Meteorological Strategy - Pacific Islands - Sprep

 
Meteorological Strategy - Pacific Islands - Sprep
Pacific Islands
Meteorological Strategy
                             2012–2021
    Sustaining Weather and Climate Services
    in Pacific Island Countries and Territories
Meteorological Strategy - Pacific Islands - Sprep
P M C PA R T N E R S A C K N O W L E D G E D

SPREP Library/IRCA Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Pacific islands meteorological strategy 2012 – 2021 : sustaining
weather and climate services in Pacific island countries and
territories. Apia, Samoa : SPREP, 2012.
  p. cm.
ISBN: 978-982-04-0446-5 (print)
      978-982-04-447-2 (online)
1.Meteorological services – Oceania. 2. Meteorology – Oceania.
3. Climatic changes – Oceania. I. Pacific Regional Environment
Programme (SPREP) IV. Title.

551.5092099

Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP)
P. O. Box 240, Apia, Samoa • +68-5-21929 • www.sprep.org
Meteorological Strategy - Pacific Islands - Sprep
Contents
Statement from the Inaugural Chairman             3

Foreword                                          4

Executive Summary                                 5

Part 1   Strategic Context and Direction          7

     1   Purpose                                  8
     2   Background                               9
     3   Vision                                  11
     4   Principles                              12
     5   Objectives and Priorities               13
     6   Partnerships and Linkages               14
     7   Institutional Arrangements              15
     8   Monitoring and Evaluation               16
     9   Mid-term Review                         16

Part 2	Matrix of Pacific Outcomes and Actions	   17

Glossary                                         36
Meteorological Strategy - Pacific Islands - Sprep
Meteorological Strategy - Pacific Islands - Sprep
Statement from the
Inaugural Chairman

T
     he Pacific Islands Meteorological Strategy 2012–2021 represents a continued strategic effort
     on the part of the Directors of National Meteorological Services (NMSs) of all Pacific Island
     Countries and Territories (PICTs), to ensure that the services that we provide are sustained and
ensured of the best quality possible.
Tropical cyclones and typhoons, drought and flash floods, storm surges, earthquakes and tsunami,
are but some of these extreme events that concern our services. The past decade has seen some
unprecedented disasters in the wake of these in the loss of life and livelihoods of Pacific people. As
a Chair from an atoll country, the severe impacts of these and climate change provide more than
enough motivation to ensure that our NMSs continue to grow in providing time critical and relevant
data and information services to the public.
The growth and sustenance of NMSs must be a priority for our respective governments in the Pacific.
We have made large steps in the achievements of where our services are today, thanks in a large part
to the assistance and support from our counterpart agencies in Australia, Finland, Japan, New Zealand,
the United States of America and the World Meteorological Organization. The time is now to forge
a renewed strategic partnership with the many supporters we are fortunate to have, and with our
respective governments to ensure that a logical approach to strengthening our many diverse areas of
need is in place.
As the first Chair of the Pacific Meteorological Council (PMC), I am proud to take this opportunity to
provide leadership in the first couple of years of this strategy, and to ensure that we make strides
in achieving the goals we have set for ourselves as the PMC. This strategy reflects not only the best
way forward but highlights the key areas of focus for development and support and we welcome as
many partners at the national and regional level to work together on these. I am confident that this
Strategy and the commitment of support from the SPREP Secretariat and the Pacific Meteorological
Desk Partnership will provide us with a sound roadmap for the next ten years at the end of which I am
sure we will arrive at a result of a well-functioning professional NMS able to provide the best service
to its country and people. I am sure that my fellow Directors who will follow in turn as Chairs will be as
committed as I am to the vision and objectives of this Strategy.
Our continued thanks go to our partners who have aided our development over the past few decades
and who continue to provide enthusiastic support to the region. Our thanks to SPREP and WMO also
for the continued secretariat services to the region and without whom this strategy would not be
possible. To my fellow Council members, here lies our pathway and challenge for the next decade,
together as partners we can achieve these and more!
Komol tata,

Reginald White
Director
republic of marshall islands national weather service

                                          Pacific Islands Me teor ological Str ategy 2012–2021               3
Foreword

    T
         he Pacific Islands Meteorological Strategy (PIMS) presents the priorities for action and where
         Pacific Island Countries and Territories National Meteorological Services (NMSs) would like to
         be in the next three years if their capacity are strengthened.
    The continued support of the development partners of the Pacific Meteorological Council (PMC) such
    as World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    (NOAA) of the USA, Meteorological Service of New Zealand Ltd (MetService), National Institute of
    Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) of New Zealand, Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) of Australia,
    Meteo France, Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Finland Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    and the Finnish Meteorological Institute, and bilateral and multilateral partners such as Australia,
    New Zealand, USA and the World Bank are crucial for the timely and successful implementation of this
    PIMS. Other developed countries and their meteorological services are invited to join the PMC and the
    Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) to provide support for National
    Meteorological Services (NMSs) as mapped out in this strategy..
    This strategy is for Pacific Island Countries and Territories’ NMSs, donors and partners to strengthen
    weather and climate services for all stakeholders through timely provisions of early warnings,
    information on weather and climate, especially climate change.
    The biannual meeting of the Regional Meteorological Service Directors’ (RMSD) meeting was replaced
    by the Pacific Meteorological Council’s first meeting in Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI)
    in 2011. The PMC is a specialized subsidiary body of the SPREP Meeting. It was established at the
    14th RMSD meeting in RMI, to facilitate and coordinate the scientific and technical programme and
    activities of the National Meteorological Services (NMSs). The PMC replaces the RMSD and provides
    relevant policy advice to the SPREP Meeting on the needs and priorities of SPREP member countries
    and territories in relation to meteorology (weather and climate) and related fields. I would like to
    acknowledge the fine leadership of the first PMC chair from the Republic of Marshall Islands, Mr
    Reginald White.
    We call on NMSs and PMC partners in addition to members of the Council of Regional Organisation
    Programmes (CROPs) to support the implementation of this PIMS not only to strengthen NMSs capacity
    but to ensure that weather; climate variability and climate change information reach the ‘last person’
    in urban and rural areas and in remote outer islands in a timely and effective manner.

    David Sheppard
    Director General
    SPREP

4    Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
Executive Summary

N
       ational Meteorological Services (NMSs) underpin economic growth and sustainable
       development in the Pacific Islands region. The weather and climate services provided by
       NMSs significantly contribute to the safety and well-being of Pacific people and communities
and support key economic areas including agriculture, aviation, forestry, fishing, water resources,
energy industries, transportation and tourism.
In addition, these services are crucial to enhancing resilience to and reducing vulnerability from
natural hazards and the effects of climate variability and climate change.
The Pacific Meteorological Council (PMC) has adopted the Pacific Islands Meteorological Strategy to
ensure that NMSs have the capacity to fulfill their responsibilities over the next decade. Its Vision is:

National Meteorological Services of the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) are able to provide
relevant weather and climate services to their people to make informed decisions for their safety, socio-
economic well-being and prosperity and sustainable livelihoods.

The Strategy identifies four priority areas for action:

■■ Improved weather services, in particular aviation, marine and public weather services.

■■ Improved end-to-end Multi-Hazard Early Warning Systems (MHEWS).

■■ Enhanced infrastructure (data and information services) for weather, climate and water.

■■ Improved climate services.

The Strategy sets out priority areas in a Matrix of Pacific Outcomes and Activities that can be undertaken at
national, regional and international levels.
The priorities and actions are supported by a set of institutional partnerships that bring together PICTs
and development partners to support meteorological (weather and climate) services in the Pacific Islands
region.

                                            Pacif ic Is lands M e teorological St rategy 2012–2021              5
The Pacific Islands Me teorological Strategy
                 2012–2021

                  Part 1

  Strategic Context and Direction
1    Purpose

    T
           he purpose of this Pacific Islands Meteorological Strategy 2012–2021 (PIMS) is to set out the
           strategic context and direction for strengthening National Meteorological Services (NMSs1) in
           the Pacific Islands region.
    The PIMS provides a guiding framework for the development and support of national and regional
    meteorological (weather and climate) services. It seeks to promote development through building
    capacity within NMSs, and ensuring support is coordinated and delivered effectively in partnership
    with international agencies, regional agencies, donors and technical partners.
    The PIMS builds upon the Strategic Action Plan for the Development of Meteorology in the Pacific
    Region 2000–2009.
    The PIMS is arranged in two parts:

    Part 1 sets out the overall strategic direction and global and regional context. It describes
    relevant institutional and governance arrangements, including the roles of the PMC and the Pacific
    Meteorological Desk Partnership.

    Part 2 sets out Pacific Key Outcomes adopted by the PMC2, each implemented through a Matrix of
    Pacific Outcomes and Activities at national and Pacific regional level.

    1	National Meteorological Services (NMSs) throughout this document refers to the Pacific Island
      Countries and Territories NMSs.
    2 Pacific Meteorological Council (PMC) memberships are Directors/Heads of NMSs of SPREP Members
      and Partners as approved by the SPREP and PMC meetings.

8       Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
2   Background

2.1   Status of National Meteorological Services

A
       ll Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) have Meteorological Services. During the
       past decade there has been significant development and general improvement in their
       capacity and capabilities. PICTs, working closely together with developed Members of SPREP
(Australia, France, New Zealand and USA), other countries (including China, Italy, Denmark, Finland,
Japan and the UK) and the global network of meteorological infrastructure and services provided
through WMO and others, much capacity development and training has been undertaken to
improve technical skills needed to deliver weather and climate services in the PICTs.
Technical skills for weather services include surveillance, forecasting and warning, supply and
maintenance of equipment and data collection and management (including processing, storage,
access and exchange of near real-time weather data).
Technical skills for climate services include collection of, archiving, quality control and management
of historical climate data, supply and maintenance of equipment, analyses of climate data, and
capability for seasonal and interannual predictions and climate change projections (scenarios).
Despite the progress made, much remains to be done to bring many NMSs up to the level that will
ensure they can meet their mandates and serve their nations effectively. The current capacity at the
national level varies greatly between NMSs. Most NMSs in the region operate with poor infrastructure
and limited capability. Their climatological services are generally poorly developed or non-existent. In
a number of instances, PICTs rely mainly on external support to provide basic climatological services.

2.2 Value         of National Meteorological Services
The weather and climate services provided through NMSs are of tremendous value to people and
communities, and the economies of PICTs.

Vulner abil it y and resilience : The Pacific is one of the most environmentally fragile regions
on the planet, being prone to natural disasters and the effects of climate change. There is an intrinsic
relationship between poverty and the vulnerability of communities to natural disasters and climate
variability. Timely information on extreme weather events (through early warning systems and
climate outlooks) can support resilience through reducing loss of life and property.

Climate Change : Climate variability, climate change and future sea level rise can have significant
impacts in terms of food and fresh water security, human health and investment in infrastructure.
Being located in a region most affected by these events, PICTS have a strong incentive to contribute
climate data/information and raised the expectation of NMSs to provide climate services to respond
to the impacts of climate change.

F ood securit y : Many PICTs rely on subsistence agriculture and fishing as a means of livelihood.
Subsistence farmers and fishers are very vulnerable to external shocks, including natural hazards
such as severe weather events and the impacts of climate change. Their thin margin for error can

                                          Pacif ic Is lands M e teorological St rategy 2012–2021           9
mean one event plunges them into catastrophic losses. People living at a subsistence level are easily
     trapped in poverty because they cannot recover from such shocks as readily as those with greater
     economic resources. Sound information on storms, extreme rainfall, floods and drought events can
     help reduce these impacts.

     Communities and ci vil soc ie t y : Many people in the Pacific Islands region depend on land
     for their livelihood – for food production, employment, social status and power. Studies have shown
     that those with least resources are generally hardest hit by droughts, floods, landslides and other
     natural hazards. These events can severely disrupt communities and civil society generally.

     Mitigating the risk associated with natural disasters and adaptation to climate change requires
     people to be aware of potential risks and changes in the climate and to understand the implications
     for their lives.

     E conomic de v elopme nt and tr a d e : Key economic sectors such as agriculture, forestry,
     fishing, water resources, energy, transportation and tourism depend on reliable weather forecasts
     and climate services to manage their activities effectively. They are also highly vulnerable to natural
     hazards and the impacts of climate change. High quality and reliable weather information and
     forecasts, and seasonal to annual climate prediction are crucial for these sectors. In particular, high
     quality weather information and forecasts are crucial for aviation services.

     2.3   Future Focus
     A number of growing global issues point to increasing demands being made on NMSs over the next
     decade:
     ■■ Increasing population, changing expectations of communities and the push for economic
        development, free trade, sustainability and security will all place increasing demands on NMSs to
        provide effective weather and climate services.
     ■■ Increasing recognition of the need to integrate women, girls, children, youth, the poor and
        people living with disabilities, and their rights into the mainstream of the provision of weather
        and climate services – including warnings, climate services and climate change information.
     ■■ The global focus on climate change, and the particular vulnerability of PICTs, brings increased
        dependence on both sustaining long term climate observation and prediction of severe weather
        and climate events.
     ■■ Rapid changes in technology (e.g. new weather satellites) mean that continual investment is
        needed in installation and maintenance of infrastructure. Training is necessary for NMSs to deliver
        data and services to meet community needs and international obligations.
     ■■ Weather, climate and other natural hazards cross international boundaries. NMSs must comply
        with changing international obligations and standards to contribute to further enhancing global
        understanding of the earth’s weather and climate systems.
     This Strategy is designed to guide NMSs, the Pacific Meteorological Council (PMC), SPREP, other
     regional organisations and partners on the type of priority activities to be implemented to meet
     the challenges set out here, and make the best possible contribution to the well-being of PICTs’
     communities.

10     Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
3   Vision
The Pacific Meteorological Council (PMC) has adopted the following Vision statement for this
Strategy:

National Meteorological Services (NMSs) of the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) are able to
provide relevant weather and climate services to their people to make informed decisions for their safety,
socio-economic wellbeing and prosperity, and sustainable livelihoods.
4    Principles
     T    he Principles set out below apply to the implementation of this Strategy, including the delivery
          of National and Regional Priority Actions.

     i	Paci fic focus: The work of NMSs is primarily focused on effective delivery of meteorological
       (weather and climate) services for the benefit of Pacific peoples and communities.

     i i	Global contribution: The PMC and NMSs recognise the global character of weather and
         climate, and the need for an international approach that is consistent with relevant guiding
         frameworks.

     i ii	Suppor ting gender equalit y a n d t h e m o s t vu l n e r ab l e i n s o c i e t y: NMSs
          accept the need to operate and deliver services in ways that address principles of gender
          equality and the needs of the most vulnerable in society.

     iv	Cost e ffec ti v eness: Services should be delivered in an efficient, cost-effective way. NMSs’
        ability to deliver the actions in this Strategy is critically dependant on the resources available to
        them. Where appropriate, services may be delivered by NMSs with greater resources in support
        of those with less. In some cases, depending on available resources, it may be more efficient
        to deliver certain services and support at a regional level, subject to bilateral and multilateral
        agreements.

     v 	Sharing in f ormation: NMSs are committed to sharing data in line with international
        obligations and national policies; in particular the WMO commitment to free and unrestricted
        exchange of meteorological and related data and products (WMO Resolutions 40 and 25).

     v i 	Par tnerships: Partnerships with the WMO, regional inter-governmental agencies and
          organisations, and technical partners are critical to the success of this Strategy. A multilateral
          coordinated approach enhances effectiveness in increasing resources, targeting effort and
          managing potential overlap between agencies, organizations and development partners,
          especially where these are managed through bilateral arrangements. Partnerships between
          NMSs have an important role in ensuring cooperation and sharing of lessons-learned within
          the region.

12       Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
5   Objectives and Priorities
5.1   Objectives

T
      he overall objective of this Strategy is to provide a strategic framework for building and
      strengthening the capacity of National Meteorological Services (NMSs), either through direct
      national support or through coordinated, coherent, and sustained regional support.
With added resources and support these NMSs will be able to meet the growing demands from their
governments and citizens for improved weather and climate services that:

■■ Ensure the safety, security and wellbeing of their people
■■ Contribute to achieving sustainable development
■■ Fulfill Pacific Meteorological Council (PMC) member countries’ commitments and obligations
   under relevant regional and international agreements and conventions.

Within this overall context, the specific objectives of this Strategy are to:

■■ Provide the guiding framework for addressing NMSs’ priorities through strengthened regional
   coordination;
■■ Guide donors and partners to focus on priority capacity building activities and transfer of
   technology identified by the NMSs that may be delivered either bilaterally or through regional
   approaches;
■■ Guide NMSs towards critical activities aimed at building or strengthening capacity and planning
   and implementing national projects;
■■ Guide the PMC and Pacific Meteorological Desk Partnership with respect to sustaining priority
   actions at the regional level.

5.2   Priorities
This Strategy focuses on the following priority areas for action:

■■ Improved weather services, in particular, aviation, marine and public weather services.
■■ Improved end-to-end Multi-Hazard Early Warning Systems (MHEWS).
■■ Enhanced infrastructure (data and information services) for weather, climate and water.
■■ Enhanced development of climate services.

The actions associated with these priorities are set out in Part 2 of this Strategy.
In line with the overall purpose and objective of this Strategy, the PMC has also assigned high priority
to the cross-cutting theme of ‘Capacity Building’. This is expressed in the Matrix of Pacific Outcomes
and Activities (Part 2), where capacity development actions are embedded throughout the Pacific
Key Outcomes.

                                          Pacif ic Is lands M e teorological St rategy 2012–2021           13
6    Partnerships and Linkages
     P
            artnerships are critical to the successful implementation of this Strategy. To be effective, the Strategy
            must be clearly linked with the work of other government departments and agencies, technical
            partners and the private sector, and work in concert with other global and regional frameworks.
     The PMC acknowledges the particular importance of aligning actions under this Strategy with the
     Pacific Islands Framework for Action on Climate Change (PIFACC), the Pacific Disaster Risk Reduction
     (DRR) and Disaster Management Framework (DRM) for Action 2005, the Pacific Plan and other relevant
     regional and international initiatives. Figure 1 shows the linkages between key international and
     regional initiatives.

                              for                         Strategic                                  RAV
                                                          Operation                             Strategic Plan
                                                             Plan                             (SOP) 2012–2015     United Nations Framework Climate
                                                       (SOP) 2012–2015                                                Change Convention 1992
                           Hyogo Framework
                            for Action 2005                              WMO Strategic Plan
                                                                          (SP) 2012–2015

                                                                                                                        PACIFIC ISLANDS FRAMEWORK
                                                                                                                        FOR ACTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE
                                                                                                                                  2006–2015
                                                                                                                                  SECOND EDITION

                 Pacific DRR & DRM Framework for Action
                                2005–2015

                                                          NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL STRATEGIES

                                                                            OUTCOMES
           • Implementing climate change adaptation measures and policies
           • Improve understanding of climate change
                                                                                         • Timely weather, climate information, and predictions
           • Climate change knowledge, information, public awareness and education
                                                                                         • Reduction of underlying risk factors
           • Improve weather and climate services
                                                                                         • Understanding root causes of vulnerabilities and elements of risk
           • Preparedness, response and recovery
           • Early Warning Systems

              Figure 1: Linkages of relevant global and regional frameworks with PIMS

     Figure 1 shows that although each of the related regional policies and strategies originated from separate
     global institutions, there are clear linkages at the regional level where the regional frameworks contribute
     to similar outcomes. The Strategy will help to highlight the strong role NMSs must play in relation
     to all three regional frameworks. The principles incorporated in this Strategy will work to strengthen
     coordination among the key regional organisations that provide support to the NMSs and the PMC.
     A regional framework for the sustainable management of water resources will be developed in
     due course which will also have linkages with this strategy through institutional arrangements,
     information sharing and application of information and data at national and community levels
     of development. To support PICTs in the implementation of the many inter-connected national,
     regional and global frameworks called for an integrated and collaborative approach from the
     regional and global organisations and partners.
     The outcomes in Figure 1 are not exhaustive. They are examples of how the national responsibilities
     of NMSs correspond with larger regional and international initiatives important in the global arena
     of economic growth and sustainable development.

14       Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
7   Institutional Arrangements
A   series of related institutions and structures are already in place to support the implementation
    of this Strategy. Figure 2 shows the institutional arrangements.

                                                LEVEL 1

                SPREP Meeting (SM)                                  Members decision making

                                                LEVEL 2

        Pacific Meteorological Council (PMC)              Planning, decision making, capacity building,
                                                              networking, bi-annual meetings etc

                                                LEVEL 3

    Pacific Islands Meteorological Strategy (PIMS)        Provide strategic framework for building and
                                                                strengthening capacity of NMSs

                                                LEVEL 4

    Pacific Meteorological Desk      Mechanism for promoting actions,
                                                                          Aligned to PIMS objectives
            Partnership                reporting, fundraising, M & E

                           Figure 2: PIMS Institutional Arrangements

The PMC is a specialised subsidiary body of the SPREP Meeting; the SPREP Secretariat acts as
Secretariat and host organisation for the PMC. The SPREP Meeting is the governance mechanism
with respect to the PMC mandate and Terms of Reference. Through the PMDP within the SPREP
Secretariat, the SPREP Meeting will be kept informed of the operation of the PMC and progress in
implementation of and meeting the PIMS’s objectives.
The PMDP will assist the PMC and NMSs in securing resources to implement this Strategy, address
gaps and challenges and will report to the PMC. The PMC takes on a key role through the adoption
of this Strategy, which provides guidance on national and regional actions. The PMC will take
responsibility for ensuring coordination at the regional level and for advocating and monitoring
the Strategy. The PMC will oversee initiatives taken to implement the Strategy at a regional level.
In particular, it will seek to ensure appropriate accountability in relation to funds, and promote
activities that are aligned with the priorities and principles set out in this Strategy.
At the national level, NMSs will work to achieve their respective priorities and objectives in the context
of National Meteorological Plans developed through their respective Ministries or Departments.

                                           Pacif ic Is lands M e teorological St rategy 2012–2021            15
8    Monitoring and Evaluation

     T
           he PMC has primary responsibility for monitoring progress towards the outcomes set out in
           this Strategy. The PMC will be supported by the PMDP Secretariat at SPREP which will inform
           the PICTs and collaborating partners on the progress towards achieving the objectives of this
     Strategy. The PMDP Secretariat will also report on the activities of the PMDP.
     To enable the PMC to carry out its monitoring role, the PMDP Secretariat will provide progress
     reports covering:

     i 	A summary of the work and achievements of the PMDP during the previous six months. This
        report is to be circulated electronically to the PMC members.

     ii	An annual summary of progress in implementing the Regional Priority Actions and to be circulated
        electronically in the non-meeting year to the PMC members.

     iii	An annual assessment of progress towards achieving the Pacific Key Outcomes (PKO) and to be
         circulated electronically in non-meeting year to the PMC members.

     On the basis of these reports and other information available to it, the PMC will provide feedback
     and guidance where necessary on implementation of the Strategy.
     On behalf of PMC, the PMDP will provide a report of progress in its annual report to the SPREP Meeting
     to give SPREP Members an opportunity to provide feedback on progress towards implementing the
     outcomes and actions in this Strategy.

     9    Mid-Term Review
     The PMC will conduct a mid-term review of the implementation of this Strategy no later than 1 July
     2017 to ensure that it remains current and focussed on the appropriate priority areas.

16       Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
The Pacific Islands Me teorological Strategy
                  2012–2021

                   Part 2

Matrix of Pacific Outcomes and Actions
This matrix sets out the Pacific Key Outcomes (PKO) to be pursued through this Strategy.
     Each KPO is accompanied by a table of National and Regional Priority Actions:
     ■■ The National Priority Actions comprise a list of activities that may be delivered by NMSs,
        development/technical partners or others. The list is neither mandatory nor exhaustive; it is up
        to each NMS to determine its own activities according to national circumstances, priorities, plans
        and resources.
     ■■ The Regional Priority Actions provide guidance for the work of the agencies making up the PMC,
        PMDP and any other partners with an interest to invest in NMSs in the Pacific.
     The matrix focuses on priorities for the Pacific Islands region. The Outcomes and Actions are designed
     to supplement the work currently being undertaken in the Pacific Islands region.

18     Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 1:
Aviation weather services in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories’ (PICTs’) region
are improved.

 Pacific National Priority Actions                   Pacific Regional Priority Actions

 1. Develop and implement a quality                  1. Coordinate the development and
   management system (QMS) (procedures                 implementation of a regional plan to support
   and standards for aviation weather services         Pacific Islands NMSs QMS for aviation weather
   including TAF and verification schemes,             services including TAF, METAR and SPECI.
   METAR and SPECI).
                                                     2. Coordinate capacity development on aviation
 2. Develop long-term agreements among NMSs            weather services including:
   and relevant national aviation authorities on
                                                       • QMS development;
   implementation of QMS for aviation weather
   services including TAF and verifications,           • Auditing and establishment of a regional
   METAR and SPECI.                                      roving team to assist with QMS certification;

 3. Put in place and use appropriate equipment and     • Preparation of TAF and verification schemes
    communication systems for aviation weather           and preparation of METAR and SPECI.
    services including TAF, METAR and SPECI.

 4. Develop formal inter-agency agreements           3. Coordinate the development of inter-agency
   relating to provision of aviation weather           agreements relating to aviation weather
   services, including contingency measures in         services, including contingency measures in
   case of natural disasters and other disruptions     case of natural disasters and other disruptions
   to service (for example between some                (for example between some SISs’ NMSs and
   small island states’ (SISs) NMSs and the Fiji       Fiji Meteorological Service/RSMC Nadi).
   Meteorological Service/RSMC Nadi).

 5. Coordinate with relevant national aviation       4. Promote among NMSs, Governments’
   authorities to ensure that national legislation     obligations as signatories to the Convention
   related to aviation weather services are            for ICAO.
   harmonized and aligned with ICAO provisions.
                                                     5. Coordinate support for improving awareness
 6. Develop cost recovery policy at a national         among NMSs about ICAO policies and
   level for aviation weather services.                provisions for cost recovery through the
                                                       provision of aviation weather services.
 7. Cooperate with volcanic observatories
   and developed countries’ NMSs to develop          6. Promote the accreditation of NMSs as the
   advisory messages and test these for                Meteorological Authority for aviation weather
   operational use for issuing SIGMETs necessary       purposes.
   for the aviation industry.

 8. Conduct studies to evaluate and demonstrate      7. Coordinate safety oversight with ICAO, WMO,
   the socio-economic benefits of aviation             PASO and Pacific Islands’ NMSs.
   weather services to the development of a
   national economy.

                                           Pacif ic Is lands M e teorological St rategy 2012–2021        19
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 2:
     Marine weather services in the PICTs’ region are improved.

      Pacific National Priority Actions                     Pacific Regional Priority Actions

      1. Strengthen relationships between NMSs and          1. Coordinate a regional marine weather
        relevant marine agencies, for example through         services programme to support linking
        developing agreements with Port Authorities           NMSs with partners and users of these
        about the way that NMSs will provide weather          services.
        services to support shipping and inter-islands
        boat operations.
      2. Review all services and standard operating
        procedures that affect mariners.
      3. Develop products and conduct public education
        programmes for inter-islands boat operators
        and users of small craft on the delivery and use/
        interpretation of weather forecasts and warnings.
      4. Provide relevant information for search-and-
        rescue operations.

      5.Take appropriate actions to improve coordination    2. Coordinate regional capacity development
        of marine meteorology and oceanography                in the fields of marine meteorology and
        programmes.                                           oceanography.
                                                            3.Collaborate with PI-GOOS to develop
                                                              oceanography programme.

      6. Put in place systems to improve delivery of        4. Identify and develop ways to assist the
        marine weather services, including:                   delivery of marine weather services and
        • meteorological and oceanographic data and           make them available to NMSs, including:
          products                                           • meteorological and oceanographic data
        • tools and techniques such as forecast of             and products
          wave period and probable wave height for           • tools and techniques such as forecast of
          predicting storm surges and waves                    wave period and probable wave height
        • guidelines for “good-practices-approach” on          for predicting storm surges and waves
          methodologies for hazard data, metadata and        • guidelines for “good-practices–approach”
          mapping tools for storm surges and other             on methodologies for hazard data,
          marine meteorological hazards.                       metadata and mapping tools for storm
                                                               surges and other marine meteorological
      7. Take appropriate actions as advised by WMO
                                                               hazards.
        bodies such as JCOMM to improve marine
        weather services

      8. Develop NMSs QMS procedures for marine             5. Coordinate the development of NMSs QMS
        weather services.                                     for marine weather services.

20    Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
9. Improve marine observations, including            6. Assist with the development of inter-
  observation and collection of marine-relevant        agency agreements relating to weather
  data at small and major ports, from ships            information for respective coastal areas,
  and other sources. Increase collection and           as well as contingency measures in case of
  dissemination of marine weather reports to and       natural disasters and other disruptions (for
  from small boats traversing between islands.         example between some SISs’ NMSs and the
                                                       Fiji Meteorological Service/RSMC Nadi).

                                                     7. Coordinate the improvement of coverage
                                                       and quality of marine observations,
                                                       including marine weather observations at
                                                       small and major ports, and the collection
                                                       and dissemination of marine weather
                                                       reports from small boats and commercial
                                                       shippers traversing in between the islands.

10. Support studies on socio-economic benefits of    8. Ensure full cooperation between the
  marine weather services                              WMO and UNESCO/IOC and IOC/ICG/PTWS
                                                       and the PMC, so that requirements for
11. Coordinate and support tsunami early
                                                       regional tsunami early warning systems are
  warning system among national agencies and
                                                       fully coordinated and meet national and
  stakeholders, in cooperation with the IOC/ICG/
                                                       regional requirements, including support
  Pacific Tsunami Warning & Mitigation System
                                                       from regional institutions, such as the
  (PTWS)
                                                       Pacific Tsunami Warning Center and the
                                                       International Tsunami Information Center.

                                         Pacif ic Is lands M e teorological St rategy 2012–2021       21
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 3:
     Public weather services in the PICTs’ region are improved.

      Pacific National Priority Actions                   Pacific Regional Priority Actions

      1. Put in place ways to improve public weather      1. Coordinate assistance to improve public
        services at national levels, including:             weather services for Pacific Islands NMSs,
                                                            including:
        • Making use of new tools and technologies
                                                           • Information on new tools and technologies
        • Providing institutional support for receiving
                                                           • Technical assistance
          technical assistance and capacity building
                                                           • Capacity building

      2. Implement ways to improve the presentation       2. Identify and develop ways to improve the
        and usefulness of public weather services,          presentation and usefulness of public weather
        including:                                          services, including:
        • Dialogue with the full range of users of         • Assessing current and future needs of users
          public weather services (including women,          (including women, children, and vulnerable
          children, and vulnerable communities)              communities), and their implications for
                                                             NMSs
        • Putting in place services tailored to user/
                                                           • Public education and awareness activities
          community needs
                                                             (including forecast confidence and
        • Developing infrastructure to better                uncertainty)
          disseminate weather information.                 • Communication skills.
        • More effective public weather presentations     3. Promote improved access to different ways
          for radio, TV and other media.                    to deliver weather services to users including:
        • Communications/media training                     national TV channels, RANET, EMWIN,
                                                            improved software, multi-media techniques
        • Public education and awareness
                                                            and websites.
          programmes.

      3. Contribute weather information for cities to     4. Promote the use of WWIS website
        WWIS website http://worldweather.wmo.int.           http://worldweather.wmo.int.

22    Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 4:
Multi-Hazard Early Warning Systems (MHEWS) for tropical cyclones, storm surges,
waves and tsunami in the PICTs’ region are implemented and improved.

 Pacific National Priority Actions              Pacific Regional Priority Actions

 1. Establish and/or strengthen MHEWS           1. In partnership with other agencies (e,g. SPC-
   and ensure that they are integrated into       SOPAC), assist NMSs to establish and improve
   government policies at national and            MHEWS, and enhance integration across
   community levels.                              government agencies and communities.

 2. Conduct inventories and needs analyses of   2. Promote regional coordination to support
   national MHEWS.                                MHEWS, including:
 3. Develop hazard response plans and             • Coordinate capacity assessment of national and
   standard operating procedures for MHEWS          regional MHEWS.
   at national and community levels.
                                                  • Develop operating procedures and back-up
 4. Develop and implement comprehensive             systems for MHEWS.
   programme for community awareness and
   preparedness.
 5. Provide back-up systems/redundant
   systems for detection and warning.
 6. Develop inter-agency agreements (for
   example between some small island states’
   (SISs) NMSs and the Fiji Meteorological
   Service/RMSD Nadi) for the exchange
   of meteorological information and
   preparation of warnings for some Pacific
   Islands, including contingency measures
   in case of natural disasters and other
   disruptions.

 7. Install and/or upgrade technological        3. Identify tools and methods to assist MHEWS,
   processes, tools and techniques to improve     including:
   capability of national MHEWS.                  • Work with developed country NMSs and other
                                                    institutions with seasonal tropical cyclone
                                                    forecast capabilities to provide information on
                                                    their forecast products to Pacific Islands.
                                                  • Explore the use of ensemble techniques in
                                                    tropical cyclone forecasting and probable
                                                    forecasts.
                                                  • Identify availability and/or coordinate
                                                    development of a combined storm surge and
                                                    wave model(s).

 8. Provide a national contribution towards a   4. Coordinate the work related to the southern
   database for cyclones.                         hemisphere cyclones database.

 9. Build the link between THORPEX TIGGE and    5. Coordinate GIFS TIGGE products for cyclones
   the Severe Weather Forecast and Disaster       and heavy rainfall relevant for the Pacific Islands
   risk reduction Demonstration project           region.
   (SWFDDP) for the Pacific Islands region.

 10. Support studies on socio-economic          6. Identify institutional and financial mechanisms
   benefits of MHEWS.                             to ensure the continuity and sustainability of the
                                                  SWFDDP for Pacific Islands
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 5:
     Improved early warning system for floods (EWS-Floods).

      Pacific National Priority Actions                   Pacific Regional Priority Actions

      1. Establish and/or strengthen institutional        1 In partnership with other agencies (e,g.
        capacity for EWS-Floods                             SPC-SOPAC), assist NMSs in developing and
                                                            strengthening EWS-Floods, including:
      2. Ensure that EWS-floods are integrated
        into government policies, decision-making          • Coordinate regional support for the
        processes and emergency management systems           implementing EWS-Floods.
        at both national and community levels.             • Coordinate development of guidelines for
                                                             EWS-Floods.
      3. Complete inventories and needs analyses of
        national EWS-Floods ensuring inputs from           • Identify and coordinate sharing of
        all stakeholders including women, children,          available tools or methodologies including
        disabled people, taking into full consideration      GIS, satellite information and hazard
        traditional knowledge; and upgrade and/or            mappings for EWS-Floods.
        redesign national EWS-Floods to cater for these
        special needs.
      4. Joint programmes with NDMOs including
        conduct public awareness, education and
        analyses of socio-economic impacts of floods
        and benefits of EWS-Floods.
      5. Strengthen relationships between NMSs
        and hydrological agencies that may have
        responsibility for issuing flood warnings.

      6. Identify hydrological monitoring resources
        (satellite etc) that may aid in flood warnings.

      7. Support studies on socio-economic benefits of    2. Coordinate analyses of socio-economic
        EWS-Floods.                                         benefits of EWS-Floods.

24    Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 6:
Climate information and prediction services, including drought prediction, in the PICTs’
region are improved.

 Pacific National Priority Actions                     Pacific Regional Priority Actions

 1. Develop NMSs strategies for delivery               1. Promote and develop a plan for regional
   of climate services at national and local             coordination of climate information and
   community levels, reflecting implementation           prediction services and drought prediction
   of GFCS.                                              including the implementation of GFCS and
                                                         establishment of RCCs for the Pacific Islands
                                                         region.

 2. Prepare national reports on existing and           2. Coordinate preparation of national reports on
   future requirements for improving climate             existing and future requirements for climate
   information and prediction services, and              information and prediction services, and
   drought prediction schemes.                           drought prediction.

 3. Establish and/or strengthen climate services       3. Coordinate assistance to improve climate
   and drought predictions at national level.            and prediction services in the PICT’s region,
                                                         including:
 4. Ensure climate services, including drought
   prediction, are integrated into government            • Coordinate capacity development to assist
   policies at national and community levels.              NMSs improving climate services and
                                                           drought prediction.
 5. Develop operating procedures for climate
                                                         • Support development of a simple dynamic
   information and drought prediction at
                                                           model that can be run with limited
   national and community levels.
                                                           resources.
 6. Install and/or upgrade technological                 • Support additional research on drought
   processes, tools and techniques along with              prediction, including the effects of La Nina
   human resources, to improve capability of               and El Niño on drought around the region.
   national climate and drought prediction
                                                         • Coordinate ENSO related regional products
   schemes.
                                                           and services and make them available to
 7. Establish drought early warning system                 Pacific Islands NMSs.
   including end-to-end system of data                   • Coordinate MJO based information,
   collection, advisories and product                      products and services and make them
   dissemination.                                          available to NMSs.
 8. Utilize ENSO, Monsoons, ITCZ and MJO related
   products and services at the national and
   local levels (with appropriate training).

                                             Pacif ic Is lands M e teorological St rategy 2012–2021       25
9. Establish and organize regular dialogue          4. Identify and develop ways to improve the
       between NMSs and users of climate and               presentation and usefulness of climate
       drought prediction services.                        prediction services, including:
     10. Put in place processes and tools for              • Identify processes and tools to translate
       translating requirements of users of climate          requirements of users of climate services
       and drought prediction services into                  into useful information and products.
       information and products that are tailored to       • Promote climate services applications
       local needs.                                          and drought prediction schemes in key
                                                             socio‑economic sectors.
     11. Conduct public education or awareness
       activities on climate prediction and services,      • Develop coordinated response to regional
       including forecast confidence and uncertainty.        questions about climate change, global
                                                             warning, sea level rise (e.g. develop “talking
     12. Develop capacity to be able to provide              points” for media and other enquiries).
       information on sea level, storm surge, tropical
       cyclone activity etc and strengthen ties with
       sea-level monitoring projects.
     13. Develop national “talking points” on local
       effects of climate change, particularly sea
       level rise, precipitation changes, etc.

     14. Promote the benefits of GEOSS at the            5. Promote the benefits of GEOSS in Pacific
       national level.                                     Islands region.
     15. Advocate among national government              6. Assist Pacific Islands in preparing to sign
       Ministers for membership with GEO.                  and join GEO membership, and assist GEO
                                                           Secretariat in making contact with Pacific
                                                           Islands.
                                                         7. Address the lack of GEO netcast coverage over
                                                           the Pacific.

     16. Support studies on socio-economic benefit
       of climate services and drought prediction
       schemes.

26   Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 7:
Improved quality of observations and coverage of networks in the Pacific Islands region.

 Pacific National Priority Actions                     Pacific Regional Priority Actions

 1. Ensure that observing stations compile and         1. Coordinate stocktaking and evaluation of
   transmit meteorological data / messages               existing national and regional observation
   according to existing WMO regulations.                networks, including survey of existing
                                                         synoptic stations and needs-analysis.
 2. Provide profiles of national observing systems
   for evaluation against WIGOS standards.             2. Coordinate the evaluation of existing
                                                         national and regional plans and activities
 3. Develop plan for implementation of WIGOS at
                                                         aligned to WIGOS.
   the national level.
                                                       3. Coordinate the development and
 4. Promote the WIS concept at the national level,
                                                         implementation of a regional WIGOS plan,
   including development of WIS implementation
                                                         ensuring that all countries and territories are
   plans.
                                                         integrated (not only WMO members).
 5. Provide and sustain adequate observations
                                                       4. Promote and coordinate regional
   with the required quantity and quality for all
                                                         development and implementation plan for
   meteorological services (including climate).
                                                         WIS.
                                                       5. Coordinate integration between WIS and
                                                         WIGOS
                                                       6. Coordinate and prepare regular evaluation
                                                         report of Pacific based observing systems for
                                                         reporting to UNFCCC and other international
                                                         fora.

 6. Improve quality of data and increase density of    7. Coordinate assistance to maintain and
   spatial data coverage (e.g. by resurrecting quiet     extend coverage and quality of observation
   stations in their respective networks).               networks, including:
 7. Promote investment of resources in the further       • sustainable mechanism (including
   development of ocean observing systems                  funding) for maintenance and calibration
   to address the increasing needs for climate             of observation networks.
   applications and services.                            • Explore expansion of the AMDAR
                                                           programme to include regional, national,
 8. Improve the availability of ocean surface wind
                                                           and budget air carriers to increase
   vector data as well as other microwave data and
                                                           coverage of aircraft observations in the
   satellite radar altimetry (wave height) data.
                                                           Pacific Islands region.
 9. Provide for automated data stations.                 • Promote Reference Stations in the Pacific
                                                           to support data quality.
                                                         • Coordinate the implementation of
                                                           standards for hydrological observations
                                                           and processing, aimed at the compatibility
                                                           of monitoring results within the framework
                                                           of the WMO QMF.

                                            Pacif ic Is lands M e teorological St rategy 2012–2021         27
10. Coordinate with national communication   8. Support access to information, data and
       administration on regulatory issues for      communication networks, including:
       meteorological related communications.      • Develop a user plan in cooperation with
     11. RICs/RCCs to communicate with NMSs.         relevant satellite operators to ensure
                                                     smooth transition to the use of new and
                                                     advanced satellite systems.
                                                   • Coordinate the development of a strategy
                                                     to mitigate the termination of MTSAT
                                                     direct broadcasting.
                                                   • Coordinate communication between
                                                     Pacific Islands NMSs and RICs/RCCs.

28   Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 8:
PICTs’ historical climatological data are preserved.

 Pacific National Priority Actions                      Pacific Regional Priority Actions

 1. Develop national programmes/plans for climate       1. Coordinate the development of
   data rescue and preservation.                          programmes/plans for data rescue and data
                                                          management.

 2. Digitizing paper records of climate data.           2. Coordinate information, data rescue and
                                                          management tools and make information
                                                          available to Pacific Islands’ NMHSs.

 3. Electronic digitizing (with appropriate software)   3. Support the development of CDMS for
   or key entry of climate and hydrology data.            Pacific Islands NMHSs.

 4. Develop climatology data policy.                    4. Coordinate the development of a regional
                                                          climatology data policy to assist NMSs.

                                            Pacific Islands Me teor ological Strat egy 2012–2021      29
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 9:
     Atmospheric chemistry observations and assessment meet regional needs.

      Pacific National Priority Actions                       Pacific Regional Priority Actions

      1. Make data and information from GAW stations          1. Coordinate the assessment of existing and
        available to Pacific Islands NMHSs.                     future needs for expansion of monitoring
                                                                stations networks in the Pacific Islands
                                                                region.

      2. Make available observations of GHG, aerosol          2. Coordinate the reporting on these
        measurements, reactive gases (carbon mono-              atmospheric gases and agents.
        oxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and volatile
        organic compounds) and UV measurements
        available to Pacific Islands NMHSs.

30    Pacific Islands Me teor ological Strat egy 2012–2021
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 10:
Regional and NMSs are more capable and effective.

 Pacific National Priority Actions                   Pacific Regional Priority Actions

 1. Develop and implement operational plans          1. Coordinate the development of a regional
   for NMSs, with appropriate legislative              strategy for building capacity of meteorological
   mandate.                                            services in the Pacific Islands region.

 2. Directors/PRs participate in high level          2. Coordinate NMSs participation and advocacy
   national /regional /international meetings          in relevant regional and international fora
   and advocate effectively for Pacific Islands’       including:
   NMSs and improved services in the region.          • WMO meetings
                                                      • SPREP/regional meetings
                                                      • Thematic meetings on relevant issues such as
                                                        climate change, tourism, agriculture etc

 3. Participate actively in the PMC and              3. Organise and provide secretariat for the PMC
   articulate and document national mandates           meetings
   and requirements.

 4. Collect data and case study information          4. Develop socio-economic case studies and data
   on socio-economic impacts of weather and            to underpin regional and national initiatives to
   climate and the benefits of effective NMSs          mobilize additional resources for NMSs from:
   at national level.                                 • National governments (mainstreaming)
                                                      • Technical partners
                                                      • Donors
                                                      • International funds (e.g. GEF)
                                                     5. Contribute case studies and other material
                                                       on socio-economic benefits of public weather
                                                       services to the WMO socio-economic website:
                                                       http://www.wmo.int/socioec

                                             Pacific Islands Me teor ological Strate gy 2012–2021         31
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 11:
     Education, training and capacity development activities in the fields of meteorology,
     climatology in the PICTs region are coordinated and improved.

      Pacific National Priority Actions                      Pacific Regional Priority Actions

      1. Promote the need for scholarships for               1. Work with donors to ensure scholarship
        meteorology and climatology studies at                 allotment toward meteorology
        undergraduate and postgraduate level along             undergraduate and postgraduate courses,
        with relevant technical training.                      and relevant technical training.
      2. Promote opportunities to include weather and        2. Assess opportunities for development
        climate teaching topics into primary/secondary         of meteorology at undergraduate
        school level curricula.                                level at Pacific tertiary institutions
                                                               (USP, FNU, etc.) and encourage cross-
                                                               institutional cooperation and use of
                                                               remote communications and distance
                                                               learning technologies to achieve common
                                                               accreditation for meteorology related course
                                                               work.
                                                             3. Promote opportunities to include weather
                                                               and climate teaching topics into primary/
                                                               secondary school level curricula across the
                                                               region.

      3. Identify suitable qualified personnel, reflecting   4. Coordinate capacity development for
        the principle of gender equality:                      Pacific Islands NMHSs personnel to meet
        • To join the NMSs as a career path.                   the “Secondary Level AMP Competence
                                                               Description and Related Criteria” for AMO
        • For training to meet the minimum education
                                                               and AMF.
          and experience level for the “Secondary Level
          AMP Competence Description and Related             5. Coordinate with relevant training
          Criteria” for AMO and AMF.                           institutions currently providing training
        • For training to qualify as meteorologists,           courses for meteorologists, meteorological
          meteorological technicians, climatologists,          technicians, climatologist, climatological
          climatological technicians.                          technicians.

32    Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 12:
Donor funding is coordinated efficiently and effectively in PICTs.

 Pacific National Priority Actions                     Pacific Regional Priority Actions

 Advise the PMDP Secretariat of development needs      Advocate for Pacific Islands NMSs needs at
  and potential overlaps.                               high level donor coordination discussions.

 Provide information to the PMDP Secretariat on        Maintain database of regional and bilateral
   weather and climate development projects at the      development programmes and projects.
   national and local levels (national, bilateral or
   regional funding).

 Develop and implement projects at the national        Promote coordination of development
  level.                                                 partners’ and donor agencies’ inputs into
                                                         the development of weather and climate
                                                         services in the Pacific Islands region.

                                                       Coordinate development of new regional
                                                        projects.

                                          Pacif ic Is lands M e teorological St rategy 2012–2021     33
Pacific Key Outcome (PKO) 13:
     Enhanced strategic partnerships and collaboration with UN, regional and national
     organisations and agencies.

      Pacific National Priority Actions                   Pacific Regional Priority Actions

      1. Maintain and build national level partnerships   1. Maintain and build partnerships with a
        with donor agencies.                                range of multi-lateral and bilateral donors
                                                            and agencies, including:
                                                           • UN agencies
                                                           • National governments
                                                           • Aid agencies and philanthropic
                                                             organisations
                                                           • International funding mechanisms such
                                                             as the GEF or Multilateral Fund, and their
                                                             implementing agencies.

      2. Maintain and build national level partnerships   2. Maintain and build partnerships with
        with technical support agencies, particularly       technical support agencies (e.g. SPC-SOPAC)
        in relation to climate change and disaster          in the development and implementation of
        management.                                         regional projects in the areas of weather,
                                                            climate and water.

      3. Develop national level project proposals and     3. Develop regional project proposals and
        support regional project proposals.                 support national project proposals.

34    Pacific Isla nds Me teorological Strategy 2012–2021
You can also read