How's Life in Chile? - OECD

 
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How’s Life in Chile?
How’s Life in Chile?
Chile’s current well-being, 2018 or latest available year
                                           CIVIC
                                        ENGAGEMENT                                                      INCOME AND
                                                                                                          WEALTH
                                                                    Hav ing   House-
                                                                   no say in    hold    House-
                                                          Voter                          hold
                                                         turnout gov ernment*
                                                                              income             S80/S20
                                                                                        w ealth
         SOCIAL                                Lack of                                            income
       CONNECTIONS                             social                                           share ratio*
                                                                                                                                 HOUSING
                                              support*                                                    Housing
                                    Social                                                              affordability
                                     inter-
                                    actions                                                                       Ov er-
                                                                                                                crow ding
   WORK-LIFE                Gender                                                                                rate*
   BALANCE                   gap in
                             hours
                                                                                                                    Employ -
                            w orked*                                                                                ment rate
                           Time off                                                                                  Gender           WORK AND
                                                                                                                    w age gap*       JOB QUALITY
                            Gender
                            gap in
                            feeling                                                                               Long hours
                             safe                                                                                   in paid
    SAFETY                                                                                                          w ork*
                              Homicides*                                                                      Life
                                                                                                          ex pectancy
                                        Negativ e
                                         affect                                                      Gap in life
                                        balance*                                                    ex pectancy
                                                   Life                                             by education
                  SUBJECTIVE                   satisfaction                               Student                           HEALTH
                                                                                                       (men)*
                  WELL-BEING                                Ex posure to Access Students  skills in
                                                            outdoor air to green  w ith science
                                                             pollution* space low skills*
                AVERAGE                                                                             KNOWLEDGE
               INEQUALITY                     ENVIRONMENTAL                                         AND SKILLS
                                                 QUALITY
Note: This chart shows Chile’s relative strengths and weaknesses in well-being compared to other OECD countries. Longer bars always indicate
better outcomes (i.e. higher wellbeing), whereas shorter bars always indicate worse outcomes (lower well-being) – including for negative
indicators, marked with an *, which have been reverse-scored. Inequalities (gaps between top and bottom, differences between groups, people
falling under a deprivation threshold) are shaded with stripes, and missing data in white.

Chile’s resources for future well-being, 2018 or latest available year

              Natural Capital                    Economic Capital                Human Capital                    Social Capital

                                                                                    Educational
              Greenhouse gas
                                                Produced fixed assets               attainment of                  Trust in others
                                                                                                                                     …
             emissions per capita
                                                                                    young adults         …                           …
                                                 Financial net worth of                                               Trust in
               Material footprint                                               Premature mortality
                                                     government                                                     government

              Red List Index of
                                                    Household debt
                                                                                     Labour              …        Gender parity in
             threatened species                                                 underutilisation rate                politics
                                                                                                         …
Note: ❶=top-performing OECD tier, ❷=middle-performing OECD tier, ❸=bottom-performing OECD tier. ➚ indicates consistent
improvement; ↔ indicates no clear or consistent trend; ➘ indicates consistent deterioration, and “…” indicates insufficient time series to
determine trends since 2010. For methodological details, see the Reader’s Guide of How’s Life? 2020.

HOW’S LIFE? 2020 © OECD 2020
2

  For more information
  Access the complete publication, including information about the methods used to determine trends at:
  https://doi.org/10.1787/9870c393-en.
  Find the data used in this country profile at: http://oecd.org/statistics/Better-Life-Initiative-2020-country-
  notes-data.xlsx.

Deprivations in Chile
Deprivations in selected indicators of current well-being, 2018 or latest available year

                                                                        CHILE

                       17%                                                                 53%
                     of the population live in relative                         would be at risk of falling into poverty if they
                             income poverty                                       had to forgo 3 months of their income

                       36%
                   of poor households spend more than                                 There is no data available on life
                   40% of their income on housing costs                                          satisfaction

                     13%
                     say they have no friends or family                           There is no data available on satisfaction
                         to turn to in times of need                                            with time use

                                                                           Source: OECD (2020), How’s Life? 2020: Measuring Well-Being

Note: Relative income poverty refers to the share of people with household disposable income below 50% of the national median; financial
insecurity refers to the share of individuals who are not income poor, but whose liquid financial assets are insufficient to support them at the
level of the national relative income poverty line for at least three months; housing cost overburden refers to the share of households in the
bottom 40% of the income distribution spending more than 40% of their disposable income on housing costs; and low satisfaction with life and
with time use refer to the share of the population rating their satisfaction as 4 or lower (on a 0-10 scale).

                                                                                                         HOW’S LIFE? 2020 © OECD 2020
3

Inequalities between men and women in Chile
Gender ratios (distance from parity) for selected indicators of current well-being, 2018 or latest available year

        Employment rate                0.71

             Feeling safe                       0.79

        Perceived health                                  0.87

                Earnings                                  0.88

  Adult skills (numeracy)                                     0.90

  Student skills (science)                                               0.99

          Social support                                                 1.01

          Having a say in
            government
                                                                                  1.07

         Life expectancy                                                          1.07

               Job strain                                                                                      1.31

     Long working hours
           (in paid work)
                                                                                                                      // 2.22

     Deaths from suicide,
          alcohol, drugs
                                                                                                                      // 5.67

        Homicide victims                                                                                              // 6.80

                                          Men doing better           OECD average             Women doing better

Note: Grey bubbles denote no clear difference between men and women, defined as gender ratios within 0.03 points distance to parity.

HOW’S LIFE? 2020 © OECD 2020
4

Inequalities between age groups in Chile
Age ratios (distance from parity) for selected indicators of current well-being, 2018 or latest available year
                                                          A. Younger and middle-aged people

                    Employment rate      // 0.37

                             Earnings              0.69

                            Job strain                     0.77

                        Voter turnout                       0.77

                      Having a say in
                         government
                                                                             0.90

               Adult skills (numeracy)                                                  1.01

                         Feeling safe                                                   1.02

                       Social support                                                                 1.11

                 Long working hours
                       (in paid work)
                                                                                                                                    1.37

                                            Middle-aged people doing better           OECD average           Younger people doing better

                                                              B. Younger and older people

                    Employment rate      // 0.42

                             Earnings     0.61

                        Voter turnout       0.65

                            Job strain             0.69

                      Having a say in
                         government
                                                                                               1.07

                         Feeling safe                                                                 1.12

                       Social support                                                                           1.19

               Adult skills (numeracy)                                                                           1.20

                 Long working hours
                       (in paid work)
                                                                                                                           1.29

                                                 Older people doing better          OECD average        Younger people doing better

Note: Age ranges differ according to each indicator and are only broadly comparable. They generally refer to 15-24/29 years for young people,
25/30 to 45/50 years for the middle-aged and 50 years and over for older people. See How’s Life? 2020 for further details. Grey bubbles denote
no clear difference between age groups, defined as age ratios within 0.03 points distance to parity.

                                                                                                                         HOW’S LIFE? 2020 © OECD 2020
5

Inequalities between people with different educational attainment in Chile
Education ratios (distance from parity) for selected indicators of current well-being, 2018 or latest available year

               Job strain   // 0.34

                Earnings    // 0.39

        Perceived health                   0.75

           Voter turnout                          0.79

         Having a say in
           government
                                                     0.81

        Employment rate                                     0.85

   Life expectancy (men)                                       0.88

             Feeling safe                                             0.93

          Social support                                                0.95

Life expectancy (women)                                                  0.96

             Long-term
      unemployment rate
                                                                                                                         // 1.84

       People with tertiary education doing better       OECD average           People with upper secondary education doing better

Note: Grey bubbles denote no clear difference between groups with different educational attainment, defined as education ratios within
0.03 points distance to parity.

HOW’S LIFE? 2020 © OECD 2020
6

Inequalities between top and bottom performers in Chile
Vertical inequalities for selected indicators of current well-being, 2018 or latest available year

            Household income of the top 20% relative to the bottom 20%                      Share of wealth owned by the top 10%, percentage
12                                                                               90
     10.3
                                                                                 80
10
                                                                                 70
                                                                                           57.7
 8                                                                               60
                                                                                                               51.7
                                                                                 50
 6                                       5.4
                                                                                 40

 4                                                                               30

                                                                                 20
 2
                                                                                 10

 0                                                                               0

            Earnings of the top 10% relative to the bottom 10%,                       PISA score in science of the top 10% relative to the bottom 10%
                            full-time employees
6                                                                                2

                                                                                                                   1.67      1.65
5

             4.0
4
                                   3.4

3                                                                                1

2

1

0                                                                                0

            Life satisfaction scores of the top 20% relative to the bottom 20%               Satisfaction with time use scores of the top 20%
                                                                                                        relative to the bottom 20%
4                                                                                 4

3                                                                                 3                                   2.78

                                         2.1
2                                                                                 2

1                                                                                 1

0                                                                                 0

Note: For all figures, countries are ranked from left (most unequal) to right (least unequal).

                                                                                                                  HOW’S LIFE? 2020 © OECD 2020
7

Trends in current well-being since 2010 in Chile - I

                                          Household income
                               (household net adjusted disposable income,    Average                No data available for Chile.
                                    USD at 2017 PPPs*, per capita)
        Income and Wealth

                                         Household wealth
                                                                             Average
                                (median net wealth, USD at 2016 PPPs)
                                                                                           CHL         OECD
                                                                                          ~41 500     ~162 000

                                      S80/S20 income share ratio
                                 (the household income for the top 20%,
                                                                             Inequality
                                 divided by the household income for the
                                               bottom 20%)                                 CHL
                                                                                                                                OECD
                                                                                           10.3
                                                                                                                                 5.4

                                          Housing affordability
                               (share of disposable income remaining after   Average
                                              housing costs)                                                  OECD          CHL
        Housing

                                                                                                               79.2         81.5

                                          Overcrowding rate
                               (share of households living in overcrowded    Inequality
                                              conditions)                                                               OECD      CHL
                                                                                                                         12       9.3

                                          Employment rate
                               (employed people aged 25-64, as a share of    Average
                                    the population of the same age)                                           CHL       OECD
                                                                                                              72.6       76.5
        Work and Job Quality

                                            Gender wage gap
                               (difference between male and female median    Inequality
                               wages expressed as a share of male wages)                                                 OECD           CHL
                                                                                                                          12.9          12.5

                                       Long hours in paid work
                                (share of employees usually working 50+      Inequality
                                            hours per week)                                                                     CHL OECD
                                                                                                                                 9    7

                                            Life expectancy
        Health

                                (number of years a newborn can expect to     Average
                                                  live)                                                          CHL            OECD
                                                                                                                 80.2            80.5

Note: The snapshot depicts data for 2018, or the latest available year, for each indicator. The colour of the circle indicates the direction of
change, relative to 2010, or the closest available year:       = consistent improvement,     = consistent deterioration,     = no clear trend,
and white for insufficient time series to determine trends. The OECD average is marked in black. For methodological details, see the Reader’s
Guide of How’s Life? 2020. * = Purchasing Power Parity.

HOW’S LIFE? 2020 © OECD 2020
8

Trends in current well-being since 2010 in Chile - II
        Environmental Knowledge and

                                               Student skills in science
                          Skills

                                                                                      Average
                                                  (PISA mean scores)                                       CHL                   OECD
                                                                                                           444                    489
           Quality

                                         Exposure to outdoor air pollution
                                                                                      Inequality
                                        (share of population > WHO threshold)                       CHL          OECD
                                                                                                    97.3          62.8

                                                   Life satisfaction
         Subjective Well-being

                                                                                      Average              No data available for Chile.
                                              (mean value on a 0-10 scale)

                                                Negative affect balance
                                      (share of population reporting more negative    Inequality
                                       than positive feelings and states yesterday)                                        CHL           OECD
                                                                                                                            13            13

                                                       Homicides
                                                                                      Average
                                                (per 100 000 population)                                                                         OECD
                                                                                                                                        CHL
                                                                                                                                        3.9       2.4
         Safety

                                              Gender gap in feeling safe
                                       (percentage difference that women feel less    Inequality
                                       safe than men when walking alone at night)                                          OECD          CHL
                                                                                                                            -16          -10.8

                                                        Time off
      Work-life
      Balance

                                      (time allocated to leisure and personal care,   Average              No data available for Chile.
                                                     hours per day)

                                                  Social interactions
                                                                                      Average              No data available for Chile.
         Social Connections

                                                    (hours per week)

                                                 Lack of social support
                                      (share of people who report having no friends
                                                                                      Inequality                 CHL
                                      or relatives whom they can count on in times                               12.9             OECD
                                                       of trouble)                                                                 8.6
      Engagement

                                                      Voter turnout
         Civic

                                                                                      Average
                                       (share of registered voters who cast votes)                                       OECD
                                                                                                   CHL
                                                                                                    47                    69

Note: See note on page 7.

                                                                                                                          HOW’S LIFE? 2020 © OECD 2020
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