Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative - SPECIAL REPORT 2021 - Western Governors ...

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Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative - SPECIAL REPORT 2021 - Western Governors ...

 Electric Vehicles
Roadmap Initiative
 The Chair’s Initiative of Oregon Governor Kate Brown
Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative - SPECIAL REPORT 2021 - Western Governors ...
Dear Friends and Colleagues,
One thing was clear as we developed the central policy       as: meeting the increased demand on the grid from the
initiative of my year as Chair of the Western Governors’     growth of EVs; how to use smart workforce investments
Association: It should put the people of the West above      to train and build a robust EV workforce, and how to
all else. Because that’s how Governors approach their        support EV adoption and infrastructure in rural areas.
work with WGA: We set aside political differences to help
the entire region succeed.                                   The fruits of that labor are represented in this report. For
                                                             one, the work of the Initiative has resulted in an umbrella
The Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative doesn’t represent   agreement among several western states on a shared
the policy of one side or another. Instead, it promotes      set of principles regarding infrastructure planning. And
collaboration across the aisle and across the West to        the report contains specific recommendations on federal
elevate and energize an issue that states are already        policy issues that affect public and private investments in
working on, both individually and collaboratively.           EV infrastructure across the West, including opportunities
                                                             for Congress and the Administration to leverage multi-
Collaborating on electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure        state partnerships to effectively deploy federal EV
isn’t a new idea. The first charging stations were           infrastructure funds and pursue legislative changes to
installed in 2011 for what has become the West Coast         improve the business case for EV charging infrastructure
Electric Highway. It now stretches north from California     deployment at federal rest areas.
through Oregon, Washington and into British Columbia.
Similarly, the Regional Electric Vehicle Plan for the West   EV design, manufacturing, sales and maintenance, and
was established in 2017 by the Governors of Arizona,         infrastructure deployment represents a valuable and
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah,          growing economic opportunity across the West. Western
and Wyoming.                                                 states are leveraging creative public-private partnerships
                                                             to encourage EV drivers to visit and support rural
Like any other big idea, EV infrastructure planning and      communities, and the growing medium and heavy-duty
deployment requires continued coordination and shared        EV sectors will lead to economic opportunities in both
investment across multiple parties to keep growing           urban and rural communities.
efficiently. It was our goal to determine how best to do
that. We started with a series of Initiative work sessions   We all recognize that a robust and efficient
that assembled the brightest minds from the public and       transportation sector is key to meeting future economic
private sectors, including EV manufacturers, charging        goals and connecting businesses to regional and
station network operators, utilities, and technical and      international markets. The Electric Vehicles Roadmap
nonprofit experts, and focused on the hard questions         Initiative helps create a roadmap to that future.
of infrastructure, finances, and logistics that affect EV
                                                             With warmest regards,

And we tried to understand those issues across the
region, from major cities to tiny rural communities,
because we knew the best solutions would be the ones
that benefit everyone.

After the work sessions, WGA hosted a series of webinars                          Oregon Gov. Kate Brown
and podcasts that further explored central issues, such                           WGA Chair

Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative - SPECIAL REPORT 2021 - Western Governors ...
Dear Friend of the West,
One of the distinguishing characteristics of a WGA Chair Initiative      WGA owes an enormous debt of gratitude to the multiple
is that it drives to action. So it is with Chair Kate Brown’s Electric   state officials, utility representatives, EV and equipment
Vehicles Roadmap for the West.                                           manufacturers, and transportation infrastructure experts
                                                                         who contributed to the success of this project. We offer a
Among other things, the yearlong effort has produced an                  special note of thanks to the National Association of State
agreement among multiple western states to coordinate on                 Energy Officials, which manages the Regional Electric Vehicle
electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure. This agreement will have           Plan for the West, for its active participation in and support
a demonstrably positive effect on our region for years to                of the initiative.
come. Moreover, the initiative is an excellent illustration of the
bipartisan and cooperative nature of the policy work of Western          The Electric Vehicles Roadmap is a recent but hardly isolated
Governors.                                                               example of Western Governors – the most effective group
                                                                         of bipartisan elected leaders in the country – leading
A penetrating examination of multiple EV issues – conducted              the way. I am especially grateful to Chair Brown for her
through focused work sessions, webinars, and podcasts –                  clear vision and dedication to this project. Under her
revealed a suite of challenges common to all western states. This        outstanding leadership, Western Governors have continued
report elucidates those challenges and offers specific suggestions       to demonstrate that bipartisanship is not a talking point but
for overcoming them. WGA urges Congress and the Administration           an essential component of effective governance.
to pay particular attention to the bipartisan proposals for federal
action contained at the end of the report and to integrate those         Respectfully,
recommendations into legislative measures and agency planning.

Efficient EV infrastructure planning and development requires
coordination among multiple entities, including vehicle
manufacturers, EV charging station developers, utilities, and state
and local agencies. WGA is proud to have facilitated collaboration
among these and other parties, and we are confident that this
report will be a catalyst for expanded cooperation on EV issues                               Jim Ogsbury
across geographic and political boundaries.                                                   WGA Executive Director

                                                                2021 REPORT: ELECTRIC VEHICLES ROADMAP INITIATIVE • 3
Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative - SPECIAL REPORT 2021 - Western Governors ...
Oregon Governor Kate Brown launched the Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative
in July 2020 to examine opportunities to improve the planning and siting of
electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure in western states.
The Chair Initiative of the Governor
assembled states engaged in the West
Coast Electric Highway (which includes
California, Oregon and Washington)
and the Regional Electric Vehicle
Plan for the West (REV West, which
includes Arizona, Colorado, Idaho,
Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah
and Wyoming). Together, they assessed
opportunities for enhanced coordination
on voluntary technical standards related
to EV infrastructure hardware, payment         Initiative Work Session Series
methods, signage, and best practices for       WGA designed and facilitated a biweekly, virtual work session series during the fall of
siting and location.                           2020. Work sessions examined key EV topics raised by state officials. Work session
                                               participants included representatives from Governors’ staff and state agencies, utilities
The work of the Initiative has resulted in
                                               and electric cooperatives, EV manufacturers, charging station network operators, and
an umbrella agreement among the states
                                               nonprofit organizations with EV expertise. WGA hosted sessions on:
participating in these sub-regional efforts.
States have developed a shared set of          1. Opportunities to Support the Battery EV and Hydrogen Fuel Cell EV Sectors
principles regarding EV infrastructure         2. Supporting the Medium and Heavy-Duty EV Sectors
planning and identified a suite of
voluntary standards to optimize the            3. Examining Utility Investment and Rate Structures
effectiveness and accessibility of public      4. Streamlining Permitting and Siting
and private EV infrastructure investments.     5. Exploring Charging Station Inconsistencies Across States
In addition to facilitating western states’    6. Coordinating State Investments Along Tourism Corridors
discussions, WGA brought together key          7. Expanding EV Fleets in Urban and Rural Areas
stakeholders at work sessions to explore
important issues affecting EV adoption and     8. Identifying Opportunities for Coordination between States and Clean Cities Coalitions
infrastructure deployment in the West.

WGA also hosted webinars and a podcast
                                               the West. The recommendations                   Throughout the Initiative, WGA
series that provided a public forum to
                                               encourage Congress and the                      examined EV topics of critical interest
explore grid infrastructure, financing
                                               Administration to:                              to western states, such as differences
and workforce issues influencing EV
infrastructure planning and investment.                                                        in EV use cases in urban and rural
                                               • Leverage multi-state partnerships
                                                                                               communities and the availability
                                                 to effectively deploy federal EV
This report presents findings from                                                             of tailored utility program offerings
                                                 infrastructure funds;
these work sessions, webinars and                                                              for EV drivers. WGA and Initiative
podcasts, and examines state programs          • Promote flexibility within the Federal        participants also looked at access
and coordination opportunities; grid             Highway Administration’s Alternative          to EV dealerships and maintenance
infrastructure planning and the role of          Fuel Corridors Program;                       technicians and states’ capacity to
utilities; medium-duty (MD) and heavy-                                                         support EV investments. These issues
duty (HD) EVs; EV fleets; permitting           • Enhance EV infrastructure deployment          speak to disparities in EV adoption
and siting practices; and economic and           opportunities at federal rest areas;          and infrastructure deployment across
workforce development opportunities
                                                                                               the West. The report’s findings and
associated with EVs.                           • Support the U.S. Department of Energy
                                                 Clean Cities Coalition program; and           recommendations provide useful
In addition, the report contains targeted                                                      insights for Governors, states,
recommendations on federal policy              • Create efficient permitting and               utilities and local entities evaluating
issues that affect public and private            siting practices for EV infrastructure        possible EV policies, programs and
investments in EV infrastructure across          installations on federal lands.               investments.

Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative - SPECIAL REPORT 2021 - Western Governors ...
Section One: State Programs and Multi-State Collaboration Opportunities
Many western states already support             EVs. Consumers have a wide range of          EV Adoption and Infrastructure Planning
EV adoption and investments in EV               EV options to choose from, with varying
                                                                                             Planning and buildout of EV charging
infrastructure in a variety of ways.            levels of access to battery EVs (BEVs),
                                                                                             networks is often described as a “chicken
These include: deploying charging               hybrid EVs (HEVs), plug-in hybrid EVs
                                                                                             or egg” paradox whereby a requisite
infrastructure investments with state and       (PHEVs), and even hydrogen fuel cell
                                                                                             amount of EV charging infrastructure is
Volkswagen settlement funds; creating           EVs (FCEVs). Annual purchases of EVs
                                                                                             needed to serve EV drivers. At the same
statewide transportation electrification        range from the low hundreds in some
                                                                                             time, a sufficient number of vehicles
plans; entering strategic partnerships          western states to approximately 150,000
                                                                                             are necessary to economically support
with charging station network companies;        in California.
                                                                                             deployment of that infrastructure.
offering EV purchase rebates; and
                                                The U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne      The level of consumer adoption and
coordinating with utilities on novel rate
                                                National Laboratory tracks monthly           availability of EV charging in a particular
designs for residential and commercial
                                                sales of passenger EVs. In April 2021,       area will invariably affect whether a state
EV charging.
                                                nationwide sales included 73,110 HEVs        elects to prioritize consumer EV adoption
The actions that individual states              (22,170 cars and 50,940 light trucks);       strategies, such as vehicle rebates, or
prioritize are influenced by their              45,105 plug-in vehicles (32,115 BEVs and     charging infrastructure buildout. In many
citizens’ interest in and purchase of           12,990 PHEVs); and 397 FCEVs.                cases, states are pursuing these adoption

Know Your Terminology
This report references a variety of technical terms commonly used in the EV sector. Here is information about some important
EV and electric system terms and topics.

Charging Levels                                          Charging Speed
                                                         The speed at which charging equipment fills an EV’s battery depends on
EV drivers can charge their vehicle via three
                                                         multiple factors, including the charging equipment level, the vehicle range,
methods, or “levels,” with the charging rate
                                                         the battery’s acceptance rate, and the amount of stored electricity in the
increasing with higher levels.
                                                         battery. Level 1 charging can take upwards of 12 hours to fill the battery;
• Level 1 charging is almost exclusively                 Level 2 charging can take a few hours; and some DCFC equipment can fill a
  completed at home and allows EV drivers                battery in approximately an hour. When using DCFC equipment, the rate of
  to conveniently charge overnight. Level 1              charge decreases when a vehicle’s battery is approximately 80% full. This
  charging equipment is compatible with a                practice helps optimize battery life.
  standard, 120V outlet.
                                                         Three-phase Power
• Level 2 charging can be completed either at            Three-phase electric power is the most common system of electricity
  home or at public charging stations. Level             generation, transmission and distribution and is used to power heavy
  2 charging equipment utilizes a 240V outlet            electric loads. By contrast, single-phase power systems can be found in rural
  and is often sited at workplaces, hotels               areas with less overall electricity usage. The presence of three-phase power
  and shopping malls. Both Level 1 and 2                 infrastructure can help support high-capacity EV charging installations and
  charging use alternating current.                      reduce project costs associated with EV charging infrastructure deployment.

• Direct Current Fast Charging (DCFC),                   Volkswagen Settlement Funds
  sometimes referred to as “Level 3,” utilizes           Many initial investments in EV charging infrastructure have been supported
  specialized equipment to deliver direct                by funds distributed to states and territories as a result of the 2016
  current power to the vehicle’s battery. This           emissions settlement between Volkswagen and the U.S. government.
  process supports faster and more efficient             Approximately $3 billion in Environmental Mitigation Trust funds has been
  charging. DCFC stations are often located              made available for states and territories to subsidize vehicle adoption,
  along highway travel corridors and in                  technology conversions, or charging and fueling infrastructure deployment
  urban locations with high visitation, such             that reduces emissions. States and territories may use up to 15% of their
  as grocery and retail stores.                          allocated funds to support EV charging infrastructure deployment.

                                                             2021 REPORT: ELECTRIC VEHICLES ROADMAP INITIATIVE • 5
Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative - SPECIAL REPORT 2021 - Western Governors ...
EV 101 Document                                                    Approximate
                                                        Approximate    Range
    WGA developed an “EV 101”                  Level                                       Equipment                 Use Cases
                                                        Power          per Hour
    document that summarizes                                           of Charging
    technical aspects of different                                                         120V (standard)
    kinds of EVs and their respective                                                      outlet, charger
    charging or fueling technologies.                                  3-5 miles/          provided with vehicle
    The document provides accessible              1     1-3 kW         hour of             purchase                  Home, overnight
    technical descriptions of BEVs, HEVs,                              charge
                                                                                           Connector: J1772,
    PHEVs, and FCEVs, and different                                                        Tesla adapter
    levels of EV charging technologies.
                                                                                           240V outlet, home         Home, workplace,
                                                        3-19 kW                            charger usually sold
                                                                       14-35 miles/                                  parking garages,
                                                 2                     hour of             separately                grocery stores,
and infrastructure deployment strategies                               charge              Connector: J1772,         hotels, shopping
                                                        6.2-7.6 kW
in tandem.                                                                                 Tesla adapter             centers, etc.

While many western states are leaders                                  50 kW: 2-3          Dedicated 480 V           Highway and
                                                        50 kW,                             outlet, required amps     travel corridors,
on EV planning, there are a suite of                                   miles/minute
                                                        150 kW,                            for a dedicated circuit   shopping centers,
issues that complicate public and private
                                                 3      350 kW         150 kW: 6-9         range from 60 to 420      grocery stores
planning efforts. A key challenge is how
                                               (DCFC)                  miles/minute
to optimize investments in infrastructure               Typically                          Connector: CCS,           *Most PHEVs can
to address consumers’ “range anxiety”                                  350 kW: 12-18       CHAdeMO, Tesla            only use Level 1
                                                        50-150 kW
– the concern that they will be unable                                 miles/minute        Supercharger              and 2 equipment.
to charge their EV before its battery is
depleted. Multiple consumer studies
have cited either vehicle cost or range       power. The absence of three-phase power          usage reports, which can be especially
anxiety as the main factor inhibiting         can either preclude or add substantial           useful for station operators or site hosts
purchase of an EV. Concerns about the         costs to the installation of DCFC stations       who must complete state or federal
length of time to charge an EV and the        in rural areas. Given that DCFC stations         reporting requirements.
need to plan charging stops on long trips     provide comparably quick vehicle
                                                                                               Due to their enhanced functionalities,
are other common factors that reduce          recharge times, this grid infrastructure
                                                                                               initiative participants from states,
consumer interest in purchasing an EV.        challenge has significant effects on the
                                                                                               utilities and charging station network
                                              development of charging networks that
Prospective EV owners may not be aware                                                         companies all expressed preferences
                                              support convenient, regional EV travel.
of the ability to charge their vehicles                                                        for installing networked chargers.
                                              These grid infrastructure limitations and
at home. In a 2019 study, the Electric                                                         Participants did share examples, such
                                              costs also influence how states balance
Power Research Institute estimated                                                             as installations at national parks, where
                                              investments in Level 2 and DCFC stations
that approximately 80 percent of                                                               non-networked chargers provided a
                                              and support the creation of functional EV
charging is accomplished at home,                                                              useful solution.
                                              charging networks within their borders.
15 percent is completed at work, and                                                           While many western states are focused
5 percent occurs at public charging           The availability of either cell phone
                                                                                               on planning and siting EV charging
stations. While proportionally little         service or onsite wi-fi is another factor
                                                                                               infrastructure along travel corridors,
charging is conducted at public stations,     that can influence EV infrastructure
                                                                                               a number are beginning to place
increasing the availability of both urban     planning and siting. A lack of
                                                                                               additional emphasis on identifying
and corridor charging stations could          connectivity can inhibit the use of app-
                                                                                               charging solutions for residents who lack
help address consumer range anxiety           based/smartphone payment systems
                                                                                               access to home or workplace charging.
concerns. Aside from providing additional     and prevent a charging station from
                                                                                               Increasing access to charging solutions in
charging capacity and convenience, the        being “networked.” Networked chargers
                                                                                               urban areas and at multi-unit dwellings
increased prevalence of public charging       are digitally connected to a larger
                                                                                               requires close coordination between
infrastructure plays an important role in     infrastructure network and contain
                                                                                               municipalities, utilities, property owners
consumer perceptions of EV technology         technology that enables enhanced
                                                                                               and charging network operators, and can
and purchasing considerations.                functionality of the individual charging
                                                                                               help increase consumer access to EVs,
                                              station. Common functions of networked
                                                                                               especially for residents who do not have
Other crucial factors affecting states’       chargers include electricity consumption
                                                                                               access to a private garage or designated
EV planning efforts involve barriers to       tracking, visibility on mapping platforms
                                                                                               parking space.
physical and digital infrastructure in less   and remote maintenance accessibility.
populated areas. For example, many rural      Many networked chargers can also                 Initiative participants also discussed how
areas in western states lack three-phase      generate energy consumption and driver           multiple western states have sought to

Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative - SPECIAL REPORT 2021 - Western Governors ...
EV Charging
   Technologies and Costs
   The costs of installing EV charging                            Level 2                          DC Fast
   infrastructure depend on multiple local
                                                                Commercial                        Charging
   factors, including the charging station                             CC Reader                      CC Reader
                                                                       $325-$1,000                    $325-$1,000
   level, the presence or absence of electric
   supply infrastructure (transformer,                            Network Contracts              Network Contracts
                                                                 $200-$250/year/station         $200-$250/year/station
   conduit, etc.), and the physical readiness
   of the site itself. This graphic shows                           Data Contracts                 Data Contracts
                                                                 $84-$200/year/station          $84-$200/year/station
   various, approximate costs associated                                                                                       Transformer
   with EV infrastructure installation.                               Installation                   Installation
                                                                $600-$12,700 (avg. $3,000)   $4,000-$51,000 (avg. ~$21,000)
   Installation costs, especially for DCFCs,
   tend to be higher in rural areas where                                 Unit                           Unit
   electric service upgrades are needed.

promote consumer EV access by enacting          led some states to prioritize “future-        regardless of location or vendor, that
legislation that allows EV manufacturers        proof” charging infrastructure projects       takes only a few minutes to complete.
to sell their vehicles directly to              that have adequate electric capacity          The process of charging an EV currently
consumers outside of the traditional            to support the addition of advanced,          lacks this level of uniformity due to
franchise dealership model.                     ultra-fast DCFC stations. The ability         differences in charging levels and
                                                of individual states to support these         equipment across vehicle manufacturers
Technological Advancements                      projects, however, is highly dependent        and charging network operators.
The rapid pace of change with EV battery,       upon their own budget capacity, local
vehicle and charging technology is              cost and infrastructure factors, and          To promote consumer accessibility and
enabling increased driving ranges and           the status of EV infrastructure buildout      acceptance and a more predictable
charging speeds. While these innovations        within the state.                             user experience, some western states
are helping to make EV ownership more                                                         have adopted regulations addressing
convenient and reduce consumer range            Charging Equipment                            EV charging station hardware, payment
anxiety, they do have effects on state EV       The process of charging an EV is              methods, display screen requirements,
planning. For example, some new DCFC            naturally compared to filling an internal     and other technical and design factors.
stations provide up to 350 kW of charging       combustion engine (ICE) vehicle with          The most common cause of confusion
output, which enables newer EV models           gasoline or diesel fuel. ICE drivers          for prospective EV drivers centers on the
with a high power acceptance rate to be         have become accustomed to an                  use of different charging connectors for
charged very quickly. This innovation has       easy, standardized fueling process,           various charging practices.

  Charging Connector
  Vehicle manufacturers, charging
  station developers and the scientific
  research community are currently
  engaged with testing and developing
  a global Megawatt Charging System
  (MCS) standard for HD EV charging.
  There is a desire in the HD EV
  trucking sector to avoid the costs
  and confusion associated with the
  lack of a single, standard connector
  for LD EV charging. The Charging
  Interface Initiative (CharIN), a
  non-profit association focused on
  e-mobility solutions, is leading the
  development of this inlet hardware
  and connector technology in concert
  with the EV industry.

                                                              2021 REPORT: ELECTRIC VEHICLES ROADMAP INITIATIVE • 7
Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative - SPECIAL REPORT 2021 - Western Governors ...
California Permitting
     The California Governor’s Office of
     Business and Economic Development
     has developed state charging
     station and hydrogen fueling station
     permitting guidebooks, which
     provide guidance to private industry,
     utilities and local agencies on siting
     considerations, safety concerns, and
     permitting best practices. Charging
     station and hydrogen fueling
     representatives involved in the
     Initiative provided positive feedback
     on the utility of these guidebooks and
     encouraged other western states to
     consider developing similar, state-
     specific resources.

Level 1 and 2 charging, for example, is       per-minute basis, which provides less
accomplished with a North American            transparent information on electricity          West Coast Clean
standardized connector (SAE J1772) and        received. Throughout the Initiative             Transit Corridor
is compatible with all non-Tesla EVs.         work session series, charging station
However, in a DCFC context, there are         representatives highlighted that certain        The West Coast Clean Transit
currently three common connectors:            states classify charging station operators      Corridor Initiative (WCCTCI), a
CCS Combo, CHAdeMO, and Tesla                 as “public utilities,” which impedes            study commissioned by nine
Supercharger. The CCS Combo standard          their ability to offer $/kWh pricing. One       electric utilities and two agencies
is used by most American and European         charging station participant emphasized         representing more than two dozen
plug-in EVs, the CHAdeMO standard             that whether their company is classified        municipal utilities, assessed grid
is used by most Japanese and Korean           as a “public utility” is the regulatory issue   infrastructure readiness for MD
automakers, and the Tesla Supercharger        with the largest effect on their business       and HD charging infrastructure
is only compatible with Tesla models.         practices.                                      deployment along Interstate
Most public DCFC charging stations are                                                        5 and connecting highways in
                                              Multi-State Collaboration
equipped with both CCS and CHAdeMO                                                            California, Oregon and Washington.
connectors. Tesla operates its own DCFC       Many western states are working across          The engineering firm HDR helped
network of Tesla Superchargers.               geographic and political boundaries             conduct the corridor analysis and
                                              to support the creation of functional,          provided an overview of results
Ongoing coordination between states,          regional EV charging networks. The West         during an initiative work session.
vehicle manufacturers, and charging           Coast Electric Highway and REV West             The study showed many utilities
network operators can help support            agreements provide forums for planning          have sufficient capacity to support
the creation of appropriate guidelines        and investment on a regional basis and          grid interconnections in urban areas
that promote an accessible, consistent        are helping support the expansion of EV         for proposed MD charging sites, but
charging experience while leaving room        charging corridors that deliver connectivity    that most proposed HD charging
to support innovations in charging            and economic benefits to multiple states.       sites would require a new substation
hardware equipment, payment methods,                                                          and line interconnection. In rural
and communication protocols.                  Through the Initiative, several
                                                                                              areas, capacity constraints would
                                              Western Governors have agreed to
                                                                                              affect the siting of some MD charging
Current and prospective EV drivers also       an EV infrastructure Memorandum of
                                                                                              sites. Daimler Trucks North America
expect fair and transparent pricing           Understanding (MOU) that seeks to
                                                                                              and Portland General Electric have
information. In many states, EV charging is   promote coordination among states
                                                                                              opened a first-of-its-kind, publicly
billed on a dollar-per-kilowatt-hour          engaged in the West Coast Electric
                                                                                              available HD charging site, known as
($/kWh) pricing schedule, which provides      Highway and REV West. The MOU includes
                                                                                              “Electric Island,” that is aligned to the
a direct measurement of the electricity       an appendix of voluntary minimum
                                                                                              blueprint of the WCCTCI.
dispensed into the vehicle’s battery. In      standards to assist state agencies with EV
other states, EV charging is billed on a      infrastructure planning. (See it on page 20).

Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative - SPECIAL REPORT 2021 - Western Governors ...
EV Fleet Planning Tools
     The Electrification Coalition recently launched its Dashboard for Rapid
     Vehicle Electrification (DRVE) tool. The DRVE tool is open-source and can be
     used by prospective fleet managers, including states, to better estimate costs
     associated with LD, MD, and HD fleet electrification.

     The National Association of State Energy Officials is with working with
     state agency leads under the Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust
     Settlement to develop a shared database of alternative fuel vehicle fleet data
     and associated charging and fueling infrastructure. The database, hosted by
     NREL’s LiveWire Program, will allow states to upload and aggregate common
     economic, energy, and emissions data from fleet purchases or infrastructure
     investments funded through the VW Settlement Trust. This shared data can
     then be leveraged by states as they work to support the adoption of electric
     vehicles and other alternative fuel vehicles.

Section Two: Grid Infrastructure Planning and the Role of Utilities
Utilities and electric cooperatives across    demand response (DR) programs or will           in a particular period, such as 15 or 30
the West are playing a central role in        require physical upgrades is a common           minutes. How these pricing structures
EV infrastructure planning, education         question for utilities and charging             are designed has significant effects
and investment. Planning and siting           network operators. Initiative participants      on the overall costs of EV charging
public EV charging infrastructure often       also discussed EV owners’ increasingly          infrastructure, especially for projects
requires close collaboration and shared       common usage of at-home, Level 2                that result in a significant amount of
investment between charging network           chargers and the potential for localized        electricity being consumed in a short
operators, charging site hosts and local      grid effects in areas where the use of this     period of time. DCFC installations, MD
utilities. WGA involved a diverse set         charging hardware is prevalent.                 and HD charging sites and EV fleet
of investor-owned utilities, municipal                                                        charging depots are all especially
utilities, and rural electric cooperatives    Rates and Demand Charges                        affected by these rate structures and any
throughout the initiative to gather           Many Initiative discussions focused on          demand charges that may be directed to
information on utility permitting and         the role of utility pricing structures for      the respective charging network operator,
siting processes, infrastructure financing    residential and commercial EV charging          charging site host or fleet manager.
models, and regulatory factors affecting
                                              use cases. On the residential side,
utilities’ involvement with EV charging                                                       Demand charges can disproportionately
                                              utilities and electric cooperatives across      affect rural areas that may experience
                                              the West are experimenting with “time-          low initial utilization of EV charging
Grid Infrastructure                           of-use” (TOU) programs that encourage           infrastructure. While relatively little
                                              EV drivers to charge their vehicle when         electricity may be consumed at these
The majority of EV charging occurs at
                                              demand on the grid is lowest, usually           sites on a monthly basis, the total
home. While at-home charging currently
                                              overnight. These programs can reduce            costs to the charging network operator
does not have major effects on overall
electricity grid loads, upgrades to           overall strain on the grid and provide          or site host can be relatively high if
local distribution infrastructure may         substantial cost savings to EV owners.          multiple drivers are charging their EVs
be needed to support the installation         Initial results from certain utility TOU        simultaneously. Since rate and demand
of DCFC stations, MD and HD charging          programs indicate that EV drivers can be        charge structures vary greatly between
sites, or commercial EV fleet charging        willing to significantly alter their charging   utilities and electric cooperatives and
depots. The need for these upgrades can       practices in exchange for reduced rates.        across states, these costs could have
be exacerbated in rural areas with less                                                       substantial effects on the private
robust grid infrastructure.                   Utility rate structures and the effects of      business case for deploying EV charging
                                              demand charges on the business case             infrastructure, especially DCFC stations,
The need to perform local distribution        for commercial EV installations received        in the rural West.
network upgrades, such as the                 significant attention during Initiative
installation of transformers at DCFC sites,   work sessions. Utility bills often include      Some utilities in western states are
can add substantial costs and time to         pricing breakdowns based not only on            beginning to offer customized rates and
EV charging projects. Whether localized       the consumer’s overall electricity usage,       demand charges for certain EV charging
grid effects can be mitigated with            but also the peak amount consumed               use cases, such as transit agency buses.

                                                            2021 REPORT: ELECTRIC VEHICLES ROADMAP INITIATIVE • 9
Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative - SPECIAL REPORT 2021 - Western Governors ...
During Initiative discussions, utility
participants communicated appreciation
for utilities that provide transparent
information about EV-oriented rate
structures and demand charges, as
it allows other utilities and electric
cooperatives to adopt best practices
employed by those with more experience
in addressing EV issues. Charging
station and utility representatives
also encouraged states and Governors
to work with their respective public
utility commissions (PUCs) and utilities
to identify and promote rate and
demand charge structures that support
effective investments in EV charging

Utility Programs
Many utilities and electric cooperatives
manage programs that improve the
business case for private EV charging
infrastructure investment, support
charging solutions for residential and
commercial customers, and deliver
educational materials on EV adoption
and technologies. State regulations
determine the degree to which utilities       Many utilities and electric cooperatives     projects, especially DCFC sites. These
and electric cooperatives can invest in       are also engaged with educational            storage technologies can help deploy
and manage EV charging infrastructure.        campaigns focused on providing               electricity to EV drivers when demand
In some states, utilities may own and         accessible information to their              is high, thereby reducing grid strain
operate all EV equipment, including           customers on EV and charging                 and associated demand charges for the
the charging stations. Utilities in           technologies. Work session participants      charging network operator or site host.
other states are limited to managing          discussed how these utility-led              Initiative work session participants also
electricity supply and service connecting     education projects can address               discussed examples of these storage
equipment, often referred to as “make-                                                     technologies being used to limit the
                                              consumer concerns or confusion
ready” infrastructure. Due to these                                                        need for grid infrastructure upgrades for
                                              with EV models and use cases, range
differences, business models and                                                           charging station sites located in rural
                                              anxiety, and vehicle recharging times.
relationships between charging station                                                     areas with less robust electric capacity.
                                              A non-profit organization initiative
network operators, utilities, and site
                                              participant expressed frustration with       Initiative participants also discussed
hosts can vary across states.
                                              PUC regulations that limit the amount        innovations with smart charging, vehicle-
Utilities across the West are increasingly    of funding that utilities can spend on EV    grid integration (VGI) and vehicle-to-grid
pursuing partnerships with charging           educational campaigns.                       (V2G) technologies. These technologies
station network companies and local                                                        can enable advanced communications
businesses to deploy workplace charging       Energy Management Innovations                and the bi-directional exchange of
solutions within their service territories.   Innovations in load management               electricity between EVs and the grid,
These programs can help provide               technologies, dynamic energy pricing         leading to energy system resiliency
additional charging options for EV            structures, and energy storage               benefits and the potential mitigation
drivers, especially those without access      technologies are helping to minimize         of grid hardware upgrades. While many
to at-home charging, and long-term            overall strain on the grid, reduce the       of these technologies are not ready
revenue and marketing opportunities           need for grid hardware upgrades, and         for wide-scale deployment across
for partnering businesses and site hosts.     defray demand charge costs for charging      the West, they are gaining state and
One utility work session participant          network operators and site hosts. For        utility attention. Initiative participants
shared that their workplace charging          example, certain utilities and charging      acknowledged that additional research
sites are providing valuable data on          station developers are assessing             and modeling are needed to assess how
load profiles and demand charges for          opportunities to integrate energy            these technologies may be integrated
informing effective commercial charging       storage technologies, such as on-site        into various utility and regional use cases
installations and rate structures.            batteries, into EV charging infrastructure   across the West.

Section Three: Infrastructure Permitting & Siting
Authorities Having Jurisdiction             flexibility to integrate these unique, local   • States can clarify that EV
                                            factors into their planning procedures,          charging station reviews are
Municipal and county governments
                                            but Initiative participants suggested            limited to health and safety
serve as the “authority having
                                            that states can serve a valuable role            requirements found under local,
jurisdiction” (AHJ), meaning they have
                                            by promoting permitting best practices           state and federal laws, and that
primary responsibility for permitting
                                            and encouraging coordinated permitting           local aesthetic or landscaping
EV infrastructure. Given that the EV
                                            procedures across local jurisdictions            requirements do not meet this
sector is still developing, many of these
                                            within their borders. Identifying the            threshold.
localities have little experience with
                                            proper balance between adopting
permitting and siting EV charging and                                                      • States and utilities can develop
                                            regionally similar permitting procedures
hydrogen fueling infrastructure. Prior                                                       educational materials that provide
                                            and preserving local flexibility could help
to submitting a permit application to                                                        information on EV charging
                                            promote more cost and time-effective
an AHJ, charging station developers                                                          and fueling technologies and
                                            investments in EV infrastructure.
and utilities may engage in substantial                                                      associated planning considerations
planning processes related to local EV                                                       for local jurisdictions’ use.
adoption and associated demand for          Permitting and Siting Best Practices
public charging, electric grid capacity,    Initiative work session participants           • Infrastructure siting partnerships
access to rights-of-way (ROWs) and          discussed multiple best practices that           between gas stations and charging
easements, and other factors that           can promote permitting and siting                station developers can eliminate
determine the optimal location for          predictability and efficiency for EV             the need for local traffic studies.
public EV infrastructure sites. The         project developers, utilities and AHJs.
exact processes and timeframes for                                                         • Projects can be expedited by
                                            These include:
reviewing and approving these permit                                                         organizing pre-application
applications can vary widely between        • AHJs can streamline zoning reviews by          meetings and designating single
local jurisdictions, which can lead to        designating EV chargers of all types as        points of contact between charging
confusion and frustration for project         an “accessory land use.”                       station developers, utilities, and
developers.                                                                                  local AHJs. These pre-application
                                            • AHJs can make permit application               meetings can also help utilities
There are significant differences in          documents available to be                      conduct efficient screening reviews
geography, technical expertise, staff         downloaded and submitted digitally             for proposed locations, thereby
capacity, and ROW policies across             with the ability to provide electronic         saving time and money on full
local jurisdictions. AHJs need the            signatures.                                    reviews.

Section Four: Medium-Duty and Heavy-Duty EVs, EV Fleets
The sections above have primarily            utility rate and demand charge issues        access to robust grid infrastructure and
focused on EV planning and                   discussed previously can be especially       interconnection opportunities, but many
infrastructure investment for passenger      significant in MD, HD and fleet contexts.    of these industrial zones are already
and light-duty (LD) vehicles. The                                                         densely occupied. Identifying adequate
developing battery and hydrogen fuel         The charging schedules of MD and HD          space needed for truck parking, charging,
cell medium-duty (MD), heavy-duty            EVs and EV fleets have substantial effects   ingress, and egress can be another
(HD), and EV fleet sectors present           on charging costs, operational logistics,    common challenge for MD and HD project
even more complex challenges for             and grid infrastructure. For example,        developers.
                                             a transit agency that operates a fleet
grid infrastructure planning, multi-
                                             of EV buses could plan its routes and        Initiative participants also discussed
party coordination, and infrastructure
                                             charging schedules to optimize the use       differences between large and small EV
permitting and siting. While the MD, HD
                                             of overnight charging and realize the        fleet operators. While major delivery
and EV fleet sectors are still nascent,
                                             benefits of associated low electricity       companies and transportation network
lessons learned from the LD EV sector
                                             rates. By contrast, an HD, long-haul truck   companies may elect to construct and
provide valuable insights on how to
                                             operators may desire faster charging to      manage their own fleet charging depots,
effectively plan for and support the
                                             meet shipping deadlines. There are many      access to public charging infrastructure,
infrastructure needed to charge and fuel
                                             charging use cases such as these that        especially DCFCs, may help smaller
these vehicles. Planning and developing
                                             can affect MD, HD, and EV fleet planning     businesses integrate certain EVs into
MD, HD and EV fleet infrastructure
                                             and operational costs. Advanced              their existing fleet operations. It is
projects can be time- and capital-
                                             technologies related to data analysis,       worth noting that many MD EVs, such
intensive and requires close, ongoing
                                             load management, and bi-directional          as delivery vans and box trucks, can
coordination between utilities, project
                                             charging will serve an important role in     use standard LD charging equipment.
developers and local agencies.
                                             the MD, HD, and EV fleet sectors in the      Initiative participants recommended that
                                             years to come.                               MD EVs not be expected to rely on LD
There are a wide range of EV fleet use
                                                                                          charging sites, as they may have specific
cases spanning the LD, MD and HD             Project Challenges and Opportunities         logistical needs, such as larger parking
sectors in the West. Many state agencies
                                                                                          spaces and the ability to pull through a
have invested in LD EVs. Delivery            The long planning horizons associated
                                                                                          parking area.
companies are deploying electric vans        with planning and building MD, HD
and box trucks. Municipalities are using     and fleet charging infrastructure            Total Cost of Ownership
electric garbage trucks, and school          have the potential to create project
districts are purchasing more electric       challenges. Transparent, predictable         The “total cost of ownership” (TCO) is the
school buses. While there are significant    processes coordinated across project         primary factor that determines whether
differences in initial investment levels     developers, utilities, local agencies and    a public or private entity will invest in
and operating strategies for these           fleet managers are needed to ensure          a particular EV technology or convert to
various EV use cases, there are crossover    that plans progress efficiently and          an EV fleet. While many EVs have higher
challenges related to planning, financing    that major infrastructure upgrades,          upfront costs than comparable ICE
and optimizing fleet operations.             such as the installation of sub-             vehicles, savings associated with reduced
                                             stations, are not instituted late in the     maintenance, federal and state rebate
                                             project development process. During          opportunities, and more predictable fuel
Grid Infrastructure
                                             the Initiative work session series,          costs can lead to overall lifetime savings
and Charging Use Cases
                                             state agency participants discussed          for the vehicle or fleet.
MD and HD EVs require substantially          opportunities to better integrate energy
more electricity to operate than             and transportation system planning           Determining the TCO for a particular EV
passenger EVs and can pull much              activities, and that MD, HD and fleet        fleet can be challenging. Highly local
more electricity off the grid in short       charging projects could serve as useful      factors related to planned routes, rider
intervals, thereby exacerbating the          case studies on electric infrastructure      usage, terrain, and utility rate structures
grid infrastructure planning concerns        siting in highway ROWs.                      have significant effects on TCO. Given
previously discussed in an LD context.                                                    the difficulties with generalizing the TCO
The exact effects of MD and HD charging      Aside from issues with grid infrastructure   of EV fleets, work session participants
sites on local grid infrastructure depend    planning and investment, MD and              emphasized the importance of local
on technical factors related to existing     HD charging station developers may           demonstration projects for assessing
electric delivery capacity, the ability to   encounter challenges with access             the potential success of major public EV
integrate load management technologies,      to suitable real estate for charging         fleet investments. Common practices that
regular charging schedules, and other        station siting in urban areas. Existing      can increase EV fleet costs include: not
project-specific factors. Many of the        industrial zones could offer optimal         coordinating the fleet investment with

                                                         2021 REPORT: ELECTRIC VEHICLES ROADMAP INITIATIVE • 12
the local utility; not incorporating vehicle   States can face challenges, however,           expansion of EV fleets. Work session
operation and maintenance training             in procuring and financing EVs for             participants discussed strategies to
into the fleet purchase; and investing in      fleet applications. Budget factors that        ensure that EV fleet pilot projects
expensive load management technology           can inhibit state EV fleet investments         scale properly and deliver all intended
that is not recouped through regular           include: narrow purchase windows that          benefits to local communities or
energy savings.                                do not align with state budget periods;        riders. A broadly supported suggestion
                                               agency practices that require all              focused on the need for fleet projects
Initiative work session participants also      funds to be allocated prior to vehicle         to “pilot the end solution” and
discussed the importance of identifying        purchases; and a lack of reliable data         integrate the charging or fueling
whether battery electric, hydrogen             on the resale value of particular EV           equipment that would be used with
fuel cell, or a combination of the two         models (thereby complicating TCO               a fully developed fleet. Conducting a
technologies could provide the best            calculations). Further, certain state fleet    pilot project with high-capacity DCFCs,
solution for a particular fleet. While         needs may be insufficient to qualify           for example, can provide valuable
hydrogen fuel cell buses and fueling           for bulk purchasing deals. To address          feedback on charging schedules and
infrastructure have higher upfront             these barriers, state and local agencies       utility costs, and generally create
costs than battery electric buses and          are increasingly pursuing multi-               a more favorable environment for
associated charging infrastructure, the        jurisdictional bulk purchasing options,        successfully scaling a project. Work
faster refueling times for hydrogen fuel       including through the SourceWell               session participants encouraged state
cell buses can enable more efficient           platform and Climate Mayors EV
operations for certain fleets.                                                                EV program managers to examine how
                                               Purchasing Collaborative.
                                                                                              EV fleet funding applicants intend to
State EV Fleet Purchases and Programs                                                         scale their installations and distribute
                                               A few western states are beginning
Many western states have invested in EV        to institute EV programs expressly             funding to projects with a high
fleets to support state agency operations.     focused on supporting the creation or          likelihood of successful expansion.

Section Five: Economic and Workforce Development
Economic Development                           the alternative transportation sector          consumer and fleet EV adoption in the
Many western states and communities            was $22.13, 15.6 percent above the             rural West. While the routine maintenance
are seeking to leverage EV infrastructure      geographically weighted median.                needs, such as regular oil changes, for EVs
to bolster local economic development                                                         are less than ICE vehicles, a lack of access
                                               Workforce Development
initiatives. Some efforts have focused on                                                     to local EV experts and maintenance
rural tourism opportunities, as EV drivers     A number of states and utilities are           offerings could create inconveniences for
can explore downtown areas and support         assessing how growing workforce needs          rural EV owners.
restaurants, shops and local tourism           within the EV sector will affect vehicle
                                               adoption and infrastructure deployment.        EV maintenance and infrastructure
attractions while their vehicles charge.
                                               The continued expansion of the EV              installation training programs are
Partnerships between charging station
                                               sector will create additional demands for      expanding. The Electric Vehicle
operators, state and local agencies, and
                                               workers engaged in vehicle design and          Infrastructure Training Program,
tourism-oriented businesses can further
                                               software engineering, utility infrastructure   for example, provides credentialed
amplify the economic development
                                               improvements, charging station installation    curriculum for electricians seeking
benefits associated with EV tourism.
                                               and repair, vehicle maintenance, and many      training opportunities with EV charging
Employment opportunities in the EV and         other EV and energy system sub-sectors.        infrastructure installation and
transportation electrification sectors are     A lack of qualified workers to meet these      maintenance. Expansion of credentialed
growing across the nation and in the West.     new workforce demands could affect the         training programs such as these can
The 2020 U.S. Energy & Employment Report       overall development of the EV sector           address EV workforce gaps and create
(USEER), developed by the National             and the deployment and maintenance of          high-paying jobs in urban and rural
Association of State Energy Officials,         EV infrastructure. Effective partnerships      communities. Initiative participants
the Energy Futures Initiative, and BW          between the EV industry; transit agencies;     emphasized the role that community
Research Group, shows that the motor           universities, community colleges and trade     colleges can serve in providing in-
vehicle industry added approximately           schools; utilities; and state workforce        demand EV skills training, especially
76,000 alternative fuels vehicles jobs         programs can help provide training and         when programs partner with or are
from 2015-2019. Nationwide, there were         upskilling opportunities for workers who       informed by EV manufacturers. Initiative
approximately 276,000 jobs within this         are interested in entering or increasing       participants further encouraged states
sector, with 77,000 of those concentrated      their experience in the EV sector.             to consider opportunities to support
in 19 western states. The USEER Wages,                                                        credential reciprocity structures that
Benefits, and Change Report shows that         Workforce demands for EV maintenance           promote EV training and employment
the 2019 median hourly wage within             technicians in rural areas may influence       opportunities on a regional basis.

The Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative has provided valuable information on planning, financing, and infrastructure issues affecting
public and private investments in EV infrastructure across the West. A number of these challenges may be addressed through federal
policy actions. Federal policy recommendations arising from the initiative include:

1. Congress and the Administration                areas. The tethering of future federal          of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies
   should leverage existing multi-state           funding opportunities to these                  Office. Local Clean Cities Coalitions
   partnerships to effectively deploy             “corridor-pending” and “corridor-               often serve a crucial role in urban
   federal EV infrastructure funds and            ready” designations could adversely             and rural communities by leading
   support the expansion of regional              impact western states and inhibit the           EV infrastructure planning and
   charging networks. The REV West and            expansion of regional EV charging               implementation projects.
   West Coast Electric Highway provide            networks, especially in rural areas.
   useful mechanisms to efficiently                                                            5. Federal land management agencies
   promote targeted investments and            3. Congress should pursue legislative              should begin to create and implement
   partnerships with charging station             solutions to address provisions within          efficient practices for permitting and
   network companies that expand                  23 U.S.C. 111 that prohibit the issuance        siting EV infrastructure on federal
   cohesive, regional EV charging networks.       of a fee for EV charging infrastructure         lands. Many federal lands serve as
                                                  sited at federal highway rest areas. This       regional tourism attractions and
2. The Federal Highway Administration
                                                  prohibition significantly complicates           support economic development in rural
   should promote expanded flexibility
                                                  the business case for siting EV charging        western communities. Implementation
   within the Alternative Fuel Corridors
                                                  infrastructure at these rest areas and          of effective EV infrastructure permitting
   Program to recognize the unique
                                                  creates challenges for expanding EV             practices will help ensure that EV
   geographic and infrastructure
                                                                                                  drivers continue to visit federal
   conditions in western states. Multiple         charging networks in portions of the
   western states have experienced                                                                lands and surrounding communities.
                                                  rural West that may have few suitable
   challenges in meeting the defined                                                              Western Governors and states welcome
                                                  locations for EV charging.
   “corridor-pending” and “corridor-ready”                                                        the opportunity to collaborate with
   metrics due to the lack of electric         4. Congress should continue to support             federal land management agencies
   infrastructure and suitable charging           the Clean Cities Coalition program              on consistent and effective EV
   locations in sparsely populated                managed by the U.S. Department                  infrastructure planning procedures.

Electric Vehicles Roadmap                  Meyer, Pacific Northwest National
Initiative Launch                          Laboratory; Kellen Schefter, Edison
Oregon Gov. Kate Brown, asserting that     Electric Institute; Annie Schneider,
“we are on the precipice of a historic     Utah Governor’s Office of Energy
transition,” launches the Electric
Vehicles Roadmap Initiative during this
                                           Electric Vehicle Workforce
                                                                                       OUT WEST
webinar. “My Initiative (is) an issue
that states across the West are already
                                           Needs and Opportunities                     PODCASTS
working on, both individually and          There are significant gaps in the
                                                                                       Electric Vehicles in Rural Areas
collaboratively,” the Governor says. “It   EV workforce and a need for more
                                           training. This webinar analyzes how         The inaugural podcast episode for
is an issue that bolsters our current
                                           smart workforce investments can             the Electric Vehicles Roadmap
economies and creates a roadmap,
                                           address these gaps, and the economic        Initiative highlights that consumer
both literally and figuratively, to the
                                                                                       ownership of EVs is expanding across
future.” The webinar concludes with        benefits of investing in a robust EV
                                                                                       the West, but that rural citizens face
presentations about the West Coast         workforce. Moderator: David Terry,
                                                                                       particular challenges owning and
Electric Highway and the Regional          National Association of State Energy
                                                                                       operating the vehicles. WGA Policy
Electric Vehicle Plan for the West by      Officials. Panelists: Dr. Linda Little,
                                                                                       Advisor Kevin Moss moderates the
Tonia Buell of the Washington State        IBEW/NECA Electrical Industry Training
                                                                                       conversation with Alliy Sahagun of the
Department of Transportation and           Center; Jannet Malig, California
                                                                                       Gunnison County Electric Association
Katie Pegan of the Idaho Governor’s        Community Colleges; Michael Graham,
                                                                                       in Colorado and Roger Hoy of the
Office of Energy & Mineral Resources.      Columbia-Willamette Clean Cities            Nebraska Tractor Test Laboratory. They
                                           Coalition.                                  discuss barriers, and solutions, to the
Examining Transmission and
                                           State, Local, and Private Funding           adoption of EVs in rural areas.
Distribution Infrastructure
Across the West                            Investments in EV Infrastructure
                                                                                       Electric Vehicle Research
This roundtable examines how to            A discussion of EV infrastructure
                                                                                       and Innovation
meet the increased demand for              partnerships, funding, and how to
electricity resulting from the increased   optimize investments in EV charging         Advances in EV technology are
use of electric vehicles (EVs) by          and fueling infrastructure for corridor     transforming transportation in the
consumers, government and private          and urban use cases. Moderator:             western region. This podcast features a
                                           Kevin Moss, WGA; Panelists: James           discussion of how innovations in battery
industry. The panelists highlight
                                           Campbell, Rocky Mountain Power;             technology, as well as fleet charging
the upgrades required for existing
                                           Alicia Cox, Yellowstone-Teton Clean         and fueling systems, are enabling
charging infrastructure as well as
                                                                                       more diverse uses of EV cars, trucks,
strategies to reduce upgrade costs.        Cities Coalition; Bill Elrick, California
                                                                                       and buses in the region. WGA Policy
Moderator: Jeff Morris, Schneider          Fuel Cell Partnership; Dedrick Roper,
                                                                                       Advisor Kevin Moss moderates the
Electric. Panelists: Michael Kintner-      ChargePoint.
                                                                                       conversation with Alex Keros of GM; Kim
                                                                                       Okafor of Trillium, and Eric Wood of the
                                                                                       National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

                                                                                       Electric Vehicles & Economic
                                                                                       Development Opportunities
                                                                                       EVs aren’t just for driving. States also
                                                                                       are leveraging EV charging infrastructure
                                                                                       to drive tourism and economic
                                                                                       development in rural communities. WGA
                                                                                       Policy Advisor Kevin Moss moderates
                                                                                       a conversation about that trend, as
                                                                                       well as how the economics of EV
                                       On The Web:                                     production, marketing, sales, and
                                       Find Electric Vehicles Roadmap                  repairs compare to traditional, gasoline
                                                                                       vehicles. Panelists include Scott Bricker,
                                       Initiative news, webinars,
                                                                                       interim Vice President of Destination
                                       podcasts and resources at:
                                                                                       Development at Travel Oregon, and Jim
                                       https://westgov.org/initiatives/                Chen, the Vice President of Public Policy
                                                                                       for Rivian.

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