JULIE ORNES SHIRLEY PATTERSON DANA MCMILLAN JACKIE THOMAS

 
JULIE ORNES SHIRLEY PATTERSON DANA MCMILLAN JACKIE THOMAS
Julie Ornes
Shirley Patterson
Dana McMillan
 Jackie Thomas
Contents

     Introduction
         So Many Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
                 The Oral Language and Literacy Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
                 The Phonological Awareness and Literacy Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
                 The Social Skills and Language Connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
                 The Cognitive Development and Literacy Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
                 The Parent Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
                 The Classroom Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

     Overview
         Guiding Principles for The Emerging Language and Literacy Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . 7
         The Parent Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
         Classroom Staffing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
         Storybook Selection Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

     Chapter 1—The Classroom
         Circle Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
         Learning Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
                 Art Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
                 Create-A-Book Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
                 Listening Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
                 Language and Literacy Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
                 Writing Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
                 Construction Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
                 Dramatic Play Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
                 Tactile Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
                 Reading Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
                 Technology Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
                 Math and Science Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
         Optional Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
                 Cooking Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
                 Reading and Writing Buddies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
                 Message Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

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Snack Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
           Field Trips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
           Creating Classroom Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
           Poems and Finger Plays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
           Music and Rhythm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
           Show and Tell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
           Classroom Performances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
    Sample Daily Schedule for Half-Day Preschool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
    Sample Daily Schedule for Full-Day Preschool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Chapter 2—The Lead Instructor: A Language and Literacy Facilitator
    What Knowledge and Skills Must the Lead Instructor Have? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
    Who Is the Ideal Candidate for Lead Instructor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
           The Lead Instructor Creates a Language-Rich and
                   Literacy-Enhanced Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
           The Lead Instructor Models Methods to Facilitate
                   Language Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
           The Lead Instructor Facilitates Literacy Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
           The Lead Instructor Is an Effective Team Leader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Chapter 3—The Children
    Risk Factors for Language and Learning Deficits in Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
    Peer Models in the Classroom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
    Original Design of ELLC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
           Profile Characteristics of a Child With Language Impairment . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
           Profile Characteristics of a Peer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Chapter 4—Targeting Curriculum Objectives
    Development of Learning Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
    Skills and Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
           Literacy Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
           Phonological Awareness Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
           Oral Language Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
           Motor Skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
           Pre-Academic Classroom Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
           Social Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

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Portfolios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
                      How Should a Portfolio Be Used? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
                      What Information Should Be in a Portfolio? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

       Chapter 5—The Unit Themes
              The Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
              The Storybooks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
              Language Targets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
              Rationale for Sound Choices in Phonological Awareness Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
              Phonological Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
              Early Literacy Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
              Team Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
              Learning Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

       Unit 1—Key Concepts: Same/Different and Feelings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
       Unit 2—Key Concept: Circus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
       Unit 3—Key Concept: Apples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
       Unit 4—Key Concepts: Shapes and Grocery Store. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
       Unit 5—Key Concepts: Pumpkins and Sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
       Unit 6—Key Concepts: Families and Nature Walks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
       Unit 7—Key Concepts: Cookies and Smells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
       Unit 8—Key Concept: Holidays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
       Unit 9—Key Concept: Dressing for Winter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
       Unit 10—Key Concepts: Snow and Snowmen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
       Unit 11—Key Concepts: Post Office and Valentine’s Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
       Unit 12—Key Concept: Homes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
       Unit 13—Key Concept: Size Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
       Unit 14—Key Concept: Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
       Unit 15—Key Concepts: Stores and Shopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
       Unit 16—Key Concept: Farms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
       Unit 17—Key Concept: Zoo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
       Unit 18—Key Concept: Pets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319
       Unit 19—Key Concept: Insects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
       Unit 20—Key Concept: Camping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
       Unit 21—Key Concept: Gardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

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Unit 22—Key Concept: Ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

Chapter 6—Parents as Partners
        Summary of Parent Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
                Home Visits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
                Parent Conferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
                Parent Workshops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
                Formal Written Communications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

Chapter 7—The Outcomes
        Evolution of ELLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
        Data-Driven Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
        Developing Outcomes and Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
        Functional Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412
        ELLC Classroom Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415
                ELLC Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415
                Standardized Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416
        Rationale for Using Effect-Size Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417
                Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition (PPVT-III). . . . . . . . . . . . . .417
                Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419
                Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
                Test of Early Reading Ability-Third Edition (TERA-3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421
        ELLC Checklists Data 2004–2005 (Year 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
        Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
        Appendix 1—Sample of Visual Step-by-Step Directions
        for an Art Center Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
        Appendix 2—Samples of Worksheets
        for a Writing Center Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
        Appendix 3—Sample of Visual Step-by-Step Directions
        for a Cooking Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
        Appendix 4—Samples of Newsletters and Bulletins for Parents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

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Reproducibles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
           Shared Storybook Reading Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
           Preschool Questionnaire for Parents/Caretakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
           Language and Literacy Profile (Referral for Assessment) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
           General Guidelines and Suggestions for Using ELLC Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
           ELLC Administration Guides and Checklists
                   Pre-Academic Classroom Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
                   Phonological Awareness Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
                   Literacy Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
                   Oral Language Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
                   Motor Skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .519
                   Prewriting Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
                   Social Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526

    Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531

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Introduction

So Many Connections
Few of our abilities and skills exist in isolation. We build one skill on top of another; one set of con-
nections leads to or supports other abilities. This continuum is an absolute in the development of
the ability to read. Before we can read, we must possess existing abilities to support this abstract
and complex activity. There is no reason to believe that all new skills must be taught explicitly.
In children, a great deal of learning occurs because the environment offers opportunities to learn
implicitly. For example, when children learn the language of their culture, it bolsters social develop-
ment and grants the power to communicate basic needs and wants. The development of language
gives children the abilities to listen and understand when spoken to; to speak and be understood;
to read for learning and pleasure; and to write to express thoughts.

The development of receptive and expressive oral language is a uniquely human characteristic, be-
ginning at birth and continuing throughout most of life, although the basic structures are in place
at a very early age. There are significant connections between oral language and literacy.

The Oral Language and Literacy Connection
Oral language consists of words that convey the concepts we want to express, sentence struc-
tures that give us the power of word combinations, sound combinations that construct words
and sentences, and an individual style of language that expresses our intentions. Appropriate
use of language systems is essential in making communication meaningful. Amazingly, children
learn these complex systems in a few short years and then refine them as they mature and gain
exposure to new language content, form, and use. Language serves as a foundation for reading
development, and preschoolers with large vocabularies tend to become proficient readers (Snow,
Burns, & Griffin, 1998).

Growth in vocabulary takes place when children interact with words. As families/parents read to
their children, they hear new words, and discussions spontaneously occur about the words and
their meanings. Families/parents can define difficult or rare words in terms their child understands,
and can take every opportunity to present the words in a variety of contexts. In preschool classes,
teachers point out words in the environment and give instructive information about the words
and the concepts they represent. Children with enriched vocabularies can apply what they know
about words when looking at or reading books, giving them the advantage of understanding the
printed word. Hart and Risley (1995) state that a child growing up in a low-income family hears
only one-third to one-half as many spoken words as children in higher-income homes. In four years
of language experience, a child in a professional family will have familiarity with almost 45 million
words, whereas a child in a welfare family will have experience with 13 million words.

In The Emerging Language and Literacy Curriculum (ELLC), we focus on vocabulary development.
General vocabulary teaching includes not only common words and rare words but also words
that represent concepts that children know but have no word for or words that present new con-
cepts. Each themed unit has a list of vocabulary words that are presented in the two-week unit.

                                                                                                            
Instruction is both implicit and explicit. Children have multiple exposures to the targeted words in
    Circle Time and in Learning Centers so that they hear the words many times in numerous con-
    texts. Explicit teaching relies on proven methods such as semantic feature analysis (e.g., identifying
    which animals have fur, which animals have scales and then charting or graphing the responses) or
    semantic mapping (e.g., linking words to a central concept, such as the concept of the word farm
    in the Farms Unit).

    Oral language impairment has been noted as a child-based risk factor for learning problems (Bashir &
    Scavuzzo, 1992; Snow et al., 1998) and is particularly a risk when the impairment persists (Bishop &
    Adams, 1990). Studies that have investigated retention of words in working memory and naming
    tasks suggest that short-term memory and articulatory processes are important in language
    acquisition and that comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving are reliant on all components
    of working memory operating together (Cowan, 1996). Van Kleeck, Gillam, and McFadden (1998)
    suggest that results from phonological awareness training could affect aspects of working memory
    and emergent literacy development. Instructors must analyze the demands placed on children with
    certain language tasks and accommodate children’s capacity limitations to increase automaticity of
    new language skills (Weismer, 1996). ELLC provides repetition and practice of new language forms,
    new vocabulary, and new sentence structure to address the limited working memory capacity in
    children. Difficult language structures are taught through explicit instruction and practice.

    The Phonological Awareness and Literacy Connection
    Phonological awareness is a major component of ELLC instruction. Abbott, Greenwood, and
    Walton (2002) found that even experienced kindergarten teachers were unable to implement phono-
    logical awareness instruction without explicit training even though they believed it to be an important
    curriculum component. Fuchs et al. (2001) developed a partnership with kindergarten teachers to
    help children with reading readiness. They designed a peer-assisted learning strategy for children in
    grades 2–6 who were lacking in the reading readiness skills usually acquired in kindergarten.

    Clearly, phonological awareness is one of the most critical foundational skills for reading that chil-
    dren should bring to the kindergarten experience. Children who have the ability to rhyme, perceive
    syllabic structure, and detect phonemes learn to read more quickly (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte,
    1994), and phonological sensitivity appears to be related to spelling abilities as well (Bryant,
    MacLean, Bradley, & Crossland, 1990). The reciprocal relationship of sound-to-letter correspon-
    dence is also critical to the reading process. Competence in sound blending and segmentation
    as well as phonological decoding are seen in children with higher levels of reading achievement
    (Hoover & Gough, 1990). In a recent study, Wright and Jacobs (2003) found that direct instruc-
    tion in phonological awareness and the alphabetic principle improved the reading performance of
    children with reading difficulties over time. However, direct instruction in phonological awareness
    in conjunction with explicit training in specific metalinguistic concepts and metacognitive strategies
    was more advantageous overall.

    ELLC stresses the use of a variety of methods to promote phonological awareness early in the
    development of cognition, language, and emergent literacy. A study of preschoolers by van Kleeck
    et al. (1998) demonstrated the value of using rhyming and phonemic awareness activities in short
    intervention sessions with small groups of children. ELLC has adapted van Kleeck et al.’s approach

                                                                      The Emerging Language and Literacy Curriculum / Introduction
and includes two sessions a week devoted to these types of activities. Phonological groups are de-
          signed for small groups of children in order to address skills in a structured and systematic format. In
          addition, throughout the day, the lead instructor and speech-language pathologist engage children in
          sound-play, games, music, and other phonological activities that center around a storybook theme.

          The Social Skills and Language Connection
          Language development influences social development and, conversely, social development influ-
          ences language development in young children. In the early years, children become self-aware and
          learn to express their emotions through words as well as actions. They adapt to different environ-
          ments and can follow simple routines and rules. Language is a tool they learn to use to get what
          they want and need. Children use communication to negotiate, resolve problems and conflicts, and
          share their thoughts with others. Children learn that polite language is people-pleasing. As children
          learn to play and work cooperatively in groups, they grow socially and begin to develop skills that
          will be critical to future school and life success.

          Social skills are addressed in natural contexts throughout the ELLC classroom day. All of the
          Learning Center activities encourage commenting, taking turns, and requesting. The intentional
          limitation of the number of children in Centers creates a small-group dynamic for optimum con-
          versation practice and opportunities for working out problems and disagreements. The Dramatic
          Play Center is one example of a Center that lends itself to role-play and use of social skills. Children
          must decide on the roles amongst themselves. They have to share costumes and props, and they
          may have to take turns in reenacting the storybook. It is not uncommon for disagreements to arise
          about who will do what and how something will be done. These conflicts provide opportunities for
          problem solving and use of appropriate social behaviors to resolve the problem. Another arena for
          children to address social language is snack time. The use of polite expressions for requesting items
          is encouraged and modeled during this activity. The lead instructor has an opportunity to direct
          social talk with examples of modeled behavior. Peer-coaching can also be used to teach children to
          model appropriate social behaviors and to model language in difficult social situations.

          The Cognitive Development and Literacy Connection
          In 2002, Justice and Ezell conducted a print-awareness study with Head Start children. Small-
          group storybook-reading sessions were held over a period of eight weeks’ time, and results indicated
          that children in a print focus group performed better on three measures of print awareness than
          children in a picture focus group. A relationship between vocabulary knowledge and print aware-
          ness has been observed (Snow, Tabors, Nicholson, & Kurland, 1995) as well as a relationship be-
          tween income level and children’s performance on print awareness (Chaney, 1994). The ability to
          name letters in print may be inherent in the term print awareness. Certainly, alphabet knowledge is
          part of the emergent literacy repertoire of young children studied by Lomax and McGee (1987).
          They found that children 3–6 years old were 76% accurate in naming letters of the alphabet in both
          uppercase and lowercase forms. In order to emphasize print awareness, ELLC provides a Writing
          Center in each classroom, a focus on print throughout the classroom, print references during story-
          book reading, and direct instruction time dedicated to letter and print awareness.

Introduction / The Emerging Language and Literacy Curriculum                                                         
According to Gillam (1990), “Play is an important medium for cognitive development.” As seen dur-
    ing children’s play, symbolic and representational development are critical elements of the cognitive
    domain. In this curriculum, a Dramatic Play Center, a Construction Center, and a Tactile Center
    provide children with opportunities to play in varied situations. When children are in free play, they
    develop gross motor skills as they climb, jump, and run. As they manipulate small objects in con-
    struction tasks, they enhance fine motor development. During play, children socialize, take turns,
    talk, and learn to cooperate. Dickinson and Tabors (2001) discuss the play of children in the home
    with their mothers. They suggest, “Children develop their perceptual abilities as their mothers guide
    them to label and describe. They develop procedural abilities as the mothers guide them to think of
    a task as a series of sequential steps . . .” (p. 65). As children play, they learn to sustain attention,
    to sequence, and to categorize or classify. These mental and cognitive gymnastics benefit concep-
    tualization. Memory is strengthened, as is imagination, when children engage in pretend activities.
    The development of concepts and schemes connect to language as children learn words for things,
    actions, and ideas.

    The Parent Connection
    Parental involvement and attention in helping their children achieve literacy through provision of a
    literate environment in the home is important to the reading success of a child. Instruction for par-
    ents in shared reading techniques resulted in improvement of early literacy skills in preschool chil-
    dren and increased print referencing in parents (Justice & Ezell, 2000). In ELLC, parents learn the
    technique of Shared Storybook Reading (Justice & Kaderavek, 2002) to promote their children’s
    awareness of print and print structure. This curriculum also includes suggestions for parent work-
    shops, home visits, daily notes, weekly communication through bulletins, and quarterly newsletters.

    The Classroom Connection
    Peisner-Feinberg et al. (2000, p. xiii) found that children who attended high-quality child-care and
    education programs in the preschool years performed better on measures of cognitive skills (defined
    as math and language abilities) and that the influence of quality programs was important for children
    from a range of backgrounds. Without a doubt, classroom environment has an effect on the lan-
    guage and literacy development of children. According to Dickinson and Tabors, (2001, p. 282) the
    range of classroom environments is broad—from an environment that focuses on language, small-
    group time, teacher interaction with children, and free-play time to an environment that does not
    engage children in activities that foster language or play development.

    Justice and Kaderavek (2004) present an emergent literacy framework that is consistent with the
    approach used in ELLC. They place an emphasis on multi-tiered intervention to ensure that all chil-
    dren, including those who have one or more risk factors, will have a better opportunity to succeed
    in the transition from pre-reader to reader. The authors describe implementation of both an embed-
    ded (i.e., implicit) approach as well as a direct-intervention (i.e., explicit) approach to enhance lit-
    eracy development in young children. ELLC features two-tiered (i.e., both small- and large-group),
    embedded (i.e., child-directed and naturalistic), and explicit (i.e., attention to discrete targets on a
    systematic basis) approaches to the complex issue of emergent literacy.

                                                                       The Emerging Language and Literacy Curriculum / Introduction
In the second part of their article, Kaderavek and Justice (2004) elaborate on three principles sup-
          ported by the research base in early literacy: (1) response to treatment; (2) collaboration; and (3)
          supportive techniques. ELLC transfers strong converging emergent literacy research into practice in
          the preschool program by employing each of these three principles:

          1.   All children have an opportunity to learn in large-group or whole-class interaction that provides
               primary preventions in an embedded format or, if a child experiences more challenges, the op-
               tion to learn in a more explicit or small-group format. Thus, an increasingly intensive model of
               intervention is available in the response-to-treatment model.

          2.   The collaboration model encourages shared responsibility among the lead instructor, the class-
               room assistant, the speech-language pathologist, and other specialists in the ELLC classroom.
               The foundation of ELLC is a transdisciplinary approach to the multifaceted emergent language
               and literacy development of each child.

          3.   The ELLC classroom highlights interventions that make use of supportive techniques through-
               out the day. With adult support, children are exposed to language and literacy targets that are
               scaffolded to intentionally promote systematic change in learning. The contexts of interven-
               tions are continually manipulated to promote use of the targeted language forms, and dynamic
               assessment is used as an authentic approach to analyze a child’s level of development. A num-
               ber of skills are targeted within a lesson, and this cyclic approach supports the integration of
               new information with old information for children.

          A high-quality classroom environment—which includes physical, instructional, communicative,
          and social environments—is key to a child’s enthusiasm and desire to learn. The classroom setting,
          the curriculum, and the interactive techniques applied are critical elements to intervention (Rice &
          Wilcox, 1995, p. 41). ELLC and its activities are based on scientific studies that have examined the
          critical features that support young children’s early reading skills. The content of this curriculum is
          designed to create a foundation for language and emergent literacy to prepare children for academic
          success in kindergarten. The literacy domains that research suggests are most critical in an emer-
          gent language and literacy classroom are phonological awareness, print concepts, alphabet knowl-
          edge and writing, and narrative and literate language (Kaderavek & Justice, 2004). ELLC addresses
          each of these domains and more. This curriculum uses children’s literature with themes designed
          around storybooks. All activities for the themes are structured to build skills and concepts through
          scaffolding and instantiation of prior knowledge. Within each theme, specific skills are targeted
          while maintaining the concepts of the theme. This cross-activity instruction strengthens children’s
          cognitive connections and supports their memory functions.

Introduction / The Emerging Language and Literacy Curriculum                                                        
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         Main Book: We’re        Different, We’re the Same                                                 Same/
                                                                                                                 Di
         Author: Bobbi Jane Kates Illustrator: Joe Mathieu    Publisher: Random                             and Fe fferent
                                                                                                                  elings
         House Date: 1992 ISBN: 0679832270

                                                        We’re Different, We’re the Same is a simple book
                                                     that illustrates the differences and similarities among individu-
                                                     als. This book was chosen for its content and simple explana-
                                                     tion of diversity.

         Related Book: I     Like Me!
         Author and Illustrator: Nancy Carlson   Publisher: Puffin Books   Date: 1988   ISBN: 0140508198

            This is a book with simple text about a pig and why she likes herself. The book lends itself to a
         discussion about what we like about ourselves and how we take care of ourselves.

         Rhyming Book: Hooray            for You!
         Author and Illustrator: Marianne Richmond    Publisher: Waldman House Press, Inc.   Date: 2001    ISBN: 0931674441

           This book is a celebration of the uniqueness of each of us. It was selected for its rhyming verse
         and colorful illustrations that portray elements of diversity.

         Language Targets
                               Vocabulary                                   Prepositions            Language Forms

           •   different                •   playing                    •   in                      • Same/Different
           •   same                     •   smiling                    •   out                     • Superlatives
           •   bed                      •   sleeping                   •   under                   • His/Her
           •   towel                    •   reading                    •   over
           •   toys                     •   dressing
           •   home                     •   tall                                             Letter
           •   school                   •   short
           •   friend                   •   curly hair
                                                                                    Introduction/Review of
           •   family                   •   straight hair
                                                                                    all letters of the alphabet
           •   washing                  •   shampoo

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     Phonological Groups                                                                                              and Fe
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     Day 1 This theme lends itself to discussion about the concepts of same and different. Use this
     group activity to introduce/review same and different concepts and same and different sounds. Be-
     gin the activity with a simple introduction of same and different. Draw a circle
     and a square on a board. Ask children if these shapes are the same or different.         Talking Tips
     Continue these types of examples until children demonstrate an understand-               The concepts same and differ­
     ing of the concepts. Increase the difficulty level of the activity by adding and         ent form a critical foundation
     subtracting details from simple line drawings. For example, draw two houses              for phonological groups. Re-
     with windows and a door. Draw one house with half a roof and the other                   view these concepts during
     house with a full roof. Allow children to tell you if the houses are the same or         Circle Time and throughout
     different. When children state that the houses are different, have them de-              the day to reinforce learning.
     scribe how they are different. After children demonstrate an understanding of
     this task, lead a discussion about words that are the same. Give children two
     identical monosyllabic words (e.g., cat/cat, day/day). Ask children if the words are the same or
     different. Begin introducing words that are different (e.g., frog/dish, sad/meat). As children mas-
     ter the task, increase the difficulty by introducing words with one sound difference (e.g., sad/Sam,
     bit/big). Finally, introduce same and different using individual sounds (e.g., b/s, m/m, p/g, t/f).
     Use as many examples as needed for each activity.

     Day 2 Lead a discussion about rhyming. Talk about how rhyming words sound the same at the
     end. Ask each child in the group to create a rhyme for their name (e.g., Justin/Bustin, Casey/
     Lacey). If time permits, sing “The Name Song” with children to provide sound play with their names:
                                            Justin, Justin, Bo Bustin,
                                             Banana Fana Fo Fustin,
                                           Mi My Mo Mustin-Justin.

     Introduce the rhyming words for the unit.

                                   day ¢ hooray             apart ¢ heart

                                   see ¢ me                 face ¢ race

                                   play ¢ way               red ¢ head

                                   glad ¢ sad               shelf ¢ self

     If time allows, read the unit rhyming book. Create rhyming picture cards with strips of Velcro on the
     back of the cards and on a display board. Ask children to repeat the rhyming words with you as you
     go through the pictures. Show children a pair of words. Tell children to stick the pictures on the board
     only if the words rhyme.

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                                                                                                                           Same/D
           Day 3 Review the concepts of same and different with activities similar to those used on Day                     and Fe
                                                                                                                                   ifferen
                                                                                                                                           t
                                                                                                                                   elings
           1, if necessary. Engage children in sound-play games and songs. You can find your own sound-play
           activities in phonological awareness resource books, or you can make up your own songs. For ex-
           ample:

                                             (Sing to the tune “Hi-Ho the Derry-O”)
                                                         /t/ /t/ sounds the same,
                                                         /t/ /t/ sounds the same,
                                                          Hi-Ho the Derry-O,
                                                         /t/ /t/ sounds the same.

           Day 4 Ask children to clap the syllables in each child’s name (e.g., Charlie would have two claps,
           and Jessica would have three claps). Collect enough small wooden blocks for each child to have
           at least four blocks. Begin a discussion about word length. Talk about how some words are long
           and some words are short. Use children’s names or other names to illustrate this concept. Use the
           blocks to represent syllables in children’s names. Continue the activity using long and short word
           pairs, such as bat/microwave, computer/fly, car/rainbow. Ask children to determine which
           word is longer in each pair of words.

           Circle Time
           A. Attributes Graph

                  MaTeriaLs Chart paper, marker                         seT-UP  Assemble materials in the Circle
                                                                        Time area. Set up chart paper for discussion.

                Lead a discussion with the class about attributes that we share and those
                that make us different. For example, Bobby has brown hair and Susie has                   Reminder
                curly blonde hair. Talk about skin color, eye color, hair types, etc. Choose              Read the unit theme story-
                one or more attributes to graph with the class. List attributes along the                 books multiple times during
                top of chart paper. Ask children to print their names under the attributes                the course of the unit to pro-
                that best describe them. If children are unable to print their names, you                 vide children with extensive
                may provide hand-over-hand assistance or allow them to trace their                        exposure to the targeted lan-
                names. After all children have written their names under the attributes,                  guage forms in the books.
                you can work on counting by totaling how many names are under each
                attribute. Write the total at the bottom of each column.

           B. Body Part Riddle

                  MaTeriaLs Prepared riddles about body                 seT-UP      None necessary
                  parts

                Read a riddle to children (e.g., say, “I’m thinking of a body part you put socks and shoes on” or
                “I’m thinking of a body part you use to listen with”). Another way to complete this activity is

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                                                                                                                     Same/D
          to secretly name a body part to the older children in the class and ask them to create a riddle             and Fe
                                                                                                                             ifferen
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          about it for the other children to guess.

     C. My Family

           MaTeriaLs Chart paper, marker                     seT-UP   None necessary

          Lead a discussion about families. Talk about who is part of a family. Remember that families
          take many shapes and forms. Encourage children to share the members of their families. If time
          allows, list each child’s family members on chart paper. If you have pictures of the children’s
          families, they can be used to aid the discussion.

     D. Feelings

           MaTeriaLs Mirror, chart paper, a marker           seT-UP   None necessary

          Lead a discussion about feelings. Talk about the reasons why we may have different emotions.
          Make a facial expression that shows an emotion (e.g., sad, happy, angry). Have each child imi-
          tate your facial expression. (You may want to use a mirror to help children copy the same facial
          expression.) After each expression, lead a discussion about what kind of feeling might make you
          have that facial expression (e.g., “We may have a sad face when our fa-
          vorite toy is broken”). Write each child’s suggestion on the chart paper.
                                                                                                         Hokey Pokey
     E. “Hokey Pokey” Song                                                                           You put your right foot in,
                                                                                                    You put your right foot out,
           MaTeriaLs Chart paper, marker,         seT-UP   Write song lyrics on chart
           “Hokey Pokey” song lyrics              paper                                              You put your right foot in,
                                                                                                    And you shake it all about.
          Sing “Hokey Pokey” along with children, pointing to the lyrics on the
          chart. Allow each child to choose a body part to use in the song.                           You do the Hokey Pokey
                                                                                                  And you turn yourself around,
     F.   Favorite Things
                                                                                                     That’s what it’s all about!
           MaTeriaLs Chart paper, marker          seT-UP   None necessary                       (Repeat song, substituting right foot

          Lead a general discussion about favorite things. Give examples for chil-             with children’s choice of body parts.)
          dren by naming your own favorites. For example, “Miss Julie’s favorite
          color is yellow. Her favorite food is chocolate cake. Her favorite toy is her
          computer.” Continue the activity using the same three favorite categories
          for each child. Emphasize the use of “his” and “her” as pronoun references.            Talking Tips
                                                                                                 Children love to talk about
     G. “All About Me” Bag                                                                       themselves and what is im-
           MaTeriaLs Paper sacks, crayons         seT-UP  Have materials assembled               portant to them. Use this ac-
           or markers, glitter, glue, pictures    and ready to use                               tivity to encourage questions
                                                                                                 and comments from children
          This activity may be completed in the classroom or may be sent home to                 about themselves and their
          be completed as a family project. Ask children to decorate the outside of              classmates.
          a plain paper bag with information about themselves, drawings of things

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                                                                                                                     Same/D
                they like to do, pictures of family members, pictures of things they like to eat, etc. Have each      and Fe
                                                                                                                             ifferen
                                                                                                                                     t
                                                                                                                             elings
                child put one favorite toy inside the bag. In a Show and Tell format during Circle Time, ask chil-
                dren to talk about their bag decorations and their favorite toy.

           H. Body Part Bingo

                  MaTeriaLs Bingo markers, premade body            seT-UP  Make body part Bingo cards using
                  part Bingo cards (with body parts instead of     both familiar and unfamiliar body parts
                  numbers in each square). Vary the placement
                  of body parts on each card.

                Lead children in a game of Bingo. When a body part is named, have children point to the body
                part on their own body and place the marker on their card if they have it. You may allow chil-
                dren to win by one line across, one line down, diagonally, or covering the whole card.

           I.   Taking Care of Myself

                  MaTeriaLs None                                   seT-UP   None necessary

                Lead a discussion about things we do to take care of ourselves. Have children take turns acting
                out activities in their daily routine (e.g., brushing teeth, taking a bath).

           J.   Body Part Game

                  MaTeriaLs None                                   seT-UP   None necessary

                Repeat the following chorus while children walk in a circle:
                “You walk and you walk and you walk and you walk and you stop.”

                When children stop, call out a body part. Have each child find a partner and touch the named
                body part to each other (e.g., if you call “feet,” children touch their feet together).

           art Center
           Themed Art Activities

                “My Book About Me”

           A. Title Page, Page 1, Page 2

                  MaTeriaLs 9” × 12” construction paper            seT-UP   Have materials assembled and ready
                  in a variety of colors (three different colors   to use
                  for each child), markers, small ink pad, large
                  inkpad, glue or glue sticks, hole puncher,
                  ring binders, a picture of each child, tape
                  measure, scale

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                                                                                                                       Same/D
         Have children print “My Book About Me” with a marker on one color of construction paper                        and Fe
                                                                                                                               ifferen
                                                                                                                                       t
                                                                                                                               elings
         for the title page. Make a template for the right side of page 1 on which to list children’s data of
         name, birthday, and gender. Copy the page 1 template onto a different color construction paper
         than the title page. On the left side of page 1, have each child use the inkpad to press his/her
         thumbprint in a circle shape. Help children glue a picture of themselves inside their thumbprint
         circle. Page 1 template:

         My name is _________________________________________________________________

                                                                        My birthday is:

                      Picture
                         of
                                                                            I am a:
                       Child
                                                                             Girl

                                                                             Boy

         Make a template for page 2 that leaves a blank area on the left side of the page for children to
         press a footprint. On the right side of page 2, the template should list the child’s weight and
         height. Copy the template onto a different color of construction paper than the title page and
         page 1. Page 2 template:

                                                         I weigh _________________ pounds.

                                                         I am _______feet, _______inches tall.
                     Imprint of
                      footprint

     B. Page 3, Page 4

          MaTeriaLs 9” × 12” construction paper               seT-UP   Have materials assembled and ready
          in two colors that are different than previ-        to use
          ous pages, crayons or markers, pictures of
          children’s houses, large inkpad

         Make a template for page 3 that lists information about the kind of house that children live in, the
         address, and phone number. Copy the template onto a different color of construction paper than
         the previous pages. Have children look at a picture of their house and attempt to draw it on page
         3. Depending on the child’s skill level, you may have to help with the drawing. Page 3 template:

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                                                                                                                     Same/D
                I live in a(n): _________________________________________________________________                     and Fe
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                                                                                                                             elings

                                                (Draw house or apartment here.)

                My address is: _______________________________________________________________

                ___________________________________________________________________________

                My phone number is: __________________________________________________________

                Make a template for page 4 that will list a child’s favorite things. Copy the template onto a dif-
                ferent color construction paper than the previous pages. Leave space on the left side of the
                page for children to press their handprints. Copy the following phrases onto the right side of the
                page. Page 4 template:

                My favorite color is: ___________________

                My favorite food is: ___________________

                My favorite toy is: ___________________

                My favorite cartoon is: ___________________

                My favorite pet is: ___________________

                My favorite book is: ___________________

                My favorite sport is: ___________________

                My favorite song is: ___________________

           C. Page 5

                  MaTeriaLs 9” × 12” white construction              seT-UP   Have materials assembled and ready
                  paper, markers in a variety of colors, arts and    to use
                  crafts supplies in an assortment of colors, glue

                For page 5, ask children to name their favorite color. For each child, write the name of the
                color in large letters with a matching color marker on construction paper. Have children use the
                same color arts and crafts materials to glue onto their letters

           D. Page 6

                  MaTeriaLs 9” × 12” white construction              seT-UP   For each child, draw an outline pat-
                  paper, brown markers, apple-shape sponges          tern of a tree trunk on a sheet of construc-
                  or stamps, red and green paint or ink pads         tion paper. Have other materials assembled
                                                                     and ready to use.

                For the last page of “My Book About Me,” distribute the outline patterns to children, and have
                them color their tree trunks with brown markers. Talk about family members with children, and

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                                                                                                                      Same/D
          ask them who their family members are. Have children press the apple-shape sponge or stamp                   and Fe
                                                                                                                              ifferen
                                                                                                                                      t
                                                                                                                              elings
          into the red paint or ink pad and add as many apples around the tree trunk as there are family
          members. Ask children to print the names of their family members inside or next to the apples.
          Have children dip their fingers onto the green paint or ink pad and press them onto the paper
          for leaves on the tree.

     E. Paper Plate Face

           MaTeriaLs Red, green, brown, and blue               seT-UP   Precut circles from white paper and
           construction paper; a variety of skin-tone          smaller circles from green, brown, and blue
           color paper; white paper; white paper plates;       construction paper for eyes. Draw lip shapes
           multicultural crayon colors; yarn in a variety      on red construction paper. Draw ear and
           of hair colors; scissors; sequins; glue             nose shapes on skin-tone color papers. Have
                                                               materials assembled and ready to use.

          Give each child a blank paper plate. Ask children to color their plates with the same color
          crayon as their skin color. Have each child select a color of yarn (hair color) and two precut
          construction paper circles (eye color). Assist children in cutting the yarn into lengths to simu-
          late their hair. (Children may also braid the yarn with assistance from an adult.) Give each child
          two precut white paper circles. Have children select and glue their eye-color circles onto the
          white circles. Ask children to select and cut out lip, ear, and nose shapes from your prepared
          drawings. Children are now ready to assemble their paper plate faces by gluing on hair, eyes,
          lips, ears, and nose. (They may want to use yarn for eyebrows.) Girls may want to fashion hair
          bows or earrings from sequins. These paper plate faces may be glued onto sheets of construc-
          tion paper and included in the children’s “My Book About Me.”

     F.   Body Tracing

           MaTeriaLs Roll of butcher paper, scissors,          seT-UP  Cut a length of butcher paper to
           markers, crayons (including multicultural col-      the height of each child. Have materials as-
           ors), glue, variety of craft materials (including   sembled and ready to use.
           buttons, ribbon, fabric rickrack), hair-colored
           yarn

          Have each child lie on the precut length of butcher paper, and ask a peer or an adult to trace
          the child’s body outline. Have children draw on their clothes and then color them. Children
          may then decorate their clothes with buttons, ribbon, rickrack, or any other craft materials.
          Have children complete their self-portraits by drawing face parts and gluing on yarn for hair.

     G. “All About Me” Quilt

           MaTeriaLs Squares of felt in different col-         seT-UP   Have materials assembled and ready
           ors, items from children’s homes (e.g., a pic-      to use
           ture of each child and things or pictures that
           describe the child’s interests and personality),
           craft glue, old bed sheet

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                                                                                                                      Same/D
                Ask children to select two or three felt squares in their favorite colors. Set out children’s items    and Fe
                                                                                                                              ifferen
                                                                                                                                      t
                                                                                                                              elings
                from home, and have children glue them onto their felt squares. Glue all the felt squares onto
                the bed sheet to make a class quilt.

           H. Emotion Puppets

                  MaTeriaLs Skin-tone tag board (or color           seT-UP    To create face-parts templates, draw
                  white tag board with multicultural marker         a variety of face parts that convey different
                  colors), tongue depressors, glue, scissors,       emotions (e.g., happy smile, scrunched-up
                  yarn, face-parts template                         nose, surprised eyebrows, sad eyes). Have
                                                                    materials assembled and ready to use.

                Have each child cut out four large circles of tag board, the color of which most closely approxi-
                mates their skin tone. Then, give each child a face-parts template, and ask children to think of
                four different emotions to illustrate on the tag board circles. Ask children to select shapes of
                eyes, mouths, noses, and eyebrows that are appropriate for the emotions they select. Have
                children color and cut out their face pieces and glue them onto their four circles. (Children may
                add ears or hair.) After children have completed their faces, have them apply a thin line of glue
                to the back of one of the faces and attach it to a tongue depressor, creating a handle. Then
                have children glue another face onto the other side of the tongue depressor, creating a two-
                sided puppet. Repeat the process with the remaining two faces and another tongue depressor.

           Create-a-Book Center
                “My Feelings” Book

                  MaTeriaLs Unlined paper, construction pa-         seT-UP Print each of the following lead-in
                  per, pencil, crayons, markers, stapler or other   phrases (or create your own) on the top of a
                  way to attach pages                               sheet of unlined paper, positioned horizon-
                                                                    tally. Use only one phrase per page.
                                                                    Makes me angry
                                                                    Makes me sad
                                                                    Makes me happy
                                                                    Makes me scared
                                                                    Makes me lonely

                Read a lead-in phrase to each child. Depending on the child’s writing skills, print the child’s an-
                swer on the paper or dictate the letters of each word for the child to print. If the child needs
                additional assistance, you can make dotted letters or print letters for the child to trace. Encour-
                age children to draw a picture under each sentence to show each feeling. Assist children as
                necessary. Have children print the title “My Feelings” and their name on the cover of the book.

Unit 1 / The Emerging Language and Literacy Curriculum                                                                                        71
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                                                                                                                     Same/D
     Dramatic Play Center                                                                                             and Fe
                                                                                                                             ifferen
                                                                                                                             elings
                                                                                                                                     t

         Barber Shop/Beauty Salon

          MaTeriaLs Cape to drape shoulders,                 seT-UP  Set up the area to resemble a
          combs, brushes, towel, hair clips, fake scis-      beauty salon
          sors (make out of heavy cardboard and at-
          tach the two pieces with a fastener), mirror,
          empty bottles of shampoo, conditioner, and
          hairspray, curlers, barrettes, ponytail holders,
          dolls with hair, broom and dustpan, chair,
          plastic tub for washing hair, pretend hair dry-
          er, pretend curling iron, cash register, money,
          telephone, appointment book, old hairstyle
          books or pictures from magazines, nail files,
          empty nail polish container and brush, plastic
          bin to soak feet for pedicure

         Assist children in determining jobs in a beauty salon, including manicurist, hairstylist/barber, re-
         ceptionist, manager, and clients. Encourage children to name the salon/barber shop, and assist
         them in making and hanging a sign with the name printed or painted on it. Encourage children
         to make appointments, style hair, give manicures and pedicures, etc.

     Tactile Center
     A. Washing Babies

          MaTeriaLs Doll babies that are safe to             seT-UP  Fill a tactile table with water. Pour in
          place in water, water, bubble bath, sponge         bubble bath and swish to make bubbles. Set
          or washcloth, soap, shampoo, towels, hair-         up other bath supplies on a tray.
          brush, lotion, baby powder, tray

         Ask children to undress the babies to give them a bath. Have children put soap on a sponge or
         washcloth and bathe all body parts of the babies. Encourage children to also wash the babies’
         hair. After they are done bathing the babies, ask children to dry them off and apply lotion or
         powder. Then, ask children to brush the babies’ hair and dress the babies.

     B. Matching Emotions

          MaTeriaLs Milo (available at grain/feed            seT-UP  Fill a tactile table with milo. Hide the
          stores), multicultural faces (laminated) that      laminated faces in the milo. Write a variety
          show a variety of emotions, index cards,           of emotion words (e.g., “sad,” “happy,”
          marker                                             “angry,” “surprised”) on index cards.

         Have each child dig into the milo to find a face. Discuss with the class the emotion each face is
         showing. Have children match the face with the index card word that identifies the emotion.

72                                                                                      The Emerging Language and Literacy Curriculum / Unit 1
KEY C
                                                                                                                                ONCEP

        1
                                                                                                                                      T    S

                                                                                                                       Same/D
           Construction Center                                                                                          and Fe
                                                                                                                               ifferen
                                                                                                                               elings
                                                                                                                                       t

                Body Puzzles

                  MaTeriaLs Variety of different body-parts         seT-UP   Have materials assembled and ready
                  puzzles (you may make your own)                   to use

                Encourage children to complete a variety of different skill-level puzzles related to the unit theme.

           Math and science Center
                Sorting

                  MaTeriaLs Variety of pictures of people           seT-UP   Have materials assembled and ready
                  with different physical attributes                to use

                Have children sort the pictures by similar attributes (e.g., all people with similar hair color to-
                gether, similar eye color together). After children have sorted the pictures, have them count
                how many people are in each group.

                Fingerprints

                  MaTeriaLs Paper, ink pad, marker, magni-          seT-UP   Have materials assembled and ready
                  fying glass                                       to use

                Have children press their fingerprints onto a piece of paper and then print their name on the
                paper. Allow children to examine their fingerprints with a magnifying glass. Discuss with chil-
                dren that no one else in the whole world has the same fingerprints.

                Smells

                  MaTeriaLs Variety of nontoxic items that          seT-UP   Have materials assembled and ready
                  have a scent (e.g., spices, shaving cream,        to use
                  bubble gum), nontransparent containers
                  with lids

                In each container, place a certain amount of one of the scented items. Close the container, and
                poke small holes in the lid. Ask children to identify each item with only their sense of smell.

Unit 1 / The Emerging Language and Literacy Curriculum                                                                                         73
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                                                                                                                     Same/D
     Optional activities                                                                                              and Fe
                                                                                                                             ifferen
                                                                                                                             elings
                                                                                                                                     t

          Note: Check children’s medical records for food allergies before beginning any activity with food.

     1.   Make a snack.

          A. Face Cookies

                MaTeriaLs Packaged cookie dough,                 seT-UP    Arrange for access to a stove or
                cookie sheet, spatula, packaged white            toaster oven. Have materials assembled
                frosting, small bowls, food coloring, knives     and ready to use. Have children wash and
                or craft sticks, cookie-decorating toppings      dry their hands before they begin making
                (e.g., candy-coated chocolate pieces, choc-      the cookies.
                olate chips, sprinkles, licorice string)

              Roll the cookie dough into balls, and place on cookie sheet. Bake cookies as directed on
              package. Allow cookies to cool. Help children color the frosting to colors of choice. Have
              children ice the cookies with frosting and add toppings to make faces. Encourage children
              to discuss the different characteristics of their cookie faces.

          B. Favorite Snacks
              Have each child bring their favorite snack to share with the class.

     2.   Ask families to create a “My Child Is a Star” poster.

           MaTeriaLs Send home a piece of poster               seT-UP   None
           board with each child. Have the child’s family
           make a poster with the title “My Child Is a
           Star.” Instruct the family to include pictures
           and words that describe their child. Encour-
           age families to be creative and to make the
           posters unique.

          Have children share their posters with the class during Circle Time. Display the posters in the
          classroom for children to talk about.

74                                                                                      The Emerging Language and Literacy Curriculum / Unit 1
Learning Outcomes Chart
                                                         UNIT 1                                   •        KEY CONCEPT: Same/Different and Feelings                                                  •     MAIN STORYBOOK: We’re Different, We’re the Same

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Tactile

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Groups
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Writing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Literacy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Reading

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Open Art
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Listening
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Math and

                                                                                                                                  Story Time

                                                              SKILLS
                                                                                                                                                                       Circle Time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Themed Art
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Construction

                                                                                                                                                                                                               Phonological
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Dramatic Play
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Language and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Create-A-Book

                                                                                                                 INDICATORS
                                                                                                                                                   A   B   C   D   E                 F   G   H   I   J     1   2        3     4   A      B    C    D                E   F   G   H              A             B
                                                                                              Graphics/prewriting                                  O       O                                                                                                                                                                                     X
                                                                                              Book orientation                X                X                                                                                                                                                                                                           X                                          X
                                                                                              Print awareness                 X                X   X       X   X                     X   O                 X   O        O     X   X                                             X                            X                    X              X                      X                 X           X
                                                                                              Alphabet knowledge              O                O   O       O   O                     O   O                 X            O     O   O                                             O                            O                    O              X                      O                 X           O         O

                                                              Literacy Skills
                                                                                              Story structure                 X                X   X                                                                                                                                                                                                       X                                          X         O
                                                                                              Shared storybook reading        X                X                                                                                                                                                                                  X                                                                   O
                                                                                              General awareness               X                X                                                                        O                                                                                                                                  O                              X           O         O

Unit 1 / The Emerging Language and Literacy Curriculum
                                                                                              Memory for word patterns        X                X                                                           O   O        O     O                                                                                                                                                                       O
                                                                                              Rhyming awareness               X                X                                                               X        O     O                                                                                                                            O                              X           O         O
                                                                                              Phonemic awareness              O                O                                                           X   X        X     X                                                                              O                    O                                     O                 X           O         O

                                                           Phonological
                                                          Awareness Skills
                                                                                              Sound manipulation              O                O                                                           X   X        O     X                                                                              O                    O                                     O                 X           O         O
                                                                                              Comprehension                   X                X   X   X   X   X   X                 X   X           X     O   X        O     O   O      O    O    O                O   O   O   O              O             O    O               X              O         X            X                O            O                       X
                                                                                              Vocabulary                      X                X   X   X   X   X   X                 X   X   X   X   X     X   X        O     O   O      O    O    O                O   O   O   O              O             O    O               X              O                      X                O            O                       X
                                                                                              Word order                      X                X   O   O   O   O   O                 O   O   O   O   O     O   O        O     O   O      O    O    O                O   O   O   O              O             O    O               O              O                      O                O            O                       O

                                                               Skills
                                                                                              Word endings                    X                X   O   O   O   O   O                 O   O   O   O   O     X   O        O     O   O      O    O    O                O   O   O   O              O             O    O               O              O                      O                O            O                       O

                                                          Oral Language
                                                                                              Social talk                     X                X   O   O   O   O   O                 O   O   O   O   O     O   O        O     O   O      O    O    O                O   O   O   O              O             O    O               O              O                      O                O            O                       O
                                                                                              Conversation                    X                X   X   X   X   X   X                 X   X   X   X   X     O   O        O     O   O      O    O    O                O   O   O   O              O             O    O               X              O                      X                O            O                       X

                                                         Motor                                Gross motor                                                          X
                                                         Skills                               Fine motor                                           O       O   O                     O   X                                        X      X    X    X                X   X   X   X                                                 X              X                      O                                       O
                                                                                              Counting                                             X                                                       O   O              X   X                                                                                                              O                      O                                                     X
                                                                                              Sorting                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           O             X
                                                                                              Classifying                     X                X   X   X                                 O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    X
                                                                                              Estimation                                                                                                                                                                                                          O
                                                                                              Missing objects                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   O
                                                                                              Prediction                      X                X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              X
                                                                                              Shapes                                                                                                       O                             O                                  O                                                     O              O                      O                                       O
                                                                                              Colors                                               X   O                                 O                                        O      X    X    O                X   O   O                                                     O              O                      O                                       O
                                                                                              Construct a model
                                                                                              Patterning

                                                              Pre-Academic Classroom Skills
                                                                                              Sequential order                X                X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                O
                                                                                              Measurement                                                                                                                     O
                                                                                              Graph/chart                                          X
                                                                                              Contributes ideas to play                                            X                                                    O                                                                                         O                                                     X                                                     O
                                                                                              Role play                                                        X                                 X                                                                                             X                                                                        X
                                                                                              Awareness of rules of play                               O                                     X       X         O
                                                                                              Shares materials                                     O   O   O   O                         X   X                 O        O         O      O    O    O                O   O   O   O              O             O    O               O              O                      O                                                     O
                                                                                              Waits turn                      O                O   X   X   X   X   X                 X   X   X   O   O     O   O        O     O   O      O    O    O                O   O   O   O              O             O    O               O              O                      O                                                     O

                                                              Social Skills
                                                                                              Contributes to discussion       X                X   X   X   X   X   X                 X   X   X   X   X     X   X        X     X   O      O    O    O                O   O   O   O              X             X    O               X              O                      X                                                     X
                                                                                              Engages in social routines                                                                                                                                                                       X                                                                        X

                                                                                                                                                                       X=direct relationship to skill                                 O=indirect or potential relationship to skill

75
U N IT                                                                                                                 KEY C
                                                                                                                             ONCEP

22
                                                                                                                                   T

          Main Book: The          Rainbow Fish
          Author and Illustrator: Marcus Pfister   Publisher: North-South Books
                                                                                                                    Ocean
          Date: 1992 ISBN: 1558580093

                                               This is a story about a selfish little fish who will not
                                           share his sparkly scales. When he no longer has any friends, he goes to
                                           visit a wise octopus that tells him about sharing. He learns that sharing
                                           is a very important part of being a good friend. This book was chosen
                                           for its message about sharing and for its vocabulary related to the
                                           ocean.

          Related Book: A       House for Hermit Crab
          Author and Illustrator: Eric Carle   Publisher: Aladdin Library, reprint edition    Date: 2002    ISBN: 0689848943

            This is a tale about a crab that outgrows his shell. When he gets a new shell, the crab finds
          ways to decorate it in the ocean. This story was selected for its description of sea life in the ocean.

          Rhyming Book: Commotion                   in the Ocean
          Author: Giles Andreae    Illustrator: David Wojtowycz      Publisher: Tiger Tales    Date: 2002    ISBN: 1589253663

             This is a story that tells of the many great fish of the sea. Each page shows a different fish, and
          rhyming text describes the fish and its special place in the sea. The story is simple and provides a
          great review of ocean-related vocabulary.

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