ELECTRICITY GENERATION - FACTS AND FIGURES - VGB PowerTech e.V.

 
ELECTRICITY GENERATION - FACTS AND FIGURES - VGB PowerTech e.V.
FACTS AND FIGURES

ELECTRICITY GENERATION   2017|2018
ELECTRICITY GENERATION - FACTS AND FIGURES - VGB PowerTech e.V.
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                   EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

DEVELOPMENT OF THE GLOBAL AND EUROPEAN ELECTRICITY DEMAND

T      he global population is increasing by 78 million people per year, i. e.
       within roughly five decades, the number of people has doubled be-
tween 1960 and today. At present, approximately one quarter of the global
                                                                                 Contents

                                                                                 n Electricity Demand Worldwide and in the EU                        2  – 3
population of nearly 7.5 billion people do not yet have access to electricity.
                                                                                 n Availability of Energy Sources                                        4
Electricity consumption will grow faster than any other form of energy
consumption. The IEA estimates in its “Current Policies” scenario that in        n Unconventional Gas in Europe                                          5
all fields and regions the annual demand will increase by 2.13 % until 2040.     n Renewables (RES) in the EU                                            6
The worldwide gross electricity consumption will increase from 23,809 bil-
                                                                                 n Hydro power, wind energy, biomass                                 7  – 9
lion kWh to 42,511 billion kWh. The “450 Scenario” of the IEA – this
scenario covers a drastic reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions but – also       n Wind energy and secure provision of capacity                  10  – 12
notes an increase up to 34,092 billion kWh. About 13 %, i.e. 3,155 bil-          n Distributed power, Storage technologies                       12  – 13
lion kWh, of electricity globally generated was provided in the European         n Flexible conventional power plants                            14  – 15
Union (EU). A 0.9 % (“Current Policies”) or 0.3 % (“450 Scenario”) p.a.
rise in demand is expected in the EU by 2040.                                    n Nuclear Power Worldwide                                       16  – 17
According to IEA (International Energy Agency) scenarios, fossil fuels will      n Robustness of Nuclear Power Plants                            18  – 19
still account for about 30 to 60 % of electricity generated worldwide in 2040.   n New power generation capacities needed                        20  – 21
Renewable energy sources will play a growing role in the global primary en-
                                                                                 n Directive on national emission ceilings                       22  – 23
ergy consumption structure. Likewise, nuclear power will – despite the po-
litical nuclear phase-out in some countries – maintain an important position     n Global Climate Policy Needed	                                 24  – 25
in global electricity generation and will even grow in some countries.           n VGB: Activities and Members                                   26  – 27
                                                                                 n Imprint                                                             28
ELECTRICITY GENERATION - FACTS AND FIGURES - VGB PowerTech e.V.
Expected growth in electricity generation in billion (109) kWh worldwide                  Expected growth in electricity generation in billion (109) kWh in the EU

 45,000
                                                                                          4,500
                                                                       Current Policies                                                                         Current Policies
                                                                            +77 %                                                                                   +27 %
 40,000                                                                +2.3 % per year    4,000                                                                 +0.9 % per year

                                                                        450 Scenario                                                                             450 Scenario
                                                                           +23 %          3,500
                                                                                                                                                                     +9 %
                                                                       +1.5 % per year                                                                          +0.3 % per year
 30,000
                                                                                          3,000

                                     Current Policies

                                                                                                                            Current Policies
                                                                       Wind,              2,500

                                                        450 Scenario
                                                                       biomass, solar                                                                         Wind,
                                                                                                                                                              biomass, solar
 20,000

                                                                                                                                               450 Scenario
                                                                       Hydro              2,000
                                                                                                                                                              Hydro
                                                                       Nuclear
                                                                                          1,500                                                               Nuclear
                                                                       Fossil
 10,000                                                                                                                                                       Fossil
                                                                                          1,000

                                                                                            500

      0
                      2014                         2040                                       0
                             Year                                                                            2014                         2040
                                                                                                                    Year

                                                                                                                            Sources: IEA, EU Commission, VGB (own calculations)

                                                                                                                                                                       PAG E 2 – 3
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                                       EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

AVAILABILITY, RANGE AND IMPORT DEPENDENCY OF ENERGY SOURCES

E   xisting primary energy reserves and resources, in particular when includ-
    ing unconventional sources, are still sufficient in terms of fossil fuels and
uranium around the world. Hard coal and lignite as well as uranium are the
                                                                                      Static range of energy sources worldwide
                                                                                      as well as reserves and resources (in years)
most widespread.                                                                                    oil
                                                                                                                                                                   = Reserves
                                                                                          Conventional             55     80
However, energy sources have an uneven geographical distribution, which                   Conventional                    80              160                      = Resources
means that some countries and regions, including the European Union, are                   + non-conv.
becoming increasingly dependent on imports. The EU’s fossil fuel reserves                  Natural gas
                                                                                          Conventional              60                          300
amount to about 52,000 million tonnes of coal equivalent (TCE), account-
                                                                                          Conventional                   85                              600
ing for only 3.5 % of the known reserves worldwide, and consist mainly of                  + non-conv.
lignite and hard coal. The natural gas and oil reserves amount to approxi-                    Hard coal                          115                                2,600
mately 8.75 billion TCE.
                                                                                                 Lignite                                              320             5,500
Europe’s dependency on imported coal will grow from about 40 % today
                                                                                                Uranium
to more than 60 % by 2035. An import dependency of 81 % is expected                       (< 260 $/kg)                                 145              315          > 8,000 *
for natural gas and of as much as 88 % for oil. Overall, the share of im-                   * advanced
                                                                                              fuel cycles
ported energy will increase from about 50 % today to roughly 70 % by                                        0       50         100           150        > 200       > 1,000 Years
2030.
Underlying causes are the decreasing European energy reserves that can be                                                                             Sources: BGR, OECD-NEA, VGB
produced at competitive prices. In some countries lignite remains the only          Reserves:     Known and with current technology economically recoverable sources.
                                                                                    Resources:    Reserves and documented but with current technology economically
fuel that can still be mined in the long term from open cast mines at com-                        not recoverable sources.
petitive costs.                                                                     Static range: As quotient of amount of reserves and/or resources and current consumption,
                                                                                                  it is a snap-shot of the current state of knowledge.
THE ROLE OF UNCONVENTIONAL GAS IN EUROPE
Unconventional gas production, mainly shale gas, which is extracted by
fracking in the United States, has set the global gas market in motion. There
is hardly any other country in the world that has so consistently pushed
forward shale gas extraction than the USA. Since 2007 shale gas production
has been increasing more than six times and according to the US Depart-
ment of Energy (DOE), 1.18 million cubic metres of shale gas were pro-
duced daily in 2015. According to experts it is expected that in a couple of
years, the USA will no longer have to rely on natural gas imports.
In January 2011, the European Commission published an expert report for
the European Parliament and the European Commission and estimated
that the exploitable resources in Europe amount to about 16 trillion cubic
metres (world: 200 trillion cubic metres). Based on scenarios of the Internal
Energy Agency (IEA), the Commission draws the conclusion that in 2035
the share of shale gas will amount to 77 billion cubic metres in the most
favourable case, which would equal to 11 % of the entire EU natural gas
production and which could cover about 3 % of the total primary energy
demand. While some countries have already launched activities to produce
shale gas, other countries like Germany are very critical towards fracking
because of potential risks for humans and the environment.

                                                                                   Source: BGR

                                                                                PAG E 4 – 5
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                                                    EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

RENEWABLES – EU’S AMBITIOUS TARGETS FOR 2020
The EU and their member states have set binding, ambitious targets to                    Sweden                                                                                                49 Target
                                                                                                           53.9
promote the expansion of renewable energy sources. For the elec­tricity sec-              Finland          39.3                                                       38 Target reached
                                                                                                                                                                                                  reached

tor, the EU expects renewables to account for 34 % by 2020.                                  Latvia
                                                                                           Austria
                                                                                                           37.6
                                                                                                           33.0                                                34
                                                                                                                                                                         40

Since the implementation of the EU Directive for climate protection and                 Denmark            30.8                                          30 Target reached
                                                                                          Croatia
energy ‒ often referred to as the “20-20-20 package” ‒ adopted in Decem-                   Estonia
                                                                                                           29.0
                                                                                                           28.6
                                                                                                                                                         20 Target reached
                                                                                                                                                         25 Target reached
ber 2008, the share of renewables in gross final energy consumption has                  Portugal          28.0                                           31
                                                                                        Lithuania
increased by an average of 6.5 % per year and reached 16.7 % in 2015,                   Romania
                                                                                                           25.8
                                                                                                           24.8
                                                                                                                                                  23 Target reached
                                                                                                                                                  24 Target reached
almost twice as high as in 2004 (8.5 %).                                                Slovenia           22.0                                   25             EU-targets for RES till 2020:
                                                                                         Bulgaria
At 53.9 %, Sweden‘s share of renewables was by far the highest in 2015,                        Italy
                                                                                                           18.2
                                                                                                           17.5
                                                                                                                                       16 Target reached
                                                                                                                                       17 Target reached          20 % share of renewable
                                                                                                                                                                    energy in gross final energy
followed by Finland with 39.3 %, Latvia (37.6 %) and Austria (33.0 %).                       Spain         16.2                             20
                                                                                                                                                                    consumption
                                                                                          Greece           15.4                        18
With Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia,                        France         15.2                                  23              10 % share of energy
                                                                                                                                                                    from renewable sources
Lithuania, Romania, Bulgaria, Italy and Hungary, eleven of the 28 EU             Czech Republic            15.1                  13 Target reached                  in transport
                                                                                        Germany
Member States have already met their 2020 targets. The lowest values were               Hungary
                                                                                                           14.6
                                                                                                           14.5
                                                                                                                                     18
                                                                                                                              13 Target reached
found in Luxembourg and Malta (5.0 % each), the Netherlands (5.8 %)                     Slovakia           12.9              14                                              EU
                                                                                           Poland
and Belgium (7.9 %).                                                                       Cyprus
                                                                                                           11.8
                                                                                                           9.4              13
                                                                                                                                 15                           2015: 16.7 %         2020: 20 %

Energy from renewables will play a key role for the years after 2020. For this             Ireland         9.2                    16
                                                                                 United Kingdom            8.2                   15
reason, the member states have agreed on a new EU target of at least 27 %                Belgium           7.9              13                        2015
by 2030.                                                                             Netherlands           5.8               14                       Target 2020
                                                                                             Malta         5.0     10
                                                                                     Luxembourg            5.0         11
                                                                                            EU-28          16.7                          20

                                                                                                       0          10                    20              30              40                50            60
                                                                                                                  Share of renewables of gross final energy consumption in %

                                                                                                                                                             Source: Eurostat 2017 (data base: 2016)
HYDRO POWER – AN INDISPENSABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY
Hydro power is not only a reliable renewable energy source, but also the
frontrunner in Europe in the generation of electricity from renewable en-
ergy sources. With a production of more than 342 TWh – around 35.5 %            Target for RES-electricity                     Status 2015 – Total: 962 TWh
of the electricity generated from renewable energy sources – hydro power                in EU-28                                Target in 2020: 1,196 TWh
makes a significant contribution to achieving the EU target of 34 % of         2015               2020
                                                                                                                                            83 target; current targets achieved
                                                                                                                    In brackets (...): Individual
electricity generation from renewable energy sources by 2020.                  29.7 %             34.0 %                                                 304
In addition to the predictable and constant generation of run of river pow-
er plants for base load coverage, the provision of reserve power and peak
load to ensure security of supply and, in particular, control power to main-          Wind energy
                                                                                                                                                       Hydro power
tain grid stability in an increasingly flexible energy market is becoming
                                                                                                       302
more and more important. In Europe, these requirements are primarily met                            (495; 61 %)                       342
by high-efficiency pumped storage and storage hydro power plants with a                                                            (355; 96 %)
total installed bottleneck capacity of more than 47,443 MW.
Hydropower is therefore not only an extremely efficient, reliable and stor-                          178
                                                                                                  (232; 77 %)              108
able form of energy, but also an indispensable renewable source of energy                                              (103; 105 %)
                                                                                                                  37
which has to be conserved and further developed within the framework of                                      (11; 333 %)
the energy transition.
                                                                                     Biomass

                                                                                                             Geothermal   Solar energy

                                                                                                                                   Source: Eurostat 2017 (data base: 2016)

                                                                                                                                                           PAG E 6 – 7
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                                    EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

WIND ENERGY – A MAINSTAY OF THE ENERGY TRANSITION
In order to meet the European Union’s targets for the energy and climate
package by 2020, it is also imperative to further expand the use of wind          Wind power:
energy. In Germany at the end of 2016, around 27,270 wind turbines with           Capacities in Europe
                                                                                  end of 2016 in MW
a total capacity of 50,019 MW were in operation. At that time, the installed
capacity of wind turbines in Europe was 161,330 MW and worldwide                          Total Europe*:
                                                                                                                                          FI
486,749 MW.                                                                               161,330 MW
                                                                                                                       NO               1,539
A retrospective analysis of the wind turbine market reveals continuous fur-                                            838    SE
                                                                                                                             6,519
ther development of system technology, accompanied by increasing rated                                                               ES 310
power, rotor diameter and hub height. From the first small plants with an                     IR                      DK                LV 63       RU
                                                                                                                                                    15
                                                                                                                     5,227
average output of around 30 kW and rotor diameters of less than 15 m in                     2,830
                                                                                                      UK      NL                     LT 493
                                                                                                    14,542   4,328
the mid-1980s, machines with a rated power of 8 MW and more as well as                                              DE            PL
                                                                                                            BE
rotor diameters of 160 m have been developed. Wind turbines have already                                   2,386  50,019         5,782

paid for themselves in terms of energy after three to seven months of op-                               FR
                                                                                                              LU
                                                                                                               58
                                                                                                                           CZ
                                                                                                                           281
                                                                                                                                                  UA
                                                                                                                                                  526
                                                                                                                                 SK 3
eration. This means that after this time the turbine has produced as much                             12,065 CH 75       AT
                                                                                                                        2,632 HU        RO
energy as is required for its production, operation and disposal. In addition      PT
                                                                                                                          SI HR
                                                                                                                               329     3,028
to the consistent further development of system technology, the optimiza-         5,316     ES
                                                                                          23,095
                                                                                                                     IT
                                                                                                                   9,257
                                                                                                                           3 422
                                                                                                                                         BG
tion of maintenance strategies in particular will play a decisive role in the                                                            691
future in order to increase technical availability and thus economic effi-                                                            GR             TR
                                                                                                                                                    6,081
                                                                                                                                     2,374
ciency. Especially reliability, weight, costs and efficiency play a key role in
this respect.
                                                                                                                                                    CY 158

                                                                                                                                * Including not listed countries. Source: WindEurope
BIOMASS – THE ALL-ROUNDER
Energy production from biomass is a decisive component of the energy
transition. Currently, 178 TWh of electricity is produced from biomass in
Europe, which means that biomass accounts for 18.1 % of renewable elec-                   Biomass: Development of electricity generation in the EU
tricity generation.                                                                                                                       Sweden       Finland     Germany      United Kingdom      EU-28
Biomass is used as a fuel in thermal power plants or is fermented to produce                                                       250
methane in biogas plants. Biomass power plants perform the same tasks for
the stability of the electricity grid as fossil-fired power plants. They are suit-

                                                                                     Electricity generation in billion (109) kWh
able for base load as well as for the supply of balancing and control power.                                                       200
In addition, it is also possible to convert coal-fired power plants to biomass
in order to continue using existing sites. Biogas is usually used in gas en-
gines to generate electricity. These can be combined in a virtual power plant                                                      150
and thus participate in the balancing energy market. Another option is the
processing of the biogas to natural gas quality and subsequent feeding into
the natural gas grid. In this context the considerable storage potential of the                                                    100
gas grid is utilised and the gas production and gas utilisation are spatially
and temporally separated.
Biomass power plants and biogas plants can be used both in centralized and                                                          50
distributed systems. Biomass, as an all-round renewable energy source, is
therefore an indispensable component of future energy supply systems.
                                                                                                                                     0
                                                                                                                                         2009   2010    2011     2012   2013   2014   2015        2020
                                                                                                                                                                          Year

                                                                                                                                                                                             Source: Eurostat

                                                                                                                                                                                         PAG E 8 – 9
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                      EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

CONTRIBUTION OF WIND ENERGY TO THE SECURE PROVISION OF CAPACITY

T    he cumulative rated capacity of wind turbines in Germany almost dou-
     bled from 26,903 MW at the end of 2010 to 50,019 MW by the end
of 2016. Wind energy accounted for around 12 % of total electricity gen-
                                                                            For comparison: In 2015, the maximum annual peak load on the German
                                                                            grid reached 78,200 MW at 5:30 p.m. on 24 November.
                                                                            The permanently available (secured) capacity of the “German wind portfo-
eration in Germany, of which 10 % was onshore wind energy and 2 %           lio” was therefore always below one percent of its nominal capacity. This
offshore wind energy, making it an important renewable energy source in     information is also found in the transmission grid operators’ reports on the
Germany.                                                                    electricity balances from 2012 to 2016, which at the time of the maximum
With regard to the contribution of wind energy to the security of supply,   annual wind energy load in Germany assume that, despite the significant
the development of the annual minimum values as a measure of the per-       increase in installed capacity, the unavailability of wind energy will remain
manently available capacity over the year is revealing: These values have   unchanged at 99 %.
remained at an unchanged low level of 100 MW on average since 2010,         The low level of the minimum values can be statistically explained: A look
although the cumulative nominal capacity of the “German wind portfolio”     at the frequency distribution of the cumulative power of German wind
has almost doubled within the same time. Obviously, the expectation that    turbines in 2016 shows that there is no normal distribution and that low
the minimum value would increase if more wind turbines are built            power output appears to occur much more frequently than high power
throughout Germany and thus increasingly allowing for the replacement       output.
of conventional power plant capacity has not been met: The expansion of
                                                                            Wind energy therefore makes virtually no contribution to guaranteed sup-
wind energy in Germany over the last seven years has replaced conven-
                                                                            ply of electricity. Therefore, additional technologies are still needed to en-
tional ‒ schedulable ‒ power plant capacity of an average of 100 MW.
                                                                            sure security of supply. Various options are available along the value chain,
                                                                            such as making conventional power plants more flexible, electricity storage
                                                                            or demand side management.
Key Key
                         figures for wind
                              figures      energy
                                      for wind    in Germany
                                               energy        fromfrom
                                                      in Germany  2010 to 2016
                                                                      2010 to 2016                                 Frequency distribution
                                                                                                                       Frequency          of wind
                                                                                                                                  distribution     power
                                                                                                                                               of wind   production
                                                                                                                                                       power        in Germany
                                                                                                                                                             production        in 2016
                                                                                                                                                                        in Germany in 2016

                                                                                 Quarter-hourly resolution
                                                                                      Quarter-hourly  resolution                                 µ-σ µ-σMeanMean
                                                                                                                                                             valuevalue
                                                                                                                                                                   µ    µµ+σ µ+σ                                   Quarter-hourly resolution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Quarter-hourly  resolution
                  60,000
                      60,000                                                                                                                 10 10
                  55,000
                      55,000                                                                                                                                                   σ   σ      σ    σ
                                                                                                50,019                                             9                   9
                                                                                                     50,019
                  50,000
                      50,000                                                                                                                                                                  Standard deviation
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Standard deviation
                                                                                                                                                   8                   8
                  45,000
                      45,000
                                                     Nominal power
                                                        Nominal    PN 38,557
                                                                power  PN 38,557                                                                   7                   7
                  40,000
                      40,000

                                                                                                                   Relative frequency in %

                                                                                                                                             Relative frequency in %
                                                                                                33,834
                                                                                                     33,834                                        6
                  35,000
                      35,000                                                                                                                                           6
Capacity in MW

                                                       30,979
                 Capacity in MW

                                                            30,979       29,282
                                                                              29,282
                  30,000
                      30,000
                           26,903                                                                                                                  5                   5                                      Real Real
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   data data
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20162016
                                26,903                                                Maximum PMax PMax
                                                                                         Maximum
                                                       24,086
                                                            24,086                                                                                                                                              µ = 8,769  MW MW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     µ = 8,769
                  25,000
                      25,000
                           21,678                                                                                                                  4
                                21,678                                                                                                                                 4                                        σ = 6,852  MW MW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     σ = 6,852
                  20,000
                      20,000
                                                                                                                                                   3                   3
                  15,000
                      15,000                                      Arithmetic meanmean
                                                                       Arithmetic valuevalue
                                                                                        Pµ Pµ
                                                                                                8,7698,769                                         2                   2
                  10,000
                      10,000
                                                       5,2245,2245,4105,4105,8405,840
                                      4,0994,099
                                                                                      Minimum PMin PMin
                                                                                          Minimum                                                  1                   1
                        5,000
                            5,000
                                      117 117           115 115             24   24              141 141
                                  0   0                                                                                                            0                   0
                                      20102010
                                             20112011
                                                    20122012
                                                           20132013 20142014
                                                                           20152015
                                                                                  20162016                                                                         0       0 5,000  10,000
                                                                                                                                                                                 5,000      15,000
                                                                                                                                                                                        10,000      20,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                15,000      25,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                        20,000      30,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                25,000      35,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        30,000  35,000
                                                            Year Year                                                                                                                    Power in MW
                                                                                                                                                                                             Power in MW

                                                   Sources: BMWi, BWE, Germany TSOs, VGB (own calculations)                                                                                              Sources: German TSOs, VGB (own calculations)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PAG E 10 – 11
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                                      EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION – NEW SUPPLY SYSTEM STRUCTURES

D     istributed generation is an essential part of the energy transition and
      will increase significantly in the coming years. However, the complex
system of distributed energy supply, consisting of generation – transmission
                                                                                 Growth of distributed power production in different regions
                                                                                            120,000

– distribution – consumption, must be considered in its entirety.                                            North America   Western Europe    Eastern Europe
Combined heat and power plants are mainly based on the classic piston                       100,000
engine process. In addition, fuel cells, micro gas turbines and Stirling en-
gines can open up new fields of application for combined heat and power

                                                                                Capacity in MW
(CHP). They represent important technical innovations, as they enable the                        80,000

use of CHP technology even in the very small power range. This applies in
particular to applications in the local heating sector, but also in the com-                     60,000
mercial and industrial sectors.
In connection with the increase in distributed energy generation, these sys-
tems will increasingly have to offer the necessary network services in the                       40,000

future, including the provision of control power.
To support the necessary measures, smart metering will now also be intro-                        20,000
duced in Germany from 2017 onwards, depending on consumption
(>10,000 kWh/a in 2017; >6,000 Wh/a in 2020 for private house-holds).
It has to be considered that a high standard of IT security must be main-                            0
                                                                                                          2014   2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020           2021 2022 2023
tained for the measurement and control systems.
                                                                                                                                        Year

                                                                                                                                                       Source: Navigant Research
STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES – AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF SYSTEM STABILITY

I  n parallel with the increase in decentralized energy supply and the steady
   increase in electricity generation from fluctuating renewable energy
sources, there is an urgent need to expand storage capacity in the future.
                                                                                  Specification         High capacity                                                High amount of energy

                                                                                  Storage time                   Seconds                          Minutes                    Hours (days)
The systems can be divided into central storage power plants, distributed
small storage facilities, and short or long-term storage facilities. It is also   Application
                                                                                  (examples)
                                                                                                          Redispatch                      ˝Black start“                Stand-alone networks,
                                                                                                                                                                       electricity trading
                                                                                                          Voltage stabilisation           Uninterruptible
possible to store electrical or thermal energy. A decisive criterion for the                                                              power supply                 Peak-load smoothing
                                                                                                          Frequency stabilisation                                      Load balacing
selection of the appropriate storage technology is the time range which is to                                                             Soft-hybrides
                                                                                                                                                                       Batterie-power vehicles
be covered. Choosing the right location also plays an important role.             Classification   Thermal                                   Local              Decentral            Central storage
                                                                                                                        Short-time storage
Market-driven conditions are required for the use of the various storage          technologies     storage                                   small storage      large batteries      power plants

technologies. The current possible alternatives include, for example, the         Storage
                                                                                  concepts         Sensitive storages   Double-layer         Lead-acid          Lead-acid            Pumped-storage
expansion of the electricity grid, making the existing power plant port-folio                      Latent storages      capacitors           batteries (Pb)     batteries (Pb)       power plants
                                                                                                                                             Lithium-Ion        Lithium-Ion          Compressed-air
more flexible, and also the use of demand side management.                                         Chemical
                                                                                                   storages
                                                                                                                        Superconducting
                                                                                                                        magnetic             batteries (LIB)    batteries (LIB)      power plants
At present, only the use of hydroelectric power in the form of pumped stor-                                             energy storage       Nickel-cadmium     Natrium-
                                                                                                                                             batteries (NiCd)   sulphur
                                                                                                                                                                                     Hydrogen-storage
age power plants is available as a fully developed technology. Large-scale                                              Fly-wheel            Nickel-metal-      batteries (NaS)      power plants
                                                                                                                                             hydrid batteries
battery systems have already proven their technical suitability for use in the                                                               (NiMH)
                                                                                                                                                                Redox-flow-
                                                                                                                                                                batteries (RFB)
                                                                                                   Type of storage
control power market and can also be used commercially in niche applica-
                                                                                                     Virtual storage
tions.                                                                                               Electrical (electromagnetic or -static field)
                                                                                                     Electro-chemical (chemical energy)
                                                                                                     Mechanical (kinetic or potential energy)

                                                                                                                                                                      Source: Fraunhofer ISI (2012)

                                                                                                                                                                                  PAG E 12 – 13
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                             EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

FLEXIBLE CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANTS – GUARANTEEING SECURITY OF SUPPLY

T    he CO2 emissions of coal-fired power plants have been gradually re-
     duced as a result of technological development. In consequence, the
average global efficiency has risen from roughly 30 % to about 33 %, and
                                                                                 The new power plants currently under construction have therefore been
                                                                                 designed for particularly flexible operation, especially in Germany.
                                                                                 Essential technical criteria for flexibility are stable minimum load, start-up
the consistent application of state-of-the-art technology with an efficiency     and shutdown times as well as minimum operation and downtimes, load
level of 44 % to 47 %, the CO2 volume could continue to be significantly         gradients and the control ranges in different load scenarios. Another com-
reduced worldwide. In countries with a growing share of fluctuating renew-       pletely different aspect is flexibility with regard to quality fluctuations in the
able energy sources in electricity generation, the primacy of efficiency is      main fuel and the use of substitute, refuse derived, fuels.
increasingly being replaced by the need for flexibility.
                                                                                 New and appropriately upgraded thermal power plants can contribute to
Generation by conventional plants must adapt quickly and flexibly to the         the integration of renewable energies into a modern power supply system
residual load at all times, i.e. be available to compensate for the difference   through their flexible operation. The focus of technical developments is on
between consumption and fluctuating feed-in from photovoltaic and wind           the exploitation of existing potential for flexible plant operation. Against
energy plants. Short-term feed-in fluctuations are triggered by the rapidly      the backdrop of the expansion targets for renewable energy throughout
increasing output of photovoltaic systems. The resulting effects become the      Europe, a broad and flexible thermal power plant portfolio will continue to
decisive driver for the day to day feed-in fluctuation with the increasing       be indispensible in the future in order to ensure economic efficiency and
intensity of solar radiation from spring onwards. In the medium to long          security of supply at all times.
term, the average cycle lies between strong and weak wind phases; in north-
western Europe, it corresponds to about three to five days. Due to limited
interconnection capacities, the necessary flexibility for permanent load bal-
ancing has to be met to a large extent by the power plants in Germany.
Flexibility parameters of thermal power plants:
                                                                                            High load gradients, low minimum load,
Flexibility of thermal power plants – State-of-the-art                                      short ramp-up times

                 1,300                                                                       Plant type                  Hard coal          Lignite              CCGT          Gas turbine
                                                                                             Lignite (e.g. BoA)                             Nuclear
                 1,200                                                                       Load gradient
                                                                                                                         2/4/8            2 /Max
                                                                                                                                              4 /capacity
                                                                                                                                                  8           4~1,300
                                                                                                                                                               / 8 / 12        8 / 12 / 15
Capacity in MW

                                                                                             Max
                                                                                             in %capacity
                                                                                                   per minute~1,000 MW                                                MW
                                     Nuclear power plants                                    Min capacity    ~420 MW                        Min capacity       ~520 MW
                 1,000                                                                       ... ramp rate
                                                                                             Max             +/-30 MW/min                   Max ramp rate      +/-63 MW/min
                                                                                             in the load range           40 ... 90        50 ... 90           40* ... 90       40* ... 90
                                                                                             of %
                                                                                             Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCGT)              Hard coal
                  800                                                                        Minimum load
                                                                                             Max capacity     ~2 x 440 MW                   Max capacity       ~800 MW
                                                                                             in % of                    40 / 25 / 15    60 / 40 / 20        50 / 40 / 30 *    50 / 40 / 20*
                                                     Lignite fired power plants              Min capacity     ~520*/260** MW                Min capacity       ~210 MW
                                                                                             nominal    capacity
                                                                                             Max ramp rate    +/-36 MW/min                  Max ramp rate      +/-20 MW/min
                  600
                             Combined Cycle                                                  Ramp-up time
                             Power Plant (CCGT)                                             *in two
                                                                                                 hours  (h),operation
                                                                                                    boiler               3/2/1            6/4/2             1,5 / 1 / 0,5
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                              EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

NUCLEAR POWER – CONTINUED EXPANSION WORLDWIDE

I  n 2016, electricity generation from nuclear power was around 2,477 bil-
   lion kWh worldwide and slightly above the 2015 figure of about 2,441 bil-
lion kWh. The nuclear-based generation is mainly determined by the shut-
                                                                               Electricity generation from nuclear power worldwide
                                                                               100                                                                                  3,000
downs of Japanese nuclear power plants following the Fukushima event and                    Electricity generation from nuclear power plants in billion (109) kWh

the political decision in Germany to shut down – first temporarily and then                                                                                         2,500
permanently – 8 nuclear power plant units. The share of nuclear power in                    Availability in %
worldwide electricity generation has been roughly at some 11 %. The EU is
                                                                                                                                                         Others     2,000
the leading economic area worldwide in nuclear energy production with 14
countries operating nuclear power plants and a production of about 820 bil-                                                                              Japan
                                                                               50                                                                                   1,500
lion kWh.
Since the first commercial nuclear power plant was commissioned in Calder                                                                                 USA

Hall in the United Kingdom in 1956, around 75,310 billion kWh of elec-                                                                                              1,000

tricity have been produced on a cumulated basis. This corresponds to about
three times the current annual global electricity demand. The growth of                                                                                             500
                                                                                                                                                           EU
nuclear electricity generation in the 1980s is remarkable. During that time,
large power plant projects with unit outputs in excess of 1,000 MW, which        0                                                                                  0
had been launched in the 1970s due to the pressure of the first oil price       1956 1960         1970          1980         1990         2000         2010
                                                                                                                                                       Year
crisis, went into operation and provided considerable generation capacity.
Today, the operation of nuclear power plants is characterised by high avail-
ability with a worldwide average of nearly 80 %.                                                                         Source: atw – Int. Journal for Nuclear Power 5/2017
NUCLEAR POWER: PLANTS, PLANNED SHUTDOWNS, NEW PLANTS AND PROJECTS

             USA
           France                                             58 - 2 + 1
                                                                                        99 + 4 + 18          4 +1 +2
                                                                                                                  4+2
                                                                                                                            Finland
                                                                                                                            Hungary
                                                                                                                                                 C     urrently 450 nuclear power plants with a
                                                                                                                                                       total capacity of 421,461 MW are being op-
                                                                                                                                                 erated worldwide in 31 countries: another 58
            Japan                                         43 + 2 - 5                           37 + 20 + 32                 China                plants are under construction, while roughly 200
  United Kingdom                15 + 10                                                                           3 +1      Argentin
                                                                                                                                                 plants are being planned or pre-planned to be
           Russia                         35 + 7   + 16                                                       2 +1 + 4      Brazil
                                                                                                                                                 commissioned by 2030 (state December 2016).
         Canada                     19 + 7                                                                        2+2       Mexico
        Germany            8 -8                                                                              4 +3+2
                                                                                                                                                 Following the Japanese events of March 11,
                                                                                                                            Pakistan
      South Korea                     25 + 3 + 12                                                                      2    South Africa
                                                                                                                                                 2011, new built plans were abandoned in Italy
            India                   22 + 5 + 8         Nuclear power plants worldwide                          1-1+1        Armenia
                                                                                                                                                 and Switzerland only. This does not apply to the
          Ukraine               15 + 2                     in operation 2016: 450                                      1    The Netherlands      plants in e.g. East and South East Europe, Asia,
          Sweden               10                                                                                 2+2       Romania              states of the Middle East as well as North and
            Spain          7                                                                                      1+1       Slowenia             South America. The impact of the current North-
          Belgium          7                                                                                      1+1       Iran                 American shale gas boom on local power plant
    Taiwan, China       6 +2                                                                                     +4 + 2     UAE                  structure as well as plant operation and construc-
                                                                                                                    +4      Poland
         Bulgaria     2 +1
                                                                                                                    +1      Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                 tion of new nuclear power plants cannot be esti-
         Slowakia      4 +2+2                                                                                                                    mated yet.
                                                                                                                    +4      Vietnam
      Switzerland      5
                                                                                                                    +4      Turkey               Long-term planable perspectives in terms of elec-
   Czech Republic      6+2                                                                                          +2      Belarus
                                                                                                                                                 tricity generation costs and nuclear fuel supply
                                                                                                                                                 motivate investors to launch new construction
 New build: 58                      Planned shut-downs: 15                          Projects: 200 (including projects in further 14 countries)
                                                                                                                                                 programmes.
Sources: IAEA, atw – Int. Journal for Nuclear Power, status: 6/2017

                                                                                                                                                                                PAG E 16 – 17
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                           EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

MEASURES TO INCREASE THE ROBUSTNESS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

I  n the second half of 2011, the 14 EU member states operating nuclear
   power plants as well as Switzerland and the Ukraine checked their nuclear
plants for possible design deficiencies with the scope of the “EU stress test”.
                                                                                  The nuclear supervisory authorities of the Länder
                                                                                  have also confirmed within the framework of the
                                                                                  EU stress test that the German nuclear power plants
All plants passed the test; operation did not have to be interrupted and          have no design deficiencies and that the necessary
standstills were not needed. In contrast to the site of Fukushima Daiichi, no     precaution against damage required according to
design deficiencies were identified in European nuclear power plants.             the Atomic Energy Act has been taken.”
At the 6th Convention on Nuclear Safety, which took place in Vienna from          Irrespective of this confirmation, operators carry out additional systematic
March 24 to April 6, 2014, the German Government confirmed again the              robustness analyses and derive measures to improve control in case of events
high safety level and robustness achieved by German nuclear power plants          beyond design, e.g. :
in 2013:                                                                          ll Provision of additional emergency diesel sets (in Germany nine sets are
                                                                                     usually available per unit) in case of failing AC supply (“station
“Both the results of the EU stress test and the national                             blackout”),
reviews showed that the German nuclear installations                              ll Larger diesel reserves which last up to seven days by improved fuel
in the sense of the Convention have safety                                           management on the basis of secure fuel stocks in case emergency power
margins (a high degree of robustness), some of them                                  is needed for an extended period,
even to a considerable degree. This is also due to the                            ll Third redundancy for water feeding to fuel element storage ponds via a
precautionary and upgrading measures that have                                       fixed device to guarantee cooling of ponds,
been continuously implemented in the past for                                     ll Provision of mobile feeding pumps for steam generators and
additional safety improvement.                                                    ll Introduction and implementation of “severe accident management
                                                                                     guidelines”.
Plant-specific measures to increase protection of plants against external im-
pacts (earth quake, flooding, volcanic eruptions, extreme weather phenom-
ena, airplane crash) are being taken in nuclear power plants all over the
world. Besides, filtered containment venting systems, hydrogen recombin-
ers, emergency control rooms and crisis centres are also being set up. These
measures had already been standard in German nuclear power plants before
the Fukushima accident.
The US Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant is an excellent example for a
plant of robust design against natural external impact like flooding: The
pressurised water reactor is located in the US Federal State of Nebraska at
the river Missouri. The plant has a nominal capacity of 476 MW. In June
2011, the plant had to deal with flooding for several weeks and was able to
cope with the situation thanks to a flooding protection system that had
been installed by the beginning of 2011 according to a recommendation of
the US supervisory authority United States Nuclear Regulatory Commis-
sion (NRC) in 2010 after having assessed the plant´s protection measures.
The plant was taken off the grid during flooding for precautionary reasons.
Despite breaking of an additional mobile flood barrier, the plant had not
                                                                                In June 2011, the Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant, located in the US Federal State of Nebraska at
been at danger at any time without any accident potential.                      the river Missouri, had to deal with flooding for several weeks.
                                                                                Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineer 4/2013

                                                                                                                                                           PAG E 18 – 19
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                                                   EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

NEW POWER GENERATION CAPACITIES REQUIRED

F    or more than two decades, European electricity generation has been in-
     vesting predominantly in renewable energy sources and gas-fired power
plants, whereas in the 1970s and 1980s, investments focused on conven-
                                                                                    The future of today´s electricity generating capacities in operation
                                                                                                                     1,000
tional coal-fired and nuclear power plants. This structural change is above all                                                                                     Other
the result of various financial support systems for renewables in the indi-                                                                                         Geothermal

                                                                                      Capacity in operation in GW*
vidual European countries.                                                                                            800
                                                                                                                                                                    Hydro
Conventional power plants in Europe, mainly coal-fired and nuclear power                                                                                            Photovoltaic
plants, have therefore now reached a technical age at which future decom-                                                                                           Waste
                                                                                                                      600
missioning is foreseeable. The typical technical lifetimes of coal-fired power                                                                                      Peat
plants are about 40 years, those of nuclear power plants about 60 to 80                                                                                             Biomass
years, and those of hydroelectric power plants about 100 years. In addition,                                          400                                           Wind, offshore
it is also foreseeable that in the coming years, renewables capacities will
                                                                                                                                                                    Wind, onshore
increasingly reach the end of their technical operating life; the service life of
                                                                                                                                                                    Nuclear
wind power and photovoltaic systems is considered to be 20 to 30 years.                                               200
Based on typical service life data and individual political decisions (e.g.                                                                                         Oil
phasing out nuclear power in Germany by 2022), it can be estimated that                                                                                             Lignite
by the year 2030 around 30 % of the electricity generation capacities cur-                                              0                                           Hard coal
rently in operation in Europe will be decommissioned. By 2050, this figure                                                   2015   2025   2035     2045 2050
                                                                                                                                  Year
will be around 80 %.                                                                 * ˝Mortality“, Base: Capacities in operation end of 2014
This estimate makes it clear that with today‘s time horizons for planning,
construction and commissioning of power generation plants of 10 years and
more, suitable replacement capacities for a secure electricity supply will
have to be prepared in good time – now.                                                                           Source: Investment Requirements in the EU electricity sector up to 2050
                                                                                          Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Energy Technology
PLANNED AND ANNOUNCED NEW CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN EUROPE

T     he need to replace existing power generation capacities in Europe has
      led many companies to plan new construction projects. Despite the
massive expansion of energy from renewables, coal, natural gas and nuclear
                                                                                    Projected and announced power plant capacities in Europe

energy continue to be the most important primary energy sources for reliable            Share of energy source 2017                  Gas (43,740 MW, 30.19 %)

available power generation. Highly efficient new plants are replacing less                                                           Oil (0 MW, 0 %)*
efficient power plants. In addition to a significant reduction in CO2 emis-
sions, new power plants will also reduce further emissions and their increased                                                       Hard coal (17,450 MW, 12.18 %)

flexibility will contribute to a secure electricity supply and the integration of                                                    Lignite and peat (2,260 MW, 1.48 %)
renewable energy into the supply system. However, due to a lack of long-
                                                                                                                                     Nuclear (25,580 MW, 16.79 %)
term political framework conditions across Europe, investment in new ca-
pacities is stalled.                                                                                                                 Hydro (11,645 MW, 9.28 %)
According to the updated VGB PowerTech new construction statistics, the
                                                                                                                                     Wind (44,617 MW, 29.13 %)

                                                                                                                                    {
technology of gas-fired power plants accounts for the largest share of the
available capacity of conventional plants at around 30 % (approximately                                                                  Biomass
                                                                                                                                         (391 MW, 0.26 %)
43,740 MW). With a share of approx. 17 % (25.580 MW) these are fol-                                                                      Residues and waste
lowed by nuclear power plant projects, particularly in Eastern European                                                                  (120 MW, 0.08 %)
countries. The new construction projects for power plants fired by hard coal                                                             Other renewables
and lignite are in third place with a combined share of around 13 %                        Total: 152,346 MW                             (120 MW, 0.07 %)
(19,710 MW) of the total capacity.
Projects based on non-schedulable generation technologies continue to fo-
cus on wind power plants with a capacity share of approx. 29 %                                   * without photovoltaic, oil: no projects. Source: Data base VGB, state: 9/2017
(44,617 MW).

                                                                                                                                                       SEI T E 20 – 21
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                         EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

DIRECTIVE ON NATIONAL EMISSION CEILINGS

T    he EU Directive on National Emission Ceilings (2001/81/EC), or
     NEC directive, sets national emission limits for the five air pollutants
sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), particulate
                                                                                The reduction targets for the EU and the EU member states for the period
                                                                                2020/2029 and from 2030 on-wards are presented in the table (reference
                                                                                year = 2005).
matter (PM2.5) and volatile organic compounds other than methane (NM-           The emission savings achieved in the electricity sector in Germany by 2013
VOC), until 2019.                                                               clearly show that the targets for 2020 can be achieved.
A revision of the NEC Directive (new NERC: National Emission Reduc-             The upgrading of the plants in the area of power generation has made a
tion Commitment) by the year 2030 was formally confirmed by agreement           considerable contribution to this positive interim result. Based on the de-
between the European institutions of the Commission, Council and Parlia-        velopment of emissions from thermal power plants in Europe, it can be seen
ment, at the end of 2016. The new NERC Directive contains percentage            that a continuous reduction has been achieved since 2005. This is attribut-
reductions compared to the reference year 2005.                                 able to efficiency gains and improvements in flue gas treatment at existing
EU Member States have to ensure compliance with the ceilings through            power plants, as well as to the replacement of capacity by new build plants.
national action plans. Looking at the sectors with the highest emissions,       Further emission reductions will follow with the adoption of the Large
road transport, for example, it is unlikely to achieve significant reductions   Combustion Plants (Best Available Techniques Reference) LCP-BREF
in emissions over the next few years. In this way, attempts are being made      document in 2017. The document describes the current state of the art for
to require and realize significantly higher reductions in the area of power     large combustion plants and specifies Best Available Techniques – Associ-
generation. The implementation of the NERC Directive will therefore             ated Emission Levels (BAT-AEL) for various pollutants. In the national
mainly affect power plants for electricity generation.                          implementation, which must take place within four years of the publication
                                                                                of the conclusions, i.e. by 2022, the emission limit values must be incorpo-
                                                                                rated in national law to ensure compliance with these ranges.
EU reduction targets for SO2, NOx and volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)
for the period 2020/2029 and from 2030 (reference year = 2005).                          Reduction of important emissions from thermal power plants
              Reduction   SO2 2020/2029      NOx 2020/2029       NMVOC 2020/2029         in public electricity and heat supply in Europe (32 countries)
Region                     and from 2030      and from 2030        and from 2030
Belgium                     43 %    66 %        41 %   59 %          21 %   35 %
                                                                                                                         120
Bulgaria                    78 %    88 %        41 %   58 %          21 %   42 %                                                         NOx             PM2.5            SOx
Denmark                     35 %    59 %        56 %   68 %          35 %   37 %
Germany                     21 %    58 %        39 %   65 %          13 %   28 %
Estonia                     32 %    68 %        18 %   30 %          10 %   28 %                                         100
Finland                     30 %    34 %        35 %   47 %          35 %   48 %
France                      55 %    77 %        50 %   69 %          43 %   52 %

                                                                                         Emissions in % (2005 = 100 %)
Greece                      74 %    88 %        31 %   55 %          54 %   62 %
United Kingdom              59 %    88 %        55 %   73 %          32 %   39 %
                                                                                                                          80
Ireland                     65 %    85 %        49 %   69 %          25 %   32 %
Italy                       35 %    71 %        40 %   65 %          35 %   46 %
Croatia                     55 %    83 %        31 %   57 %          34 %   48 %
Latvia                       8%     46 %        32 %   34 %          27 %   38 %
Lithuania                   55 %    60 %        48 %   51 %          32 %   47 %                                          60
Luxembourg                  34 %    50 %        43 %   83 %          29 %   42 %
Malta                       77 %    95 %        42 %   79 %          23 %   27 %
The Netherlands             28 %    53 %        45 %   61 %           8%    15 %
Austria                     26 %    41 %        37 %   69 %          21 %   36 %                                          40
Poland                      59 %    72 %        30 %   39 %          25 %   26 %
Portugal                    63 %    83 %        36 %   63 %          18 %   38 %
Romania                     77 %    88 %        45 %   60 %          25 %   45 %
Sweden                      22 %    22 %        36 %   66 %          25 %   36 %
                            57 %    82 %        36 %   50 %          18 %   32 %                                          20
Slovakia
Slovenia                    63 %    92 %        39 %   65 %          23 %   53 %
Spain                       67 %    88 %        41 %   62 %          22 %   39 %
Czech Republic              45 %    66 %        35 %   64 %          18 %   50 %
Hungary                     46 %    73 %        34 %   66 %          30 %   58 %                                           0
Cyprus                      83 %    93 %        44 %   55 %          45 %   50 %                                               2005   2006   2007 2008   2009    2010   2011 2012     2013    2014
EU-28 total                 59  %   78 %        42 %   62 %          28 %   40 %                                                                                             Year

                                                                 Source: EU Commission                                                                   Source: EEA (European Environment Agency) 2016

                                                                                                                                                                                 PAG E 22 – 23
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                                 EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

CLIMATE POLICY: GLOBAL APPROACH NEEDED
Between 1990 and 2014, the total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) in the                                    Current Policies         New Policies           450 Scenario
European Union (EU-28) decreased by 20 % (World Bank, state: 2016). At                                                         in billion tce
the beginning of 2014, the EU announced new targets for the climate and

                                                                                                 2014

                                                                                                            2020

                                                                                                                        2040

                                                                                                                                   2020

                                                                                                                                                 2040

                                                                                                                                                           2020

                                                                                                                                                                       2040
energy policy which are to be met by 2030. Compared to the 1990 reference
values, GHGE are to be reduced by 40 % in order to support the global
target of limiting global warming to less than 2 °C. By 2050, GHGE are to       Coal            5,609      5,787       7,610      5,580         5,914     5,174       2,857
be reduced by 80 to 95 %. It is also planned to raise the annual upper limit    Oil             6,037      6,497       7,717      6,391         6,821     6,207       4,751
(cap) of GHGE from currently 1.74 to 2.2 % for the post-2020 period.
                                                                                Natural gas     4,133      4,563       6,740      4,487         6,161     4,480       4,716
For the stabilisation and actual reduction of GHGE emissions, action, based
                                                                                Nuclear           946      1,133       1,474      1,137         1,687     1,164       2,271
on the principle of effectiveness and cost efficiency, has to be taken world-
wide. Cost-efficient measures such as insulation of buildings, fossil-fired     Hydro             479        536         736        539           766       540         847

power plants with higher efficiencies, expanded use of renewables or further    Biomass         2,030      2,200       2,620      2,204         2,690     2,214       3,300
use of technologies with low GHGE like nuclear energy must be applied with      Other             259        456       1,156              0     1,481       513       2,513
priority and without prejudice in order to mitigate the globally increasing     renewables
amount of GHGE.                                                                 Total          19,549     21,170      28,051     20,823         25,523   20,291      21,254
The International Energy Agency (IEA) developed a stabilisation concept         Share of         60 %       63 %        70 %       63 %          70 %      63 %        68 %
which is to stabilise GHGE at a value of 450 ppm CO2 in the atmosphere          non-OECD
                                                                                countries
(“450 Scenario”) through a bundle of measures in comparison to the refer-
ence scenario (“Current Policies”).                                             IEA stabilisation concept. Share of the energy sources.

                                                                                                                                      Source: IEA, World Energy Outlook 2016
CO2 emissions total and per capita from fossil fuel combustion                              CO2 emissions from different power plants
for selected regions for 2014 and changes from 1990 to 2012                                 in g CO2 equivalent per kWh,
                                                                                            calculated for the life cycle of the power plant
              t CO2 per capita            billion (109) t CO2 per year
                                                                                                                                                               BoA technology
Region        0        1            2     3          4          5         6           20
Change                                                                                            Lignite                                                                950 to 1,230

      EU-28                                                              6.4
     - 20 %                               3,241                                                                                                                790 to 1,080
                                                                                               Hard coal
      India                1,7
   + 260 %                       2,234                                                                Oil                                                  890

      USA                                                                      16.5
     +4 %                                                  5,074                             Natural gas                                     640

                                          143                                                      Gas
      China                                                            7.5                     combined                410 to 430                         Electricity generation with CCS
   + 321 %                                                           10,251                       cycle
                                         127                                                 Photovoltaik              35 to 160
    World                                                4.97
   + 75 %                                                                       35,837
                                                                                                 Nuclear     16 to 23

              0        1            2     3          4          5         6           30                     8 to 16                           Result range due to different
                                                                                                   Wind
                                                                                                                                               methods of calculation
                                                                                            Hydro power      4 to 13                           and different site implications.

                                                            Sources: IEA, World Bank 2017               Sources: PSI Paul Scherrer Institut/Switzerland, ESU-services, VGB (own calculations)

                                                                                                                                                                     PAG E 24 – 25
FAC TS A N D FI G U R ES                                                                                      EL E C T R I C I T Y G EN ER AT I O N 2017 l 2018

VGB POWERTECH E.V.

VGB PowerTech e.V. is the international technical association for generation   Structure of the VGB membership:
and storage of power and heat with head office located in Essen (Germany).
Currently VGB has 452 members, comprising operators, manufacturers, and        Fossil-fired power plants			            238,500                  MW
institutions connected with energy engineering.                                Nuclear power plants			                 117,500                  MW
Our members come from 33 countries and represent an installed power plant      Hydro power plants and other renewables  77,000                  MW
capacity of 433,000 MW located in Europe.                                      Total					433,000                                                MW
The activities of VGB PowerTech comprise:                                      EU: 429 members in 20 countries
ll Provision of an international platform for the accumulation, exchange,      Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland,
   and transfer of technical know-how.                                         France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg,
ll Acting as “gate-keeper” and provider of technical know-how for the          The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden
   member companies and other associations of our industry.
ll Harmonisation of technical and operational standards.
ll Identification and organisation of joint R&D activities.                    Other Europe: 11 members in 3 countries
ll Exclusive member access to qualified expert knowledge.                      Russia, Switzerland, Turkey
ll Representation of members´ interests.
                                                                               Outside Europe: 12 members in 10 countries
VGB is performing these tasks in close cooperation with EURELECTRIC
                                                                               Argentina, Australia, China, Japan, Malaysia,
on European-level and further national and international associations.
                                                                               Mongolia, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, USA

                                                                               Total:   452 members in 33 countries
TASKS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION VGB POWERTECH
                                                                                              General Assembly
VGB PowerTech e. V. supports its members with all technical
issues of generation and storage of electricity and heat in                                         Board               Technical Advisory
order to further optimise                                       Scientific Advisory Board                                     Board
                                                                                                 of Directors
ll Safety
ll Efficiency                                                                                   Management
ll Environmental friendliness
ll Economic efficiency and                                      Competence Areas for the Generation and Storage of Power and Heat
ll Occupational safety and health protection
                                                                   Nuclear                     Renewables      Environmental
                                                                               Power Plant                      Technology,      Technical
The competence areas “Nuclear Power Plants”, “Power Plant           Power                     and Distributed Chemistry, Safe-
                                                                               Technologies     Generation                        Services
                                                                    Plants                                     ty and Health
Technologies”, “Renewables and Distributed Generation”,
and “Environmental Technology, Chemistry, Safety and
Health” are dealing with all aspects of nuclear, conventional
and renewable generation. They are cooperating closely to
fully exploit the synergies.
The engineering services of the “Technical Services”, the
VGB Research Foundation, data bases, and publications. e.g.
the technical journal VGB POWERTECH perfectly round
off the portfolio of expertise of VGB PowerTech.                                              VGB Committees

                                                                                                                                    PAG E 26 – 27
VGB PowerTech e.V.        Editorial: Erland Christensen (responsible),
Deilbachtal 173           Mario Bachhiesl, Ludger Mohrbach, Oliver Then and
45257 Essen · Germany     Christopher Weßelmann
                          October 2017
Phone: +49 201 8128 – 0   www.vgb.org · info@vgb.org
Fax: +49 201 8128 – 302
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