WHAT DOCTOR? WHY AI AND ROBOTICS WILL DEFINE NEW HEALTH - CLICK TO LAUNCH - PWC

 
WHAT DOCTOR? WHY AI AND ROBOTICS WILL DEFINE NEW HEALTH - CLICK TO LAUNCH - PWC
What doctor?               Click to launch

Why AI and robotics will
define New Health
WHAT DOCTOR? WHY AI AND ROBOTICS WILL DEFINE NEW HEALTH - CLICK TO LAUNCH - PWC
What doctor?
                            Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                              Introduction       Transforming     Investment            Findings           Conclusion       References             About             Contacts

Introduction
Would you allow a medical robot with artificial

                                                           New Health
intelligence (AI) to examine, diagnose and                                                                                The answers to these two questions fundamentally
prescribe a treatment plan for you or a member                                                                            impact clinicians and caregivers throughout healthcare.
of your family with cancer? Would you accept a                                                                            The answers will ultimately decide how we implement
robot as your primary surgeon? And if you were to          We are entering a new era of                                   the use of AI and robots in developing our healthcare
do so, what would the human clinician do?                                                                                 systems across the globe. We will specifically address
                                                           health – New Health
                                                                                                                          these two questions in the next phase of our research
AI and robots have long been a theme in fiction. From      Health matters. It matters to each of us as individuals and    initiative, but it is important to keep them in mind as we
Isaac Asimov’s ‘I, Robot’ in 1950 to Baymax, the care      to society as a whole. It lies at the heart of our economic,   explore existing perceptions and attitudes towards AI and
robot in ‘Big Hero 6’, we’ve long been fascinated with     political, social and environmental prosperity and is one      robotics in this report.
the possibilities for machines that can understand,        of the largest industries in the world.
reason and learn – and help us to make better use          Modern health systems can treat and cure more diseases
of information.                                            than ever before. New technology is bringing innovation
                                                           to old treatments. Yet significant quality, access and
Just imagine that you had a hand-held scanner the
                                                           cost issues remain and our health systems are becoming
size of your smartphone that could ‘sense, compute
                                                           increasingly unsustainable.
and record’ your daily health status just like the
Star Trek medical ‘tricorder’. What if it could make       What doctor?
recommendations so that you could achieve and
                                                           At the heart of this report is the emergence and increasing
maintain your ‘optimal’ physical or mental condition
                                                           use of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics within
or detect anomalies early?
                                                           and throughout this New Health ecosystem. We chose
Robots like Baymax and tricorder scanners are not          ‘What doctor’ as our title for the report because during
science fiction. AI and robots that support, diagnose      our research – and the response to that research – it has
and treat people are already in homes, workplaces          become increasingly clear that policy makers, payers,
and clinical environments all over the world. And          providers, educators and the public need to consider:
how we embrace AI and robotics to complement and           • What is the role of the AI/ robot doctor?
enhance current healthcare services over the next
ten years will define our ability to deliver a more        • What is the role of the human doctor?
responsive health service with improved health
outcomes, while at the same time enabling people to
take more control over their day-to-day health needs.                                                                                                        Continued
WHAT DOCTOR? WHY AI AND ROBOTICS WILL DEFINE NEW HEALTH - CLICK TO LAUNCH - PWC
What doctor?
                              Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                Introduction         Transforming            Investment                     Findings                    Conclusion              References                      About                       Contacts

Introduction
Five distinct trends are converging, which mean AI and      3. Information technology development in healthcare has been                                        4. Technology has, of course, had an impact far
robotics will come to define New Health:                    rapidly moving from products to services to solutions (Frost &                                      beyond the developments in healthcare. The
                                                            Sullivan, 2016). Past decades have focused on the innovation                                        explosion of technology – digitally enabled, wireless
1. First and foremost is the value challenge that
                                                            provided by medical products delivering historic and evidence-                                      connectivity across increasingly mobile devices – has
all countries across the globe are facing – there is
                                                            based care. The present decade is one of medical platforms                                          created an increasing democratisation of access for
escalating demand from long-term, chronic disease,
                                                            focused on real-time, outcome-based care. The next decade is                                        healthcare. Some of the most powerful AI tools are
rising costs, often with an ageing population and
                                                            moving towards medical solutions – using AI, robotics, and virtual                                  already embedded in Android or iOS. Harnessing this
limited resources (money, workforce specialists,
                                                            and augmented reality – to deliver intelligent solutions for both                                   technology is providing consumers with the data and
etc). Yet we are continuing to invest in facilities and
                                                            evidence- and outcome-based health and focusing on collaborative,                                   information they need to proactively manage their own
equipment that were built to solve a completely
                                                            preventative care. This confluence of technology-based products,                                    health and wellness, and to make better, more informed
different set of healthcare needs and are not designed
                                                            platforms and solutions is leading to a previously unimagined                                       decisions in partnership with their healthcare providers.
to cope with this demand. A hospital-centric system
                                                            precision medicine, down to the familial and individual level, which
deals very well with serious health episodes that                                                                                                               5. Finally, the willingness of the general public to
                                                            one day may even be able to predict and thereby prevent disease.
require days or weeks of acute care for very ill people.                                                                                                        be more active participants in their own health and
But it was never intended to deal with large numbers                                                                                                            wellness has now reached critical mass. As we reported
of people whose conditions are chronic, complex and            Last                              Current                            Next                        in our 2016 survey Care Anywhere, the explosion of
require treatment for the longer term.                         decade                            decade                             decade                      technology and the increasing ubiquity of the Internet
                                                                                                                                                                of Things (IoT) is bringing about breakthroughs that
2. The past decade has seen an explosion in the             Medical Products                  Medical Platforms                  Medical Solutions              are erasing healthcare boundaries and enabling care
amount of health data that is now available to us.          Equipment, Hardware, Wearable, Big Data,                             Robotics, AI,                  anywhere and everywhere3. And this willingness is
For example, for a skin specialist there are 11,000 new     Consumables          Health Analytics                                Augmented Reality              extending into the areas of AI and robotics, which we
dermatology articles published every year. In 2013, it
                                                                                                                                                                explore in this report.
was estimated that the volume of health-related data
had reached over four zettabytes – that’s four trillion
gigabytes (1021) – and there are those who project this
exponential growth rate to reach ten times that by 2020,
                                                            Differentiation is solely         Differentiation by                 Differentiation via
and, even beyond, to yottabyte (1024) proportions1.         through product                   providing services to key          intelligent solutions for
Furthermore, fully 80% of this extraordinary amount of      innovation. Focused on            stakeholders. Focused              evidence/outcome based          The Medical Futurist (2016). http://medicalfuturist.com/
                                                                                                                                                                1

                                                                                                                                                                 artificial-intelligence-will-redesign-healthcare/
data is unstructured2, meaning that it’s not contained in   historic and evidence             on real time outcome               health. Focused on
                                                            based-care.                       based-care.                        preventive care.                Healthcare Data Institute (2015). http://healthcaredatainstitute.
                                                                                                                                                                2

a database or some other type of data structure. Staying                                                                                                         com/2015/02/18/big-unstructured-datas-contribution-to-healthcare/
current with and being able to access this data is simply                                                                                                        PwC (2016). Care Anywhere: Moving health and wellness out of the hospital
                                                                                                                                                                3

                                                                                                                                                                 and into the hands of the consumer. https://www.pwc.com/m1/en/publications/
beyond the scope of any human individual, no matter         Source: Frost & Sullivan, ‘Transforming healthcare through artificial intelligence systems’, 2016    documents/care-anywhere.pdf
how capable or intelligent.
WHAT DOCTOR? WHY AI AND ROBOTICS WILL DEFINE NEW HEALTH - CLICK TO LAUNCH - PWC
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment            Findings           Conclusion         References                          About                    Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early detection     Diagnosis          Decision-making            Treatment               End of life care                 Research                Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         Keeping well
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          One of AI’s biggest potential benefits is to help people
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             stay healthy so they don’t need a doctor, or at least              Artificial Intelligence and Consumer
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    not as often. The use of AI and the Internet of Medical            Apps for keeping well
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                Things (IoMT) in consumer health applications
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is               is already helping people to manage their own
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri                  healthcare and to keep themselves well through
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,                 healthier living. For example, the Smart belt – welt
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by                        has a built-in mechanism that alerts the person
voice alone5.                                                            when they overeat. It relies on a magnetic sensor to
                                                                         track waste size and tension to determine when the
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what
                                                                         users may have over eaten and alerts the wearer.
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower
                                                                         Further, IBM has announced three new consumer-
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare
                                                                         focused partnerships, one of which is with Under
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are
                                                                         Armour who will use Watson to power a ‘cognitive
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.
                                                                         coaching system’.

                                                                         These applications and others (see Box-Out) all
                   Training              Keeping                         encourage healthier behaviour in individuals and
                                          Well
                                                                         help with the proactive management of a healthy
                                                      Early              lifestyle. It puts consumers in control of health and
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            well-being. Additionally, AI increases the ability for
                              Robotics                                   healthcare professionals to better understand the
                                                                         day-to-day patterns and needs of the people they
       End of
                                                    Diagnosis            care for, and with that understanding they are able
      Life Care
                                                                         to provide better feedback, guidance and support
                  Treatment
                                         Decision                        for staying healthy – although, as we have noted,
                                         Making
                                                                         the sheer volume of data is increasingly difficult for
                                                                         humans to deal with, or make sense of.
Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range                                                                          4
                                                                                                                                           The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                                                                                   https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa

bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these
                                                                                                                                     5
                                                                                                                                           The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
                                                                                                                                           http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as                                                                              people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
WHAT DOCTOR? WHY AI AND ROBOTICS WILL DEFINE NEW HEALTH - CLICK TO LAUNCH - PWC
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment             Findings            Conclusion            References                          About                    Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early detection     Diagnosis           Decision-making             Treatment                  End of life care                 Research                Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         Keeping well
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          One of AI’s biggest potential benefits is to help people
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             stay healthy so they don’t need a doctor, or at least                       Artificial Intelligence and Consumer
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    not as often. The use of AI and the Internet of Medical                     Apps for keeping well
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                Things (IoMT) in consumer health applications
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is               is already helping people to manage their own
                                                                               Smart Performance Apparel offers real-time biometrics, personalised programming, and customised
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri                  healthcare and to keep themselves well through
                                                                               reporting to help athletes reach their goals faster.
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,                 healthier living. For example, the Smart belt – welt
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by                        has aSamsung
                                                                                 built-in mechanism
                                                                                              Electronics  thatoffers
                                                                                                                 alertsconsumers
                                                                                                                         the person devices such as smartwatches and activity trackers, as well
voice alone5.                                                            whenastheytheirovereat.   It relies on a magnetic
                                                                                          Tizen open-source          operatingsensor
                                                                                                                                  system,to which gives users quick access to their mobile devices
                                                                         trackandwaste
                                                                                     helpsize  andtrack
                                                                                            them    tension    to determine
                                                                                                           their  fitness. when the
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what
                                                                         users may have over eaten and alerts the wearer.
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower
                                                                               Lumo
                                                                         Further,   IBM Lift
                                                                                           hasis announced      three new consumer-
                                                                                                 a posture monitoring         device that alerts the person when their posture changes, thus
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare
                                                                               providing the feedback necessary to Under
                                                                         focused    partnerships,     one   of which    is with  ensure correct posture whether sitting or standing.
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are
                                                                         Armour who will use Watson to power a ‘cognitive
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.                               Under     Armour will use IBM’s Watson to power a ‘cognitive coaching system’ in an application that
                                                                         coaching     system’.
                                                                               provides customised advice for sleep, fitness, activity and nutrition. The insights originate from three
                                                                         These    applications
                                                                               sources:           and others
                                                                                           crunching             (see Box-Out)
                                                                                                          data from                 all
                                                                                                                        Under Armour’s      200 million-member Connected Fitness community,
                   Training              Keeping                         encourage      healthier   behaviour     in  individuals    and
                                                                               external academic research studies and institutions, and IBM Watson similarity analytics. Under
                                          Well
                                                                         helpArmour
                                                                                with thewill
                                                                                           proactive
                                                                                               be addingmanagement         of a healthy
                                                                                                              new capabilities      including behavioural and performance management, food
                                                      Early              lifestyle.
                                                                               intakeIt puts  consumers
                                                                                        tracking             in control
                                                                                                    and overall            of health
                                                                                                                    nutrition         and
                                                                                                                                management     as well as the effects of weather and environment
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            well-being.     Additionally,
                                                                               on training.               AI  increases    the  ability for
                              Robotics                                   healthcare professionals to better understand the
                                                                               Pathway
                                                                         day-to-day          Genomics
                                                                                        patterns            is developing
                                                                                                    and needs     of the peoplean application
                                                                                                                                   they        that will provide customised health advice based on
       End of
                                                    Diagnosis                  a  user’s  specific    genetic    makeup.
                                                                         care for, and with that understanding they are able
      Life Care
                                                                         to provide better feedback, guidance and support
                  Treatment
                                         Decision                        for staying healthy – although, as we have noted,
                                         Making
                                                                         the sheer volume of data is increasingly difficult for
                                                                         humans to deal with, or make sense of.
Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range                                                                               4
                                                                                                                                                The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                                                                                        https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa

bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these
                                                                                                                                          5
                                                                                                                                                The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
                                                                                                                                                http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as                                                                                   people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
WHAT DOCTOR? WHY AI AND ROBOTICS WILL DEFINE NEW HEALTH - CLICK TO LAUNCH - PWC
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment            Findings           Conclusion         References                           About                    Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early Detection     Diagnosis          Decision-making            Treatment                End of life care                 Research                Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         Early detection
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          AI is already being used to detect diseases, such as
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             cancer, more accurately and in their early stages. For              AI and Wearables for
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    example, according to the American Cancer Society,                  early detection
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                12.1 million mammograms are performed annually in
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is               the US, but a high proportion of these mammograms
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri                  yield false results, leading to 1 in 2 healthy women
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,                 being told they have cancer. The use of AI is enabling
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by                        review and translation of mammograms 30 times
voice alone5.                                                            faster with 99% accuracy, reducing the need
                                                                         for unnecessary biopsies as well as reducing the
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what
                                                                         uncertainty and stress of a misdiagnosis6.
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare               The proliferation of consumer wearables and other
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are            medical devices combined with AI is also being
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.                         applied to oversee early-stage heart disease, enabling
                                                                         doctors and other caregivers to better monitor and
                                                                         detect potentially life-threatening episodes at earlier,
                   Training              Keeping                         more treatable stages.
                                          Well

                                                      Early
                                                                         On the horizon, Microsoft is developing computers
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            programmed for use at a molecular level to start
                                                                         fighting cancerous cells as soon as they are detected.
                              Robotics                                   They are also doing research for using AI to interpret
       End of
                                                    Diagnosis
                                                                         online search engine behaviour, for example, at the
      Life Care
                                                                         point where someone might research symptoms
                                         Decision                        online long before they approach their physician.
                  Treatment              Making
                                                                                                                                     4
                                                                                                                                           The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range                                                                                https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa

of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                                                                             5
                                                                                                                                           The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
                                                                                                                                           http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these                                                                               people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as                                                                        6
                                                                                                                                           Wired (2016). http://www.wired.co.uk/article/cancer-risk-ai-mammograms
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
WHAT DOCTOR? WHY AI AND ROBOTICS WILL DEFINE NEW HEALTH - CLICK TO LAUNCH - PWC
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment            Findings           Conclusion         References                           About                    Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early Detection     Diagnosis          Decision-making            Treatment                End of life care                 Research                Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         Early detection
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          AI is already being used to detect diseases, such as
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             cancer, more accurately and in their early stages. For          AI and Wearables for
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    example, according to the American Cancer Society,              early detection
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                12.1 million mammograms are performed annually in
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is               the US, but a high proportion    of these mammograms
                                                                              Cyrcadia’s iTBraTM is a wearable vest being used to screen for the detection of breast cancer at
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri                  yield false results, leading to 1 in 2 healthy women
                                                                              earlier stages.
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,                 being told they have cancer. The use of AI is enabling
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by                        review   and translation of mammograms
                                                                              CardioDiagnostics      has developed30    times that is able to remotely monitor its wearer for heart
                                                                                                                      a device
voice alone5.                                                            faster  with 99% accuracy,
                                                                              irregularities          reducing
                                                                                             and is used        the need
                                                                                                          to improve   cardiac monitoring and rhythm management.
                                                                         for unnecessary biopsies as well as reducing the
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what
                                                                         uncertainty and stress of a misdiagnosis6.
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare               The proliferation of consumer wearables and other
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are            medical devices combined with AI is also being
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.                         applied to oversee early-stage heart disease, enabling
                                                                         doctors and other caregivers to better monitor and
                                                                         detect potentially life-threatening episodes at earlier,
                   Training              Keeping                         more treatable stages.
                                          Well

                                                      Early
                                                                         On the horizon, Microsoft is developing computers
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            programmed for use at a molecular level to start
                                                                         fighting cancerous cells as soon as they are detected.
                              Robotics                                   They are also doing research for using AI to interpret
       End of
                                                    Diagnosis
                                                                         online search engine behaviour, for example, at the
      Life Care
                                                                         point where someone might research symptoms
                                         Decision                        online long before they approach their physician.
                  Treatment              Making
                                                                                                                                     4
                                                                                                                                           The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range                                                                                https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa

of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                                                                             5
                                                                                                                                           The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
                                                                                                                                           http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these                                                                               people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as                                                                        6
                                                                                                                                           Wired (2016). http://www.wired.co.uk/article/cancer-risk-ai-mammograms
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment           Findings           Conclusion         References                           About                    Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early Detection     Diagnosis          Decision-making           Treatment                End of life care                 Research                Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         Diagnosis
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          It’s estimated that 80% of health data is invisible to
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             current systems because it’s unstructured7. IBM’s                  Google’s DeepMind
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    Watson for Health uses cognitive technology to
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                help healthcare organisations unlock vast amounts
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is               of health data and power diagnosis. Watson can
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri                  review and store far more medical information –
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,                 every medical journal, symptom, and case study
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by                        of treatment and response around the world –
voice alone5.                                                            exponentially faster than any human. And it doesn’t
                                                                         just store data, it’s capable of finding meaning in
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what
                                                                         it. Unlike humans, its decisions are all evidence-
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower
                                                                         based and free of cognitive biases or overconfidence,
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare
                                                                         enabling rapid analysis and vastly reducing – even
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are
                                                                         eliminating – misdiagnosis.
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.
                                                                         Google’s DeepMind Health is working in
                                                                         partnership with clinicians, researchers and patients
                   Training              Keeping                         to solve real-world healthcare problems. The
                                          Well
                                                                         technology combines machine learning and systems
                                                      Early              neuroscience to build powerful general-purpose
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            learning algorithms into neural networks that mimic
                              Robotics                                   the human brain.

       End of
      Life Care                                     Diagnosis

                                         Decision
                  Treatment              Making
                                                                                                                                    4
                                                                                                                                          The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
                                                                                                                                          https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa
Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range                                                                         5
                                                                                                                                          The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                                                                                  http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
                                                                                                                                          people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these                                                                        7
                                                                                                                                          Healthcare Data Institute (2015). http://healthcaredatainstitute.
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as                                                                             com/2015/02/18/big-unstructured-datas-contribution-to-healthcare/
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment          Findings          Conclusion          References                           About                    Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early Detection     Diagnosis         Decision-making          Treatment                 End of life care                 Research                Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         Diagnosis
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          It’s estimated that 80% of health data is invisible to
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             current systems because it’s unstructured7. IBM’s               Google’s Deepmind
                                                                                                                                                     DeepMind
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    Watson for Health uses cognitive technology to
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                help healthcare organisations unlock vast amounts
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is               of health data and power diagnosis. Watson can
                                                                               In 2016, Google’s DeepMind stunned the Go-playing world by beating 18-time world champion Lee
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri                  review and store far more medical information –
                                                                               Se-dol, one of the highest ranked players in the world. It was the first time a computer programme
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,                 every medical journal, symptom, and case study
                                                                               took on a professional player of this ancient Chinese board game, which has long been considered
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by                        of treatment and response around the world –
                                                                               impossible for computers to play at the international professional level. It’s much more difficult than
voice alone5.                                                            exponentially faster than any human. And it doesn’t
                                                                               other games like chess, even though the rules are relatively simple, because of the almost infinite
                                                                         just store data, it’s capable of finding meaning in
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what                         number of possibilities and the high levels of intuition required of a world-class player. Deepmind’s
                                                                         it. Unlike humans, its decisions are all evidence-
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower                    programme displayed game-winning creativity, in some cases finding moves that challenged millennia
                                                                         based and free of cognitive biases or overconfidence,
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare                     of Go wisdom.
                                                                         enabling rapid analysis and vastly reducing – even
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are
                                                                         eliminating  – misdiagnosis.
                                                                               DeepMind    Health began working with hospitals in the UK in 2016, searching for early signs of disease
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.
                                                                              that lead to blindness and cancer, as well as developing new clinical mobile apps linked to electronic
                                                                         Google’s DeepMind Health is working in
                                                                              patient records.
                                                                         partnership with clinicians, researchers and patients
                   Training              Keeping                         to solve real-world healthcare problems. The
                                          Well
                                                                         technology combines machine learning and systems
                                                      Early              neuroscience to build powerful general-purpose
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            learning algorithms into neural networks that mimic
                              Robotics                                   the human brain.

       End of
      Life Care                                     Diagnosis

                                         Decision
                  Treatment              Making
                                                                                                                                   4
                                                                                                                                         The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
                                                                                                                                         https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa
Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range                                                                        5
                                                                                                                                         The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                                                                                 http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
                                                                                                                                         people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these                                                                       7
                                                                                                                                         Healthcare Data Institute (2015). http://healthcaredatainstitute.
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as                                                                            com/2015/02/18/big-unstructured-datas-contribution-to-healthcare/
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment            Findings           Conclusion         References                           About                    Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early Detection     Diagnosis          Decision-making            Treatment                End of life care                 Research                Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         Decision-making
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          Improving care requires the alignment of broad base
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             data analysis with appropriate and timely decisions,                AI and analytics platforms
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    and predictive analytics can support clinical decision-             for decision-making
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                making and actions as well as prioritise tasks.
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri                  Using the system dynamics driven pattern
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,                 recognition to identify patients at risk of developing
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by                        a condition – or seeing it deteriorate due to lifestyle,
voice alone5.                                                            environmental, genomic, or other factors – is another
                                                                         area where AI is beginning to take hold in healthcare.
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what                   For example, in an extension and application of
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower              AI, PwC’s Bodylogical™ captures learnings in
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare               mechanistic modeling to digitally represent the
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are            physiology of the human body. This enables true-
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.                         life simulations to predict the likely progression
                                                                         of chronic diseases in the future based on today’s
                                                                         actions and interventions. These simulations help
                   Training              Keeping                         pharmaceutical companies, providers, payers,
                                          Well
                                                                         employers, researchers and consumers better
                                                      Early              understand how daily life choices and therapeutics
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            impact individual patients or population health
                              Robotics                                   outcomes and associated costs.

       End of
      Life Care                                     Diagnosis

                                         Decision
                  Treatment              Making

Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range                                                                          4
                                                                                                                                           The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                                                                                   https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa
                                                                                                                                     5
                                                                                                                                           The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these                                                                               http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as                                                                              people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment            Findings           Conclusion           References                           About                    Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early Detection     Diagnosis          Decision-making            Treatment                  End of life care                 Research                Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         Decision-making
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          Improving care requires the alignment of broad base
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             data analysis with appropriate and timely decisions,                  AI and analytics platforms
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    and predictive analytics can support clinical decision-               for decision-making
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                making and actions as well as prioritise tasks.
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is
                                                                         Using Quest   Diagnostics’
                                                                                 the system  dynamicsQuanum       platform is an integrated suite of healthcare information technology
                                                                                                        driven pattern
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri
                                                                               and predictive
                                                                         recognition            analytics
                                                                                       to identify        tools
                                                                                                   patients      that
                                                                                                            at risk ofanalyses
                                                                                                                       developingpatient test data together with their medical data to help
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,
                                                                               primary–care
                                                                         a condition          physicians
                                                                                         or seeing        identifydue
                                                                                                   it deteriorate   patients  with early onset memory loss and dementia.
                                                                                                                       to lifestyle,
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by
voice alone5.                                                            environmental, genomic, or other factors – is another
                                                                               VitreosHealth has developed a predictive analytics platform that identifies people whose health is
                                                                         area where AI is beginning to take hold in healthcare.
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what                         most likely to deteriorate and implements change protocols to prevent catastrophic health events.
                                                                         For example, in an extension and application of
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower              AI, PwC’s Bodylogical™ captures learnings in
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare               mechanistic modeling to digitally represent the
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are            physiology of the human body. This enables true-
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.                         life simulations to predict the likely progression
                                                                         of chronic diseases in the future based on today’s
                                                                         actions and interventions. These simulations help
                   Training              Keeping                         pharmaceutical companies, providers, payers,
                                          Well
                                                                         employers, researchers and consumers better
                                                      Early              understand how daily life choices and therapeutics
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            impact individual patients or population health
                              Robotics                                   outcomes and associated costs.

       End of
      Life Care                                     Diagnosis

                                         Decision
                  Treatment              Making

Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range                                                                            4
                                                                                                                                             The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                                                                                     https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa
                                                                                                                                       5
                                                                                                                                             The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these                                                                                 http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as                                                                                people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment            Findings          Conclusion         References                           About                    Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early Detection     Diagnosis          Decision-making           Treatment                End of life care                 Research                Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         Treatment
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          Beyond scanning health records to help providers
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             identify chronically ill individuals who may be at                 Treatment
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    risk of an adverse episode, AI can help clinicians
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                take a more comprehensive approach for disease
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is               management, better coordinate care plans and
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri                  help patients to better manage and comply with
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,                 their long-term treatment programmes. AiCure
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by                        has built an application to monitor patients with
voice alone5.                                                            long-term conditions and help them adhere to
                                                                         medication intake. The application uses a visual
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what
                                                                         recognition system to identify the patient’s face, the
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower
                                                                         medication they’re taking, and confirm ingestion.
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare
                                                                         The data is then sent back to the care provider or to a
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are
                                                                         pharmaceutical company conducting a clinical trial.
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.
                                                                         Robots have been used in medicine for more than
                                                                         30 years. From the first programmable universal
                   Training              Keeping                         machine for assembly (PUMA), used in urology
                                          Well
                                                                         surgery in the 1980s, to the da Vinci robot, the most
                                                      Early              widely used robotic system in clinical use today,
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            robots have developed to perform a wide range
                              Robotics                                   of tasks and functions. They range from simple
                                                                         laboratory robots to highly complex surgical robots
       End of
                                                    Diagnosis            that can either aid a human surgeon or execute
      Life Care
                                                                         operations by themselves. In addition to surgery,
                  Treatment
                                         Decision                        they’re used in hospitals and labs for repetitive
                                         Making
                                                                         tasks, in rehabilitation, physical therapy and in
                                                                         support of those with long-term conditions. RoBear
Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range              is a nursing-care robot that is able to lift and move      4
                                                                                                                                          The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                                                                                  https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa
                                                                         patients in and out of bed into a wheelchair, help         5
                                                                                                                                          The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these             those who need assistance to stand, and even turn                http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as            patients in bed to prevent bedsores.                             people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
What doctor?
                                  Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                     Introduction           Transforming               Investment                Findings               Conclusion              References                  About                  Contacts

                                  Keeping well               Early Detection              Diagnosis             Decision-making                 Treatment              End of life care             Research              Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                                      Treatment
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the                 Beyond scanning health records to help providers
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in                    identify chronically ill individuals who may be at                         Treatment
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                           risk of an adverse episode, AI can help clinicians
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                       take a more comprehensive approach for disease
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is                      management, better coordinate care plans and
     AI
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri                                                    Robotics
                                                                                help patients to better manage      and comply with
processes    two billion
     Innovaccer’s        AI natural-language  requests a week
                            Assisted Care Coordination
                                                                 4
                                                                  ,
                                                               Platform         theirpersistent
                                                                         addresses    long-term treatment      programmes.
                                                                                                           KASPAR                AiCure humanoid robot designed to help teachers and parents
                                                                                                                        is a child-sized
and 20%     of requests    on Android  phones   are made    by                  has
     issues in care and connectivity, and assures adherence to care plans by trackingbuilt an  application  to monitor    patients
                                                                                                           support children with      with
                                                                                                                                        autism.
       alone . and staying updated on post-acute patient needs. long-term conditions and help them adhere to
voicedeviations
              5

                                                                                medication intake. TheGiraffapplication    uses a communication
                                                                                                                   is a mobile     visual              robot that facilitates a chronically ill patients’
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what
     Sentrian is a remote patient intelligence service provider that delivers   recognition   system to identify
                                                                                        integrated         contactthewithpatient’s   face, the
                                                                                                                            the outside     world. It is remote-controlled, on wheels, and has a
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower
     remote patient monitoring and analytics to health plan members with complexmedication    they’re taking,  and   confirm
                                                                                                           camera and monitor.  ingestion.
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare
     pulmonary diseases.                                                        The data is then sent back to the care provider or to a
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are                                              Bestic   is a robotic-assisted
                                                                                pharmaceutical company        conducting      a clinical trial. dining appliance for people who are unable to move
increasingly     a part  of our healthcare ecosystem.
     Royal Philips delivers remote care options to proactively help patients at home.                      their arms or hands.
     The services are powered by data analytics and connected sensors           Robots   have been used in medicine for more than
                                                                                      enabling
     24/7 monitoring and delivery of an ongoing stream of monitoring data to From
                                                                                30  years.        the firstToyota
                                                                                            a remote                 has created
                                                                                                            programmable              four robots that enable immobilized patients to walk or balance.
                                                                                                                                universal
     home-careTraining
                     team.                Keeping                               machine for assembly (PUMA), used in urology
                                                                                surgery in the 1980s, toXenex
                                                                                                            the da robots     disinfect   hospital facilities using UV light, destroying microorganisms
                                            Well
                                                                                                                    Vinci robot,    the most
     Google DeepMind is partnering with the University Early        College London
                                                                                widely  used robotic system in clinical use today, hospital acquired infections (HAIs).
                                                                                      Hospitals’           that can   be   the  cause    of
       Research
     radiotherapy             AI and
                        department.   DeepMind willDetection
                                                      test the use of AI and machine
                                                                                robots havelearning  to to perform a wide range
                                                                                              developed
                                                                                                           Aethon’s TUG robots automate the delivery and transportation of the immense
     reduce the time it takes to plan radiotherapy treatment for hard-to-treat             cancers   of They
                             Robotics                                           of tasks and   functions.        range from simple
                                                                                                           amount of materials – including food, laundry and prescriptions – that move
     the head and neck.                                                         laboratory robots to highly complex surgical robots
                                                                                                           through a hospital every day, freeing staff to focus on patient care.
        End of
                                                     Diagnosis                  that can either aid a human surgeon or execute
     IBM’s Watson for Oncology gives treatment recommendationsoperations
       Life Care                                                                  based on by patients’
                                                                                                 themselves.   In addition    to surgery,
                                                                                                           Veebot    is a robot    that can draw blood faster and more safely than a human.
     medical records and is now being          used
                                          Decision
                                                     around    the  world, including  21
                                                                                they’re  hospitals
                                                                                         used  in hospitals  and  labs  for  repetitive
     across China  Treatment
                        and in Thailand and   India.
                                          Making
                                                                                tasks, in rehabilitation, physical therapy and in
                                                                                support of those with long-term conditions. RoBear
Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range                     is a nursing-care robot that is able to lift and move                    The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
                                                                                                                                                                4

of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                                                                                                 https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa
                                                                                patients in and out of bed into a wheelchair, help
                                                                                                                                                         The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
                                                                                                                                                                5
bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these                    those who need assistance to stand, and even turn                        http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as                   patients in bed to prevent bedsores.                                     people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment           Findings          Conclusion         References                           About                    Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early Detection     Diagnosis         Decision-making           Treatment                End of life care                 Research                Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         End of life care
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          We are living much longer than previous generations,
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             and as we approach the end of life, we are dying                  End of life care
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    in a different and slower way, from conditions like
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                dementia, heart failure and osteoporosis. It is also a
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is               phase of life that is often plagued by loneliness.
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,                 Robots have the potential to revolutionise end of
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by                        life care, helping people to remain independent
voice alone5.                                                            for longer, reducing the need for hospitalisation,
                                                                         caregivers and care homes by performing routine
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what                   tasks such as taking vital signs and prompting for
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower              medication. AI combined with the advancements
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare               in humanoid design are enabling robots to go even
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are            further and have ‘conversations’ and other social
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.                         interactions with the people that keep ageing minds
                                                                         sharp and solves problems of loneliness and isolation.
                                                                         Kompai robots talk, understand speech, remind
                   Training              Keeping                         people of meetings, keep track of shopping lists and
                                          Well
                                                                         play music. Developed to assist the elderly in their
                                                      Early              own homes, they are able to monitor for falls and
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            other health parameters, provide alerts, and connect
                              Robotics                                   via video-conference with healthcare providers as
                                                                         well as with friends and family.
       End of
      Life Care                                     Diagnosis

                                         Decision
                  Treatment              Making

Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range                                                                        4
                                                                                                                                         The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                                                                                 https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa
                                                                                                                                   5
                                                                                                                                         The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these                                                                             http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as                                                                            people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment            Findings           Conclusion           References                           About                    Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early Detection     Diagnosis          Decision-making            Treatment                  End of life care                 Research                Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         End of life care
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          We are living much longer than previous generations,
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             and as we approach the end of life, we are dying                     End of life care
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    in a different and slower way, from conditions like
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                dementia, heart failure and osteoporosis. It is also a
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is               phase of life that is often plagued by loneliness.
                                                                               Paro Therapeutic Robots are advanced interactive robots that enable the documented benefits of
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri
                                                                         Robotsanimal
                                                                                  havetherapy    to be to
                                                                                         the potential  administered
                                                                                                           revolutionisetoend
                                                                                                                           patients
                                                                                                                              of    in environments such as hospitals and extended care
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,
                                                                               facilities
                                                                         life care,       where
                                                                                     helping     live to
                                                                                              people  animals
                                                                                                         remainpresent   treatment or logistical difficulties. They’ve been found to reduce
                                                                                                                 independent
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by
                                                                               stress,  stimulate  interaction  and improve
                                                                         for longer, reducing the need for hospitalisation,    socialisation.
voice alone5.
                                                                         caregivers and care homes by performing routine
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what                        Robot Era is developing robots that move around on wheels but have a friendly humanoid face. The
                                                                         tasks such as taking vital signs and prompting for
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower                   robot’s sensors and cameras are used to gather and analyse real-time data which is then sent to
                                                                         medication. AI combined with the advancements
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare                    the cloud wirelessly where algorithms extrapolate such advanced information as whether someone
                                                                         in humanoid design are enabling robots to go even
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are                 is showing signs of dementia. They can also remind the elderly about daily tasks and important
                                                                         further and have ‘conversations’ and other social
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.                              information, and track conditions over time.
                                                                         interactions with the people that keep ageing minds
                                                                         sharp  and Robotics
                                                                              Zora   solves problems    of loneliness
                                                                                                 is building          and into
                                                                                                             AI software  isolation.
                                                                                                                               Zora Bots that have patient-facing roles in hospitals and
                                                                         Kompai    robots  talk,  understand   speech, remind
                                                                              are training humanoid robots to hold conversations with the elderly.
                   Training              Keeping                         people of meetings, keep track of shopping lists and
                                          Well
                                                                         play music. Developed to assist the elderly in their
                                                      Early              own homes, they are able to monitor for falls and
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            other health parameters, provide alerts, and connect
                              Robotics                                   via video-conference with healthcare providers as
                                                                         well as with friends and family.
       End of
      Life Care                                     Diagnosis

                                         Decision
                  Treatment              Making

Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range                                                                            4
                                                                                                                                             The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                                                                                     https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa
                                                                                                                                       5
                                                                                                                                             The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these                                                                                 http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as                                                                                people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment           Findings           Conclusion         References                           About                    Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early Detection     Diagnosis          Decision-making           Treatment                End of life care                 Research                Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         Research
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          Each and every one of us has most likely taken a           However, medical research is not just about finding
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             medication prescribed by our doctors for a symptom or      new drugs to combat disease. It also includes research
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    illness at some point in our lives. Those with chronic     into disease itself, with the ultimate goal being to
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                diseases often depend upon medication to manage what       inoculate against or completely eliminate disease. Meta
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is               might otherwise be debilitating diseases. But the path     is a Canadian start-up that uses AI to quickly read and
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri                  from research lab to patient is a long and costly one.     comprehend scientific papers and then provide insights
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,                                                                            to researchers; it was bought by the Chan Zuckerberg
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by                        According to the California Biomedical Research            Initiative in January 2017 as part of the charitable
voice alone5.                                                            Association, it takes an average of 12 years for a drug    foundation’s mission to eradicate disease.
                                                                         to travel from the research lab to the patient. Only
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what                   five in 5,000, or .1%, of the drugs that begin
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower              pre-clinical testing ever make it to human testing                 Research
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare               and just one of these five is ever approved for
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are            human usage. Furthermore, on average, it will cost
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.                         a company US $359 million to develop a new drug
                                                                         from the research lab to the patient8.

                   Training              Keeping                         Drug research and discovery is one of the more
                                          Well                           recent applications for AI in healthcare. By directing
                                                      Early
                                                                         the latest advances in AI to streamline the drug
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            discovery and drug repurposing processes there is
                                                                         the potential to significantly cut both the time to
                              Robotics                                   market for new drugs and their costs, not only for
       End of
                                                    Diagnosis
                                                                         the labs who develop the drugs, but for those people
      Life Care
                                                                         whose health depends upon them. Pharma.AI is
                                         Decision                        the Pharmaceutical Artificial Intelligence division of
                  Treatment              Making                          Insilico Medicine, a bioinformatics company located
                                                                                                                                    4
                                                                                                                                          The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
                                                                         at the Emerging Technology Centers at the Johns                  https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa
Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range              Hopkins University, launched in March 2016. They           5
                                                                                                                                          The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                 focus on drug discovery programmes for cancer,                   http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
                                                                                                                                          people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these             Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and other ageing and             8
                                                                                                                                          California Biomedical Research Association. New Drug Development Process.
eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as            age‑related health issues.                                       http://www.ca-biomed.org/pdf/media-kit/fact-sheets/CBRADrugDevelop.pdf
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
What doctor?
                                 Why AI and robotics will define New Health

                                  Introduction         Transforming      Investment               Findings              Conclusion              References                  About                 Contacts

                                 Keeping well          Early Detection      Diagnosis             Decision-making               Treatment              End of life care            Research              Training

No longer science fiction, AI and robotics
are transforming healthcare
                                                                         Research
Most of us are barely aware of it, but AI is already a part of
our lives – it’s in our cars, telling us when it’s time for the          Each and every one of us has most likely taken a                        However, medical research is not just about finding
engine to be serviced based on our driving patterns; it’s in             medication prescribed by our doctors for a symptom or                   new drugs to combat disease. It also includes research
our everyday Google searches and the suggestions from                    illness at some point in our lives. Those with chronic                  into disease itself, with the ultimate goal being to
Amazon that follow us around on the web; it’s the chatbot                diseases often depend upon medication to manage what                    inoculate against or completely eliminate disease. Meta
on the end of the telephone in call service centres. AI is               might otherwise be debilitating diseases. But the path                  is a Canadian start-up that uses AI to quickly read and
becoming ubiquitous and most of us use it: Apple’s Siri                  from research lab to patient is a long and costly one.                  comprehend scientific papers and then provide insights
processes two billion natural-language requests a week4,                                                                                         to researchers; it was bought by the Chan Zuckerberg
and 20% of requests on Android phones are made by                        According to the California Biomedical Research                         Initiative in January 2017 as part of the charitable
voice alone5.                                                            Association, it takes an average of 12 years for a drug                 foundation’s mission to eradicate disease.
                                                                         to travel from the research lab to the patient. Only
AI is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what                   five in 5,000, or .1%, of the drugs that begin
humans do but more efficiently, more quickly and at a lower              pre-clinical testing ever make it to human testing                Research
cost. The potential for both AI and robotics in healthcare               and just one of these five is ever approved for
is vast. Just like in our everyday lives, AI and robotics are            human usage. Furthermore, on average, it will cost
increasingly a part of our healthcare ecosystem.                         a company US $359 million to develop a new drug
                                                                              The Japanese Government has entered into a public-private alliance to develop a self-learning AI
                                                                         from the research lab to the patient8.
                                                                              at the government-affiliated National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition. The

                   Training              Keeping                         Drugpartnership
                                                                                research andwill support isresearchers
                                                                                              discovery                 in streamlining the development of new drugs in order to boost
                                                                                                             one of the more
                                          Well                                theapplications
                                                                         recent    nation’s competitive    advantage.
                                                                                               for AI in healthcare.  By directing
                                                                         the latest advances in AI to streamline the drug
                                                      Early                   BERG Health, a startup that uses an AI platform for drug discovery, initiated a phase II clinical trial in
      Research
                               AI and               Detection            discovery and drug repurposing processes there is
                                                                              2016 for a drug compound that could potentially treat pancreatic cancer.
                                                                         the potential to significantly cut both the time to
                              Robotics                                   market   for new drugs
                                                                              Atomwise    foundandtwotheir costs,
                                                                                                      existing    not only
                                                                                                                drugs      for
                                                                                                                       – reportedly in one day using its AI technology – that may also
       End of
                                                    Diagnosis
                                                                         the labs  who  develop  the drugs,
                                                                              work against the Ebola virus. but for those people
      Life Care
                                                                         whose health depends upon them. Pharma.AI is
                                         Decision                        the Pharmaceutical Artificial Intelligence division of
                  Treatment              Making                          Insilico Medicine, a bioinformatics company located
                                                                                                                                        The Ringer (2016). How Siri Got Left Behind.
                                                                                                                                                 4
                                                                         at the Emerging Technology Centers at the Johns                https://theringer.com/amp/p/2ffc86fe5dfa
Throughout this section of the report, we highlight a range              Hopkins University, launched in March 2016. They               The Economist (2017). How voice technology is transforming computing.
                                                                                                                                                 5

of products and existing or emerging technology in side-                 focus on drug discovery programmes for cancer,                 http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21713836-casting-magic-spell-it-lets-
                                                                                                                                        people-control-world-through-words-alone-how-voice
bars or boxes that we’ve found during our research for these             Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and other ageing and                 California Biomedical Research Association. New Drug Development Process.
                                                                                                                                                 8

eight areas. It is extraordinary, and hard to keep up with as            age‑related health issues.                                     http://www.ca-biomed.org/pdf/media-kit/fact-sheets/CBRADrugDevelop.pdf
new uses of AI and robotics are launched every week.
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