Air Force Materiel Command

Air Force Materiel Command

Blended Fischer-Tropsch and JP-8 B-52 Flight Test Air Force Materiel Command Air Force Materiel Command 15 August 2007 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e War-Winning Capabilities … On Time, On Cost Daniel R. Millman, Lt Col, USAF, Ph.D. B-52 Project Test Pilot Director, Hypersonic Flight Test Team 412 Test Wing, Air Force Flight Test Center Edwards AFB, CA

Back in Black – BUFF Style

• The genesis of a flight test program • Why a B-52? • A six-step program to certification • Test results • What’s on the horizon Overview

The Tasking Order • SECAF request – Demonstrate F-T fuel in manned Air Force aircraft by the end of FY06 – B-1B? • Test Team Formed – Air Force Materiel Command, Arnold Engineering Development Center, Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Combat Command, Oklahoma City ALC, Air Force Petroleum Office, Air Force Flight Test Center

Things to ponder • More than just a demo – Transport (dedicated trucks) – Storing (dedicated tanks) – Material compatibility (tanks, seals, bladders…) • Determine an aircraft for testing – Isolate fuel to single aircraft tank – Isolate engine(s) Choice of aircraft may have been a bit biased…

Some Key Players Capt Millman B-52 Co-Pilot JP-4 to JP-8 PM Minot AFB, ND Col Bedke Operations Group Commander Minot AFB, ND Maj Ingalsbe B-52 Test Pilot Edwards AFB CA Circa 1994~1996 Mr. Wynne Secretary of the Air Force MGen Bedke Air Force Flight Test Center Commander Edwards AFB, CA Lt Col Millman USAF Test Pilot School Instructor Edwards AFB Col Ingalsbe 412 TW Vice- Wing Commander Edwards AFB CA 2006 The rest of the test team had experience converting from JP-4 to JP-8

Why a B-52? • Safety – Ability to isolate test fuel and feed only 2 engines – Manual fuel control – 8 Engines – TF33 non- afterburning engine

Ability to Isolate Test Fuel 4 Main Tanks #4 Test Tank #7 & #8 Test Engines

Manual Fuel Control

8 Engines • Test at light gross weights (for a BUFF) • Below 320,000 lbs – Ability to climb with six engines • Below 250,000 lbs – Ability to land with four engines

TF-33 Engine As far as jet engines go, this is about as simple as it gets

A 6-Step Demonstration Program • Step 1 – Preliminary Analysis • Step 2 – Small Scale Demo • Step 3 – Off-Aircraft Ground Test • Step 4 – On-Aircraft Ground Test • Step 5 – 2-Engine Flight Test – 8 Engine Flight Test – Cold Weather Test • Step 6 – Inspections and Reporting Certification

Step 1 – Preliminary Analysis • Review and compare F-T fuel characteristics – Review South African Airlines history – Define F-T chemical/physical properties and compare to JP-8 – Determine F-T/JP-8 blend ratios to investigate – Develop F-T supportability plan (availability, blending, transportation, storage) for Tinker and Edwards AFBs • Exit Criteria – Determine acceptable F-T/JP-8 blends – No unacceptable engine / aircraft impacts – Successful site surveys / no unacceptable F-T supportability issues – No unmitigated environmental issues to prevent state certification

Step 2 – Small Scale Demo • Off-aircraft testing and analysis – Fuel soak tests (seals, hoses, pumps, materials, etc.) – Small scale engine demo (T63 engine) • Exit Criteria – Acceptable swell rates for seals/hoses – No unacceptable aircraft component degradation – No unacceptable small scale engine impacts identified – Successful preparation for fuels handling/storage T63 Turboshaft engine (250-400 SHp)

Step 3 – Off-Aircraft Ground Test • F-T fuel used in off-aircraft ground test – Conduct TF33 engine test cell run at Tinker AFB – Conduct limited 50 hour endurance run – Assess/compare engine operation with JP-8 baseline – Conduct post-run engine inspections • Exit Criteria – No unacceptable post-run engine inspection issues – Acceptable engine performance within JP-8 parameters

Step 4 – On-Aircraft Ground Test • On-aircraft thrust stand run with B-52H aircraft – Demonstrate stability, thrust response, fuel consumption, and engine performance • Isolate 2 engines for testing with F-T fuel • Compare engine operation with baseline • Limited instrumentation, but sufficient for analysis – Conduct pre- and post-test maintenance inspections • Exit Criteria – Acceptable engine/ aircraft operation with F-T fuel • In T.O.

limits and comparable to JP-8 • No adverse inspection results

Step 5 – 2-Engine Flight Test • B-52H flight – One sortie for JP-8 baseline – Three sorties with F-T fuel – Surface to 40K feet, approach to maximum speed – Demonstrate stability, thrust response, fuel consumption, airstart envelope – Limited instrumentation, but sufficient for analysis – Maintenance inspections • Exit Criteria – Acceptable on-aircraft test results – Within T.O. limits and comparable to JP-8 – No pilot corrective actions required – No adverse aircraft/engine inspection results

First Flight

8-Engine Flight Test • B-52H Flight – JP-8 (baseline)/blended fuel evaluated – Complete envelope Engine stability & thrust response at 45K ft – Fuel usage/performance from 5K ft to 48K ft – Operationally representative maneuvers • Exit Criteria – Performance within T.O.

limits – Successful post flight inspections

Cold Weather Test • Cold Start Tests (Minot AFB, ND) – JP-8 (baseline) and blended fuel evaluated – One A/C, 8 engines instrumented, crew instruments video recorded fuel flow, combustor pressure, and engine core speed – Baseline with JP-8, then perform starts with F-T Blend – Cartridge alert starts/Pneumatic starts – Tested at -8º F • Exit Criteria – Acceptable cold start performance (preliminary results show similar performance) – Performance within T.O. limits (preliminary results show similar performance)

Test Results • The F-T Blend fuel resulted in no significant differences in engine operation and fuel system performance was comparable with JP-8 fuel.

• Test results from this effort support the decision to certify a blend of up to 50 percent F-T fuel by volume as an acceptable alternate fuel for the B-52H aircraft and TF-33 engine.

B-52 Certification • August 8, 2007 – A certification process exists for alternative fuels

On to the rest of the fleet… • The Air Force has purchased 281,000 gallons of FT fuel for testing on the C-17A Transport and B-1B Bomber • C-17A has a modern commercial engine • B-1B has the same engine core as fighter aircraft and adds the challenge of afterburning engines

On the Horizon – Single Battlespace Fuel Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Hydrocarbon Rockets (RP-1 replacement) Hydrocarbon reformers (fuel cell power generation) low emissions, high stability high stability, endotherm N o s u l f u r , n o a r o m a t i c s H ig h th er m al st ab ili ty , hi gh H /C ISP=362.5 1200 Btu/lb cooling 2.2X – 5X increase in cooling N o p o i s o n i n g , l e s s c o k i n g o f r e f o r m e r c a t a l y s t high cetane, >74 reduced exhaust pollutants Army and Marine Equipment Single Fuel for the Navy Ships (JP-5/F-76 replacement) Current and advanced gas turbine aircraft (Jet A/JP-8 replacement)

Where the Dream becomes Real…


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