D3.3 - D3.4 Map of Remanufacturing Processes Landscape

 
D3.3 - D3.4 Map of Remanufacturing Processes Landscape
A report by the partners of:

D3.3 – D3.4 Map of
Remanufacturing Processes
Landscape
For Horizon 2020, grant agreement No 645984, 2016
D3.3 - D3.4 Map of Remanufacturing Processes Landscape
D3.3 – D3.4 Map of
     Remanufacturing
     Processes Landscape
     This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020
     research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 645984

     Written by:       Steffen Butzer and Sebastian Schötz (Fraunhofer)

     Approved by:      Steffen Butzer (Fraunhofer)

     Final check by:   Katie Deegan (Oakdene Hollins)

     Date:             June 2016

     Contact:          steffen.butzer@ipa.fraunhofer.de

ii
D3.3 - D3.4 Map of Remanufacturing Processes Landscape
Contents

1     Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1
2     Objectives & Methodology ................................................................................................ 2
3     Remanufacturing Processes .............................................................................................. 3
4     Sector Specific Remanufacturing Processes ...................................................................... 5
5     Map of Remanufacturing Processes ................................................................................ 10
6     Remanufacturing Processes Case Studies ....................................................................... 20
7     Remanufacturing of New and Advanced Materials ......................................................... 32
8     Remanufacturing Networking Event and Processes Workshop ...................................... 34
    8.1      Event and Workshop Impressions ........................................................................... 34
    8.2      Workshop Results.................................................................................................... 35
9     Conclusions ...................................................................................................................... 38
10    References ....................................................................................................................... 39

i
D3.3 - D3.4 Map of Remanufacturing Processes Landscape
Acknowledgements
     The partners would like to thank all those who took part in the survey, including participants
     from:

      Borg Automotive
      MBS Motoreninstandsetzung und Baumaschinenservice GmbH
      Bosch Service Lehner
      Continental AG
      Air France Industries KLM Engineering & Maintenance
      Liebherr-Ettlingen GmbH
      ax-lightness composites GmbH & Co.KG
      Knorr-Bremse Commercial Vehicle Systems
      Herrenknecht AG
      robotif GmbH
      MAN Truck & Bus

     Contents amendment record
     This report has been amended and issued as follows:

       Version     Date                           Description                     Author    Editor

         1       24/05/16                   Deliverable report: WP3                 SB

ii
D3.3 - D3.4 Map of Remanufacturing Processes Landscape
1   Introduction
    Remanufacturing is an important component of a resource efficient manufacturing industry.
    By keeping components and their embodied material in use for longer, significant energy use
    and emissions to air and water can be avoided. In addition to environmental benefits,
    remanufacturing provides opportunities for the creation of highly skilled jobs and economic
    growth.

    According to Steinhilper (1999), remanufacturing is the industrial process to restore used
    products (cores) at the end of their life or use cycle, into products of the same or better quality
    as new products.

    In order to encourage greater remanufacturing activities, the European Commission has
    funded a project to form, coordinate and support a European Remanufacturing Network
    (ERN). This Horizon2020 project takes place over a period of two years, with the ambition to:

       • encourage new businesses to take up remanufacturing

       • help existing remanufacturers improve their operations

       • improve competitiveness of remanufacturers domestically and internationally

       • create greater awareness of remanufacturing to increase demand and address barriers.

    Work Package 3 (WP3) aims to map best practices and challenges with respect to business
    models for remanufacturing, design for remanufacturing and remanufacturing processes.

    This report focuses on the outputs of Work Package 3.3 (WP 3.3) including Task 3.3 and Task
    3.4.

    The report summarises the current status of remanufacturing processes in different industries
    across Europe.

                                                                                                          1
D3.3 - D3.4 Map of Remanufacturing Processes Landscape
2   Objectives & Methodology
        The aim of WP 3.3 is to generate an overview of remanufacturing processes as they are carried
        out in different industries across Europe.

        This report will summarise the work done as following:

            1. Description of remanufacturing processes

            2. Survey of industry sector specific remanufacturing processes

            3. Map of remanufacturing processes

            4. Remanufacturing processes case studies

            5. Remanufacturing of new and advanced materials

            6. Remanufacturing networking event and processes workshop

        To gather the information in the first step, 105 companies were identified and their
        remanufacturing processes were analysed. The results of the analysis are the generic industry
        sector specific remanufacturing processes as well as typical products and sector specific
        features.

        In the second step, the remanufacturing processes of eight companies were analysed by
        visiting the companies’ facilities. The results of the analysis are the mapping of
        remanufacturing processes.

        In the next step, eleven companies were asked to provide information about their company,
        their remanufacturing operations, their processes and their business situation. The
        information collected are summarised as one pagers for remanufacturing processes.

        A special report on remanufacturing of new and advanced materials was created based on
        internet research.

        Lastly, a remanufacturing networking event, including a remanufacturing processes workshop,
        was hosted in Bayreuth (Germany) to discuss the information gathered and to discuss today’s
        and tomorrow’s perspectives and challenges in remanufacturing.

        The WP involved close collaboration with the industrial partners in order to:

               use their knowledge to unveil best practices among or known to them

               define challenges and opportunities close to the industrial praxis

               map remanufacturing processes in a way that is suitable for and usable by the

                industry.

2
D3.3 - D3.4 Map of Remanufacturing Processes Landscape
3   Remanufacturing Processes
    The number and sequence of the remanufacturing steps depend on the type and functionality
    of the product. According to Steinhilper (1999), mechanical and electromechanical systems
    have to be separated from mechatronic systems. For mechanical products, five main steps
    have to be undertaken.

    According to Freiberger (2007), for mechatronic and electronical products it is useful to add a
    sixth step, which is the entrance diagnosis of the product. Thus, failures which are not based
    on mechanical wear can be identified and separated.

    Figure 1 gives an overview of the five respectively six steps of remanufacturing.

    Figure 1 The five respectively six steps of remanufacturing.

                                                                                                      3
D3.3 - D3.4 Map of Remanufacturing Processes Landscape
In the following the five steps for mechanical systems, according to Steinhilper (1999), are
    described in more detail.

    In the first step, the old products, called cores, are disassembled completely into their single
    parts. Parts which cannot be reused or remanufactured are sorted out. The disassembly is
    mainly done manually due to different contaminants and degrees of corrosion.

    The second step includes the cleaning, degreasing, deoiling and derusting of all parts as
    required due to the level and type of contaminants and corrosion. Different cleaning
    technologies and processes are deployed in sequence or in parallel.

    In the third step the parts are classified according to their ability to be remanufactured or
    reconditioned, respectively. The parts are classified as following:

           Reusable without reconditioning

           Reusable after reconditioning

           Not reusable / to be exchanged

    Unlike in the new production of parts and products, within remanufacturing, all parts are
    inspected to guarantee the required quality.

    Within the next step, worn out parts are reconditioned by using metal treatment processes
    such as drilling, milling, turning, grinding and honing. Parts which cannot be reconditioned will
    be exchanged with new spare parts.

    The fifth step is the reassembly of the parts into a product. The reassembly is done on
    assembly lines for small batches with the same tools and equipment as in the new production.
    After the reassembly a functional test is done of all parts to guarantee 100% quality.

    Remanufactured products have the same, or even better, quality than new products. To be
    able to ensure this, the same quality assurance and testing procedures as in the new
    production are used within remanufacturing operations.

4
D3.3 - D3.4 Map of Remanufacturing Processes Landscape
4   Sector Specific Remanufacturing Processes
    To provide an overview of remanufacturing processes performed across Europe, 105
    companies and their processes were identified and analysed. The results of the analysis are
    generic industry sector specific remanufacturing processes as well as typical products and
    sector specific features.

    The summarised results of the analysis can be seen below.

                                                           Aerospace
     Generic Remanufacturing Process

          Incoming                                                                 Re-                       Final Check +
                          Disassembly         Cleaning        Inspection                        Reassembly
         Inspection                                                            conditioning                  Certifications

     Typical Products:
        Turbines
        Aircraft Seats
        Engines
        Propellers

     Sector specific features (regarding the Remanufacturing Processes):
        High quality standards must be met in order to achieve the necessary certifications
        Availability of spare parts can be problematic
        To avoid damage, the product as well as its single parts must be handled with great care
        Single parts can be made of advanced materials (e.g. PEEK, Carbon fibre)

    Figure 2 Aerospace sector specific remanufacturing process.

                                                                                                                              5
D3.3 - D3.4 Map of Remanufacturing Processes Landscape
Automotive
     Generic Remanufacturing Process

                           Initial          Dis-                                            Recon-     Reassembly
         Sorting                                          Cleaning        Inspection                                     Final Check
                         Diagnosis       assembly                                          ditioning   + Calibration

     Typical Products:
        Turbochargers
        Steering Systems
        Alternators
        Gearboxes
        Engines

     Sector specific features (regarding the Remanufacturing Processes):
        An initial diagnosis at the beginning helps to indentify failures of electronic parts
        Calibration of the product and/or subassemblies within the reassembly might be necessary

    Figure 3 Automotive sector specific remanufacturing process.

                                     Consumer goods and electronic products
     Generic Remanufacturing Process

                                                                                                       Replacement of
              Initial
                              Erasing Data       Disassembly          Cleaning         Inspection      worn parts with
            Diagnosis
                                                                                                         new ones

                                                                      Software          Consum-
                                                 Reassembly                                            Final Check
                                                                     Installation      ables Refill

     Typical Products:
        Ink and Toner Cartridges
        Cell Phones
        White Goods
        Notebooks and Tablets
        Printers

     Sector specific features (regarding the Remanufacturing Processes):
        In order to achieve data safety, sensitive data must be completely erased from existing data storage devices
        After the reassembly, required software must be installed and consumables (e.g. ink) must be refilled (if necessary)
        Normally, worn parts are replaced with new ones instead of being reconditioned
        An initial diagnosis at the beginning helps to indentify failures of electronic parts

    Figure 4 Consumer goods and electronic products sector specific remanufacturing process.

6
Furniture/office furniture
 Generic Remanufacturing Process

                                        Refinishing                                Re-               Com-
                     Disassembly                           Laminating
                                        of Surfaces                             upholstery         missioning

 Typical Products:
    Desks
    Tables
    Chairs
    Cupboards

 Sector specific features (regarding the Remanufacturing Processes):
    Normally, for large furniture the reassembly is done by the customer
    Broad range of materials (e.g. wood, metal, plastics)
    Often, in this sector, the process is also called “Refurbishing”

Figure 5 Furniture / office furniture sector specific remanufacturing process.

                                   Heavy duty and off road equipment
 Generic Remanufacturing Process

                       Pre-             Dis-                                            Recon-         Reassembly
     Sorting                                          Cleaning          Inspection                                    Final Check
                     cleaning        assembly                                          ditioning       +Calibration

 Typical Products:
    Gearboxes
    Brake Systems
    Hydraulic Systems
    Engines

 Sector specific features (regarding the Remanufacturing Processes):
    In many cases, precleaning of the cores is necessary due to the high contamination levels
    Calibration of the product and/or subassemblies within the reassembly might be necessary

Figure 6 Heavy duty and off road equipment sector specific remanufacturing process.

                                                                                                                                    7
Machinery
     Generic Remanufacturing Process

           Initial                                                                        Recon-
                          Disassembly            Cleaning           Inspection                            Reassembly      Final Check
         Diagnosis                                                                       ditioning

     Typical Products:
        Pumps
        Compressors
        Machine tools
        Robots

     Sector specific features (regarding the Remanufacturing Processes):
        Final check can be very comprehensive (checking function, geometry, performance)
        An initial diagnosis at the beginning helps to indentify failures of electronic parts

    Figure 7 Machinery sector specific remanufacturing process.

                                                            Marine industry
     Generic Remanufacturing Process

                                                                                  Recon-         Reassembly
                   Disassembly        Cleaning              Inspection                                            Final Check
                                                                                 ditioning       + Calibration

     Typical Products:
        Engines
        Alternators
        Sea water pumps
        Gear boxes

     Sector specific features (regarding the Remanufacturing Processes):
        Cores can be highly corroded
        Single parts can be made of advanced materials (e.g Carbon fibre)
        Calibration of the product and/or subassemblies within the reassembly might be necessary

    Figure 8 Marine industry sector specific remanufacturing process.

8
Medical equipment
 Generic Remanufacturing Process

                                           Cleaning +                        Replacement
        Initial                                                                                    Re-       Final check +
                       Disassembly             Dis-         Inspection       of worn parts
      Diagnosis                                                                                 assembly     Certifications
                                           infectation                       with new ones

 Typical Products:
    Computed Tomography (CT) Systems
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Systems
    X-Ray Systems

 Sector specific features (regarding the Remanufacturing Processes):
    High quality standards must be met in order to achieve the necessary certifications
    Normally, worn parts are replaced with new ones instead of being reconditioned
    Within cleaning, the parts must be disinfected
    Often, in this sector, the process is also called “Refurbishing”

Figure 9 Medical equipment sector specific remanufacturing process.

                                                         Rail industry
 Generic Remanufacturing Process

                                                                        Re-         Reassembly
           Disassembly          Cleaning           Inspection                                        Final check
                                                                    conditioning    + Calibration

 Typical Products:
    Engines
    Wagons
    Running Gears

 Sector specific features (regarding the Remanufacturing Processes):
    Final check can be very comprehensive due to test drives etc.
    Calibration of the product and/or subassemblies within the reassembly might be necessary

Figure 10 Rail industry sector specific remanufacturing process.

                                                                                                                              9
5   Map of Remanufacturing Processes
         In the second step of the work package the processes of eight companies were analysed in
         more detail. The companies’ facilities were visited for one to two days. After visiting the
         remanufacturing operations, the information about the remanufacturing processes were
         gathered using a standardised questionnaire.

         Four of the participating companies are independent remanufacturers and the other four
         companies are Original Equipment Manufacturers or Suppliers.

         Enduring the remainder of the project, more companies will be visited and the updated results
         will be published in a scientific paper.

         The results of the analysis are a detailed map of remanufacturing processes. The summarised
         results of the survey can be seen below.

         Question 1: What criteria do you use for the sorting process?

                                    Core Classification, Quality
                                    Criteria „exploit“, „recycling“, „waste“
                                    Comprehensive reporting catalogue
                                    Preselection at the service provider by part number level, selection at the facility by
                                     specification of technical nature (technical specification through development
                                     department)
                                    Mechanical information, thermal stress, visually and measured with technical
                                     equipment

         Question 2: What batch sizes do you typically use in (internal) production orders?

                                 6

                                 5
            Number of mentions

                                 4

                                 3

                                 2

                                 1

                                 0
                                                1                   5                    17                  70
                                                                          Batch size

         Figure 11 Batch sizes in remanufacturing.

10
Question 3: What size do your customer orders on average have?

                        5

                        4
   Number of mentions

                        3

                        2

                        1

                        0
                                     1                          17                   individual
                                                   Size of customer orders

Figure 12 Customer order size in remanufacturing.

Question 4: Which production concept is used?

                        7

                        6

                        5
   Number of mentions

                        4

                        3

                        2

                        1

                        0
                            Make to Stock   Assemble to Order        Make to Order        Other

Figure 13 Production concepts in remanufacturing.

                                                                                                  11
Question 5: What methods do you use to generate production orders?

                             6

                             5
        Number of mentions

                             4

                             3

                             2

                             1

                             0
                                 Replenishment        Kanban          Base Stock Steuerung
                                                                           Base Stock        Other
                                   Production

     Figure 14 Methods to generate production orders in remanufacturing.

     Question 6: Which trigger do you use to release an order?

                             9

                             8

                             7
        Number of mentions

                             6

                             5

                             4

                             3

                             2

                             1

                             0
                                   Due date      Congestion Control    Work Load Control     Other

     Figure 15 Trigger to release order in remanufacturing.

12
Question 7: How do you determine the order of production orders?

                        6

                        5
   Number of mentions

                        4

                        3

                        2

                        1

                        0
                                 FIFO           Due Date First     Shortest Job First       Other

Figure 16 Determinations of production orders in remanufacturing.

Question 8: Which principle do you use to organise your production?

                        5

                        4
   Number of mentions

                        3

                        2

                        1

                        0
                            Site Fabrication   Job-Shop Product   Group Manufacturing   Flow Production

Figure 17 Production organisation in remanufacturing.

                                                                                                          13
Question 9: Which principle do you use to produce goods?

                             6

                             5
        Number of mentions

                             4

                             3

                             2

                             1

                             0
                                    Jobbing  Production
                                     Single Production             Series Production          Mass Production

     Figure 18 Production principle in remanufacturing.

     Question 10: Which lot size concept do you use?

                             4

                             3
        Number of mentions

                             2

                             1

                             0
                                 Lot-by-Lot Transport     One Piece Flow        Overlapping      Batch production
                                                                                Production

     Figure 19 Production lot size concept in remanufacturing.

14
Question 11: Do you know the bottleneck within your production?

                        5

                        4
   Number of mentions

                        3

                        2

                        1

                        0
                            Cleaning / Blasting     Painting   Parts availability   Repair     Check as W.A.
                                                                                                 Checking

Figure 20 Bottlenecks in remanufacturing.

Question 12: Is there something special in your production scheduling that you would call
characteristic for your company?

                   Late diagnosis of components

 Long waiting times after diagnosis

  Separation of standard processes

                        Consultation with customer

                                            No / N.a.

                                                        0       1              2        3        4             5
                                                                          Number of mentions

Figure 21 Specifics in production scheduling in remanufacturing.

                                                                                                                   15
Question 13: Based on what criteria (e.g. KPIs) do you assess the success of your production?

                             5

                             4
        Number of mentions

                             3

                             2

                             1

                             0
                                 Quality (complaint Revenue, Profit      Productivity        Delivery              Time
                                        rate)                                              performance

     Figure 22 Key Performance Indicators used in remanufacturing.

     Question 14: How do you rate the availability of spare parts and cores for your production?

                             7

                             6
        Number of mentions

                             5

                             4

                             3

                             2

                             1

                             0
                                  Good availability of    Bad / Decreasing       Good availability of     Bad / Decreasing
                                     spare parts         availability of spare         cores             availability of cores
                                                                parts

     Figure 23 Availability of spare parts and cores in remanufacturing.

16
Question 15: Have you already conducted measures to increase resource efficiency? If so,
please specify what you did.

                        5

                        4
   Number of mentions

                        3

                        2

                        1

                        0
                            No          increasing the Energy
                                                        Energyefficiency
                                                               effiiency   KVP Workshops
                                                                           CIP Workshops    Internal and
                                      regeneration rate                                    external audits

Figure 24 Measures for resource efficiency in remanufacturing.

Question 16: Were those measures successful in increasing resource efficiency significantly
in your company?

                        6

                        5
   Number of mentions

                        4

                        3

                        2

                        1

                        0
                                 No                           Yes                  Currently unknown

Figure 25 Successfully implemented measures regarding resource efficiency in remanufacturing.

                                                                                                             17
Question 17: How do you conduct quality control?

                             5

                             4
        Number of mentions

                             3

                             2

                             1

                             0
                                 Visual inspection by     Manual measurement Technical, automated          Other
                                     employees               by employees      measuring device

     Figure 26 Quality control in remanufacturing.

     Question 18: What trends do you see in the remanufacturing industry?

                                                                                      Number of mentions
                                                                         0        1           2            3       4

      OEMs
       OEMsbecome
            becomemore
                   moreactive (service
                         active        conntracts)
                                (service contracts)

                                                        growing market

                                    nobody wants a repair anymore

                                                    design for reman

                                            more software problems

                                     standardisation of
                                     standardization of the
                                                         theproducts
                                                            products

     Figure 27 Trends in remanufacturing.

18
Question 19: Which of the following materials do you remanufacture?

                        5

                        4
   Number of mentions

                        3

                        2

                        1

                        0
                                Aluminium             Ceramics              Polymers                  Other

Figure 28 New and advanced materials recovered in remanufacturing.

Question 20: In what area / concerning what questions in remanufacturing do you wish for
more extensive research in academia?

                        3
   Number of mentions

                        2

                        1

                        0
                            Cleaning Processing Application Coating     Wear    Analysis of Shelf life of Availability
                                                of material           avoidance    new      third-party of technical
                                                                                 products products parameters

Figure 29 Research needs in remanufacturing.

                                                                                                                         19
6   Remanufacturing Processes Case Studies
         In this chapter the results of the remanufacturing processes analysis is shown.

         Eleven companies were asked to provide information about their company, their
         remanufacturing operations, their processes, their business situation, as well as their unique
         characteristics.

         The information collected are summarised as one pagers for remanufacturing processes which
         are also part of the remanufacturing processes toolkit which is available at the project
         homepage www.remanufacturing.eu.

         The aim of the remanufacturing processes one pagers is to provide accessible information to
         companies and interested people who are not active in remanufacturing yet as well as for
         remanufacturing companies and other stakeholders of the project to get an impression of
         remanufacturing companies and their remanufacturing processes in different industry sectors
         across Europe.

         During the remainder of the project more one pagers will be created and integrated into the
         remanufacturing processes toolkit.

20
Cas e S tudy :
BORG Autom otiv e

With more than 1,000 employees, BORG Automotive is one
of the largest independent remanufacturing companies.

Com pany and Bus ines s                                                      Unique Characteris tic
Model                                                                        The company has developed a
As one of Denmark‘s largest                                                  produced-to-order       concept
automotive companies and one                                                 which is supported by the
of the largest independent                                                   unique core division. This
remanufacturing       companies,                                             ensures a high level of delivery
BORG Automotive has more than                                                with    high     quality    and
40     years   experience     in                                             outstanding finish of the
remanufacturing.      With     a                                             products.
workforce of more than 1,000         Rem anufacturing Proces s
employees,    the       company      The remanufacturing process at
continuously     strives     for     BORG Automotive is subdivided
excellence. In 2015, BORG            into      six     process     steps:
Automotive was awarded as            Disassembly, cleaning, inspection
„Remanufacturer of the Year“.        & sorting, reconditioning &
BORG Automotive‘s three brands       replacement, reassembly and
(Elstock, DRI and Lucas) are         final testing. Within the first
launching the remanufactured         step, the cores undergo a
products.                            complete       disassembly      into
                                     individual            components.             Contact
                                     Components which cannot be                    BORG Autom otiv e
Products                             reconditioned are disposed of.
With the wide and diverse range      The next step is the cleaning of
of brands, BORG Automotive can       the     components      which      is
meet the customers demands for       followed      by    an    intensive
commercial       vehicles      and   inspection & sorting. This is done
passenger cars as well as marine,    visually and with test equipment.            Søren Toft-Jensen
construction, agricultural and                                                    Phone +4540608777
industrial applications. Examples                                                 stj@borgautomotive.com
for         the         company’s
remanufactured products are
EGR valves, A/C compressors,
                                                                                   Contact
alternators, starters, electric &
                                                                                   Fraunhofer
hydraulic steering racks/columns,
electric & mechanic servo pumps      Within the next step, the
and calipers.                        reconditioning & replacement,
                                     re-usable    components    are
                                     reconditioned and non-reusable
                                     components are replaced with
                                     new      quality   components.                Steffen Butzer
                                     Afterwards, the remanufactured                Telefon +49 (0) 921 / 78516-420
                                     products are reassembled and                  Fax +49 (0) 921 / 55-7305
                                     each remanufactured product                   steffen.butzer@uni-bayreuth.de
                                     undergoes a 100% performance
                                     test.                                                 Funded by the Horizon 2020
                                                                                 Framework Programme of the European
                                                                                                               Union

                                                                                                                        21
Cas e S tudy :
     MBS Motorenins tands etzung und
     Baum as chinens erv ice Gm bH
     The MBS refurbishes diesel engines predominantly from
     agricultural and construction machines.

     Com pany and                           Rem anufacturing Proces s            Unique Characteris tic
     Bus ines s Model                       After delivering the engines, the    Due to the long existence of
     The company operates with its          refurbishment process starts with    the    company      and    the
     15 employees as an independent         an incoming analysis to create an    extensive experience of the
     remanufacturer                for      estimation of costs (common to       employees, the company is
     predominantly diesel engines on        private customers). After the        able to refurbish a wide range
     the market. Due to the 86 years        customer releases the order, the     of        diesel       engines
     of company history, MBS has a          disassembly, cleaning process        unproblematic.
     wide        experience         in      and detailed analysis of the         This advantage allows MBS to
     remanufacturing     of     diesel      engine starts. Following, the        accept a wide range of
     engines. Additionally, acting as       customer can receive a second        different orders and generate
     contract dealer for four large         estimation of costs including a      growth of sales. Additionally,
     engine    manufacturers,     the       list of spare parts.                 they have a workshop truck to
     company can provide a wide                                                  repair engines and change
     range of spare parts and special                                            spare parts in the field.
     product      know-how.       The
     catchment area for customers is
     greater Bautzen.

                                                                                      Contact
                                                                                      MBS Motorenins tands etzung
                                                                                      & Baum as chinens erv ice Gm bH

                                            The next step is to change the
                                            damaged-, and to refurbish the
     Products                               worn parts of the engine. At this
                                            point, MBS profits from the
     The range of products are              product know-how of the
     predominantly diesel engines           employees. They are able to               Kai Stasch
     form          agricultural      and    analyze the engines and to find           Telefon +49 (0) 359 31 / 234-0

     construction machines, in almost       the right parameters for the              Fax +49 (0) 359 31 / 234-56

     all sizes including older series. To                                             info@motorenservice-bieberstein.de
                                            milling and drilling machines,
     generate further growth of sales       especially for older engines,
     and to develop new strategic           where no data sheets exists.             Contact
     business units, the company also                                                Fraunhofer
                                            After reassembly, MBS uses a test
     focuses on engines from classic        bench to check the performance
     cars, private boats and biogas         parameters. Finally, the engine is
     power plants.                          painted and ready for delivery.

                                                                                      Steffen Butzer
                                                                                      Telefon +49 (0) 921 / 78516-420
                                                                                      Fax +49 (0) 921 / 55-7305
                                                                                      steffen.butzer@uni-bayreuth.de

                                                                                              Funded by the Horizon 2020
                                                                                    Framework Programme of the European
                                                                                                                  Union

22
Cas e S tudy :
Bos ch S erv ice Lehner
The company is a franchisee of the Bosch GmbH with a own car repair shop
and a smaller remanufacturing division for diesel fuel feed components.

Com pany and                         Rem anufacturing Proces s             Unique Characteris tic
Bus ines s Model                     After delivering the cores to the     An advantageous aspect of
                                     remanufacturing workshop, they        the company is the franchisee
Bosch Service Lehner is a
                                     are checked on a test bench to        from the Bosch GmbH. First,
franchisee from the Bosch GmbH
                                     verify, if the engine´s problem is    they got the special know-
with only one branch office,
                                     caused by the tested component        how, the test benches and
located in Bautzen. The company
                                     or from other parts of the            spare parts directly from the
has two business units, the
                                     engine.                               manufacturer of the products.
“Bosch Service” as a car repair
shop and the “Bosch Diesel           Following, the customer receives      Secondly, they receive the
Center”      with    focus   on      a simplified estimation of costs.     trust of customers in the
remanufacturing of diesel fuel       After he releases the order, the      remanufactured         products,
feed components.                     disassembly and the cleaning of       because they see the well
                                     the components begin. The next        known brand Bosch as serious
For the remanufacturing process,
                                     step is the analyses of the           distributor with its high image
they     receive     the     cores
                                     components to identify damaged        in Germany.
preliminary from their own car
                                     or worn parts. Here, the
repair shop and partial from
                                     customer could receive a more
other regional car repair shops. A
                                     detailed estimation of costs
special procurement manage-
                                     again.
ment system for cores is not part                                                Contact
of the business model.               After releasing the order, the              Bos ch S erv ice Lehner
                                     replacement of damaged parts
                                     begins,    followed      by     the
                                     reassembly. The reassembling of
                                     diesel fuel feed components
                                     demand a very high technical
                                     cleanness. Because of the high
                                     pressure of the fuel injection and         Uwe Jannasch

                                     the low tolerances between the             Telefon +49 (0) 35 91 / 27 26-0

                                     components, they have to be                Fax +49 (0) 35 91 / 30 39 63

                                     without any particles. Finally, the        u.jannasch@motorenservice-
                                                                                bieberstein.de
                                     products are checked on the test
Products                             bench to verify the function and            Contact
                                     performance parameters. Now                 Fraunhofer
The      products     for     the
                                     they are ready to reuse in the
remanufacturing process are
                                     engine.
components from the diesel
engine fuel feed like injectors,
fuel   pumps      and   injection
nozzles.
                                                                                 Steffen Butzer
                                                                                 Telefon +49 (0) 921 / 78516-420
                                                                                 Fax +49 (0) 921 / 55-7305
                                                                                 steffen.butzer@uni-bayreuth.de

                                                                                         Funded by the Horizon 2020
                                                                               Framework Programme of the European
                                                                                                             Union

                                                                                                                      23
Cas e S tudy :
     Continental AG
     The Continental AG is an international producer for car components,
     it has also a remanufacturing division for instrument clusters.

     Com pany and                         independent      remanufacturing       remanufacturing     of    worn
     Bus ines s Model                     companies.                             parts the manufacturing of
                                                                                 pointers and the reassembly
     Continental is an international                                             follows. The last steps are the
                                          Rem anufacturing Proces s
     technology company with more                                                final test and packaging.
     than 208,000 employees in 55         The most important part of the
     countries and five divisions:        remanufacturing process in this
     Chassis   &    Safety,   Interior,   case is the connection between         Unique Characteris tic
     Powertrain, Tire, and ContiTech.     the remanufacturing and the            Continental´s unique charac-
     In Babenhausen in Germany, the       development division. If the           teristic is the co-operation
     Continental AG has a plant to        remanufacturing             division   between      remanufacturing,
     produce and       remanufacture      identifies statistical anomalies or    development     and   quality
     instrument clusters for cars. To     typical defaults at the cores, they    department.
     provide the remanufacturing          forward this information to the
     process with cores, the company                                             Additionally, after end-of-
                                          development division to adjust
     can use its well developed                                                  production of a product series,
                                          the design parameters of new
     network       to      automotive                                            Continental can use the
                                          products.     In      return,    the
     manufacturers and its service                                               original technical systems for
                                          development division offers a
     stations.                                                                   remanufacturing processes.
                                          data base with information
                                          about important software and
                                          hardware updates or technical
                                          spare part which should be                   Contact
                                          changed in remanufacturing                   Continental AG
                                          process. This information is
                                          available for every series and
                                          type of Continental instrument
     The collecting of cores and the      cluster.
     selling     of     remanufactured
     products is managed by the           By using the database in the
     central logistic center of the car   remanufacturing process the                 Amir Mohseni
     manufacturer. The customer           remanufacturing division knows,             Telefon +49 (0) 941 / 790 - 5296
     comes to the service station of      what    hard-    and    software            Fax +49 (0) 941 790 / 995296
     his car manufacturer with a          updates should be done for each             Amir.Mohseni@continental-
     damaged instrument cluster.          model,    directly   from    the            corporation.com

     After changing the instruments,      development experts.
                                                                                       Contact
     the damaged cluster is sent back     The      first   step     in   the           Fraunhofer
     to the car manufacturer´s central    remanufacturing process is to
     logistic center. From there, a few   scan all the incoming instrument
     deliveries per month with huge       clusters via barcode. After that
     unit numbers are delivered back      they make a selection, based on
     to Continental. Due to that,         the model and the proposed
     Continental is getting defined       rectifications from the the
     types of instrument clusters back    division responsible for product             Steffen Butzer
     for their own remanufacturing        development.          For      the           Telefon +49 (0) 921 / 78516-420
     process.                             appropriate instruments, the                 Fax +49 (0) 921 / 55-7305
                                                                                       steffen.butzer@uni-bayreuth.de
     By using this business model, the    next steps are the software reset
     circular   economy      has    no    and        update      and     the                   Funded by the Horizon 2020
     connecting points for                disassembling. After that, the             Framework Programme of the European
                                                                                                                   Union

24
Cas e S tudy :
Air France Indus tries KLM Engineering &
Maintenance
As a part of the AIR FRANCE KLM Group the company maintains,
repairs and overhauls airframes, aircraft components and engines.

Com pany and                                  Rem anufacturing Proces s             Furthermore, the company
                                                                                    covers a high number of
Bus ines s Model                              In this case, the remanufacturing     various       approval      and
                                              process is termed as “Overhaul“.      certifications such as ISO 9001,
Air    France     Industries    KLM
Engineering & Maintenance is                  The process steps are ranging         EN 9100, FAR 145 and much
one of the three businesses of                from the disassembly to the           more.
AIR FRANCE KLM Group. With a                  repair of components and the
workforce of        approx. 14,000            reassembly which is followed by
employees        the Air France               various validation tests.
Industries KLM Engineering &                  The single process steps are
Maintenance         operates      at          carried out by experts in
different              leading-edge           accordance   with     proven
engineering facilities at different           processes.
locations such as Amsterdam-
Schiphol, Paris Orly or Toulouse.
In order to take up the
technological challenges of the
future, the employees are put
through                  demanding
apprenticeship       and    training                                                      Contact
cycles. To stay a flagship player in                                                      Air France Indus tries
the global marketplace and                                                                KLM Engineering &
                                                                                          Maintenance
bolstering      the      competitive
advantage, the company has a
large-scale of technical and
human resources.                              Air    France    Industries KLM
                                              Engineering & Maintenance is
Products
                                              able to provide individual
The range of products for the                 modules repairs alongside the              mail.press@afiklmem.com
companies business reaches from               full overhaul services.
airframes to engines of Airbus,
                                              Unique Characteris tic
Boeing as well as regional
Aircraft    (e.g.   Bombardier,               Air    France    Industries   KLM
Embraer)                                      Engineering & Maintenance has
                                                                                          Contact
                                              gained a combined experience
                                                                                          Fraunhofer
                                              due to approx. 11,000 completed
                                              engine shop visits as well as
                                              continuous            technological
                                              development on all aircraft
                                              maintenance segments. Due to
                                              the rely on privilege relations
                                              with the manufacturers, the                 Steffen Butzer
                                              company constantly develops                 Phone +49 (0) 921 / 78516-420
                                              new, more efficient and cost-               Fax +49 (0) 921 / 55-7305
                                              effective processes. Customers              steffen.butzer@uni-bayreuth.de
                                              can benefit from price optimized
                                                                                                  Funded by the Horizon 2020
                                              top-quality services.                     Framework Programme of the European
                                                                                                                      Union

Source: http://www.afiklmem.com; 05.02.2016

                                                                                                                               25
Cas e S tudy :
     Liebherr-Ettlingen Gm bH
     The Liebherr Ettlingen GmbH as part of the Liebherr Group is
     specialized in remanufacturing of drive components from Liebherr
     products.

     Com pany and                         Products                             Unique Characteris tic
     Bus ines s Model                     The      products      in    the     The characteristic of the
     The Liebherr Group is an OEM         remanufacturing process have         Liebherr       remanufacturing
     for among other products,            very different sizes, geometries,    process is the high variance of
     excavators, wheel loaders and        weights     and     degrees   of     products. The high degree of
     cranes for      construction and     contamination. They range from       capacity utilization of all
     mining industries. The Location      small hydraulic components to        processes    guarantees     the
     in Ettlingen, called Liebherr        large V12 diesel engines.            profit, while additionally they
     Ettlingen GmbH, is specialized                                            can adjust their remanufactur-
     predominantly in remanufactur-                                            ing processes optimal to each
                                          Rem anufacturing Proces s
     ing of Liebherr drive components                                          product group. The circular
     like diesel engines, hydraulic       Following the remanufacturing        economy with no connecting
     pumps and gear boxes.                process for a diesel engine          points     for     independent
                                          exchange     component      is       remanufacturing companies is
     Liebherr designed the business
                                          described:                           an advantageous strategy for
     model for remanufacturing in
                                                                               Liebherr, making sure they
     the spirit of the circular           The process starts with the
                                                                               always have enough cores.
     economy. If one of the above         disassembly and the subsequent
     mentioned parts is damaged, the      stream jet. Afterwards, a pre-
     customer contacts his nearby         cleaning, the chemical paint
     Liebherr contract service center.    stripping and rust removal is              Contact
     Here, the customer has four          arranged. The next step is the             Liebherr-Ettlingen Gm bH
     options – to buy a new               mechanical cleaning of surfaces
     component, to repair the old         which are analyzed to quantify
     one, to exchange to an other         the degree of wear. After that,
     remanufactured one or he can         the components are ready to be
     release an overhaul order for his    analyzed and to identify the
     own used component. In case of       worn parts. After quantifying
                                          the scope of the remanufactur-            Christoph Siegel
     a component exchange, Liebherr
                                                                                    Telefon +49 (0) 7243 / 708 - 250
     offers a credit for the old part.    ing work and defining the tasks,
                                                                                    Fax +49 (0) 7243 / 708 - 120
                                          the mechanical cleaning of the
                                                                                    christoph.siegel@liebherr.com
                                          whole components begins.
                                          The last steps in this process are
                                                                                     Contact
                                          the final cleaning and the
                                                                                     Fraunhofer
                                          painting with rust preventives.
                                          After that, the single parts are
                                          stored.
                                          If a customer orders a “new”
     This business model keeps the        remanufactured engine, Liebherr
     market closed for independent        starts to reassemble the order
     remanufacturing companies and        from the stored parts. In this             Steffen Butzer
     additionally, Liebherr has all the   way, the stored components are             Telefon +49 (0) 921 / 78516-420
     newly produced components and        mixed to a new engine because              Fax +49 (0) 921 / 55-7305
     cores for the remanufacturing        they    all  have   the   same             steffen.butzer@uni-bayreuth.de
     process under control.               parameters and quality.
                                                                                             Funded by the Horizon 2020
                                                                                   Framework Programme of the European
                                                                                                                 Union

26
Cas e S tudy :

ax -lightnes s com pos ites
Gm bH & Co.KG
ax-lightness is one of the most innovative manufacturers and remanufacturing companies of CRP-
composites in Germany.

Com pany and                         Rem anufacturing Proces s            CRP-material     characteristics
Bus ines s Model                                                          and the interaction between
                                     The remanufacturing process
                                                                          its two complex components,
ax-lightness was founded in 2001     starts with the disassembly and
                                                                          the carbon fiber mesh and the
and has 30 employees. The            the analysis of the product to
                                                                          resin. The strength of the
company       started    as     a    decide whether the product is
                                                                          connection points between
manufacturer        for     CRP-     repairable.
                                                                          the product and the changed
components       (carbon    fibre    Due to the products ax-lightness     element depends on the
reinforced plastics) in bicycles,    produce, most of the repair          experience of the employee
later on in motor sports and         operations focus on repairing        and the orientation of the
medicine industries.                 tubes or surfaces, made from         CRP-meshes at the connecting
The products and its components      CRP. They usually separate the       areas.    Ax-lightness      can
are predominantly designed for       damaged CRP-component from           transfer the know-how from
high performance usage and           the product and replace it with a    the manufacturing to the
partially custom made. The high      new one. The critical process step   remanufacturing processes.
product price, the performance       is the integration of the new
expectations form the customer       CRP-element in the existing
and the small number of CRP-         structure of the old product.
companies on this level in           First, the replaced element has to
Germany are reasons why              fit perfectly in the cut area. The         Contact
customers buy the products from      second challenge is to create a            ax -lightnes s
ax-lightness. Due to this, the       strong connection between the
customers also bring their           changed component and the
products or components back to       connecting      points    of   the
ax when they are broken or           product. This requires a lot of
worn, so the remanufacturing         know-how        and     experience
process becomes more and more        concerning CRP material.
                                                                               Nils Wiedemann
important for the company.
                                                                               Telefon +49 (0) 9270 / 91513 - 0
                                                                               Fax +49 (0) 9270 / 91513 - 30
                                                                               wiedemann@ax-lightness.de

                                                                                Contact
                                                                                Fraunhofer

                                     Additional to the permanent
                                     quality tests conducted by the
                                     employees       while    remanu-
                                     facturing, the products are
Products                             tested finally on a test bench to
The     products    and       the    verify the function and the                Steffen Butzer

components for bicycles        are   performance parameters.                    Telefon +49 (0) 921 / 78516-420
                                                                                Fax +49 (0) 921 / 55-7305
manufactured in smaller and   mid
                                     Unique Characteris tic                     steffen.butzer@uni-bayreuth.de
size batches, for medicine    and
motor     sports   they        are   The unique characteristic of ax-
predominant custom made.             lightness is the expertise in                      Funded by the Horizon 2020
                                                                              Framework Programme of the European
                                                                                                            Union

                                                                                                                     27
Cas e S tudy :
     Knorr-Brem s e Com m ercial Vehicle S y s tem s

     Within a remanufacturing facility in Liberec (Czech Republic), the
     company remanufactures various products for commercial vehicles

     Com pany and Bus ines s                Rem anufacturing Proces s              Unique Characteris tic
     Model                                                                         Within the remanufacturing,
                                            The remanufacturing process
     The      company       with      the   starts with a comprehensive            know how as well as data and
     headquarter         in      Munich     sorting of the incoming cores.         information regarding the
     (Germany) has more than 110            Within the sorting, the cores are      technical    and   qualitative
     years     experience      in     the   graded according to different          specifications based on the
     development,           production,     criteria (e.g. core class, quality).   manufacturing      of    new
     distribution and service of            In the next step, the cores are        products are accessible and
     modern brake systems. In 2014,         disassembled into their single         rigorous applied.
     Knorr-Bremse           Commercial      parts. After the disassembly, the      Last but not least, to ensure a
     Vehicle Systems had a turnover         single parts are cleaned and           high     efficient      remanu-
     of approximately 5.2 billion           reconditioned.      Within      the    facturing,       Knorr-Bremse
     Euros and more than 23,000             reconditioning, comprehensive          Commercial Vehicle Systems
     employees.        The       original   quality checks of the single parts     implemented      strictly   the
     equipment             manufacturer     take place. In the last step, the      company’s own production
     remanufactures a wide range of         products are reassembled based         system.
     different     products     in    the   on criteria which are applied to
     company’s plant in Liberec             the production of new products.
     (Czech         Republic).       The    Moreover, some of the products
     remanufacturing activities take        are reassembled on the assembly              Contact
     place in a remanufacturing             line of the new products. This               Knorr-Brem s e Com m ercial
     facility with 9,000 square meters.     takes place in production plants             Vehicle S y s tem s
                                            that are also part of the Knorr-
                                            Bremse CVS Remanufacturing
     Products                               Production       Network.      This
                                            ensures a high quality of the
     The range of remanufactured
                                            remanufactured products.
     products includes spring brakes,
     one-cylinder as well as two-                                                       David Havlíček
     cylinder compressors, electronic                                                   Phone +420 730851267
     clutch actuator, electronic air                                                    david.havlicek@knorr-bremse.com
     control and modules of the
     electronic braking systems. These
                                                                                         Contact
     products are for commercial
                                                                                         Fraunhofer
     vehicles like trucks and trailers.

                                            Besides    the   comprehensive
                                            quality check of the incoming                Steffen Butzer
                                            cores as well as of the single               Phone +49 (0) 921 / 78516-420
                                            parts within the reconditioning,             Fax +49 (0) 921 / 78516-105
                                            a visual quality check is                    steffen.butzer@uni-bayreuth.de
                                            performed by the workers within
                                            each remanufacturing process                         Funded by the Horizon 2020
                                            step.                                      Framework Programme of the European
                                                                                                                     Union

28
Cas e S tudy :
Herrenknecht AG
The Herrenknecht AG is the world wide market leader for the production of tunnel
boring systems.

Com pany and                         number of variants.                  the final workshop assembly,
                                                                          testing and certification of the
Bus ines s Model                     Rem anufacturing Proces s            TBM. Caused by the different
The Herrenknecht AG is an                                                 types and sizes of the
                                     In this case, the remanufacturing
international operating company                                           components, the remanu-
                                     process     differ   from   other
for the production of tunnel                                              facturing process has different
                                     industries     caused    by   the
boring machines (TBM). The                                                loops        of        cleaning,
                                     extraordinary product size and
business model is to develop and                                          disassembling and product
                                     the business model.
manufacture     tunnel    boring                                          analyzing steps.
machines according to specific       After the delivery of the TBM or
project requirements.                reusable components to Kehl,
                                     the identification, disassembly,     Unique Characteris tic
After a tunnelling project is
                                     initial analysis on component        The unique characteristic for
finished, the machine typically
                                     level and the preservation for       Herrenknecht       is      the
did not reached its technical life
                                     storage starts. Then they are        opportunity to design for
time. Therefore, Herrenknecht
                                     stored at the open storage area      reman because they use
conducts a machine analysis,
                                     or weather protected in the          predominantly the similar key
rebuys the complete TBM or the
                                     warehouse.                           components     for    drilling
reusable components and takes
                                     If a customer wants to buy a new     machines.
them back to the Herrenknecht
Rebuilt    Services    in   Kehl     tunnel      boring       machine,
(Germany). The fact, that all        Herrenknecht starts a calculation
tunnel boring machines are           in order to define the selling
                                                                                Contact
custom made for the individual       price. In this way, they try to
                                                                                Herrenknecht AG
geological requirements and          integrate reman components
generally designed for several       from the current stock in the
project life cycles, makes the       new TBM to reduce the offered
buyback economically and the         price to the customer. They start
reuse reduce the consumption of      to analyze which of the available
resources.                           components match to the TBM
                                     technical    specifications  and          Olaf Kortz
                                     requirements and could be                 Telefon +49 (0)7824 / 302 - 8866
                                     remanufactured for the offered            Fax +49 (0) 7824 / 302 – 9530
                                     tunnel boring machine.                    kortz.olaf@herrenknecht.de

                                     After the customer releases the
                                     order, the designing of the TBM            Contact
                                     including the integration of the           Fraunhofer
                                     reman parts starts. Here, they
Products                             define     the    remanufacturing
The       products    in     the     orders for the workshop and
remanufacturing process are          suppliers. If the remanufacturing
originally      produced      by     process      with    its   further
Herrenknecht. Due to individual      disassembling,           cleaning,
project requirements such as the     remanufacturing, sandblasting,             Steffen Butzer
tunnel diameter, most of the         painting and reassembling with             Telefon +49 (0) 921 / 78516-420
machine       components     are     new spare parts is finished, the           Fax +49 (0) 921 / 55-7305
individual designed. For bought-     components are delivered to the            steffen.butzer@uni-bayreuth.de
in components like hydraulic         Herrenknecht headquarter in
pumps or electronic motors,          Schwanau in Germany. At these                      Funded by the Horizon 2020
                                                                              Framework Programme of the European
Herrenknecht reduces the             location, the company starts with                                      Union

                                                                                                                     29
Cas e S tudy :
     robotif Gm bH
     robotif is specialized in remanufacturing industrial robots.

     Facts and Bus ines s Model            for the company.                      spare parts. Due to this, the
     The company was founded in                                                  customers
                                                                                 transmissionscan – rely    on the
                                                                                                        because  of
     2009 and is focused on repairing      Rem anufacturing Proces s             their know-how robots
                                                                                 remanufactured          and from
                                                                                                               their
     Adept, Bosch, Denso and Stäubli                                             robotif. Even
                                                                                 experience    with    theOEM
                                                                                                  if the       does
                                                                                                           product.
                                           The remanufacturing process           not  delivercharacteristic
                                                                                 A further       spare partsis any
                                                                                                                the
     robots. With its meanwhile 18         starts with the disassembling and
     employees,      robotif      offers                                         alreadyor these parts
                                                                                 more                       are not
                                                                                                         mentioned
                                           cleaning of robots. After that,       the  quality they
                                                                                 improvement            are looking
                                                                                                   of spare   parts.
     repairing,           maintenance,     the          analysis,          the
     modification                   and                                          for,            an independent
                                                                                      to this,is you
                                                                                 Due robotif            can be sure
                                           remanufacturing        and      the   thataffordable
                                                                                 of     remanufacturedhigh quality
                                                                                                             robots
     remanufacturing of industrial         reassembly is arranged. The last
     robots and their components.                                                from parts
                                                                                 spare        for this
                                                                                         robotif     aremachines.
                                                                                                           of high
                                           step is the extensive final test of   quality and independent of
     The market of remanufacturing         the robots.
     robots is very small, actually only                                         the availability of the spare
     a few companies world wide are                                              parts from the manufacturer.
     able to offer remanufactured
     robots. Due to this, robotif is the
     first stop for customers, who
     want these robots to be repaired
     or maintained.

     Products
     The product range concentrates        Unique Characteris tic
     on 6-axis and scara robots
                                           robotif has developed more than             Contact
     produced by the manufacturers
                                           one unique characteristic. In the           robotif Gm bH
     mentioned above.
                                           following, a few of them are
                                           described.
                                           One key characteristic of robotif
                                           is the intense documentation.
                                           For every malfunction, worn part
                                           or damage, robotif creates a               Ingo Förster
                                           documentation sheet. Due to the            Telefon +49 (0) 9203 / 973 909-65
                                           high number of product variants,           i.foerster@robotif.de
     Additional to the “standard           the employees have a central
     remanufacturing”,        robotif      data base where they can find
     increasingly tries to improve                                                     Contact
                                           special information for each
                                                                                       Fraunhofer
     spare      parts    in     their      robot model.
     remanufacturing process.
                                           Another unique characteristic is
     As an example, the wiring             the high know-how of the
     harnesses in robots are often         mechanics. Additional to product
     worn and the available OEM            analysis or the quality control,
     spare parts have the same weak        the well educated employees can
     points. Due to that, robotif          find damaged parts as example               Steffen Butzer
     designed     improved      wiring     by listening or feeling the                 Telefon +49 (0) 921 / 78516-420
     harnesses with its supplier to        transmissions – because of their            Fax +49 (0) 921 / 55-7305
     deliver the best quality to their     know-how and their experience               steffen.butzer@uni-bayreuth.de
     customers. The usage of spare         with the product. A further
     parts developed by robotif            characteristic is the already                       Funded by the Horizon 2020

     becomes increasingly important        mentioned improvement of                    Framework Program of the European
                                                                                                                   Union

30
Cas e S tudy :
MAN Truck & Bus

The OEM with its headquarter in Munich has production facilities
around the globe and had an total turnover of 9.0 Billion Euro in 2015.

Com pany and Bus ines s                                                       Unique Characteris tic
Model                                                                         The company assess the
MAN SE is subdivided into two                                                 success of the manufacturing
business      units:   Commercial                                             with an own cost-center. Here,
Vehicles and Power Engineering.                                               the profitability is assessed
The OEM with its headquarter in                                               frequently.
Munich, Germany has production                                                Moreover, the company has
facilities around the globe like in                                           access to specific data and
Germany, Russia, Turkey, China,                                               information    like    technical
India, Brazil and Mexico. The                                                 specifications      of      the
total turnover of MAN T&B was                                                 remanufactured products.
approx. 9.0 Billion Euro in 2015.
The section “Trucks” has the          Rem anufacturing Proces s               Last but not least, MAN T&B
largest share of the total                                                    applies the company’s own
                                      The remanufacturing process at          production    system   MNPS
turnover (56%) followed by            MAN T&B is subdivided into nine
“After Sales & Services” with                                                 (“MAN          Nutzfahrzeuge
                                      process steps. First of all, the core   Produktionssystem”)
20% share of the total turnover.      is disassembled into its single
Products                              parts. After this, the single parts
                                      are diagnosed. The next process
Within the facility in Nuremberg,     step is the cleaning of the single            Contact
Germany, the company develops,        parts     followed        by      the
                                                                                    MAN S E
manufactures,      remanufactures     reconditioning of the single
and distributes diesel and gas        parts.     After       this,      the
engines for on-road, off-road,        reconditioned single parts are
power and marine applications         stored in a stock. Before the
with more than 4,000 employees.       product is reassembled, the
MAN          T&B        provides      required     single     parts     are        Harald Kürzdörfer
remanufactured spare parts and        commissioned.         After       the        Phone +49 (0) 911 420-3307
subassemblies               (e.g.     reassembly,       each       product         Harald.Kuerzdoerfer@man.eu
turbochargers,       gearboxes),      undergoes a performance test.
replacement engines, which have       The last step is the finish of the
a share of remanufactured spare       tested product.
parts    and     remanufactured                                                     Contact
subassemblies,            totally                                                   Fraunhofer
remanufactured engines and
customized       remanufactured
engines, which have a greater
share of remanufactured spare
parts and subassemblies than the
replacement engines.
                                                                                    Steffen Butzer
                                                                                    Telefon +49 (0) 921 / 78516-420
                                                                                    Fax +49 (0) 921 / 55-7305
                                                                                    steffen.butzer@uni-bayreuth.de

                                                                                            Funded by the Horizon 2020
                                                                                  Framework Programme of the European
                                                                                                                Union

                                                                                                                         31
7   Remanufacturing of New and Advanced
         Materials
         During the mapping of the remanufacturing processes it turned out that not many
         remanufacturers are active in the field of new and advanced materials. Therefore, the
         question was turned around and it was asked:

         Who is active in the field of remanufacturing of new and advanced materials?

         The internet research was mainly conducted by using the online search engine Google.

         The following search terms were used as single terms and as combinations:

         Carbon remanufacturing / refurbishing / reman / aufbereitung / CFK remanufacturing /
         refurbishing / reman / aufbereitung / repair, Composites remanufacturing / refurbishing /
         vakuuminfusion / carbonbeschichtung

         Thus 50 companies who are active in the field of remanufacturing and repairing of new and
         advanced materials could be identified.

         A summary of the results of the internet research can be seen in the following:

         Figure 30 shows the industry sectors in which remanufacturing of new and advanced materials
         is performed. The main sector for remanufacturing of new and advanced materials is the
         consumer goods sector. Especially the bicycle sector has to be mentioned here.

                                   1    3
                                                      10

                        11
                                                                                  Aerospace
                                                                                  Consumer goods
                   1
                                                                                  Furniture
                  3
                                                                                  Machinery
                                                                                  Marine
                                                                                  Medical
                                                                                  none

                                                     46

         Figure 30 Sectors in which remanufacturing of new and advanced material is performed.

32
Figure 31 shows the countries in which remanufacturing of new and advanced materials is
performed. The country in which remanufacturing of new and advanced materials is
performed the most is Germany. The results of the study could be influenced by the location
of the research facility in Germany.

                                            3
                                                     3
                 12                                      1                     Australia
                                                                               Austria

                                                               6               Belgium
                                                                               England
                                                                               France
          2
                                                                1              Germany
           1
                                                                               Ireland
                                                                               Switzerland
                                                                               USA

                                       21

Figure 31 Countries in which remanufacturing of new and advanced material is performed.

Figure 32 shows the products which are remanufactured or repaired. The products which are
remanufactured or repaired most frequently are bicycle parts.

     18
     16
     14
     12
     10
      8
      6
      4
      2
      0

Figure 32 Products which are remanufactured respectively repaired.

                                                                                              33
8     Remanufacturing Networking Event and
           Processes Workshop
           N.B. The content of this section comprises a report of the activity associated with the
           deliverable D3.4 – D3.3 Remanufacturing Processes Landscape Draft.

           Besides a session at the World Remanufacturing Summit 2015 in Amsterdam a
           remanufacturing networking event and remanufacturing processes workshop was hosted at
           the facility of the Fraunhofer Project Group Regenerative Production in Bayreuth at the
           beginning of 2016. More than 90 representatives from industry and research from around the
           globe participated at the two-day event. The first day of the event was packed with
           presentations from leading scientists and industry representatives as well as the processes
           workshop, a podium discussion and a networking dinner. At the second day the participants
           were able to visit the robot remanufacturing company robotif GmbH.

           In the following some impressions of the event and workshop are illustrated. Furthermore,
           the summarised results of the workshop are presented.

     8.1   Event and Workshop Impressions

34
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