VISIONS FOR A SEA CHANGE - Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning

VISIONS FOR A SEA CHANGE - Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
              Report of the First International
         Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
           Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
               and the Man and the Biosphere Programme

                                            UNESCO Headquarters
                                                    Paris, France

                                                8-10 November 2006

                    Intergovernmental   Man and          ICAM
                    Oceanographic       Biosphere
VISIONS FOR A SEA CHANGE - Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
The designation employed and the presentation of material throughout the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever
on the part of UNESCO in particular concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or the delineation of
its frontiers or boundaries.
The authors are responsible for the choice and the presentation of the facts contained in this manual and for the opinions expressed therein,
which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization.

Designer: Eric Lodde
Written by Charles Ehler and Fanny Douvere

For bibliographic purposes, this document should be cited as follows:
Ehler, Charles, and Fanny Douvere. Visions for a Sea Change. Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning. Intergovern-
mental Oceanographic Commission and Man and the Biosphere Programme. IOC Manual and Guides, 46: ICAM Dossier, 3. Paris: UNESCO, 2007

Printed by ???

© UNESCO iOC 2006

2     Visions for a SEA CHANGE – Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
VISIONS FOR A SEA CHANGE - Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
                                                                                     Acknowledgements     4
                                                                                              Foreword    5

                                             1 Introduction to the Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning    7
                                             2 Introduction to Ecosystem-based, Sea Use Management        15
                               3 Ecosystem-based, Sea Use Management and Marine Spatial Planning          23
                                 4 Key Scientific Issues for Ecosystem-based, Marine Spatial Planning      29
                                     5 Legislation and Policy Framework for Marine Spatial Planning       35
                                                              6 A Process for Marine Spatial Planning     45
                                        7 Defining the Human Dimension of Marine Spatial Planning          53
                                                            8 Implementing Marine Spatial Planning        57
                                     9 Monitoring, Evaluating, and Adapting Marine Spatial Planning       65
                                                                    10 Conclusions and Next Steps         71

                                                                                            References    73

                                                                                  Workshop Programme      78
                                                                                  Workshop Participants   80

Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning   –   Visions for a SEA CHANGE      3
VISIONS FOR A SEA CHANGE - Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning

     Several people in UNESCO were invaluable in making the first Interna-                    Financial support was provided by a broad range of donors and partners.
     tional Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning possible, especially Dr. Patricio            Fourteen different governmental and non-governmental organizations made
     Bernal, Executive Secretary of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Com-                 financial contributions to the workshop including: the Flemish Government;
     mission (IOC), and Dr. Natarajan Ishwaran, Director of the Division of Ecolog-          the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada; the National Oceanic and
     ical and Earth Sciences and Secretary of the Man and the Biosphere (MAB)                Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USA; the Belgian Science Policy Office;
     Programme. In early 2006 they both agreed to support an initiative on eco-              the Belgian Federal Public Service (FPS) Health, Food Chain Safety, and Environ-
     system-based, marine spatial planning and provided seed money to get it                 ment; Natural England; the European Commission Maritime Policy Task Force;
     launched. They continue to support the initiative today and want to move                the European Environment Agency; the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Author-
     it forward within UNESCO and with other partners. Julian Barbiere, Pro-                 ity, Australia; the World Conservation Union/World Commission on Protected
     gramme Specialist in IOC and manager of its Integrated Coastal Area Man-                Areas (Marine); Conservation International; WWF International; The Nature Con-
     agement (ICAM) Programme and Salvatore Arico, Programme Specialist in                   servancy; and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.
     the MAB Programme, were particularly helpful in supporting the workshop.
     Jan Schlichting, an IOC intern, helped design and implement the workshop                We prepared this technical report from expert presentations made at the work-
     Website. Virginie Bonnet and Natasha Lazic both provided administrative                 shop and subsequent discussions during and following the workshop, supple-
     support before and during the workshop.                                                 mented and updated with new information where appropriate. Marine spatial
                                                                                             planning is a rapidly developing field, and we wanted to keep this report up to
     The workshop would not have been possible without the contribution of an                date. We take responsibility for any misinterpretation or misrepresentation of
     enthusiastic and experienced group of participants that included scientists and         ideas in the original presentations or factual errors in the report.
     practitioners from 20 countries. Presentations were given by ten experts includ-
     ing Frank Maes, Elliott Norse, Larry Crowder, Paul Gilliland, Dan Lafolley, Kevin St.
     Martin, Cathy Plasman, Yves Auffret, Jon Day, and Antonio De Leon. Their con-                                                          Charles Ehler and Fanny Douvere
     tinuing professional accomplishments in researching, developing, and imple-                                                                        Workshop Co-chairs
     menting marine spatial planning in the context of ecosystem-based manage-                                                                                 Paris, France
     ment was of major importance to the overall success of the workshop.                                                                                         May 2007

4   Visions for a SEA CHANGE – Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
VISIONS FOR A SEA CHANGE - Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
”...The problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need
to be considered as a whole…”
Preamble to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982

When the authors of the Preamble to the United Nations Convention on the          UNESCO is in a unique position through the international perspective of its pro-
Law of the Sea wrote this prescient phrase in 1982, few people recognized how     grams, particularly the IOC and the MAB Programme, to evaluate and improve
relevant it would become to the marine world of today. Scientists are calling     the effectiveness of marine spatial planning as a tool to secure both marine
increasingly for ecosystem-based management of marine areas and consider-         biodiversity and economic development. The workshop was a cooperative ini-
able work has already been done on developing the conceptual aspects. In          tiative between the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and
fact, conceptual work has dominated ecosystem-based management and the            the Man and the Biosphere Programme of the Ecological and Earth Sciences
debate has often become academic for the lack of practical evidence of what       Division. In the longer run, these activities could provide an opportunity to de-
works and what does not. Hopefully, this workshop moved the theoretical work      velop broader partnerships both within and outside UNESCO, that could lead
forward by shifting the focus more toward putting marine ecosystem-based          to better integration of spatial management of human activities in terrestrial
management into practice.                                                         areas, watersheds, coasts and oceans.

Marine spatial planning at the ecosystem level is a first step toward ecosystem-
based management.                                                                                                              Patricio Bernal, Executive Secretary
                                                                                                                 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
                                                                                                                                      Natarajan Ishwaran, Director
                                                                                                                    Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences and
                                                                                                                   Secretary, Man and the Biosphere Programme

                                      Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning         –   Visions for a SEA CHANGE                 5
VISIONS FOR A SEA CHANGE - Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
VISIONS FOR A SEA CHANGE - Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
1Introduction to the Workshop on

  Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning   –   Visions for a SEA CHANGE   7
VISIONS FOR A SEA CHANGE - Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
What Is Marine Spatial Planning?
                                                                                                                      environment, have led to two types of conflict. First, this multitude of
                                         Marine spatial planning is a way of improving decision making and            human activities (mostly uncoordinated among economic sectors) has
                                         delivering an ecosystem-based approach to managing human activi-             resulted in a substantial and largely irreversible loss and damage to the
                                         ties in the marine environment. It is a planning process that enables        diversity of life in marine and coastal areas (use-environment conflicts,
                                         integrated, forward looking, and consistent decision making on the           e.g., habitat loss). Second, not all uses are compatible with one another
                                         human uses of the sea. Marine spatial planning is analogous to spatial       and are competing for ocean space or have adverse effects on each other
                                         or land use planning in terrestrial environments.                            (use-use conflicts, between, e.g., shipping and offshore wind farms).

                                         Ecosystem-based, marine spatial planning seeks to sustain the ben-           Historically, management approaches have focused on single sectors
                                         efits of the ecological goods and services that the oceans provide to         with little consideration of the potential conflicts across sectors. During
                                         humans as well as all living organisms on the planet.                        the past decade, the traditional sectoral approach to natural resource

                                         Why Was an International Workshop on Marine Spatial
                                         Planning Organized?                                                          Table 1. Examples of the Human Use of Ocean Space

                                         Rapid population growth and shifting consumer demands have con-              Commercial Fishing
                                         siderably increased the need for more food, more energy and more             Recreational Fishing
                                         trade from marine areas. Because of limited resources and space on
                                         land, an increasingly larger share of goods and services is coming           Aquaculture
                                         from coastal and marine areas. This trend will continue, and more            Shipping
                                         likely accelerate, in the next decades. Future outlooks, in particular for   Oil & Gas Exploration and Production
                                         offshore aquaculture, offshore energy, maritime transport, and tour-
                                                                                                                      Renewable Energy Production, e.g., wind, waves
                                         ism, predict increasing uses of marine areas in the coming years. It is
                                         difficult to understate the value of the oceans to present and future          Sand and Gravel Mining
1                                        economic prosperity.                                                         Dredging
The Convention of Biological Diver-
sity defines the “ecosystem approach”                                                                                  Dredged Material Disposal
                                         However, other values of the oceans are also critically important, in-
as “…a strategy for integrated
management of land, water, and           cluding the benefits of the ecological goods and services that the            Recreation and Tourism
living resources that promotes           oceans provide to humans as well as all living organisms on the plan-        Offshore Housing, Factories, Airports
conservation and sustainable use in
an equitable way. The ecosystem          et. In addition to the provisioning services provided by marine areas,
                                                                                                                      Pipelines, Cables, Transmission Lines
approach is based on the application     including food, fiber, and medicine, the oceans provide regulating
of appropriate scientific methodolo-
                                         services (storm protection provided by coral reefs and wetlands), sup-       Bio-prospecting
gies focused on levels of biological
organization, which encompass the        porting services (carbon capture and nutrient recycling), and cultural       Desalinization
essential processes, functions and       services (including unique knowledge systems about marine resourc-
interactions among organisms and                                                                                      Military Activities
their environment. It recognizes that    es). (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005).
humans, with their cultural diversity,                                                                                Scientific Research
are an integral component of ecosys-
tems.” Decision V/6 of the Conference    Since marine resources are limited both in space and size, economic          Marine Protected Areas
of the Parties to the Convention on      development has been devastating to marine biodiversity in many
Biological Diversity. Available at:                                                                                   Cultural and Historic Conservation, e.g., ship wrecks
                                         places. Essentially, increased development pressures on the marine

                                         8   Visions for a SEA CHANGE – Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
VISIONS FOR A SEA CHANGE - Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
and environmental management has been recognized to be insuf-                 ularly with marine spatial planning and zoning. A complete list of
ficient to address the cumulative effects of human activities on the            participants and their contact information is included as an annex
marine environment and has shifted to a more holistic “ecosystem              to this report.
approach” that calls for comprehensive analysis of all dimensions of
environmental problems.                                                       How Was the Meeting Organized?

Despite its general acceptance however, so far the ecosystem approach         The meeting was organized around some of the basic elements of
has been more a concept, widely discussed at scientific meetings, but          management, i.e., authorization, research, planning and analysis, im-
with few examples of actual practice. It is increasingly clear that govern-   plementation, monitoring, evaluation, and capacity building. Case
ments lack concrete tools to make an ecosystem approach operational in        studies of particular geographic areas were used only to illustrate
the marine environment. A key challenge today is to take the ecosystem        the importance and interconnectedness of each of these elements
approach beyond the conceptual level, and one practical way to do this        in an overall management framework. The workshop programme is
is through marine spatial planning.                                           included as an annex to this report.

From 8-10 November 2006 the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Com-              What Happened at the Workshop?
mission (IOC) and the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) of the
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNES-       After introductory comments by the co-chairs that framed the objec-
CO) held the first international workshop on Marine Spatial Planning. The      tives of the workshop, its organization, and basic definitions, Frank
meeting was held at the UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France.                 Maes, University of Gent (Belgium) described the international, Euro-
                                                                              pean and Belgian legal context of marine spatial planning—noting
What Was the Purpose of the Workshop?                                         that legislation was a desirable, but not necessarily, critical prerequi-
                                                                              site. Elliott Norse of the Marine Conservation Biology Institute (USA)
The purpose of the workshop was to:                                           and Larry Crowder of Duke University pointed out incompatibilities
                                                                              between some human uses (e.g., bottom trawling) and the mainte-
• Identify good practices that illustrate how marine spatial planning         nance of biodiversity and effectively argued the case for using marine
  can help implement an ecosystem-based approach to sea use man-              spatial planning to protect and recover biodiversity and ecosystem
  agement;                                                                    functions. At the same time, they pointed out the need to keep the
• Develop an international community of scientists and planners that          ecosystem in “ecosystem-based management” and marine spatial
  wants to put ecosystem-based management into practice;                      planning. Paul Gilliland and Dan Lafolley of Natural England pre-
• Share information and experience through new partnerships and               sented an ecosystem-based process for marine spatial planning, em-
  the Internet; and                                                           phasizing the importance of clear objectives, meaningful indicators,
• Identify priorities for future action, including developing international   effective stakeholder involvement, and mitigating conflicts through
  guidelines and building new capacities for marine spatial planning.         planning. Kevin St. Martin of Rutgers University made a strong case
                                                                              for adding the “human dimension” and the “missing layer” to marine
Who Attended the Workshop?                                                    spatial planning, particularly by relating offshore activities to onshore
                                                                              communities, livelihoods, and cultures through community participa-
About 50 policy makers, managers, and scientists from over 20 coun-           tion, incorporation of local knowledge, and geographic information
tries attended the workshop. Participants were invited based on their         systems. Yves Auffret of the European Commission’s Maritime Policy
practical experience in sea use planning and management, partic-              Task Force described the alternative institutional arrangements for

                                    Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning   –   Visions for a SEA CHANGE             9
VISIONS FOR A SEA CHANGE - Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
marine spatial planning considered through the draft Maritime Policy            technical report and a special issue of the international journal, Ma-
                                        of the EU. The realties of implementing marine spatial plans, espe-             rine Policy, will summarize the themes of the workshop in more detail.
                                        cially the different evaluation criteria, were highlighted by a elected          Publication of the special issue is expected by early 2008. Longer-term
                                        public official, Cathy Plasman of the Belgian Ministry of Mobility and            activities include preparation of international guidelines on marine
                                        North Sea Affairs. Jon Day of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef Marine              spatial management and training for building capacity. These results
                                        Park emphasized the need for monitoring, evaluation, reporting and              will be part of UNESCO’s contributions to the implementation of the
                                        adaptive management, based a major re-zoning of the GBRMP after                 work plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity. In the longer
                                        30 years. Finally, Antonio Diaz de Leon, Director-General of Mexico’s           run, these activities could provide an opportunity to develop broader
                                        Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, focused on capacity              international and regional partnerships that could lead to better inte-
                                        building needed for effective sea use planning in the Gulf of Mexico             gration of spatial management of human activities in terrestrial areas,
                                        and Gulf of California.                                                         watersheds, coasts—and oceans.

                                        What Were Some of the Principal Findings of the Workshop?                       Why UNESCO?

                                        Some of the principal findings of the workshop are that: (1) marine spatial      UNESCO is in a unique position through the international perspective of
                                        planning is an important element of ecosystem-based sea use manage-             its programmes in the IOC and MAB, as well as its World Heritage Center
                                        ment; (2) marine spatial planning is only one part of the tool box of ecosys-   and Coastal Areas and Small Islands Programme, to evaluate and improve
                                        tem-based, sea use management—actual applications will include a mix of         the effectiveness of ecosystem-based management, especially through
                                        control measures including regulatory and non-regulatory (e.g., economic)       marine spatial planning and ocean zoning. For example, for the past 30
                                        incentives; (2) early and continuing engagement of stakeholders in a clear      years the MAB Programme has pioneered the concept of spatial plan-
                                        management process is critical to success and engenders trust and owner-        ning and zoning for biodiversity conservation through the Biosphere
                                        ship of the process; (3) monitoring and evaluation are critical elements of     Reserve Programme2 in almost 100 countries. Of 440 Biosphere Reserves
                                        the MSP process; (4) integrating the human dimension into marine spatial        established by 2006,109 are coastal and/or marine.
2                                       planning requires the same diversity of disciplines/perspectives as does the
The origin of Biosphere Reserves        ecosystem approach relative to the biophysical environment; (5) compre-
goes back to the “Biosphere Confer-     hensive, spatially-explicit data on ecosystem characteristics, human uses,
ence organized by UNESCO in 1968,
the first intergovernmental confer-      and offshore jurisdictions are required—these data are not readily available
ence to seek to reconcile the conser-   for most marine areas, and can be expensive and time-consuming to col-
vation and use of natural resources,
foreshadowing the current notion        lect; and (6) decision makers are unlikely to accept marine spatial planning
of sustainable development. The         until its benefits can be better documented. A more complete list of find-
Man and the Biosphere Programme
was officially launched in 1970.
                                        ings is included in the last chapter of this report.
One of the MAB projects consisted
of establishing a coordinated world
network of new protected areas, to
                                        What Will Happen As a Result of the Workshop?
be designated as Biosphere Reserves.
MAB’s programmatic goal is achiev-      A Website ( that contains back-
ing a sustainable balance between
the sometimes-conflicting goals          ground documents, presentations, and links to other marine spatial
of conserving biological diversity,     planning sites, and preliminary conclusions of the workshop has al-
promoting economic development,
and maintaining associated cultural
                                        ready been prepared and will be modified substantially over the next
values.                                 year. The results of the workshop are documented in this UNESCO

                                        10   Visions for a SEA CHANGE – Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
The UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Programme (http://www.unesco.                  the state of conservation of their World Heritage sites. There are 830
org/mab) is one of the first to use “core areas”, “buffer zones,” and       “properties” on the World Heritage list. Of these, 162 are natural sites,
“transition zones”—designations that are still relevant to marine           and only 18 sites (about 2% of the total) are “marine”. Marine areas
biodiversity conservation today. Generally, each biosphere reserve          that are currently listed include the Great Barrier Reef (Australia), the
is comprised of three areas: (1) one or more core areas that are            Galapagos Islands (Ecuador), the Belize Barrier-Reef Reserve System
securely protected sites for conserving biological diversity, monitor-      (Belize), the Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve (Mexico), and Tubbataha
ing minimally disturbed ecosystems, and undertaking non-destruc-            Reef Marine Park (Philippines) – all of which have employed a wide
tive research and other low-impact uses, such as education; (2) a           variety of zoning approaches in their management strategies.
clearly identified buffer zone that usually surrounds or adjoins the
core areas, and is used for cooperative activities compatible with          UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, through
sound ecological practices, including environmental education,              its Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) Programme (http://
recreation, ecotourism and applied and basic research; and (3) a   is pioneering the use of indicators for evalu-
flexible transition area, or “area of cooperation” that may contain a       ating the effectiveness of integrated coastal and ocean manage-
variety of activities, settlements, and other uses, and in which local      ment, including zoning as a management measure4. At the same
communities, management agencies, scientists, non-governmental              time, IOC’s Coastal-Global Ocean Observing System (C-GOOS) Pro-
organizations, cultural groups, economic interests, and other stake-        gramme ( has developed an operational
holders work together to manage and develop the area’s resources            approach for monitoring many of the parameters of coastal areas
sustainably. Although originally envisioned as a series of concentric       that would be essential in populating a series of coastal and ocean
rings, the three zones have been implemented in many different              indicators. Both the ICAM and C-GOOS programmes are important
ways to meet local needs and conditions. In fact, one of the greatest       to an evaluation of spatial planning and zoning for marine biodi-
strengths of the Biosphere Reserve concept has been the flexibility         versity conservation.
and creativity with which it has been realized in various situations.
                                                                            Aren’t There Other International Programmes that Could Be
Some countries have enacted legislation specifically to establish           Appropriate Partners for Marine Spatial Planning?
Biosphere Reserves. In many others, the core areas and buffer
zones are designated (in whole or in part) as protected areas under         Yes—at least two others are obvious. The United Nations Environ-
national law. A large number of Biosphere Reserves simultaneously           ment Programme’s Regional Seas Programme and the International
belong to other national systems of protected areas, such as na-            Maritime Organization’s areas that are designated as “Particularly
tional parks or nature reserves, and/or other international networks,       Sensitive Sea Areas”. The Regional Seas Programme (www.unep.
such as World Heritage or Ramsar sites3. Despite this wide cover-           org/regionalseas/) addresses the accelerating degradation of the
age and depth of experience with spatial planning and zoning in             world’s oceans and coastal areas through the sustainable manage-
protected areas, no systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of           ment and use of the marine and coastal environment, by engag-
marine spatial planning and zoning as management strategies for             ing neighboring countries in comprehensive and specific actions
                                                                                                                                                        Out of 1651 Ramsar sites, 720
biodiversity conservation has been undertaken.                              to protect their shared marine environment. Today, more than 140            covering 485,000 km2 globally are
                                                                            countries participate in 13 Regional Seas Programmes (RSPs): the            listed as coastal or marine. Only
                                                                                                                                                        about 60% have any management
UNESCO’s World Heritage Centre ( encourages           Mediterranean Sea, the Caribbean Sea, West and Central Africa,              planning process.
States Parties to the World Heritage Convention to nominate sites           Eastern Africa, East Asian Seas, the North West Pacific, the ROPME
within their national territory for inclusion on the World Heritage List    Sea Area, the South East Pacific, the North East Pacific, the Red Sea       4
and to establish management plans and set up reporting systems on           and Gulf of Aden, the South Pacific, the Black Sea, and the South           See Belfiore et al., 2006

                                 Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning   –   Visions for a SEA CHANGE             11
Table 2. Examples of Marine Spatial Planning and Ocean Zoning
                          Fig 1.
                                                                                                                      Large, Integrated Sea Use Management Programs/Projects Using MSP
        The Regional
                                                                                                                      Australia            Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
     Seas Programme
                                                                                                                      Australia            Marine Bioregional Planning
                     (Source: UNEP)
                                                                                                                      Belgium              Belgian Part of the North Sea (GAUFRE Project)
                                                                                                                      Canada               Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Management Project
                                                                                                                      China                Territorial Sea Functional Zoning
                                                                                                                      Denmark, Germany     Trilateral Wadden Sea Cooperation Area
                                         Asian Seas. While not officially designated as “Regional Seas”, five         & The Netherlands
                                         other programs characterize themselves as “partners” of the Re-              Germany              EEZ and Territorial Sea Spatial Planning
                                         gional Seas Programme: the Baltic Sea, the North East Atlantic, the          Mexico               Ecological Ocean Use Planning in Gulf of California
                                         Caspian Sea, the Arctic, and the Antarctic. Several of these Regional
                                                                                                                      New Zealand          Ocean Survey 20/20 and National Ocean Policy
                                         Seas Programmes, e.g., the Mediterranean and North East Atlantic, are
                                         developing networks of MPAs that will use spatial planning and zon-          The Netherlands      Integrated Management Plan for North Sea 2015
                                         ing as a core management strategy.                                           United Kingdom       MSP Pilot Project in Irish Sea and the Marine Bill
5                                                                                                                     Examples of Marine Protected Areas Known to Use Zoning
In Annexes I, II and V, MARPOL 73/78
                                         The International Maritime Organization’s (
                                                                                                                      Belize               Belize Barrier Reef
defines certain sea areas as «special     ment/) Marine Environment Protection Committee issues guidelines
areas» in which, for technical reasons   for the identification and designation of particularly sensitive seas ar-     Ecuador              Galápagos Marine Resources Reserve and Galápagos
relating to their oceanographic and
ecological condition and to their        eas (PSSAs)5. A PSSA is an area that needs special protection through                             Whale Sanctuary
sea traffic, the adoption of special       action by IMO because of its significance for recognized ecological           Italy                Miramare Biosphere Reserve and Marine Reserve
mandatory methods for the preven-
tion of sea pollution is required.       or socio-economic or scientific reasons and that may be vulnerable            Mexico               Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve
Under the Convention, these special      to damage by international maritime activities. The criteria for the
areas are provided with a higher                                                                                      The Netherlands      Bonaire and Saba Marine Parks
level of protection than other areas
                                         identification of particularly sensitive sea areas and the criteria for the
of the sea.                              designation of special areas are not mutually exclusive. In many cases
                                         a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area may be identified within a Special          Palau                Palau Marine Park
The following PSSAs have been            Area and vice versa. IMO has approved the designation of 10 PSSAs6.          Russian Federation   Far East Marine and Commander Islands Biosphere
designated: the Great Barrier Reef,                                                                                                        Reserves
Australia (designated in 1990 and
extended in 2005); the Sabana-Ca-                                                                                     The Philippines      Tubbataha Marine Park
maguey Archipelago, Cuba (1997);
Malpelo Island, Columbia (2002),                                                                                      Tanzania             Mafia Island Marine Park
the sea around the Florida Keys, USA
(2002); the Wadden Sea, Germany                                                                                       United States        Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary
& The Netherlands (2002); Paracas
                                                                                                                      United States        Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary
National Reserve, Peru (2003); West-
ern European Waters (2004); Canary                                                                                    United States        California Marine Life Protection Act Initiative (California
Islands, Spain (2005), the Galapagos
Archipelago, Ecuador (2005), and the
                                                                                                                                           state waters)
Baltic Sea area, Denmark, Estonia,                                                                                    Viet Nam             Ha Long Bay World Heritage Site and Hon Mun & Cu Lao
Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania,
Poland and Sweden (2005).                                                                                                                  Cham Marine Parks

                                         12   Visions for a SEA CHANGE – Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
Ecosystem-based Management                                                 (4) Identifies, safeguards, or where necessary and appropriate, re-          Box 1.
(1) Protects ecosystem structure, functioning, and processes;              covers or restores important components of marine ecosystems in-            Definition of
(2) Recognizes inter-connectedness within and among systems; (3)           cluding natural heritage and nature conservation resources; and (5)
Integrates ecological, social, economic, and institutional perspectives;   Allocates space in a rational manner that minimizes conflicts of inter-      Some Important
and (4) Is place-based or area-based (adapted from COMPASS, 2005).         est and, where possible, maximizes synergy among sectors. Sea use           Terms
                                                                           management is an element of ecosystem-based management.
Sea Use Management
(1) Works toward sustainable development, rather than simply con-          Marine Spatial Planning
servation or environmental protection, and in doing so contributes         A process of analyzing and allocating parts of three-dimensional ma-
to more general social and governmental objectives; (2) Provides a         rine spaces to specific uses, to achieve ecological, economic, and so-
strategic, integrated and forward-looking framework for all uses of        cial objectives that are usually specified through the political process;
the sea to help achieve sustainable development, taking account of         the MSP process usually results in a comprehensive plan or vision for
environmental as well as social and economic goals and objectives;         a marine region. MSP is an element of sea use management.
(3) Applies an ecosystem approach to the regulation and manage-
ment of development and activities in the marine environment by            Ocean Zoning
safeguarding ecological processes and overall resilience to ensure         A regulatory measure to implement MSP usually consisting of a zon-
the environment has the capacity to support social and economic            ing map and regulations for some or all areas of a marine region.
benefits (including those benefits derived directly from ecosystems);        Ocean zoning is an element of marine spatial planning.

                                Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning   –   Visions for a SEA CHANGE              13
2 Introduction to Ecosystem-based

  Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning   –   Visions for a SEA CHANGE   15
Why Do We Need an Integrated Approach?
                                                                                                                       achieving sustainable use of eco-system goods and services and mainte-
                                        Natural resource managers today, whether working on the land or in the         nance of ecosystem integrity” (HELCOM-OSPAR, 2003).
                                        sea, face formidable problems. Demand for natural resources, including
                                        space, is accompanied by differing perceptions of their values, conflicts        “Ecosystem approaches” are different things to different people and different
                                        over their use, and concern about the natural and human environments           disciplines. Although for some this variety is strength, overall it has probably
                                        affected. These problems are exacerbated by fragmented jurisdiction             neither increased the use nor the scientific respectability of ecosystem ap-
                                        over the resource base, ambiguous government policies, lengthy review          proaches.
                                        processes and weak regulations.
                                                                                                                       Some key characteristics of ecosystem approaches would include:
                                        Natural resource planners, developers and managers are responding to
                                        these problems by seeking more integrated approaches that will en-             • Describing parts, systems, environments and their interactions, i.e., a “sys-
                                        able their projects and programs to deliver as many benefits as possible,         tems” approach;
                                        within acceptable limits of social and environmental impact, and with          • Working through a holistic, comprehensive, trans-disciplinary approach;
                                        minimum conflict and cost.                                                      • Defining the ecosystem naturally, e.g., bio-regionally, instead of politically;
                                                                                                                       • Looking at different levels/scales of system structure, process and func-
                                        See Ehler and Douvere workshop presentation (2006) at http://ioc3.unesco.        tion;
                                        org/marinesp/.                                                                 • Describing system dynamics, e.g., with concepts of homeostasis (i.e., the
                                                                                                                         ability to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting physiological process-
                                        Why is Ecosystem-Based, Sea Use Management and Marine Spatial                    es), feedbacks, cause-and-effect relationships, self-organization, etc.);
                                        Planning Important?                                                            • Including people and their activities in the ecosystem;
                                                                                                                       • Recognizing goals and taking an active, management orientation;
                                        The evolution of marine spatial planning is an important step toward           • Including actor-system dynamics and institutional factors in the analysis;
                                        making “ecosystem-based, sea-use management” a reality. While initially        • Using an anticipatory, flexible research and planning process;
                                        the idea was stimulated by international and national interests in devel-      • Entailing an implicit or explicit ethics of quality, well-being and integrity;
                                        oping marine protected areas, e.g., the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park7          and
                                        more recent attention has been placed on managing the multiple use             • Recognizing systemic limits to action—defining and seeking sustainabil-
7                                       of marine space, particularly in areas where use conflicts are already clear,     ity (Slocombe, 1993).
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park      e.g., the North Sea.
was established in 1975. After
13 years its first zoning plan was                                                                                      How Can an Ecosystem Approach Be Implemented?
implemented in 1988, and partially      Ocean space is a valuable resource—one that is increasingly over-used in
revised in 1998. A new compre-
hensive zoning approach, based on       many places of the world’s oceans (e.g., the North Sea) and often poorly       Gill Shepherd, Thematic Leader of the Ecosystem Approach, in IUCN’s Com-
a Representative Areas Programme,       managed.                                                                       mission on Ecosystem Management, has defined (from the Convention on
was approved in 2004 (Day, 2006).
The extent of no-take areas was
                                                                                                                       Biological Diversity) the “ecosystem approach” as a strategy for the integrated
increased from 5% to 33% of the         What is an Ecosystem Approach to Management?                                   management of land, water, and living resources that promotes conserva-
GBRMP, including representative                                                                                        tion and sustainable use in an equitable way. She goes on to identify
examples of each of the park’s 70
bioregions. Information on the RAP      An ecosystem approach refers to “…the comprehensive integrated manage-         five steps to implementing the 15 principles of the ecosystem approach
is available at: http://www.gbrmpa.     ment of human activities based on the best available scientific knowledge       (Shepherd, 2004). See Box 2. The area of the GBRMP is
345,200 km2; for comparison, the        about the ecosystem and its dynamics, in order to identify and take action
area of the North Sea is 750,000 km2.   on influences which are critical to the health of marine ecosystems, thereby

                                        16   Visions for a SEA CHANGE – Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
Step A. Determining the stakeholders and defining the eco-                    Step C. Economic Issues                                                 Box 2.
system area                                                                  Principles                                                              Implementing
Principles                                                                   Recognizing potential gains from management, there is usually a need    the Ecosystem
1. The objectives of management of land, water, and living resources            to understand and manage the ecosystem in an economic context.       Approach
   are a matter of societal choice                                              Any such ecosystem management program should:
2. The ecosystem approach should be undertaken at the appropriate            1. Reduce those market distortions that adversely affect biological     (Source: IUCN, 2004)

   spatial and temporal scales                                                  diversity;
3. The ecosystem approach should consider all forms of relevant infor-       2. Align incentives to promote biodiversity conservation and sustain-
   mation, including scientific and indigenous and local knowledge, in-          able use; and
   novations, and practice                                                   3. Internalize costs and benefits in the given ecosystem to the extent
4. The ecosystem approach should involve al relevant sectors of society         feasible
   and scientific disciplines
                                                                             Step D. Adaptive management over space
Step B. Ecosystem structure, function, and management                        Principles
Management should be decentralized to the lowest appro-                      1. Ecosystem managers should consider the effects (actual and poten-
priate level                                                                    tial) of their activities on adjacent and other ecosystems
Principles                                                                   2. The ecosystem approach should be undertaken at the appropriate
1. Conservation of ecosystem structure and functioning, to maintain             spatial and temporal scales
   ecosystem services, should be a priority target of the ecosystem
   approach                                                                  Step E. Adaptive management over time
2. Ecosystems should be managed within the limits of their functioning       Principles
3. The ecosystem approach should seek the appropriate balance be-            1. The ecosystem approach should be undertaken at the appropriate
   tween, and integration of, conservation and use of biological diversity      spatial and temporal scales
                                                                             2. Recognizing the varying temporal and lag effects that characterize
                                                                                ecosystem processes, objectives for ecosystem management should
                                                                                be set for the long term
                                                                             3. Management must recognize that change is inevitable

                                  Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning   –   Visions for a SEA CHANGE         17
Why Use “Sea Use Management” Instead of Ecosystem
                                                                                                                        This situation is made worse by the sector-by-sector responsibilities
                                                                                                                        for determining development applications in the marine environ-
                                            Ecosystems and ecosystem components of marine areas cannot be               ment. The time has come for a strategic and integrated plan-based
                                            managed in themselves. Only people and their behavior toward                approach for sea use management, instead of the piecemeal view,
                                            the use of ocean space and resources can be managed. Sea use                not the least so that commitments made in a number of impor-
                                            management refers to the management of human uses of ocean                  tant international and national marine policy declarations, including
                                            resources, including the use of ocean space, in such a way that eco-        commitments to an “ecosystem approach,” can be fulfilled.
                                            logical, social, and economic objectives are achievable. Sea use
                                            management is used analogously to land use management in ter-               Why Manage Human Activities in the Sea?
Most local jurisdictions in the US and
Western Europe have a “compre-              restrial environments.
hensive plan”, a long-range policy                                                                                      Social demands for outputs (goods and services) usually exceed the
document that directs growth for
the next 20-50 years and beyond.
                                            So What’s the Problem? Aren’t Many Uses of the Ocean                        capacity of the marine area to meet all of the demands simultane-
Especially in the US, these plans are       Compatible with One Another?                                                ously. Marine resources are often “common property resources” with
implemented principally through                                                                                         open or free access to users. Free access often, if not typically, leads
zoning and subdivision ordinances
and regulations. “Zoning” is the            Many human uses of the sea can be—and are—compatible with                   to excessive use of the resources, e.g., over fishing, and eventual ex-
process by which a local jurisdiction       one another, e.g., fishing and marine protected areas. On the oth-          haustion of the resources. Because not all of the outputs from ma-
legally controls the use of property
and the physical configuration of            er hand, however, human uses of ocean space often conflict with             rine areas can be expressed in monetary terms, free markets cannot
development upon tracts of land             one another (use-use conflicts) and some human uses are entirely            perform the allocation tasks. Some process must be used to decide
within its jurisdiction. A zoning map
is usually approved when a local ju-
                                            incompatible with maintaining critical ecosystem functions (use-            what mix of outputs from the marine area will be produced.
risdiction adopts a zoning ordinance.       environment conflicts).
This map divides the community into                                                                                     That process is sea use management—and marine spatial planning
zoning districts (zones). Each district
will carry a designation that refers to     Many of these conflicts can be avoided or reduced through marine spa-        is one of its important elements.
the zoning code regulations for that        tial planning (MSP) by influencing the location of human activities in
district. By referring to this map, it is
possible to identify the use district       space and time; other tools are needed to manage the performance of         What Is the Purpose of Ecosystem-based, Sea Use
within which any parcel of land is          human activities, e.g., to manage the quantity and quality of pollutant     Management?
located. Then, by referring to the text
of the zoning code, it is possible to
                                            discharges from these activities
discover the uses that are permitted                                                                                    The overall purpose of sea-use management is to work toward
within that district.                       Don’t We Already Designate Zones for Many Places in the Ocean?              sustainable development9 rather than simply conservation or envi-
9                                                                                                                       ronmental protection, and in doing so contribute to more general
Sustainable development does not            Yes. Most countries already designate ocean space for marine trans-         social and governmental objectives. Specifically, the purpose of sea
focus solely on environmental issues.
More broadly, sustainable develop-          portation, oil and gas development, wind farms, aquaculture, waste          use management is to:
ment policies encompass three               disposal, and so on, but on a case-by-case, sector-by-sector basis. Com-
general policy areas: economic, en-
vironmental and social. In support of
                                            prehensive MSP is rarely practiced today.                                   • Provide a strategic, integrated and forward-looking framework
this, several UN texts, most recently                                                                                     for all uses of the sea to help achieve sustainable development,
the 2005 World Summit Outcome               In many respects, ‘planning’ in the marine environment today resem-           taking account environmental as well as social and economic
Document, refer to the «interde-
pendent and mutually reinforcing            bles terrestrial planning in the 1970s8. With only a few exceptions,          objectives;
pillars» of sustainable development         no clearly articulated spatial visions exist for the use of marine areas,   • Apply an ecosystem approach to the regulation and manage-
as economic development, social
development, and environmental              no plan-based approach to management, and consequently, marine                ment of development and activities in the marine environment
protection.                                 developers and users face a lack of certainty.                                by safeguarding ecological processes and overall resilience to en-

                                            18   Visions for a SEA CHANGE – Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
sure the environment has the capacity to support social and eco-         • Maintain or improve marine environmental quality;
  nomic benefits (including those benefits derived directly from           • Result in sustained increases in human welfare (well being)11.
• Identify, safeguard, or where necessary and appropriate, recover         What Are the Natural or Ecological Goods and Services that
  or restore important components of marine ecosystems includ-             Come from Marine Ecosystems?
  ing natural heritage and nature conservation resources; and
• Allocate space in a rational manner that minimizes conflicts of          Ecological goods and services (EG&S) are the benefits arising from the
  interest and, where possible, maximizes synergy among sectors            ecological functions of healthy ecosystems. These benefits accrue to
  [emphasis added]10 .                                                     all living organisms, including animals and plants, not only to humans
                                                                           alone. However, there is a growing recognition of the importance to
Why Should Sea Use Management Be Ecosystem-based?                          society that the ecological goods and services provide for health, cul-
                                                                           tural, social, and economic needs.
The marine environment is both an ecosystem and an interlocking
network of ecosystems. All the components of an ecosystem, includ-         The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) identified four catego-
ing the human component, function together and interact to form an         ries of EG&S’s:
integrated network. Ensuring the integrity of the ecosystems, restor-
ing when practicable and/or maintaining their characteristic structure     • “Provisioning services” are products and services harvested or passively
and functioning, productivity and biological diversity, requires long-       provided by ecosystems, including wildlife and plant products for food,
term integrated management of human activities, explicitly:                  fiber, and medicines, water, extracted minerals, and genetic resources;
                                                                           • “Regulating services” regulate overall environmental conditions on
• Managing human activities to respect the capacity of ecosystems            the Earth, such as maintenance of air and water quality, erosion con-
                                                                                                                                                         Adapted from the UK County Agen-
  to fulfill human needs sustainably;                                        trol, and storm protection provided by coral reefs and wetlands;            cies Interagency Working Group on
• Recognizing the values of ecosystems, both in their continuing           • “Cultural services” are the non-material benefits from ecosystems,           MSP, 2005.
  unimpaired functioning and specifically in meeting those human             including spiritual and cultural benefits, unique knowledge systems,         11
  needs; and                                                                 diversity of cultures, languages, understandings, recreational de-          Human well being depends on
• Preserving or increasing their capacity to produce the desired             mands; and                                                                  material welfare, health, good social
                                                                                                                                                         relations, security and freedom. All
  benefits in the future (OSPAR, 2003).                                    • “Supporting services,” maintain conditions for life on Earth, such as the   of these are affected by changes in
                                                                             production of oxygen and capture of carbon and nutrient cycling.            ecosystem services, but also by the
                                                                                                                                                         supply and qualify of, for example,
Canada’s first integrated ocean management plan is an example of this                                                                                     social capital and technology. When
type of management approach. See Box 3.                                    Isn’t Ecosystem-based, Sea Use Management Simply Another                      the supply of ecosystem services
                                                                                                                                                         exceeds the demand, an increase in
                                                                           Term for Marine Protected Area Management?                                    supply tends to enhance human well
What Are the Overall Goals of Sea Use Management?                                                                                                        being only marginally. In contrast,
                                                                           No. Ecosystem-based management is comprehensive and integrates                when the service is in short supply,
                                                                                                                                                         a small decrease can substantially
Examples of the goals (that will obviously vary from place to place)       across all economic sectors, including nature conservation. A protected       reduce well being. The degradation
could include the management of human activities in the marine             area is “an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection    of ecosystem services is harming
                                                                                                                                                         many of the world’s poorest people,
environment in ways that:                                                  of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources,    and is sometimes the principal factor
                                                                           and managed through legal and other effective means.” (IUCN, 1994). The        causing poverty. For example, the
• Sustain the long-run productivity of marine ecosystems that provide      goal of MPAs, as seen by IUCN, is to conserve biological diversity and pro-   declining state of capture fisheries is
                                                                                                                                                         reducing a cheap source of protein in
  natural goods and services;                                              ductivity, including ecological “life support” systems, of the oceans.        developing countries.

                                Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning   –   Visions for a SEA CHANGE               19
Box 3.    The Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Management (ESSIM) Initiative is        In February 2005, the ESSIM Planning Office, housed in DFO Mari-
    Canada’s     a collaborative ocean planning process led and facilitated by Fisheries      times’ Oceans and Coastal Management Division, presented an
                 and Oceans Canada (DFO), Maritimes Region, under Canada’s Oceans             initial draft Integrated Ocean Management Plan to stakeholders
                 Act. The ESSIM Initiative was announced by the Minister of Fisheries and     for review. Based on the generally positive feedback received, the
  Integrated     Oceans in December 1998 and followed the recommendation from the             Planning Office launched a broad public review of the draft Plan
      Ocean      Sable Gully Conservation Strategy that integrated management ap-             over the spring, summer, and fall of 2005. Following the public re-
Management       proaches be applied to the offshore area around the Sable Gully Area of       view, a group of stakeholders representing all major ocean sectors
                 Interest (AOI) under DFO’s Marine Protected Areas Program.                   and government agencies in the planning area was assembled
                                                                                              to consider the feedback received and to work with the Planning
                 The 1997 Oceans Act and its supporting policy, Canada’s Oceans Strat-        Office to revise the draft Plan. In July 2006, this group, known as
                 egy, affirm DFO’s mandate as the lead federal authority for oceans and         the Stakeholder Advisory Council, completed a final draft Plan
                 provide the national context for the Initiative. The principles and ap-      that was released again for broader stakeholder and government
                 proaches of the Initiative are rooted in developing international ocean      discussion. In November 2006, the Stakeholder Advisory Council
                 governance processes and Canada’s ocean-related international legal          assembled a final set of amendments to the Plan and provided
                 commitments. DFO’s national Integrated Management Policy and Op-             its endorsement of the document. In December 2006, the senior
                 erational Framework provides further guidance on the development             intergovernmental Regional Committee on Ocean Management
                 of integrated management plans and processes under the Oceans Act.           similarly provided its endorsement of the Plan. In February 2007,
                 Of particular importance is the commitment to establish Large Ocean          the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans received letters from both
                 Management Areas (LOMAs) for all of Canada’s marine regions.                 groups endorsing the Plan and recommending that it be given
                                                                                              status as an Integrated Management Plan under Section 31 of the
                 The ESSIM planning process considers the ecosystem and all of its us-        Oceans Act. The Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Ocean Manage-
                 ers comprehensively. The Initiative brings regulatory authorities from all   ment Plan is the product of an extensive collaborative and inclu-
                 levels of government together with a wide array of ocean stakeholders        sive planning process. It has been shaped and accepted by stake-
                 to work collaboratively. This allows for a more coordinated, comprehen-      holders, supported and endorsed by government authorities, and
                 sive and inclusive management approach and helps to prevent conflict          formally recognized as Canada’s first Integrated Ocean Manage-
                 among different ocean users and between humans and the environ-               ment Plan under the Oceans Act.
                 ment. The primary aim of the Initiative is to develop and implement
                 an Integrated Ocean Management Plan that will guide the sustainable          Modified from DFO Canada’s Website,
                 use, conservation, and management of this large marine region.     

                20   Visions for a SEA CHANGE – Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
Box 4.
     1. HEALTHY ECOSYSTEMS                                     2. SUSTAINABLE HUMAN USE                                                      Categories
                                                                                                                                             of Goals and
     A. Biodiversity                                           A. Social and Cultural Well-being                                             Objectives
      •   community diversity                                   • sustainable communities
      •   incidental mortality                                  • sustainable ocean/community relationships
      •   species at risk                                       • safe, healthy and secure oceans
      •   invasive species
      •   genetic integrity                                    B. Economic Well-being
                                                                • sustainable wealth generation from renewable ocean resources, non-
     B. Productivity                                               renewable ocean resources, ocean infrastructure, and ocean-related
      • primary and secondary productivity                         activities
      • tropic structure
      • population productivity                                3. COLLABORATIVE GOVERNANCE AND INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT

     C. Marine Environmental Quality                           A. Integrated Management
      •   physical and chemical characteristics                 •   building collaborative structures and processes
      •   habitat                                               •   appropriate legislation, policies, plans and programs
      •   noise                                                 •   fulfillment of legal obligations and commitments
      •   wastes and debris                                     •   compliance and accountability of ocean users and regulators
      •   overall atmospheric pollution                         •   stewardship and best practices
                                                                •   reduction of multi-sectoral resource use conflicts

                                                               B. Information and Knowledge
                                                                • natural and social science research being responsive to knowledge
                                                                • effective information management and communication
                                                                • timely monitoring and reporting

Adapted from Canada’s ESSIM Project, 2006

                            Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning   –   Visions for a SEA CHANGE        21
Isn’t Ecosystem-based, Sea Use Management the Same as
While MPAs can be managed toward a range of goals, from strict nature
                                                                              Integrated Coastal Zone Management?
protection (IUCN Category I) to sustainable, multiple use (IUCN Cat-
egory VI), their principal goal will be nature conservation and protection.   Yes and no. Both involve a strategic approach; both are concerned
Ecosystem-based sea use management, including marine spatial planning,        with the integration of different uses and activities—both aim to
tries to integrate multiple objectives across sectors, including MPAs.        avoid conflict. However, the definition of the boundaries of coastal
                                                                              management has been limited in scope traditionally. In most places
Isn’t Ecosystem-based, Sea Use Management the Same as an                      of the world, coastal management has focused on a narrow strip of
Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management?                                   coastline, typically within a kilometer or two from the shore and oc-
                                                                              casionally focusing on a water body such as an estuary. Rarely have
No. The goal of ecosystem-based management is to conserve the struc-          the inland boundaries of coastal management included coastal wa-
ture, diversity and functioning of ecosystems through management ac-          tersheds or catchments areas, although that is changing in some
tions that focus on the biophysical components of ecosystems.                 places due to concerns about nonpoint source runoff, e.g., pollu-
                                                                              tion from agriculture. Even more rarely does coastal management
Fisheries management aims to meet the goals of satisfying societal and        extend into the territorial sea and/or beyond to the exclusive eco-
human needs for food and economic benefits through management                  nomic zone.
actions that focus on the fishing activity and the target resource. The pur-
pose of an ecosystem approach to fisheries is to plan, develop, and man-       Ecosystem-based, sea use management focuses on marine places in
age fisheries in a manner that addresses the multiple needs and desires        which the boundaries are ecologically meaningful and ensures integra-
of societies, without jeopardizing the options for future generations to      tion with coastal and inland areas. Marine spatial planning is a critical
benefit from the full range of goods and services provided by the marine       element of sea use management.
ecosystem (FAO 2003).

22   Visions for a SEA CHANGE – Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
3 Ecosystem-based Sea Use Management and
                                      MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING

       Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning   –   Visions for a SEA CHANGE   23
What is Marine Spatial Planning?
                                                                             • Guidelines, e.g., best environmental practices/codes of practice or
Marine spatial planning (MSP) is a process for regulating, managing and        conduct;
protecting the marine environment that addresses the multiple, cumu-         • Surveillance and enforcement sanctions (e.g., fines, cancellation of
lative and potentially conflicting uses of the sea (Defra, 2005). MSP in        permits);
its broadest sense is about analyzing and allocating parts of the three-     • Technical assistance; and
dimensional marine space to specific uses, to achieve ecological, eco-        • Education and outreach.
nomic, and social objectives that are usually specified through the po-
litical process. MSP is place–or area-based and can provide a practical      What Can Marine Spatial Planning Do? And What Can’t It Do?
approach to long-term ecosystem-based management. MSP should
be comprehensive and adaptive, and resolve conflicts among multiple           Marine spatial planning can be used to analyze and assess the need for
uses and the ecosystem.                                                      ocean space by current and future human activities. It can be used to
                                                                             assess the cumulative impacts in space and time of current and future
The overall aim of MSP is to create and establish a more rational organi-    economic developments on ecological processes in ocean areas and
zation of the use of marine space and the interactions between its uses,     their resources. It can be used to identify compatibilities and conflicts
to balance demands for development with the need to protect the en-          among uses and between uses and the environment. It can be used
vironment, and to achieve social and economic objectives in an open          to allocate space to different uses and therefore control the location of
and planned way. A comprehensive plan, developed in consultation and         specific human activities in time and space.
agreement with relevant stakeholders, should provide a firm basis for ra-
tional and consistent decisions on permit applications, and allow users of   However, it cannot be used to control the performance or behavior
the sea to make future decisions with greater knowledge and confidence        of human activities in terms of the production of goods and services.
(Defra, 2005).                                                               Other tools or management measures mentioned in the previous sec-
                                                                             tion must be used in conjunction with marine spatial planning.
Marine spatial planning is only one of the tools with which to establish
ecosystem-based, sea-use management. Other tools include:                    Does Marine Spatial Planning Always Need Zoning?

• Sea use management plans, including comprehensive marine spa-              There are a number of elements to marine spatial planning without pro-
  tial plans, as one element;                                                ceeding as far as a comprehensive zoning plan and regulations. It is also
• Zoning maps and regulations;                                               clear that there is no prerequisite for marine spatial planning to proceed as
• Site plans;                                                                far as prescribed spatial allocations. It might instead simply indicate prefer-
• Infrastructure investments/capital facilities siting;                      ences or priorities (such ‘indicative planning’ would not prevent users from
• Special management areas;                                                  applying to use other areas including an area indicatively allocated to an-
• Regulations;                                                               other use. Equally, zoning may not need to apply across the whole plan
• Standards (ambient water quality standards, sediment quality stan-         area in the sense that specific ‘zones’ might be identified, e.g., a conserva-
  dards);                                                                    tion priority zone, among one general ‘zone’ that covers most of the area.
• Permits (construction permits, pollution discharge permits, operat-
  ing permits);                                                              Don’t We Already Have “Zones” in the Ocean?
• Economic instruments (e.g., development charges, other user charg-
  es, license or permit fees, grants, subsidies, taxes, depletion allow-     Yes, at a global scale the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
  ances, tax credits);                                                       (UNCLOS), which went into effect in 1994, provides an over-arching

24   Visions for a SEA CHANGE – Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning
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