted to show how heritage / culture can contribute to civic
            pride / cultural draw and creative workers. This has often been wrapped up with the
            impact of iconic buildings such as Tate Modern, Peckham Library, the Sage Centre
            in Gateshead121. However there is no substantive UK evidence in this field to date.

       •    The Urban Regeneration Index (produced by IPD - the Investment Property
            Databank) tracks the performance of property in regeneration areas that are
            benefiting from public and private investment – many of these investments will
            have involved the re-use and refurbishment of heritage buildings. The 2007
            report states that total returns for all property in regeneration areas have
            outperformed all UK property over the last five years and there are some
            advantages to investing in regeneration areas based on higher total returns over
            the mid term, lower volatility, and marked residential capital value uplift. At the
            very least, there is no marked disadvantage in investing in regeneration areas over
            the long term.122 Research for the RICS has also found that listed offices have
            followed the same market cycle as unlisted – the difference in returns between
            the two is minimal.123

       •    A potentially interesting area of new research is to look at how the activities of
            cultural institutions in support of local business can contribute to networks of
            public/private interaction leading to enhanced productivity. An indication of the scale
            of impact here is suggested by a University of Northumbria study cited by Demos
            which found 62% of neighbourhood renewal and social inclusion projects surveyed
            had a museum involved in their delivery; 41% a library and 21% an archive.124

       •    But on a more negative note, a Policy Exchange evaluation of British urban policy
            over the last ten years has concluded that intervention has not reduced the
            divergence between poor and successful towns. The report suggests that a town’s
            location and size has the greatest influence on its success and trying to stimulate
            growth against the odds could be a waste of money. Whilst a few successful
            schemes, including the regeneration of Nottingham Lace quarter (partly with HLF
            Townscape Heritage Initiative Funds) are mentioned, attempts to counter natural
            market forces are generally presented as risky and unlikely to achieve sustainable
                                    100
            and city-wide success.

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   Harris Interactive, 2007. The visitor Experience 2007. Report for Visit Scotland.

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