An Overview of China's Equestrian Industry →
An Overview of China's Equestrian Industry →
1 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 An Overview of China's Equestrian Industry Luc J. van Moorsel Consulate-General of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Department of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality 10/F East Tower, Dawning Center No. 500 Hongbaoshi Road Changing District Shanghai 201103 People’s Republic of China www.hollandinchina.org All right reserved. No part of the publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher.
2 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 PREFACE China offers great potential to particular business segments in equestrian sports. The increasing interest in equestrian sports started approximately twenty years ago and has developed enormously since then. This development goes hand in hand with China’s economy which has changed during the past thirty years from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy. It has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player in the global economy.
This report has been written under the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality and describes the opportunities for Dutch enterprises in the expanding and rising Chinese equestrian market, the report is concentrated on Shanghai and Beijing. It gives in insight in the following aspects of the industry: • Veterinary guidance • Schooling of riders • Training of horses • Horse feed • Horse stables • Transport of horses • Equestrian competitions • Horse breeding • Export regulations
3 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter 1 Brief Introduction to China 6 1.1 General Overview 1.2 Political Developments 1.3 Animal Husbandry Law Chapter 2 Overview of China’s Equestrian Industry 9 2.1 Equestrian Regions 2.2 Groups of Horse Owners 2.3 History 2.4 Veterinary Guidance 2.5 Schooling of Riders 2.6 Training of Horses 2.7 Horse Feed 2.8 Horse Stables 2.9 Transport of Horses 2.10 Equestrian Competitions 2.11 Popular Equestrian Sports 2.12 Breeding 2.13 Export & Import Chapter 3 Development of China’s Horse Industry 11 3.1 History 3.2 Political Bodies 3.3 Recent Development 3.4 Changes in Function of Horses Chapter 4 Veterinary Guidance 13 4.1 Foreign Expertise 4.2 Education of Veterinarians 4.3 Veterinarian Problems 4.4 Farriers Chapter 5 Schooling of Riders 16 5.1 New Terminology 5.2 Selection of Riders 5.3 Instructors 5.4 Prices for Horseback Riding 5.5 Willingness for Abroad Study Chapter 6 Training of Horses 18 6.1 Trainings Routine 6.2 Equestrian Capitals Chapter 7 Horse Feed 20 7.1 Current Feed Producers 7.2 Overall Feed Production 7.3 Current Way of Feeding 7.4 Groups of Horse Owners 7.5 Havens
4 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter 8 Horse Stables 22 8.1 Stable Design 8.2 Footing 8.3 Copied Stables Chapter 9 Transport of Horses 25 9.1 Trailer Embargo 9.2 Trailer Producers 9.3 Other Transport Options Chapter 10 Equestrian Competitions 26 10.1 Popular Sports 10.2 Future Developments 10.3 Jinma International Sports City 10.4 DFZ Chapter 11 Export Regulations 29 11.1 Current Export Procedures 11.2 Trade Barriers in Dutch Export Regulations Chapter 12 Doing Business in China 31 12.1 Mode of Entry 12.2 Differences in Doing Business 12.3 Guanxi 12.4 Long Term View Chapter 13 Contact Details 33 Appendix 1 Historical View on China’s Horse Industry 36 Appendix 2 Classification of Chinese Horse Breeds 38 Appendix 3 China’s Weather Conditions 39
5 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 The People’s Republic of China is the world’s most populous country, with 1.3 billion people living on 9.6 million square kilometers of land. Only slightly larger than the US, it contains almost five times as many people. About 62 per cent of the population lives in the countryside. However, millions of migrant workers from rural areas actually earn their living in China’s towns and cities. According to the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-Operation Forum, the country’s urban population is expected to grow to 750 million by 2020.1 The country is divided into 23 provinces, five autonomous regions, 4 municipalities (city provinces), and 2 special administrative regions.
1.1 General Overview Prior to 1979, China maintained a centrally planned, or command, economy. A large share of the country’s economic output was directed and controlled by the state, which set production goals, controlled prices and allocated resources throughout most of the economy. Reforms began with the slowly phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and slowly expanded to a liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state sector and the opening to foreign trade and investment.2 The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a increase in GDP of 9.8 per cent since 1979 in 2008.3 Economic development has been more concentrated around coastal provinces which explains the large disparities in per capita between rural and urban regions. Millions of surplus rural workers move between villages and cities, taking on part-time jobs.
The cause of China’s economic growth is often attributed to two main factors: large-scale capital investment which is financed by large domestic savings and foreign investment, and rapid productivity growth. These two factors appear to have gone together hand in hand. Economic reforms led to higher efficiency in the economy, which boosted output and increased resources for additional investment in the economy.7 The country’s ‘one-child’ policy has lead to one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. By 2035, 25 per cent of China’s population will be aged 60 or older, compared to 10 per cent in 2001. With aging, the share of working- age individuals who contribute to government revenues and economic growth will decline and the demand for social services will rise.8 1.2 Political Developments While the Chinese government has been focusing on market-oriented developments, its national economy is still officially directed according to Five-Year Plans which lay out growth goals in various industries for the next half decade. These guidelines are put together by a group of experts from various fields to ensure it covers every aspect in relation to China’s economical and social development.9 In October 2005, the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party approved the draft version of the 11th Five-Year Plan. 2005 saw the implementation of these guidelines for the period 2006 to 2010, in which the central government intends to lay a solid foundation for building a new socialist countryside. Its aim is to boost modern agriculture; develop new relationships between industry and agriculture, cities and the countryside; and increase rural affluence. (Naughton 2006). The Ministry of Chapter 1 – Brief Introduction to China Year 2009 People’s Republic of China The Netherlands Area 9.596.960 km2 41.543 km2 Population 1328020000 16 554 448 Number of households 539.100 000 7312 579 GDP (USD)4 7.973 trillion 672 billion GDP per capita (USD)5 6.000 40.400 Bilateral import (EUR)6 3.845.000.000 25.306.600.000 Bilateral export (EUR) 25.306.600.000 3.845.000.000 Currency Renminbi Euro 1 The China Business Handbook – ING – ISBN 0-9552126-0-X 2 Issue Brief for Congress – Congressional Research Service – Jan 2006 3 Statistical Yearbook 2009 – ISBN 978-7-5037-5800-9 4 The total market value of all final goods and serviced produced in a country in a given year, equal to total consumer, investment and government spending, plus the value of exports, minus the value of imports – The World Factbook, 2008 5 Central Intelligence Agency – The World Factbook, 2008 6 www.evd.nl – Internationaal Ondernemen & Samenwerken China 7 Issue Brief for Congress – Congressional Research Service – Jan 2006 8 China Daily – Dec 2009 9 An Overview of China’s Pork Industry – Spring 2006
6 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 Agriculture has set a number of quantitative targets for animal husbandry in the current Five-Year Plan. Main tasks of the 11th Five-Year Plan include: • Speeding up the development of animal husbandry and ensuring the supply of animal products; • Increasing monitoring and supervision on product quality and continuing product safety improvement; • Improving the industry’s profit in order to raise farmers’ income; • Heightening awareness on environment protection and eco-construction.
1.3 Animal Husbandry Law The Chinese government has enacted several laws to promote its country’s agriculture, which would let to more investment in rural infrastructure and agricultural technology. In this line, the Animal Husbandry Law was put into force on the first of July 2006. This eight-chapter Law includes regulations on livestock breeding, raising and production, transportation and product quality protection. To ensure the quality and security of livestock products, animal feed, additives and medicines should meet legal and technical standards set which are set out by the Animal Husbandry Law. 10 The newly implemented law aims to facilitate the modernization of China’s animal husbandry industry by encouraging the development of large-scale and highly productive livestock farms.
At this moment, China sees a lot of small-size household farmers whom raise their livestock in their backyard. Horses are an exception because they are not held this way. The Animal Husbandry Law aims to improve meat safety whilst protecting farmers’ livelihoods. Government authorities should offer financial and technical support to farmers to expand and improve production, whilst farmers should register their farms and establish breeding records, which will also log the use of veterinary feed and medicine.
Farmers would be required to report outbreaks to local animal epidemic prevention agencies and the take measures to curb infections, and if diseased stocks are removed because of sickness. They would be entitled to claim compensation.11 Map of People's Republic of China 10 An Overview of China’s Fruit & Vegetables Industry – Summer 2008 11 An Overview of Trade Opportunities in China’s Pork Chain – Spring 2009
7 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 An increasing number of wealthy people in China have diverted their attention to equestrian sports. Professional equestrian sports are only discovered relatively recently as it started to develop since 1990. In mainland China, Beijing and Shanghai are the biggest players in equine sports as show jumping and dressage, whereby show jumping definitely gains popularity. Special administrative region Hong Kong is a major player in the horse racing. The "Sport of Kings," the only legal form of gambling in Hong Kong, is embraced with unbridled fervor. One racing season, from September to June, can pull in more than HKD 91 billion.12 This report will lay more focus on the regions Beijing and Shanghai as the Netherlands is specialized in show jumpers and dressage horses.
2.1 Equestrian Regions In China, there are around 300 professional horse clubs which have more than ten horses.13 The majority of these horsemanship clubs are located in and around Beijing. Beijing is one of the most developed cities when it comes to equestrian sports with around 80 professional stables. Shanghai has around 16 professional horsemanship clubs. The remaining 204 horsemanship clubs are mainly situated throughout eastern China around the developed cities. 2.2 Groups of Horse Owners To find out who are decision makers in the equine business, it is good to have an insight in how this market is divided. There are three groups of horse owners: the first and most important group is the one of successful entrepreneurs that have horses as a hobby. They seek for participation in this new elite sport of equestrian sports and are investing in buildings, staff and horses. A very small group is the group that owns their own horses and rent stables at professional horsemanship clubs (pensionklanten). Almost all people within this group are foreign people who are voluntarily absent from their home country and choose to live in China. This is a very limited group because most of these expats live in China temporarily and therefore do not buy their own horse but rather use the services of the horsemanship clubs. The last group which is even smaller is the group farmers who use their horse(s) for agricultural purposes. Most of these farmers are located in the north west of China, in the autonomous region Xinjiang. The Yili-horse breed has its roots in this ‘province’ of the People’s Republic of China, these horses are still used on the fields.
2.3 History In Chinese history, there were three major events concerning horse breed improvement and therewith the equestrian industry. In the Han Dynasty, light bred horses were introduced, which were lighter than modern light horses, and which became known to people for their service in the Silk Road14 . In the Tang Dynasty, more than twenty horse breeds were introduced and raised in Longxi, northwest China (west of Shaanxi Province, south of Gansu Province), with the breeding result ‘Tang Horse’. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, 1125 horses of 8 different breeds were imported from the former Soviet Union merely in 1952.15 • In 1960s, breed improvements were enormously conducted in order to foster new horse breeds; • In 1970s, remarkable achievements were scored in this regards and new breeds were fostered in the agricultural areas of northwest China, north China and northwest China as well as pasturing areas; • In 1980s, new horse breeds fostered were examined and accepted. Later on, management was loosened up, resulting in the loss of certain horse breeds; • In 1990s, horse demand for racing, riding and equestrian sports brought about the changes in the functions of horses and breeding purposes as well as the application of new fast breeding techniques. Chapter 2 – Overview of China’s Equestrian Industry 12 http://www.happyvalleyracecourse.com/course.html 13 Mr. Chang Wei – Chairman – Chinese Equestrian Association 14 The Silk Road gets its name from the lucrative Chinese silk trade which began during the Han Dynasty, the major reason for the connection of trade routes into an extensive trans-continental network. 15 Horses in China – 马在中国 – Dugarjaviin Manglai – 芒来 – Nov 2009 Year Horses 1996 8.715 1997 8.912 1998 8.981 1999 8.914 2000 8.766 2001 8.260 2002 8.088 2003 7.900 2004 7.639 2005 7.400 2006 7.195 2007 7.028 2008 6.821 Number of horses in China *1000 heads Statistical Yearbook 2009 – ISBN 978-7-5037-5800-9 Although there is an overall decrease in the number of horses in China since 1996, the equestrian industry is developing well. The number of high quality warm blood horses has been increasing during the last fifteen to twenty years.
8 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 The provinces which have a quantity of horses are all situated in the north of the People’s Republic of China, close to Inner Mongolia. Inner Mongolia is the province that has the longest history in equine. 2.4 Veterinary Guidance Each horseman ship club employs its own veterinarian expert. Unfortunately, the veterinarians who work for these Chinese horsemanship clubs are not specialized in horses. More information can be found in chapter four. 2.5 Schooling of Riders In Shanghai and Beijing, more and more riding schools are founded. This goes well together with the current development of the horse industry. Young children start riding horses which will benefit the industry in a later stage. Many professional horsemanship clubs hire foreign instructors to train their Chinese riders. Most of these experts from abroad come from England, Australia, the Netherlands, Germany and New Zealand.
2.6 Training of Horses Whether horses are trained properly and effective has everything to do with the expertise of its riders and trainers. In China, there is enough room for improvement concerning the overall level of horseback riding and instructing riders. In northern China, more and more wealthy entrepreneurs start to found horsemanship clubs in which they employ staff that already worked for them in the original business. With a lack of experience and feeling, they start to train the club’s horses. More information can be found in chapter six of this report. 2.7 Horse Feed There are approximately four producers of horse feed in China.16 Most of the horsemanship clubs have their own staff which is responsible for feeding the horses and more remarkable; producing the horse feed. Because horse feed as a final product is only offered in a very limited way and its variety is scarce, horsemanship clubs mix several ingredients themselves.
2.8 Horse Stables The more horses will be held, the more stable buildings and other buildings for equestrian use will have to be build. Most of the stable buildings in Shanghai have the same design, the stable buildings in Beijing differ more and are often designed by foreign architects. There are no Chinese architects who are specialized in designing buildings for equestrian use.17 More information, together with pictures on this subject can be found in chapter eight of this report. 2.9 Transport of Horses There are approximately eight horse trailer producers active in China. Hundred per cent of the total production of these producers is currently being sold to foreign countries as Australia and New Zealand because in the People’s Republic of China, it is not allowed to use a horse trailer on public roads. But some experts state that changes are coming soon.18 2.10 Equestrian Competitions There is one competition per three weeks being organized in Beijing due to the relatively large number of horsemanship clubs.19 There are not enough riders which compete to organize more competitions. But as stated in the previous paragraph, horse trailers are not allowed on Chinese roads. This political drawback makes it hard for Chinese riders to compete.
2.11 Popular Equestrian Sports The most popular equestrian sport in China is, without a doubt, show jumping. Approximately 80 per cent of all the horsemanship clubs are specialized in show jumping. Dressage is not very popular (yet), just like western riding and polo. Track racing is not allowed in mainland China, but is allowed in the special administrative zone Hong Kong. Harness riding in China is quite exceptional. Province Horses Beijing 2.000 Tianjin 1.000 Hebei 227.000 Shanxi 23.000 Inner Mongolia 700.000 Liaoning 277.000 Jilin 478.000 Heilongjiang 282.000 Shanghai 7.000 Jiangsu Zhejiang Anhui 2.000 Fujian Jiangxi Shandong 58.000 Henan 156.000 Hubei 10.000 Hunan 44.000 Guangdong 20.000 Guangxi 366.000 Hainan Chongqing 21.000 Sichuan 949.000 Guizhou 846.000 Yunnan 753.000 Tibet 410.000 Shaanxi 10.000 Gansu 137.000 Qinghai 218.000 Ningxia 3.000 Xinjiang 839.000 real numbers Statistical Yearbook 2009 – ISBN 978-7-5037-5800-9 16 Mr. P. Peili – Managing Director – Shanghai Corich Sports & Leisure Co., Ltd.
17 Mr. E. Wong – Owner – Meadowbrook Equestrian & Rural Activity Center 18 Mr. C. Chun – Jinan Horssen Trailers Co., Ltd. – Dec 2009 19 Mr. V. Vermeulen – Beijing International Equestrian Club Co,. Ltd.
9 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 2.12 Breeding There is an increasing interest in export of horse semen to China on both the Dutch as the Chinese side. That is why the Agricultural, Nature and Food Quality department in Beijing and Shanghai are looking into a protocol to establish the export of horse semen to China. Export of horse semen is currently not possible.20 2.13 Export & Import The number of imported horses that entered mainland China has increased tremendously during the last six years. KLM alone flew 245 horses to mainland China and 220 horses to Hong Kong in 2009.21 Highly involved parties are working hard to realize adjusted legislation concerning quarantine and other requirement concerning export to China. They are expected to be launched in 2010. More information on some of the trade barriers that infect this branch can be found in chapter eleven of this report.
20 Veterinair Informatie Punt – 09-077 – July 2009 21 Mrs. M. Scherer – Int. Sales Manager Variation Live – KLM Cargo Jinan – 20 October 2009 – China’s National Games
11 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 Exploring the origins of the Chinese horse breeds is not an easy job to do because it has a rich horse breed- culture with 19 different breeds and 18 sub-breeds. The classification of the Chinese horse breeds is included in appendix number two. 3.1 History Starting from the Qin Dynasty, great efforts have been made to develop the horse industry chiefly for military purposes. In the Han Dynasty, priority was given to horse raising in order to challenge foreign powers and expand the emperor’s territory.
There came a declining period in horse breeding (907 AD – 1368 AD), when China’s horse industry fell into decline due to the lasting wars in the late Tang Dynasty and the following five Dynasties and ten Kingdoms, which decrypted various environments necessary for the sustained development of the horse industry. During the period from 1368 AD to 1949 AD, Mongolian horses came to prominence. Horses and the horse industry thrived once again. Mongolian cavalries swept across Europe and Asia, making enemy armies flee pell-mell at the mere sight of them, and spreading the nomadic civilization all over the world.
In the Ming Dynasty, stables were primarily run by the government, and civilians raised horses under the supervision and guidance of the government. Although the horse industry was revitalized to a certain extent, there was insufficient supply of horses. That is why breeders started breeding with foreign breeds.22 The most common foreign breeds in China as follows: • Thoroughbred horses • Arabian horses • Holsteiner horses • Orlov Trotters • Ardennes horses • Kabardin horses • Akhal-Teke Since then, the so called equine infrastructure has developed steady. Political bodies have been founded and organizations started to participate in organized equestrian sports.
3.2 Political Bodies The Chinese Equestrian Association (CEA) was formed in 1982, and joined the International Equestrian Federation (FEI) in 1983. This association has subscribed 200 members since then.23 They are both horsemanship clubs and racecourses. The China Horse Industry Association (CHIA) was established in 2002 on the basis of National Horse Breeding Committee. 3.3 Recent Development More and more arenas, horse-riding clubs, horse race courses and other facilities are being build. In China, there are approximately 200 equestrian clubs at the end of 2009. Horse riding has already become a fashion of modern life. Improvement and introduction of horse breeds are being carried out in a larger scale than ever. Chapter 3 – Development of China’s Horse Industry 22 Horses in China – 马在中国 – Dugarjaviin Manglai - 芒来 - Nov 2009 23 Mr. Chang Wei – Chairman – Chinese Equestrian Association Luxurious clubhouse of a horsemanship club in Beijing In recent years, the exchanges between China’s horse industry and the international horse industry have increased constantly. Many Chinese entrepreneurs, researchers, athletes, coaches, veterinaries, horse breakers and specialists have been to Germany, France, Australia, Hong Kong and other countries and regions to receive training.24 In response to the needs of developing the modern horse culture, China Horse Culture Museum was established in Beijing in 2003, which is now the largest among horse culture museums in Asia. 25 3.4 Changes in Function of Horses The origin and evolution of the functions of various horse breeds can trace back to ancient times. In the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, horses were generally used for chariot wars, hunting, goods- and passenger carrying. Horses were used for farming as early as the early Qin Dynasty. Farmers plowed land, carried goods and horses were often used for driving chariots and plowing in ancient times. Horses were widely used for farming and 24 Mrs. M. van de Stolpe – Customer – Shanghai Equestrian Center – Sept 2009 25 Horses in China – 马在中国 – Dugarjaviin Manglai – 芒来 – Nov 2009
12 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 war. Undoubtedly by northern nomads. Furthermore, horses were also used in games. In central China, horses were first used for entertainment in the imperial court of the Han Dynasty. In 1990, commercial horse races were held for the first time. In response to market demands, horses have not been merely used for traditional purposes, along with the change in breeding purposes. Now in 2009, horses are used for both professional and amateur purposes. Competing at show jumping and other equestrian sports competitions is the main goal. This trend will continue to develop in the direction of the western Europe way of using horses.26 Descriptions of the pictures from top to bottom: The first one shows a Spanish rider on a Spanish horse. One would expect this picture to be taken in Spain. But it was actually made in China, Jiangsu province to be precise. More and more wealthy entrepreneurs have diverted their attention to equestrian sports and import the kind they like. Staff and original horses included. The second picture was taken in a production hall in Shanghai. Shanghai Shine Kingdom Sport Apparatus Co. Ltd. produces products for equestrian sports as whips, saddle decks and horse blankets. After the production period, many of the products find their way to end users in America, Germany and Sweden.
The third pictures shows two Russian-bred horses that are owned by a horsemanship club in Shanghai. The Chinese instructor of the club is mounting his horse while his students are entering the arena. 26 Horses in China – 马在中国 – Dugarjaviin Manglai – 芒来 – Nov 2009
13 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 China’s economic miracle has given rise to an increasingly affluent and aspirational middle-class which is demanding greater access to international standard equestrian and horse related sports. Veterinary guidance is an important facility to succeed in these sports and is a well respected subject in the Chinese equestrian industry. Almost all of the state owned, as well as the private owned stables have their own veterinarian. This vet is an employee of the particular stable and only works on the horses that are owned by the stable. There are no specialized horse clinics in China. This makes it very difficult to treat horses which are seriously suffering from severe diseases. There is simply no clinic where they have the knowledge and resources to treat such diseased horses.27 The individual approach differs a lot when compared to the way veterinarians work in Europe. European veterinarian experts mostly own their own practice or work for one. The difference is that they take visits and treat different horses of different owners.
This personal and daily attention of course benefits the horses. The only drawback is that the Chinese veterinarians did not specialize in treatment of horses. In many of the interviews that were held with Chinese veterinarians was stated that he (female veterinarians are very rare) was able to treat all animals, not horses in particular. It is not remarkable that they are not that much interested in a specialism of horses during their educational program because this market was never interesting enough. Pets are more interesting for students because of the simple reason that treating cats and dogs is more lucrative in busy cities.28 4.1 Foreign Expertise Approximately 85 per cent of the stables, although they have their own veterinarian, hire a foreign veterinarian expert to treat their horses before an important event. Most of the veterinarians that fly in to check on the horses of the Chinese stables are from New-Zealand, Germany and England. Those foreign experts mostly treat the horses on a regular base by returning to the stable three times per year and extra for special events.
The National Games which were held in Jinan in October 2009 was such an occasion. 4.2 Education of Veterinarians The three largest agricultural universities of the People’s Republic of China as follows; • China’s Agricultural University • Nanjing Agricultural • Northeast China Agricultural University The three largest universities are located in respectively Beijing (15.891 undergraduates), Nanjing (12.655 undergraduates) and Harbin (15.873 undergraduates).29 Harbin is the capital city of the Heilongjiang province in the northern part of China. There are thirty-two agricultural universities in China. They all provide the study veterinary medicine. Mostly treatment of horses is only a small part of the education program, the focus lays more on small pets like cats and dogs. Students at the Nanjing Agricultural University are informed about the specific diseases for horses. Acupuncture courses are also offered to treat horses diseases. In the anatomy courses, horses are also uses as samples in class teaching.30 Chapter 4 – Veterinary Guidance A thoroughbred horse at a horsemanship club in Fengxian District, Shanghai The only university that lays more focus on horses is the Inner Mongolia University. This university might be an interesting partner to set up educational programs in the equine field and has a long history in this field since it was founded in 1952.31 They have 180 undergraduate students per year, 60 master graduate students annually and 20 doctorate graduate students in the last three years. 4.3 Veterinarian Problems The problems that occur most are orthopedic and digestion related. These problems have two major causes. The first one is the footing in the arenas. Often this footing consists of too loose sand. This way the horses’ joints and muscles are overworked. Secondly, equine colic also occurs in China as Chinese horses, or horses which are held by Chinese horsemanship clubs, are exposed to similar aspects which endanger the possibility of colic as elsewhere in the world. 27 Mrs. E. Eldering-Verwaal – Sept 2009 28 Mr. E. Verwaal – Consul-general of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Shanghai – Jan 2010 29 Mr. N. Hong – Agricultural Assistant, Consulate-general of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , Shanghai – Nov 2009 30 Mrs. Han Jiqin – Associate Professor – Nanjing Agricultural University – Nov 2009 31 http://www1.imau.edu.cn/lxsh/bencandy.php?fid=5&id=4
14 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine asked the question whether Chinese veterinarians would be interested in following courses abroad. The veterinarian experts that are employed on the private stables are aged between 30 and 55 and most of them have a family already and therefore prefer to attend these courses in China. Veterinarians are interested in guidance of sport horses but state that because they work in an independent way, on their ‘own’ horses and their ‘own’ stable, that collaboration with other veterinarians is difficult.
4.4 Farriers A farrier is a specialist in equine hoof care and it is an ancient profession that deals with knowledge, experience and knowhow. Horses need horse shoes when the animal works on abrasive footing, needs additional traction, or has pathological changes in the foot.32 Equestrian club owners hold a ditto view compared to veterinarians when it comes to farriers. Each club employs its own farrier whose task it is to maintain the horses hoofs. These farriers do not have a lot of experience yet and like with the vets, farrier-specialists from abroad come to China several times per year in order to check-up the horses hoofs and teach the clubs’ own farrier.33 This is a positive development, the foreign farriers are introducing hot shoeing and other, for China, new techniques.34 The foreign farriers also come to China for special events and competitions.
Descriptions of the pictures from top to bottom: The first one shows a groom at the Shanghai Equestrian Center which is clipping one of the competitions horses. The legs are a bit swollen. A pile of used horse shoes at Song Seng Horsemanship club Fenxian district. The third picture shows a Chinese bred jumping horse at the Song Seng Horsemanship club that suffers from a skin disease. 32 AAEP Convention – The Horse – May 2006 33 Mrs. M. Wangqiang – Owner – Equuleus International Riding Club – Oct 2009 34 Mr. E. Wong – Owner – Meadowbrook Equestrian & Rural Activity Center – Nov 2009
15 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010
16 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 No sustainable developments without youth that has horseback riding as a hobby. New riders that start riding at a young age are important for the professionalization of the equestrian industry on the long run. In regard to young children in China that learn how to ride a horse, they are the children of wealthy Chinese and expats. Shanghai and Beijing have been selected from a group of employees that formerly worked for the companies that set up the club. Most of the horsemanship riding clubs are set up by company owners. They pick people to work at the stable from their own workforce since they already know and trust these people. But it is not undoubtedly that they do not have talent for this sport. The selected ‘riders’ are fortunate to have the opportunity to develop themselves and are able to leave the factory and work in a good working environment as a stable is. This decision is more often than not made, not because of the love for horses, but because of better working conditions. With the effect that the staff team responsible for the training of the horses is not always as motivated as one would wish.
5.3 Instructors Many of the professional horsemanship clubs collaborate with trainers from foreign countries as Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Australia and England. They come to China two to three times per year in order to train riders and instructors of the clubs. The foreign trainers especially come over for important events as the Olympic Games and the National Games. The most ideal situation would be that Chinese trainers gather contented experience in order to train Chinese riders themselves. There is potential in the perspective of training centers for riders, instructors and grooms. Especially for ‘Helicon Opleidingen’, there are numerous opportunities as the industry wants to go forward quickly but lacks in knowledge and training institutions. The Chinese Equestrian Association is the actuation point for setting up equestrian trainings and courses.
There are already courses that are currently offered by the Chinese Equestrian Association in collaboration of the Hongkong Jockey Club. These trainings are government supported whereas the Chinese Equestrian Association is a state-owner organization. The Chinese government sees that the equestrian business starts employing more and more Chinese citizens. Twenty students participated at the course for horse-grooming in 2008 offered at the Hong Kong Jockey Club. There are also instructors who come to Beijing to teach students on this subject. 5.4 Prices for Horseback Riding Horseback riding is a relatively expensive sport in China. It is seen as a elite sport and the people who invested and are thinking about investing in this sector would like to keep it that way. It creates status and this status will decline when the majority of the people is able to practice Chapter 5 – Schooling of Riders 5.1 New Terminology It is noticeable that professional equestrian sports do not have a long history in China; many horsemanship clubs are newly build and there are only a few instructors that can be compared to the overall quality in the Netherlands. Equine sports is something totally new that has been developing to European standards since fifteen years. This recent development is also shown in for example the names of the horses gaits. The Dutch language knows specific names for the three standard gates and almost all Dutch people know these names. There are even sayings that include these gaits (op een drafje ergens heen gaan) In Chinese the horses gaits are called: • 溜马 liu ma stroll running walk • 小跑 xiao pao small running trot • 奔驰 35 ben chi fast running canter This means that there are no specific words to describe these gaits. Not many Chinese people are able to immediately respond when they are asked what the three gaits of a horse are called.
5.2 Selection of Riders Most of the riders that work at horsemanship clubs in Mr. E. Wong teaching one of his students at Meadowbrook, Shanghai Sept 2009 35 Mr. N. Hong – Agricultural Assistant – Consulate-general of the Kingdom of the Netherlands – Sept 2009
17 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 equestrian sports. But perhaps even more important is the fact that the horse-infrastructure is not yet as developed as in Europe. More costs have to be made in order to maintain horses properly because many aspects (horse feed, footing etc.) are not as common as in Europe. The average prices for horseback riding are as follows: • EUR 31,00 per hour - with instructor • EUR 1.650,00 membership fee per year per person36 Equitation will stay an ‘elite’ sport for a longer time when prices are kept high by horsemanship club owners and their customers.
5.5 Willingness for Abroad Study In order to enhance equestrian sports, the quickest way to integrate more European horse management styles into China would be to send Chinese horsemen over to European countries or other countries which have a good reputation in equine. Although this would be the best option, it is more likely to set up programs and courses in China. The main reason is that even though Chinese in general like to travel, it is an expensive matter to cross to world to gain this knowledge. The designated people who would have to go abroad for trainings (farriers, veterinarians, riders) mostly do not have sufficient financial sources to travel. Given this fact, more effectiveness will be generated when courses are set up in China. Having this said, there are ofcourse possibilities for exchange programs. These operational plans can be discussed with each particular stable.
Round pen at Meadowbrook Equestrian & Rural Activity Center in Shanghai Chinese rider is tacking up his retired racehorse at Song Seng Horsemanship club in Shanghai 36 This price indication has been made after calculating the prices of eleven horsemanship clubs
18 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 Unlike in the Netherlands, most Chinese staff members at horsemanship clubs are male. This has to do with the in chapter five already described phenomenon that most of the employees at the horse stables are often selected from the stable’s owner workforce. They formerly worked in the company before their general manager decided he wanted to set up an horsemanship club and needed staff to maintain and train the horses. Unfortunately, the opportunities for such rides outside the premises is scarce in China. Many of the horsemanship clubs are located next to busy roads, not to mention the driving skills of the Chinese. Adjacent to this, people in traffic are not used to horses in traffic. This could effect in dangerous situations for both the rider and horse, as well as for the road user.
But above all, the most effective way to school a horse is a well thought out training schedule that takes place in an arena and allows the horse to gain strength and prepare it for the job it has to do, whether this is dressage, show jumping (most popular sport) or any other equestrian sport. Nevertheless, it is hard to realize such a well considered training technique and schedule when there is no expertise and experience available within the organization. This will eventually gain but it will take several years. More knowledge is needed and wanted in these horsemanship clubs who are eager to develop. Financial resources in these horsemanship clubs are not the aspects that obstruct these developments, a lack of knowledge and inexperience is.
Material arrangements as stable buildings, personnel and tack are made quickly, but aspects of the equestrian sports that require feeling, experience, insight and knowhow are only succinctly present in the current market. Chapter 6 – Training of Horses Professional riders during their daily training at Shanghai Song Seng Horsemanship Club Having this said, it is not hard to imagine the poor quality of riders at these stables. Like always, there are numerous exceptions but the general way is as described above. The inexperience is not beneficiary for the training of the horses. The imbalance, fidget hands and a lack of knowledge on how to train a horse of many of the ‘professional’ riders make it hard to train the horses in a proper way. Nevertheless, there are some really talented Chinese riders that are offered jobs at high-quality horsemanship clubs.
6.1 Trainings Routine It is important for sport horses to enjoy an alternating training schedule. Variation in the horses training prevents the horses from a finite work strain and getting bored. There are many ways to guarantee an alternating training schedule. One of the training methods is longing. Although we in Europe consider longing to be an useful and necessary addition to the daily training routines, not many horsemanship clubs in China use this training technique to improve the horses balance and flexibility. A ride outside the horsemanship’s premises will also help to keep the horses interested in the workload as they will get new impressions and experiences.
Professional riders during their daily training at Shanghai Song Seng Horsemanship Club 6.2 Equestrian Capitals Beijing, together with Hong Kong, are more developed areas when it comes to equestrian activities in China. More experts from abroad are involved and it has shown that this definitely benefits the training of the horses. In Shanghai, the only stable that has an foreign instructor (Karsten Huck - Germany) is the Shanghai Equestrian Center, the state-owned horsemanship club. The overall average quality of training of horses in Shanghai is low. The overall quality in Beijing is better.
19 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010
20 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 A lot of work can still be done when it comes to the Chinese horse feed industry because of the simple reason that the available horse feed that is offered at the market is very limited at the moment. Specialized horse pellets for example sports horses or foals is not yet offered by Chinese companies in large amounts. feed contributed 5.46 million tonnes, an increase of 4.79 percent year-on-year. In 2008, China exported 6 million tonnes of feed and the total value was USD 3 billion; imported 2.5 million tonnes and worth USD 2 billion.39 Most of is this feed is produced for pigs, cows and poultry. Horses are such a small group that the China Feed Industry Association does not include horses.
7.3 Current Way of Feeding Because feed that is especially developed for horses is scarce, most of the horsemanship clubs have their own personnel to prepare their own feed for their own horses. Ingredients are purchased separately from local farmers, mostly for Inner Mongolia, and are then mixed to create the final end-product for the horses. Ingredients that are most commonly used to feed horses in China are: • Sugar beet pellets • Soybean residue • Bailey • Grain • Corn • Barley • Oats • Carrots • Vitamin A, B and C These ingredients are grinded by hand or machine and then collected in big wooden boxes. Sometimes oil or vitamins are added. This is different in every stable, depending on what the stable-veterinarian thinks is best for the horses. These veterinarians have a great influence on the prescribed feed whereas there are no experts who can advise stable-owners and managers on what is the best for their horses. And although most horses look healthy, this can be improved much more by proper feed and training.
The most remarkable is that none of the stables work together in the purchase process. They all buy from their own farmers located in Mongolia.40 In this way, transport costs have to be made by each individual stable and no quantity discount can be stipulated. The fact that every single stable purchases their feed individually has to do with the ‘guanxi’ of the Chinese people. The Chinese word ‘guanxi’ means network in English. Using somebody else’s network by purchasing feed at the contact person of another stable owner would mean that his own network would not be good enough. More information can be found in chapter fifteen.
Chapter 7 – Horse Feed 7.1 Current Feed Producers There are around four feed producers in China that produce feed specialized for horses.37 Also in this area it is shown that the expertise in equine is not as developed as in other parts of the world seeing that some think the feed for horses and cattle has no difference. These producers do not only produce horse feed, also feed for other animals is sold. Ninety percent of all horse feed is sold to the Middle East, South Korea and Japan. The remaining ten per cent is sold to end users in China itself. The majority of the customers are private owned stables and some state owned stables. Most of the horse feed is sold to Guangdong province, Beijing and Shanghai. The most equestrian activity takes place in these three provinces.38 7.2 Overall Feed Production In 2008, China's feed industry has continued to show a trend of stable development. The output of China's feed industry in 2008 reached 137 million tonnes, an increase of 8.51 percent year-on-year. Among them, compound feed achieved 105.90 million tonnes, up 13.64 percent year- on-year; concentrated feed made 25.31 million tonnes, an increase of 1.58 percent year-on-year; additive premix 37 Mr. P. Peili – Managing Director – Shanghai Corich Sports & Leisure Co., Ltd. – Dec 2009 38 Mr. J. Lee – Sales Respresentative – Xingtai Jiansen Trade Co., Ltd. – Dec 2009 39 http://english.chinafeed.org.cn/main_itemdetail_en.php?column_ id=173&item 40 Mr. Pan – General Manager – Shanghai Roborant M&E Technology Co. Ltd. & Shanghai Roborant Horsemanship Club
21 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 7.4 Groups of Horse Owners To find out who are decision makers in the purchase process in horse feed it is good to have an insight in how this market is divided in China. There are three groups of horse owners: the first and most important is the group of successful entrepreneurs that have horses as a hobby. They want to participate in the new elite sport of equestrian sports and invested in buildings, staff and horses. But because foreign feed imports are expensive they produce their own horse feed. It is a common fact that labor costs are cheap in China, due to this fact it is more beneficiary to produce the feed themselves.
A very small group is the group who own their own horse and rent a stable at a professional horsemanship club (pensionklanten). Almost all people within this group are foreign people who are voluntarily absent from their home country and choose to live in China. This is a very limited group because most of these expats live in China temporarily and therefore do not buy their own horse but rather use the services of the horsemanship clubs. The horsemanship clubs decide for them what the horses will eat, in correspondence with the horse owners. The last group which is even smaller is the group farmers that use their horse(s) for agricultural purposes. Most of these farmers are located in the north west of China, in the autonomous region Xinjiang. The Yili-horse breed has its roots in this ‘province’ of the People’s Republic of China, these horses are still used on the fields.
The last described target group is probably the least interesting because of the limited financial resources of this group and the rich offering of nutritious hay, grain, corn and other agricultural products.41 The first mentioned target group disposes of more financial strength and has the goal to manage their warm blood horses in the way it is done in Europe. They want to establish equal circumstances. Responding hereon would mean increasing sales of good horse feed. 7.5 Havens Havens Graanhandel N.V. is a big global player in horse feed with a expanded target group that also reaches South-East Asia. Havens started selling horse feed in Japan and was later followed by Malaysia, Singapore and the for China most important locations Hong Kong and Macao. Havens cooperates with Tallahesse Asia Holdings Limited and has its stock in Hong Kong. Experts expect an increase of professional horse feed as the industry becomes more performance oriented.42 41 Mr. P. Peili – Managing Director – Shanghai Corich Sports & Leisure Co., Ltd. – Dec 2009 42 Mr. M. Chin – Tallahesse Asia Holdings Ltd. – Oct 2009
22 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 The first thing that comes to mind when thinking of building stables in China is; copying. In the past, this perception has shown to be a realistic one, also in equestrian fields. There is the famous phrase: copyright for China means the right to copy. Especially product developers, but also architects of horse stables are of course not very fond of the idea that all efforts and designs can be copied easily without restrictions of the nation’s government.
There are several examples of Chinese companies that have copied stable designs of foreign architects. Not only the designs of the stables but even the exact pictures of their leaflets and brochures have been used in the ones of their Chinese competitors. 8.1 Stable Design Most of the buildings for equestrian use of original design are designed by foreign architects. Many of the Shanghainese stables have the same design. The actual stable building is approximately 13 meters wide with two stables on each side and an aisle in the middle. The horse stable sizes vary from large to very large, the ceiling is high and has an even higher roof-ridge. This helps to cope with the heat in Shanghainese summer: 30 degrees Celsius in July and an average annual temperature of 17,2 degrees Celsius.43 The horse stables are made of concrete and do not have stable-doors as we know them in Europe. To prevent the horses from walking out of the stables, a double pipe construction that can be pulled towards the other end of the stable entrance.
8.2 Footing The footing that is placed in the stables would regularly consist of rice bran. This is a relative inexpensive rest- product that is affluence in the Shanghai area because of the large rice consumption all over China. The rice bran absorbs fluids quite well, although straw absorbs better. But each manager has employed so many staff that cleaning is no problem. Drainage is hardly ever included in the horse-stables. In some of the stables, the horses’ watering troughs still have to be filled by hand every few hours. This depends on how much the horse drinks. This is not very effective seen the fact that many of the employees will be occupied with this chore during the working day and horses can run out of water during the night.
8.3 Copied Stables Some of the stables in Shanghai and Beijing have been copied by people who have little knowledge of designing buildings for equestrian purposes. This shows immediately; windows are placed to high so horses cannot see through, doors have to be opened in order to feed the horses, sharp edges occur on places where horses have to make turns and doors open in a way that could be more proficient. Chapter 8 – Horse Stables 43 Statistical Yearbook 2009 – ISBN 978-7-5037-5800-9
23 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010
24 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010
25 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 In a country were the so called equine infrastructure is missing, you can imagine that regulations are not totally suited for this sport as well. Transport of horses is an example of a political drawback that is not conductive to the development in the equestrian line of business. 9.1 Trailer Embargo In the People’s Republic of China, it is not allowed to use horse trailers on public roads. This again indicates the stage China is in when it comes to equestrian sports. Some specialists state that the Chinese government is already writing draft reports and actively gathering information within the industry to release a law that allows horse trailers on public Chinese roads.44 Other, less positive specialists45 state that it will take another ten to fifteen more years before this law will be active due to the number of cars that take part in traffic every day: 50.996.100 vehicles, both private as civil, in China in 2008.46 Nevertheless, there are more positive developments; the Beijing municipality started to issue registration plates for caravans in April 2009.47 This is positive because a trailer is a comparable object behind a car, which could mean that the admittance of horse trailers is close. Could mean, because in Chinese politics suchlike arrangements are never made in an improvident way.
9.2 Trailer Producers There are eight horse trailer producers in main land China. All these production companies sell 100 per cent of their horse trailers to foreign countries (Australia, New Zealand) because they cannot sell their products in China due to current regulation. Changes in traffic law which would result in a permit of horse trailers on public Chinese roads would benefit the equestrian competitions enormously. The current situation is that stables organize competitions, especially in the Beijing area, but it is difficult for potential participants from the outside to participate due to the transport problem.
9.3 Other Transport Options There are three other options to transport a horse; on horseback, by foot or by truck. Unfortunately, there is often only one horse truck per province. Almost all of these trucks are owned by the state-owned stables. Some private owned stables have their own horse truck at their disposal. A lack of trucks requires cooperation between stables. For example during the national Games in Jinan, many horses from the Beijing area had to go to the Shandong province to compete at the competition. But stable managers had to work together in order to get all the horses at the site in time. Even though there weren’t enough horse trucks.48 This collaboration of managers and riders is beneficiary for the industries developments as they hopefully will work together on other parts as well.
Chapter 9 – Transport of Horses 44 Mr. C. Chun – Jinan Horssen Trailers Co., Ltd. – Dec 2009 45 Mr. M. Pan – Shanghai Nohard Autotools Co., Ltd. – Dec 2009 46 Statistical Yearbook 2009 – ISBN 978-7-5037-5800-9 47 Mr. C. Chun – Jinan Horssen Trailers Co., Ltd. – Dec 2009 But the overall feeling is that this transport problem will have to be solved. Not only riders and owners stress the fact that it obstructs the entire industry, also the Chinese Equestrian Association is working hard to change current regulation.
48 Mr. A. Neessen – Clearwood Stud. – Beijing – Oct 2009
26 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 This is one of the shortest chapters of this rapport, for the simple reason that there are hardly any equestrian competitions being organized in China. But like every other aspect of the sports of horses, this is starting to change quickly. The Chinese Equestrian Association is an important political body that is involved in the organization of equestrian competitions. This association will organize twenty national and five international competitions in 2010.49 There are two to three competitions being hosted by local associations, horsemanship clubs or the Chinese Equestrian Association from March to November. During the winter, there is one equestrian competition being organized in Beijing per three weeks. Equuleus International Riding Club is a horsemanship club in Beijing that organizes a competitions every Friday, all year round.50 In Beijing, there are annually 30 equestrian competitions organized without help of the in Beijing located Chinese Equestrian Association. Horsemanship clubs should get in contact with the Chinese Equestrian Association if they wish to host a national equestrian competition and there are more than five participating horsemanship clubs. 10.1 Popular Sports Approximately 80 per cent of these horsemanship clubs practice show jumping.51 This branch of equestrian sports is by far the most popular one. There are only a few equestrian clubs that are specialized in dressage and harness riding52 . Another sport which wins popularity is western riding. Especially barrel racing competitions are organized more often than three years ago. Riders compete with warm bloods or Chinese bred horses which are not the ideal horses for the job.
10.2 Future Developments A bright future for equestrian competition in China is forecasted by many highly involved people in the industry. More and more competitions are organized every year, but the number of competition-riders should not stay behind. It is expected that one competition per three weeks will be enough for the first half of 2010. The following paragraphs are important for future developments. Chapter 10 – Equestrian Competitions Popularity Equestrian Sports 49 Mr. Chang Wei – Chairman – Chinese Equestrian Association 50 Mr. V. Vermeulen – Stable Director – Beijing International Equestrian Club Co,. Ltd.
51 This statement is an estimation that was deducted after numerous visits to organizations active in the equestrian sector during a period of 4 months 52 An arrangement of leather straps buckled or looped together, fitted to a draught animal in order that the animal can be attached to and pull a cart 10.3 Jinma International Sports City Another positive step was taken in November 2009 when the first “Sports Lottery Cup” International Equestrian Forum was held in Chengdu, involving a number of Australians. It was jointly organized by the Sichuan Equestrian Association, the Chengdu Equestrian Association, the Wenjiang district government, and was supported by Chengdu Sports Bureau.53 This was the first high-level forum to be held in Western China, and signals the beginning of the horse industry in that region. Equestrian Sports and other horse related industries, including racing and breeding, are part of the plan by the Chengdu municipal government and Wenjiang district government who are working together to establish “Chengdu Jinma International Sports City”. 10.4 DFZ The abbreviation DFZ stands for Disease Free Zone and refers to a certain defined area where no one, or several 53 http://www.elizapark.com.au/_news_articles/news_090721_ ChinaForum.html
27 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 kinds of equine epidemic diseases have ever happened within a specified period of time. Moreover, it is a special area where effective official control is performed over the flowing of animals and by-products. Animal origin feedstuff, animal genetic materials, animal pathological specimens and veterinary drugs (including biologics) within the aforesaid area, its border area and a certain extent of this peripheral area and this area has successfully passed the State appraisal.54 Not creating a disease free zone in China’s mainland would impede international competitions. Although it is often said that horses cannot leave China, the contrary is true; horses can easily leave China but the countries of destination refuse to receive these horses because of the lack of disease control in China, the lack of a disease free zones.55 But protocols start to take shape as the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, together with ministries of other countries worldwide, are collaborating with the Chinese government to finalize the first disease free zone in Guangzhou, Guangdong province, in the south of China due to the sixteenth Asian Games which are being held in November 2010.56 Creating a disease free zone would be an huge maturation for China’s equine infrastructure because it would mean that horses that are trained in foreign countries can compete at international competitions that are being held in China. It was already possible to do so but professional riders would not take their horse to China to compete only one single competition, as they already knew they could not take their horse(s) back home afterwards. Sport horses that compete at these international competitions are valuable and riders therefore want to take it back to her of his training stable anywhere else in the world. Besides that, there are a number of originally Chinese riders who train in foreign countries but want to represent their country or province during competitions held in China. When a disease free zone is created, these riders can compete with their own horses that live outside China.57 54 www.gzahi.gov.cn 55 Mr. P. de Leeuw – Chief Veterinary Officer of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality – Oct 2009 56 www.gz2010.cn/en 57 Mr. Lam – Father Samantha Lam; Olympic Rider (Show jumping) – Oct 2009
28 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010
29 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 When more and more horses are sold to the People’s Republic of China, export regulations start to make a real difference in worldwide trade. Not only for the Dutch side because horses have to undergo several tests which bring along extra costs. Besides for the Netherlands also for the Chinese side because other members of the European Union might have more favorable regulations which could influence their European destination to start the search for warmblood horses.
11.1 Current Export Procedures The current procedure for export from the Netherlands to China as follows: • All horses that are exported to China have to undergo an official quarantine period in the Netherlands of 30 days. • Before horses can start the official quarantine, they have to be tested on the following blood tests: * Equine Infectious Anemia58 * Equine Rhinopneumonitis59 * Equine viral Arteritis60 * Equine Paratyphoid61 * Equine Piroplasmosis62 * Piroplasmosis EDTA * Glanders After the horses have been tested negative on the tests stated above, the official 30-days quarantine can start under supervision of an official veterinary expert of the Ministry of Agriculture.
During the official 30-days quarantine period, all tests will be repeated, except for the Coggins- and Glanders test. All these tests need to be done in a laboratory which got approval from the Ministry of Agriculture of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Next to the double check that is done, the horses also need to be treated against internal and external parasites with a parasiticide approved by the Ministry. When all tests come out negative, which means they are free of the tested diseases, and the horses had all treatments required by the Chinese Government, an official veterinary expert of the Ministry of Agriculture comes to the location where the horses are in quarantine. He or she then produces the health papers for export to China according to the Dutch-Chinese protocol. At this point, all the horses that are ready for export will be checked again and subsequently have to be free of clinical signs and infectious and contagious diseases. When these checks have been done and results come out negative again, the horses will be transported to China by plane.
Once the horses reach China’s mainland, they will undergo an extra 45 days of quarantine under supervision of the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture. The blood tests that are done in the Netherlands will be repeated again (third time) during the Chinese quarantine so the Chinese government is sure they are dealing with perfectly healthy horses.63 If the horses come out negative again on these tests, they can be released after 45 days and can finally be transported to their new owners/riders and stables.
Chapter 11 – Export Regulations 58 Also referred as ‘Coggins’ 59 This is combined with a serum neutralization test that has an interval of 14 days 60 This blood test has the abbreviation ‘EVA’ 61 Also referred to as ‘Salmonella Arbortus Equi’ 62 Also referred to as ‘Babesia Equi’ 11.2 Trade Barriers in Dutch Export Regulations When it comes to export of horses from the Netherlands to China, there are some drawbacks which obstruct an uncomplicated export procedure.
11.2.1 Quarantine Start Delays An example hereof is the fact that the Netherlands is the only member of the European Union were horses have to be tested with negative results before they are allowed to start the official quarantine period. A horse enjoying some hay before it is flown to Mexico 63 Mr. R. Oirbans – Horse Service International B.V. – Jan 2010
30 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 It is undoubtedly that this is an example of a trade barriers because transport companies have to cope with extra charges for the second testing’s when compared to competitors in for example Germany of France. Besides, Dutch transporters also need more time because of these second tests which is clearly disadvantuous for them. 11.2.2 Equine Viral Arteritis Another trade barrier is the Dutch regulation concerning Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA). When a horse comes out of this EVA-test with a positive result, it is not allowed to be exported. This effects a lot of flights, and eventually sales seen the fact that a large number of horses are carrier of this viral disease64 Horse Service International B.V. is working hard together with governmental organizations to get the certificate for EVA approved according the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)65 The request is trying to realize a change in the current procedures; if a horse has the same titer-result twice in the EVA-test, it should still be possible to export these horses. This means that in an ideal situation, if horses are tested positive on EVA the second time, the titer is also mentioned on the result-form. In cause of an GTS-situation66 , whereby the titer has not increased/changed, the negative- notification should be added on the health certificate. 11.2.3 Laboratory Delays The last political drawback has to do with external competition from the Eastern neighbors of the Netherlands. Germany has a commercial laboratory where all European countries can send their tests too in order for them to get the results. Only companies in the Netherlands are obliged to send their tests to the Dutch Ministry Laboratory. This Dutch government laboratory is not as quick as the German one and charges more for the same proceedings.67 Descriptions of the pictures from top to bottom: The first picture was taken in Jiangsu province and shows two imported horses. The white horse on the background is a Andalusier horse (Spanish breed) and the black one in the forefront is a Frisian horse imported from the Netherlands. The second picture shows a statue of an Australian thoroughbred and is placed in front of the luxurious club house of the Shanghai Equestrian Center. The last picture was taken on Changle Lu in Shanghai and shows a woman with a cap on her head that has to protect in case of an accident. The majority of these caps in China are not sold to horseback riders but to people that own scooters and motor vehicles due to the fact that they are cheaper than a regular helmet.
64 www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/52900.htm 65 www.oie.int/eng/en_index.htm 66 Geen titer stijging 67 Mr. R. Oirbans – Horse Service International B.V. – Jan 2010
31 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 As China’s economy grows and opens further, the opportunity it presents to foreign companies is changing. This flourishing economy brought along desires for the so called ‘elite sports’ like horseback riding. Now, companies can actually go after the Chinese domestic equestrian market, and it’s worth going after. A start has been made by the collaboration of several Dutch companies by means of a consortium called ‘Orange Horse Initiative’. Each of the involved companies have their own expertise in the equestrian market. It is now keen to make well considered steps in order to set foot in this Chinese market that is starting to rise.
12.1 Mode of Entry Once the decision has been taken to conduct business on the Chinese market, a company needs to determine the right mode of entry. Several options are available through which a firm can enter the market, ranging from sales representatives to joint-ventures to a wholly owned foreign enterprise. For this reason, a company has to consider its level of commitment, risk control and the profit potential attached to each alternative carefully.68 12.2 Differences in Doing Business Another aspect that these companies will surely get acquainted with is the different way in doing business. Many businesses find it difficult to cope with these differences. The root cause: the European side’s fail to understand the much broader context of Chinese culture and values. European and Chinese approaches often appear incompatible. An overview of the view from both sides might help to create more insight.69 12.3 Guanxi As stated in chapter seven, guanxi plays quite an important role in daily Chinese business life. It is often translated as ‘network’ or ‘personal connections’. In fact, these translations do not do justice to the fundamental, and complex, concept of guanxi. While Europeans put a premium on networking, the Chinese place a premium on individuals’ social capital within their group of friends, relatives and close associates.70 The role of guanxi is sometimes overestimated because just like in Europe, your personal connections are important. Besides that, China’s business culture is changing into a more Western approach. This has to do with the large number of foreign companies and multinationals that are active in China. Next to the increasing number of Chinese students who have studied abroad.
Chapter 12 – Doing Business in China Sino-Dutch Trade Dinner during the Trade Mission led by Minister Eurlings in Shanghai in November 2009 European Chinese THEIR BASIC CULTURAL VALUES AND WAYS OF THINKING Individualistic Collectivistic Egalitarian Hierarchical Information oriented Relationship oriented Sequential Circular Seeks the truth Seeks the way HOW THEY APPROACH THE NEGATION PROCESS Nontask Sounding Quick meetings Long courting process Informal Formal Information exchange Full authority Limited authority Direct Indirect Means of Persuasion Aggressive Questioning Impatient Enduring Terms of Agreement Forging a ‘good deal’ F o r g i n g a l o n g - t e r m relationship 68 An Overview of China’s Fruit & Vegetables Industry – May 2008 69 Harvard Business Review on Doing Business in China – ISBN 1-59139- 638-7 70 Prof. Dr. J. Gatz – Professor Cultural Dimensions – Hochschüle Hof – Sept 2009 12.4 Long Term View Especially the fact that many Chinese businesses are seeking for a long term relationship will be crucial for the success of the ‘Orange Horse Initiative’ consortium. Its strength is that it can offer a total package. Success in the equestrian business requires experience, know-how and time. Many Chinese entrepreneurs move quickly and buy the necessary products without effort, but overall success in equestrian sports simply takes more time. Consortium-members should not be dragged along something that looks like a ‘quick profit’ but should cooperate and guarantee success on the long run.71 The consortium has to work together as a team. There are several examples of branches were it has shown to be very successful to operate in this way.72 71 Mr. E. Verwaal – Consul-general of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Shanghai – Dec 2009 72 Mr. H. van Duijn – Diplomatic Counselor – Ministry of Agriculture Nature and Food Quality – Jan 2010
32 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 32 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010
33 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 Beijing Equidorf Saddlery Co. Ltd. No. 89 Beimafang Dongwei Road Chaoyang District Beijing 100018 People’s Republic of China 0086 010 843 17638 firstname.lastname@example.org www.equidorf.com Beijing International Equestrian Club Co. Ltd. Vincent Vermeulen – Stable Director No. 99 Cailand Road Caiyu Town, Daxing District Beijing 102608 People’s Republic of China 0086 10 8020 3699 www.iecbj.com.cn Belebro (Almarit B.V.) Mr. Piërre Bens - President Kampstraat 1a 5384 PV Heesch The Netherlands email@example.com Phone +31 412 457406 www.belebro.com Brinco Stallenbouw Ambachtstraat 3 3732 CN De Bilt Tel: 030-2201690 Fax: 030-2205459 firstname.lastname@example.org www.brinco.nl China’s Agricultural University Yuanmingyuan Xi Lu 2 Haidian Beijing 100094 0086 10 62732736 0086 10 62731004 email@example.com www.cau.edu.cn Chinese Equestrian Association Mr. Chang Wei - Chairman Laoshan Shijingshan District Beijing 100049 People’s Republic of China 0086 10 88977833 0086 139 1199 0579 firstname.lastname@example.org www.horse.org.cn Consulate-General of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 500 Hongbaoshi Road 10/F B (East) Tower, Dawning Center Changning District People’s Republic of China 0086 (0)21 2208 7288 www.hollandinchina.org Equuleus International Riding Club No. 91 Shunbai Road Sunhe Zhen Chao Yang District Beijing People’s Republic of China 0086 10 84590236 email@example.com www.equriding.com Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Androclusgebouw Yalelaan 1, De Uithof 3584 CL Utrecht The Neterlands 0031 (030) 253 90 00 firstname.lastname@example.org www.uu.nl Havens Graanhandel N.V. Mgr. Geurtsstraat 41 5823 AC Maashees The Netherlands 0031 (0)478-638 238 www.havens.nl Helicon Opleidingen NHB Deurne Mr. Peter Strijbosch – Director Intational Programmes Bruggenseweg 11a 5752 SC Deurne The Netherlands 0031 493 31 30 06 email@example.com Horse Service International B.V. Hazenkampweg 6 5964 PE METERIK The Netherlands 0031(0)77.398.4545 firstname.lastname@example.org www.horseservice.nl Chapter 13 – Contact Details
34 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 Koninklijk Warmbloed Paardenstamboek Nederland Mrs. Irene Wolfs – Manager Foreign Affairs Stephensonstraat 25A - 27 3846 AK Harderwijk The Netherlands 0031(0)341-255555 email@example.com www.kwpn.nl Meadowbrook Equestrian and Rural Center 2780 Shen Zhuan Highway Qing Pu District Shanghai 201714 People’s Republic of China 0086 (21) 6983 0022 firstname.lastname@example.org www.meadowbrookshanghai.com Nanjing Agricultural University Mrs. Han Jiqin – Associate Professor Weigang 1 Nanjing People’s Republic of China 0086-25-8439-5727 0086-25-8439-5754 email@example.com english.njau.edu.cn Northeast Agricultural University Mucai Street 59 Xiangfang District Harbin People’s Republic of China 0086-451-55190114 firstname.lastname@example.org www.neau.cn PAVO (Horse Feed) Postbus 4136 7320 AC Apeldoorn Boogschutterstraat 40 7324 Apeldoorn The Netherlands 0031 (0)55-3696369 www.pavo.nl Roborant Horsemanship Club Ltd. Caijian Road Fengcheng Town Fengxian District Shanghai 201409 0086 021-57553222 0086 130 6166 8360 email@example.com www.horse.roborant.com.cn Shanghai Corich Sports & Leisure Co., Ltd. Mr. Pang Peili – Managing Director North Caoxi Road 468 Ninth Floor – Room 1106 Shanghai 200030 People’s Republic of China 0086 21 5424 2347 0086 133 218 73800 firstname.lastname@example.org Shanghai Equestrian Centre No.6300 Jin Lang Highway Zhu Jin Town Jin Shan District Shanghai People’s Republic of China 0086 021 57346691 www.shmsydc.com Shanghai Shine Kingdom Sport Apparatus Co. Ltd. P.O. Box Shanghai 700-008 0086 021 59700788 0086 021 59700789 email@example.com Shanghai Song Seng Equestrian Club No. 621 East Renmintang Road Fengxian District Shanghai 201418 0086 (0)21 51398100 www.songseng.com Tallahesse Asia Holdings Ltd. No. 73 Caine Road Mezzaine Floor, Unit E Hong Kong 0065 9723 8582 firstname.lastname@example.org www.tallahesse.com Verenigde Sportpaardenhandel Nederland www.vsnhorses.nl WDJ Horses Mr. Wim de Jonghe – General Manager Fleuweweg 12b 7468 AG Enter The Netherlands 0031 651 203 908 0086 158 12 466 252 email@example.com www.wdjhorses.com
35 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 China’s horse industry went through the development stages as follows: first of all, in early times (2100 B.C. – 221 B.C.) i.e., the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties, monarchs adopted the system of enfeoffment to consolidate their power while suppressing the maneuver capacity of the nobles. Then, the social hierarchical system of the slave society came into being, specifying what kind of people should won what kind of horses. Restrictions on production scale, quality and quantity of horses to be raises were imposes so as to control the maneuver capacity of the nobles.
Next to it is the prime period (221 B.C. – 907 AD), when the centralization system was introduced, with the system of prefectures and counties instead of the system of enfeoffment. Starting from the Qin Dynasty, great efforts had been made to develop the horse industry chiefly for military purposes. In the Han Dynasty, priority was given to horse raising in order to challenge foreign powers and expand its territory, In order to improve the physical quality of Mongolian horses, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty made war on his neighboring country to acquire the fine bred “blood-sweat horse”. Consequently, he successfully raised the national strength in the Tang Dynasty. Fine horse breeds and confinement raising techniques were introduced, making its horse industry lead the world. According to records, stables were then established in Longxi, Northwest China (the west of Shaanxi and the south of Gansu) for over 20 horse breeds, domestic and foreign, leading to the breeding of “Tang Horse”. It was also during this period that two major events concerning horse breed improvement occurred in China.
Then came a declining period (907 AD – 1368 AD), when China’s horse industry fell into decline due to the lasting wars in the late Tang Dynasty and the following five Dynasties and ten Kingdoms, which dissipated various environments necessary for the sustained development of the horse industry. Policies and regulations adopted in the late Northern Song Dynasty like the Horse Protection Rules resulted in the reduction in both quantity and quality of horses. In 1127, the capital city of the Northern Song Dynasty fell to northern nomads from Liao and Jin, who were skilled horse riding and who captured the emperor. The Southern Song Dynasty based in Hangzhou ever attempted to revitalize the horse industry but failed because of the humid and hot climates in south China, which are unfit for horse rearing. It was during the 152- year reign of the Southern Song Dynasty that horse rearing specialists and techniques accumulated since the Xia and Shang Dynasties or earlier were almost lost completely. Only inferior horses were available through border trading.
During the period from 1368 AD to 1949 AD, Mongolian horses came to prominence. Horses and the horse industry thrived once again. Mongolian cavalries swept across Europe and Asia, making enemy armies flee pell-mell at the mere sight of them, and spreading the nomadic civilization all over the world. In the Ming Dynasty, stables were primarily run by the government, and civilians raised horses under the supervision and guidance of the government. Although the horse industry was revitalized to a certain extent, there was insufficient supply of horses. In order to organize and supervise the breeding and production of horses by civilians, the Ming government set up the Horse Administration, which was the largest in the history of horse breeding in China, adopting the system of household registration for horse breeding, the system of population registration for horse breeding and the system of land registration for horse breeding, and taking a multitude of measures concerning horse husbandry, peony levy and horse foster, The quantity of horse in the Ming Dynasty was large, but their quality was poor, because fine horse breeds were hardly introduced and the mechanism of horse breed improvement was not available.1 Appendix 1 – Historical View on China’s Horse Industry Russian Breed – Karabin Horse The Qing Dynasty was another minority nationality dominated dynasty following the Yuan Dynasty, and its rulers attached great importance to Han culture learning. The Qing government formulated a package of well- knitted policies concerning horse rearing and use for military purposes, including the right to the breeding and production of horses and the right to the allocation 1 Horses in China - 马在中国 – Dugarjaviin Manglai - 芒来 - Nov 2009
36 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 and use of horses. This suggests that maneuver capacity was controlled to an extreme extent so that the power of the Qing government was effectively consolidated. Internationally, however, this weakened the maneuver capacity of China as a whole. The contemporary period (1949 AD-) starting from the founding of the People’s Republic of China ushered in a new and prosperous era. To develop production and improve the quality of horses in China, the measures established in the Hand and Tang Dynasties may be the best for us to follow. As statistics suggested, from 1950 through 1960, the Chinese government invested huge amounts of money onto the introduction of more than a dozen fine horses breeds or approximately 2000 horses from the former Soviet Union for breeding purposes. Horse breeds introduced during that period included Soviet thoroughbred, Ardebbes horse, Kabardin horse, Don horse, Karabakh horse, Gucu horse and Vladimir horse, etc.
Horse breed improvement was carried out by introducing stallions, learning horse rearing skills, establishing ranches and horse breeding stations, and the cultivation of new horse breeds was initiated. With the joint efforts of state-owned and collectively-owned ranches, the year 1971 witnessed that the quantity of horses was up to 11 million and their quality was improved considerably. Four years later, however, when “Four Modernizations” was listed in the agenda, horse rearing for farming and military purposes suffered a setback. Almost all state- run ranches including those for military purposes were dissolved, leading to the declining quality of horses and the extinction of certain horse breeds.
In 1978, China began to transform its economic system from planned economy to market economy. In 1990, commercial horse races were held for the first time. In response to market demands, horses have not been merely used for traditional purposes, along with the change in breeding purposes. Fast breeding techniques were introduced. A bath of businesses and organization have been involved in equestrian sports and horse riding serviced, contributing to the establishment and development of a modern horse industry in China. In Chinese history, there were three major events concerning horse breed improvement. In the Han Dynasty, blood sweat horses (light breed) were introduced, which were lighter than modern light horses, and which became known to people for their service in the Silk Road. In the Tang Dynasty, more than twenty horse breeds were introduced and raised in Longxi, northwest China (west of Shaanxi Province, south of Gansu Province), with the breeding result “Tang Horse”. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, 8 horse breeds or 1125 horses were imported from the former Soviet Union merely in 1952. In 1960s, breed improvement were enormously conducted in order to foster new horse breeds. In 1970s, remarkable achievements were scored in this regards, and new breeds were fostered in the agricultural areas of northwest China, north China and northwest China as well as pasturing areas. In 1980s, new horse breeds fostered were examined and accepted. Later on, management was loosened up, resulting in the loss of certain horse breeds. In 1990s, horse demand for racing, riding and equestrian sports brought about the changes in the functions of horses and breeding purposes as well as the application of new fast breeding techniques.2 2 Horses in China - 马在中国 – Dugarjaviin Manglai - 芒来 - Nov 2009
37 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 As stated in chapter 3, the classification of the Chinese horse breeds can be found in this appendix. Most of them scarcely have a single origin. Although horse species are diverse, it is still possible to classify them.1 1. Mongolian Horse Wushen horse Uzhumchin Horse Baichingo Horse Shilingol Horse 2. Hequ Horse Qiaoke Horse Soke Tibetan Horse Kesheng Horse 3. Kazakh Horse 4. Yanqi Horse 5. Chakouyi Horse 6. Datong Horse 7. Sanhe Horse 8. Xinan Pony Debao Pony Guizhou Horse Ningqiang Horse Baise Horse Jianchang Horse Lichuan Horse Tengchong Horse New Lijiang Horse 9. Yili Horse 10. Shandan Horse 11. Tieling Draft Horse 12. Heilongjiang Horse 13. Jilin Horse 14. Jinzhou Horse 15. Guanzhong Horse 16. Balikun Horse 17. Tibetan Horse Ganzi Horse Yushu Horse Zhongdian Horse 18. Heihe Horse 19. Bohai Horse 20. Yiwu Horse Appendix 2 – Classification of Chinese Horse Breeds Yili Horse 1 Horses in China - 马在中国 – Dugarjaviin Manglai - 芒来 - Nov 2009
38 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 The next two sheets present the average temperature and the average relative humidity in the major cities of the People’s Republic of China. In this way it is easier to form a picture of how long it takes for a warmblood horse from Europe to get acclimatized in China and to realize what kind of weather conditions horses have to work in during the year. Appendix 3 – China’s Weather Conditions Monthly Average Temperature of Major Cities1 (2008) °C City Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. A n n u a l Average Beijing -3.0 0.6 9.1 15.8 20.3 23.4 27.2 26.0 21.0 14.5 6.3 -1.0 13.4 Tianjin -3.6 -0.7 8.6 15.8 20.8 23.4 27.0 26.5 21.5 14.7 6.4 -1.3 13.3 Shijiazhuang -2.0 2.5 10.6 16.3 22.2 24.4 27.5 26.1 21.4 16.0 8.0 1.6 14.6 Taiyuan -5.5 -3.3 7.1 13.1 18.9 21.6 24.9 23.5 17.8 11.5 3.9 -2.6 10.9 Hohhot -12.1 -9.3 3.4 11.4 16.4 20.3 23.6 20.0 15.9 8.2 -0.3 -8.9 7.4 Shenyang -12.6 -7.9 3.8 12.2 16.4 21.0 24.5 23.2 17.8 11.3 1.0 -7.0 8.9 Changchun -15.6 -9.4 3.0 12.1 15.1 21.3 23.5 22.4 16.5 9.5 -2.3 -9.6 7.2 Harbin -17.6 -10.5 2.7 11.3 14.4 22.5 24.4 23.2 16.4 8.3 -4.4 -11.6 6.6 Shanghai 4.2 4.0 11.4 15.9 21.6 24.0 30.2 27.4 25.6 20.7 13.1 7.5 17.2 Nanjing 1.5 2.5 11.3 15.6 22.2 23.4 29.0 27.0 24.4 19.0 11.4 5.7 16.1 Hangzhou 3.7 3.9 12.7 17.1 23.2 24.6 30.1 28.4 25.8 20.4 12.9 7.6 17.5 Hefei 1.0 2.7 12.5 16.8 23.5 24.2 28.7 27.3 24.5 18.9 11.3 5.9 16.4 Fuzhou 11.0 9.1 15.3 19.3 22.8 26.7 29.0 29.0 27.9 23.7 18.0 13.5 20.4 Nanchang 3.5 5.5 14.6 18.7 24.3 25.8 30.0 29.5 27.0 21.3 13.4 8.7 18.5 Jinan -2.0 1.0 10.3 16.3 22.3 25.0 26.0 25.6 21.6 17.2 9.1 2.4 14.6 Zhengzhou -0.7 2.8 12.1 16.9 23.7 26.0 26.6 26.8 21.6 17.2 10.7 3.8 15.6 Wuhan 1.2 4.9 14.4 18.5 24.7 26.4 29.3 28.4 25.1 19.1 12.4 7.3 17.6 Changsha 2.3 5.5 15.2 18.9 24.6 26.7 30.1 28.7 25.4 19.9 13.5 9.1 18.3 Guangzhou 12.8 11.6 20.1 23.2 25.6 27.0 29.1 29.3 28.6 26.1 19.9 15.6 22.4 Nanning 9.4 10.4 19.1 22.9 25.7 26.5 27.7 27.3 26.6 24.0 17.1 13.3 20.8 Haikou 16.9 13.3 20.9 25.3 26.6 27.4 28.0 27.6 27.4 25.8 22.7 19.2 23.4 Chongqing 6.2 7.3 15.5 19.0 23.8 25.8 29.1 26.3 25.6 19.6 14.2 9.41 18.5 Chengdu 3.7 5.4 13.4 17.2 22.1 24.4 25.7 24.1 22.2 18.1 12.2 7.1 16.3 Guiyang 1.0 2.2 11.8 15.7 18.8 21.0 22.7 22.0 20.9 16.5 10.4 6.3 14.1 Kunming 10.7 8.5 13.7 18.0 18.5 19.2 19.4 19.7 19.1 16.8 11.8 9.4 15.4 Lhasa 1.5 1.4 5.6 10.1 13.5 15.9 16.2 15.0 14.4 8.9 3.8 1.0 8.9 Xi’an -1.7 1.8 12.5 16.4 23.2 25.8 27.1 26.1 20.6 15.0 8.8 3.3 14.9 Lanzhou -6.6 -4.1 9.1 13.8 18.9 21.9 24.0 20.9 16.7 11.4 4.0 -2.6 10.6 Xining -9.6 -7.9 3.4 8.3 13.3 14.8 17.9 15.4 12.4 7.0 -0.3 -5.9 5.7 Yinchuan -10.2 -7.7 7.3 13.4 19.1 23.5 24.6 21.9 17.0 10.7 2.9 -4.2 9.9 Urumqi -15.6 -9.6 5.2 11.1 20.7 24.1 25.2 23.5 16.9 10.1 0.9 -8.2 8.7 1 China Statistical Yearbook 2009: ISBN 978-7-5037-5800-3
39 AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY I Jan 2010 Average Relative Humidity of Major Cities2 (2008) % City Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. A n n u a l Average Beijing 40 30 39 53 51 67 70 69 68 58 44 38 52 Tianjin 47 41 45 52 51 68 74 72 69 64 48 45 56 Shijiazhuang 53 32 41 58 52 67 70 75 72 59 50 40 56 Taiyuan 57 46 43 53 42 61 62 61 69 61 48 34 53 Hohhot 59 55 43 39 24 52 50 66 60 56 53 46 50 Shenyang 60 50 62 54 63 75 82 79 68 62 58 57 64 Changchun 61 50 48 42 52 65 80 73 60 57 63 56 59 Harbin 61 52 51 43 57 58 76 67 59 59 66 66 60 Shanghai 72 64 62 68 66 80 70 75 75 73 71 65 70 Nanjing 75 67 64 70 65 81 76 82 78 76 71 60 72 Hangzhou 75 64 64 68 62 81 69 76 76 75 72 61 70 Hefei 80 71 66 72 67 83 84 86 80 79 70 60 75 Fuzhou 72 63 63 73 71 75 72 71 68 71 62 62 69 Nanchang 72 61 68 73 66 78 71 73 73 67 69 58 69 Jinan 60 43 43 52 54 64 84 75 68 59 45 40 57 Zhengzhou 58 46 47 58 54 60 77 73 71 64 50 40 58 Wuhan 78 67 70 71 62 72 74 75 72 76 73 59 71 Changsha 81 73 75 76 68 74 70 74 76 75 74 62 73 Guangzhou 68 63 69 79 78 83 75 73 72 72 60 60 71 Nanning 80 68 76 78 75 83 81 82 79 77 75 72 77 Haikou 81 82 82 79 78 79 77 78 78 84 73 77 79 Chongqing 86 83 81 81 76 78 72 84 78 89 87 90 82 Chengdu 76 75 75 71 67 71 77 80 79 80 76 75 75 Guiyang 80 73 72 74 75 73 79 82 79 82 79 77 77 Kunming 59 66 59 52 68 75 80 79 76 77 74 74 70 Lhasa 17 21 31 29 43 49 56 60 52 38 33 24 38 Xi’an 64 54 47 58 46 52 61 60 71 74 62 52 58 Lanzhou 57 56 39 40 37 43 49 58 71 68 55 52 52 Xining 53 47 44 47 51 62 59 68 73 68 58 46 56 Yinchuan 64 61 33 38 31 38 54 57 66 57 50 42 49 Urumqi 73 72 56 37 33 32 37 37 43 56 69 74 52 2 China Statistical Yearbook 2009: ISBN 978-7-5037-5800-3