National Action Plan for Germany 2011

National Action Plan for Germany 2011
UN Decade of Education
                   for Sustainable Development
                   2005–2014
                   National Action Plan for Germany
                   2011




E D U C AT I O N     |   S C I E N C E   |   C U L T U R E   |   C O M M U N I C AT I O N
National Action Plan for Germany 2011
National Action Plan for Germany 2011
UN Decade of Education
for Sustainable Development
2005–2014
National Action Plan for Germany
2011
National Action Plan for Germany 2011
Co n t e n t




               Table of contents

               Welcoming notes..................................................................................... 4

               Foreword................................................................................................. 6

               The UN Decade of
               ‘Education for Sustainable Development’ 2005–2014.............................. 7

               Objectives of the National Action Plan....................................................12

               Documents.............................................................................................17
               UN Resolution: ‘United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable
               Development’ (2002).................................................................................................................................. 17

               ‘Hamburg Declaration’ by the DUK on ‘The Learning of Sustainability’ (2003).................................... 19

               Bundestag resolution to initiate an ‘Action Plan for the UN World Decade
               of Education for Sustainable Development’ (2004)................................................................................. 21

               Recommendation by the KMK and DUK on ‘Education for Sustainable Development
               at School’ (2007)......................................................................................................................................... 26

               Bundestag resolution to ‘Continue the active implementation of the UN Decade
               of Education for Sustainable Development’ (2009) ................................................................................ 32

               ‘Bonn Declaration’ by the UNESCO World Conference on Education
               for Sustainable Development (2009) ....................................................................................................... 34

               Declaration by the HRK and DUK on ‘Universities for Sustainable Development’ (2010)................... 39

               Discussion paper by the DUK on ‘Delivering Future Capacity in the Kindergarten’ (2010)................. 42

               Policy paper on ‘Biological Diversity and Education for Sustainable Development’........................... 45

               Statement for the Preparatory Process of the Earth Summit 2012 (Rio+20)
               by the National Committee for the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable
               Development (2011)................................................................................................................................. 51




2
National Action Plan for Germany 2011
Content




How is the Decade being implemented in Germany?.............................52
The institutional framework...................................................................................................................... 52

Contribution of the Federal states............................................................................................................ 55

World Decade Projects.............................................................................................................................. 57

Cities and Local Authorities of the World Decade.................................................................................. 64

Official Measures of the World Decade................................................................................................... 66

The ESD portal, Days of Action and annual themes............................................................................... 68

Decade Timeline....................................................................................................................................... 69


Next steps..............................................................................................70
Strategy for the Second Half of the Decade............................................................................................ 70

Outlook....................................................................................................................................................... 77


Appendix................................................................................................78
List of abbreviations.................................................................................................................................. 78

Bibliography............................................................................................................................................... 79

Members of the National Committee...................................................................................................... 80

Institutions at the Round Table................................................................................................................. 82

Contact information................................................................................................................................... 85

Publishing credits...................................................................................................................................... 88




                                                                                                                                                                         3
National Action Plan for Germany 2011
We lc o m i n g n ot e s




                     Welcoming note
                     by the German President

                                Creating a bright tomorrow involves ask­      Development plays an important role
                                ing the right questions today. Convincing     in sensitising people to these issues and
                                solutions and patterns of behaviour need      integrating them into the processes of
                                to be developed and put into action. The      lifelong learning.
                                UN Decade of Education for Sustainable




                                German President Christian Wulff,
                                Patron of the UN Decade Education for Sustainable Development.




                     Welcoming note by the Director
                     of the UNESCO Division of Education for
                     Peace and Sustainable Development


                                UNESCO’s vision regarding Education           novative pedagogies, and links education
                                for Sustainable Development (ESD) is          to other development priorities nationally
                                clear: every human being should benefit       and internationally. The conference set
                                from an education that provides the val­      the stage for the second half of the UN
                                ues, competences, knowledge and skills        Decade and reaffirmed the commitment
                                required to shape the future in line with     of Member States, partners and UNESCO
                                the demands of sustainable develop­           to the DESD, for which UNESCO is the
                                ment. ESD creates active and responsible      lead agency.
                                citizens ready to address challenges like
                                climate­ change and to act in an increas­     Building on the outcomes of the Bonn
                                ingly complex world. It is the objective of   Conference, UNESCO has increased its
                                the UN Decade of Education for Sustain­       efforts to assist Member States and other
                                able Development (DESD, 2005–2014)            stakeholders to revise education poli­
                                to in­tegrate this fundamental education      cies, plans and curricula in the light of
                                con­­cept into all areas of education and     ESD. The biggest challenge of our time,
                                learning.                                     climate change, now plays a central role
                                                                              in our ESD activities and will be an im­
                                The UNESCO World Conference on                portant strategic focus of our programme
                                ESD in 2009 in Bonn, which was kindly         in the coming years, together with biodi­
                                hosted by the German Government, reaf­        versity and disaster risk reduction. These
                                firmed that ESD is crucial for attaining      three themes provide key entry points
                                quality education. ESD increases the rel­     into the broader agenda of ESD.
                                evance of learning content, provides in­



4
National Action Plan for Germany 2011
Welcom i n g n ot e s




UNESCO is concentrating some of its           education initiative. The German imple­
concrete efforts in ESD on those de­          mentation of the Decade, which is coor­
veloping and least developed countries        dinated by the National Commission for
most in need of assistance. At the same       UNESCO with funding from the German
time, we will continue to raise the profile   Government, has successfully combined
of ESD at the global level, including in      political advocacy with the promotion of
connection with the UN Conference on          concrete practical education projects. On
Sustainable Development to be held in         that basis, ESD in Germany has enjoyed
June 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, where the        a remarkably high level of stakeholder
essential contribution of education and       involvement across society and an extra­
learning to achieving green societies         ordinary degree of visibility.
must be recognized. UNESCO is also
working towards ensuring that the imple­      I am therefore honoured to welcome this
mentation of ESD will continue beyond         revised National Plan of Action for the
the end of the Decade in 2014. Given the      UN Decade and wish all stake­holders
massive global challenges we are facing,      involved every success in the coming
equipping individuals and societies for       years. UNESCO continues to count on
building a viable future is something that    Germany’s vital contribution towards
certainly will remain on the global educa­    maintaining and increasing the momen­
tion agenda.                                  tum of the Decade. We look forward to
                                              working with Germany as a close partner
From the beginning of the Decade in           in the effort, through ESD, to ensure the
2005, Germany has been one of the most        relevance of education today.
active countries implementing this major




                                              Mark Richmond
                                              Director, Division of Education for Peace
                                              and Sustainable Development
                                              UNESCO




                                                                                                             5
National Action Plan for Germany 2011
Fo r ewo r d




               Foreword
                      Dear Readers,
                      Climate change, famine, the extinction of     The first National Action Plan was pub­
                      species – in view of the many challenges      lished back in 2005. It identified four
                      we face in Germany and worldwide it           strategic goals for Germany: 1. Further
                      has long become clear that we must ex­        develop and pool activities in the field of
                      plore new approaches in our behaviour,        Education for Sustainable Development,
                      lifestyle and economic system. We don’t       and broaden and deepen good practice;
                      have much time to do this and change          2. Create a network of Education for
                      will not happen by itself. The goal of sus­   Sustainable Development protagonists;
                      tainable development cannot be achieved       3. Improve public awareness of Educa­
                      without a change of mentality and the         tion for Sustainable Development; and
                      commitment of all citizens.                   4. Strengthen international co-operation.
                                                                    An updated version of this Action Plan
                      For this reason, in 2002 the United           was published in 2008.
                      Nations­ designated the years 2005 to
                      2014 the World Decade of Education            The current National Action Plan for
                      for Sustainable Development. Its vision:      2011 to 2014 further refines these four
                      every person should acquire the values,       sub-goals against the background of cur­
                      knowledge and skills that he or she needs     rent developments. In addition, the ‘Strat­
                      in order to make their own life and life      egy for the Second Half of the Decade’,
                      on Earth sustainable. All Member States       jointly developed in 2010, sets specific
                      are called on to implement this education     priorities. All protagonists nationwide
                      campaign in their own country.                are encouraged to actively contribute to
                                                                    its implementation so that the ten years of
                      In Germany, the German Commission for         the Decade in Germany leave their mark
                      UNESCO (DUK) coordinates the proc­            and send a signal that there should and
                      ess, based on a unanimous Bundestag           will be no dropping behind the standards
                      resolution. We have created a National        set by this educational concept.
                      Committee for this purpose and estab­
                      lished a coordination centre funded by        Therefore the second focus of this pub­
                      the Federal Ministry of Education and         lication are the political resolutions,
                      Research. With its support, we lobby          declarations and recommendations that
                      decision-makers in German politics and        form the basis for the Decade both in­
                      civil society regarding the potential of      ternationally and nationally, or that have
                      Education for Sustainable Development,        been developed as part of the Decade. As
                      and its ability to make education future-     key reference documents they give all
                      proof. We create a common platform for        protagonists and stakeholders an over­
                      all protagonists, providing impetus in        view and the information necessary to
                      the form of content and ideas, and mak­       continue championing the objectives of
                      ing their activities visible to the public.   the Decade in their respective contexts.
                      Not least, over 1300 recognised Decade
                      Projects send a clear message.                In the interests of us all, I wish us good
                                                                    luck with this going forward. And for
                                                                    now, I wish you an enjoyable and inform­
                                                                    ative read!




                                                                    Former minister Walter Hirche,
                                                                    President of the German
                                                                    Commission for UNESCO



6
National Action Plan for Germany 2011
The UN Decade o f Educ ation for Su stainable Developmen t 2 0 0 5 – 2 0 1 4




 The UN Decade of
‘Education for Sustainable Development ’
 2005–2014
The United Nations (UN) proclaimed the years 2005 to 2014 as the World Decade of Education for
Sustainable Development. UNESCO was tasked with the international coordination of the Decade. By
proclaiming this Decade, the United Nations and UNESCO are sending out the signal that sustainable
development concerns us all. We face crucial challenges that can only be tackled together. We have the
responsibility and the opportunity to shape our lives so that everyone can live well – future generations
as well as people in other parts of the world. A major global education initiative is needed to establish
the necessary thinking and action, and to strengthen, promote and permanently embed it worldwide. The
aim of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development is to open up educational opportuni­
ties for everyone that enable them to acquire knowledge and values as well as to learn the behaviours
and lifestyles required for a sustainable future and for positive societal transformation (UNESCO 2005).
All UNESCO Member States are called on to make a concerted effort to implement this goal at national
level.


What is sustainable development?                      solution: sustainable development is an ongo­
                                                      ing and comprehensive social process of change
An unchanged perpetuation of the current life­        and transformation. At the same time, the urgent
styles and economic activity of our industrialised    challenge of responsibly dealing with our planet’s
society would lead to dramatic increase in eco­       resources and ecological capacity is connected
logical risks, economic crises and social injustice   with the need to help improve living conditions in
on our planet. The concept of sustainable devel­      poorer countries and take local responsibility for
opment developed by the ‘Brundtland Commis­           global developments.
sion’, the World Commission on Environment
and Development (WCED), back in 1987 was              The debate about the necessity and opportunities
based on this insight: “Sustainable development       of sustainable development is being conducted
is the kind of development that meets the needs       with great intensity worldwide, with different
of the present without compromising the ability       countries focusing on different aspects.
of future generations to meet their own needs.”
What is important for this is a vision oriented to    For example, in less developed countries the
both the present and the future, one that is marked   focus is primarily on meeting basic needs as set
by a common awareness of environmental, social        out in the United Nation’s Millennium Develop­
and economic factors while also remaining open        ment Goals (UN 2000). In other words, in many
to change. Because there is no ‘once and for all’     places the approaches focus on securing the basic­



                                                                                                                7
National Action Plan for Germany 2011
Th e UN D e ca d e of Education for Sustainable Development 2005–2014




                                 foundations­of life such as food and medical care,    Given this background and the goals mentioned
                                 and on realising universal primary education (Ed­     earlier, wherever processes of sustainable devel­
                                 ucation for All). In Germany, however, issues such    opment are being striven for, there must be posi­
                                 as resource-conserving consumption, the reduc­        tive answers to two questions: do the political,
                                 tion of climate change, safeguarding bio­diversity,   economic, and/or social actions promote an indi­
                                 and improving educational opportunities in the        vidual and general welfare that is freely accessible
                                 knowledge society are high on the agenda. Other       to all? And: do these actions reduce the ecological
                                 priorities include the issue of the responsibility    footprint?
                                 borne by industry, trade and the financial sector,
                                 and possible alternatives to the current universal
                                 goal of ‘growth’. Being aware of these different      What does ‘Education for
                                 interpretations of sustainable development de­        Sustainable Development’ mean?
                                 pending on cultural and socio-economic context
                                 is a crucial element in understanding the concept
                                 of sustainability.                                    There has long since been worldwide agreement
                                                                                       on the fact that thinking and acting in the spirit
                                 However, the quest for justice and fairness is a      of sustainable development has become an urgent
                                 common denominator in the various perspectives        necessity. As long ago as 1992, at the United Na­
                                 on sustainability: fairness between generations       tions Conference on Environment and Develop­
                                 and fairness between the world’s various regions,     ment in Rio de Janeiro, 180 countries agreed to
                                 nations and cultures. For this reason, beyond         make significant changes to their economic, social
                                 the three ‘classic’ dimensions of sustainability      and environmental policies. In Agenda 21, they
                                 – ecology, economy and social matters – the basic­    agreed specific projects and measures to do this.
                                 principles of the ‘sustainability’ concept also       “The commitment and genuine involvement of all
                                 include global responsibility, cultural diversity     institutions and social groups,“ and hence „new
                                 and political participation. Achieving sustainable    forms of participation“ were also cited as prereq­
                                 development in the interests of future genera­        uisites for sustainable development here (UNCED
                                 tions and global justice requires taking a balanced   1992). This applies for individual citizens as
                                 environmental, economic and social approach to        well as for social institutions and democratically
                                 managing our dynamically changing world, and          legitimised organs of the state. But sustainable
                                 involving all people(s) in the political decision-    development cannot be achieved with a top-down,
                                 making processes.                                     centrally controlled strategy. It must be ‘brought
                                                                                       to life’ locally and implemented in an ongoing so­
                                                                                       cietal process of change. Nor do skilled involve­
 Voice of the next Generation:
    the Young ESD Voices at
  the World Conference 2009




8
The UN Decade o f Educ ation for Su stainable Developmen t 2 0 0 5 – 2 0 1 4




ment and effective participation arise on their        Education for Sustainable Development is an in­
own. This transformation process cannot work           tegrative concept: it integrates the ecological, eco­
without a corresponding change in mentality. It is     nomic and socio-cultural dimensions of a problem
not merely about knowing the facts and contexts,       and takes into account the interlacing of global,
but also about how people put the knowledge to         regional and local structures and processes. It
use: the step from knowledge to action. It is about    is based on a long-term view and considers the
their motivation, the skills needed, and the ability   present from the perspective of the future. The
to keep reorienting oneself in complex situations.     concept is ethically founded, as it incorporates
                                                       intra- and intergenerational fairness as well as
The path to sustainability involves, not least,        gender equality. It not only considers humans, but
education. It is the task of education to put people   all forms of life and habitats.
in a position to shape their personal, social and
global development in a sustainable way. This          Education for Sustainable Development also
insight caused the World Summit for Sustainable        involves­ innovations in the educational institu­
Development in Johannesburg, ten years after Rio       tions themselves: educational institutions, too,
de Janeiro, to highlight the role of education in      must meet the requirements of sustainable de­
the global change of course toward sustainability.     velopment. This applies for the participation of
As a consequence, in December 2002 the General         teachers and learners in decision-making proc­
Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2005         esses, as well as for their culture of teaching and
to 2014 the World Decade of Education for Sus­         learning and for staff qualifications. And not least
tainable Development (UN 2002b – see page 17).         it also includes designing and managing the build­
                                                       ings, and procuring the materials for them, in a
The name reflects a concept of education that is       spirit of sustainability.
challenging and yet very down-to-earth: Educa­
tion for Sustainable Development (ESD) aims to         Education for Sustainable Development therefore         Education for
enable all people to acquire the values, knowledge     affects all areas of the formal education system        ­Sustainable
and skills required to shape their life and society    as well as non-formal education and informal             ­Development –
in a sustainable way. First and foremost, Educa­       learning: in children’s day-care centres, schools,        An integrative
tion for Sustainable Development helps people          universities, vocational education and continuing         concept
acquire the skill to shape their own future. On the    education and cultural institutions or research in­
one hand, people need to know how processes of         stitutes. Education for Sustainable Development
sustainable development are advanced, and how          is relevant for municipalities, associations, clubs,
to recognise processes of development that are not     companies and families, cultural institutions and
sustainable. And on the other hand, it means they      the media.
acquire the values and skills that motivate them
and empower them to promote and substantially          In Germany there are a multitude of extra-cur­
advance sustainable development individually and       ricular establishments, such as adult education
in cooperation with others.                            centres and centres of learning, and a very wide
                                                       spectrum of informal learning situations – such as




   Young ESD Voices
   At the 2009 UNESCO World Conference in Bonn, 25 young adults
   from around the world were invited to attend a workshop before
   the opening. Its findings would be used in the conference.
   One of the questions the ‘Young ESD Voices from around the World’                                  What is ESD for me?
   had to answer in their applications was:

   What is ESD for me?
   The quotations in this publication give an insight into the range
   of their responses.




                                                                                                                                  9
Th e UN D e ca d e of Education for Sustainable Development 2005 –2014




                         when opportunities­for learning are created in the      Foundations of the UN Decade in
                         context of leisure/recreational activities. This edu­   Germany
                         cational landscape is always in flux. The ongoing
                         educational reforms in Germany are causing new
                         curricula to be developed, new learning methods         UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scien­
                         to be established and networks with local partners      tific and Cultural Organization, is lead-managing
                         to be promoted. Education facilities are opening        the Decade of Education for Sustainable Devel­
                         up to new collaborations between the various            opment. In Germany, the German Commission
                         sites of learning. Informal and lifelong learning       for UNESCO (DUK) submitted an important
                         are gaining importance in the same measure as           reference document: the ‘Hamburg Declaration’
                         traditional places of learning and formal educa­        of summer 2003, which formulated central aims
                         tion sectors are having to be redefined due to rapid    for the upcoming Decade under the catchphrase
                         processes of change. The task at hand is to take        ‘The Learning of Sustainability’ (DUK 2009 –
                         advantage of these circumstances and opportuni­         see page 19). In May 2004, the DUK convened a
                         ties in order to reach everyone with Education for      National Committee to implement the UN Decade­
                         Sustainable Development. The United Nations             in Germany. On 1 July 2004 the Bundestag unani­
                         Decade provides a shared framework for this.            mously voted to initiate an Action Plan for the UN
                                                                                 Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
                                                                                 as part of the Federal Government’s sustainability
                                                                                 strategy (Bundestag 2004 – see page 21). In 2005
                                                                                 the UN Decade was inaugurated in Germany with
                                                                                 the objective of making Education for Sustainable
                                                                                 Development a priority in all areas of education.
                                                                                 In doing so, the implementation of the Decade in
                                                                                 Germany can build on a number of international
                                                                                 and national developments.

                                                                                 At international level, the governments that
        Education for Sustainable Development                                    signed Agenda 21 at the 1992 World Summit on
        ·· concerns every one of us                                              Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro
        ·· facilitates the ongoing process of sustainable                        underlined the role of education in Chapter 36.
           development­                                                          The Federal Republic of Germany’s own poli­
        ·· creates future opportunities for individuals and society              cies to date have explicitly pursued the ideal of
        ·· promotes local and global responsibility                              sustainable development as set forth in Agenda
        ·· contributes to acceptance of processes of change in                   21. Germany is one of 53 members of the Com­
           society                                                               mission for Sustainable Development (CSD).
        ·· is a cross-sectoral task with an integrative function                 This body, founded in 1992 as a sub-organ of the
                                                                                 United Nations Economic and Social Council
                                                                                 (ECOSOC), is tasked with facilitating the effec­
                                                                                 tive implementation of Agenda 21 worldwide and
                                                                                 also, since 2002, of the Johannesburg Action Plan,
                                                                                 which is based upon it and first set out quantifiable
                                                                                 goals. In addition, the Commission is to develop
                                                                                 proposals for the further promotion of sustainable
                                                                                 development.

                                                                                 On a national level and with reference to German
                                                                                 education policy, the decade is also able to link to
                                                                                 many activities and agenda-setting decisions. For
                                                                                 instance, as early as 1997 the Standing Confer­
                                                                                 ence of Ministers of Education and Cultural Af­
                                                                                 fairs issued a resolution on sustainable develop­
                                                                                 ment (KMK 1997).

                                                                                 Based on this it has adopted two further milestones
                                                                                 for ESD since the beginning of the UN Decade: in
                                                                                 June 2007, the KMK and DUK jointly published



10
The UN Decade o f Educ ation for Su stainable Developmen t 2 0 0 5 – 2 0 1 4




the recommendation on ‘Education for Sustain­       principles of sustainable development, and pro­
able Development at School’ they developed as       vides guidelines for further anchoring Education
part of the UN Decade (KMK/DUK 2007 – see           for Sustainable Development in education sys­
page 26). At the same time the ‘Cross-Curricula     tems worldwide. The UNESCO General Confer­
Framework for Global Development Education          ence unanimously endorsed the Bonn Declaration
in the context of Education for Sustainable         (UNESCO 2009 – see page 34). For UNESCO,
Devel­opment’ prepared in cooperation with the      the Member States, and other players around the
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and       world the Bonn Declaration serves as the basis for
Development (BMZ) was presented, suggesting         their strategies for the second half of the Decade.
ways that Germany’s Federal states could – in       The conference marked the mid-term evaluation
the context of ESD – especially integrate global    of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable
issues and themes of sustainable development        Development (2005–2014). The Bonn Confer­
into the curriculum (KMK/BMZ 2007). In ac­          ence also dealt with drafting the half-time report
cordance with a KMK resolution of 12 May 2011,      presented at the United Nations in autumn 2010.
the Cross-Curricula Framework is being updated      The report highlights ESD activities in all regions
as a joint KMK/BMZ project in 2011 and 2012         of the world, but also points to the large regional
and expanded­ to include other Secondary School     disparities in its implementation and the existing
Level I subjects and departments.                   need for action up to the end of the decade.

The policy of the Federal Government contains       The goals set by the German protagonists of the       The World Conference
numerous points that the UN Decade can pick         UN Decade and this Action Plan build especially       in Bonn 2009 was
up on. For instance, as early as 1998 the former    upon the aforementioned Bundestag resolution of       an important milestone
Bund-Laender Commission for Educational             2004 and the Hamburg Declaration of 2003. In          in the international
Planning­ and Research Promotion (BLK) pub­         the international context, German activities for      implementation of
lished its ‘General framework on Education for      the UN Decade take their cue primarily from the       the Decade
Sustainable Development’ (BLK 1998). Two            ‘International Implementation Scheme’ presented
years later the Bundestag adopted a resolution      by UNESCO (UNESCO 2005) and the ‘UNECE
on ‘Education for Sustainable Development’          Strategy for Education for Sustainable Develop­
(Bundestag 2000). In 2001 the Federal Govern­       ment’ (UNECE 2005), as well as the Bonn Decla­
ment established a Committee of State Secretaries   ration. The concept of sustainability formulated
for Sustainable Development, and appointed the      therein and the ESD objectives set out therein
‘Council for Sustainable Development’, which        serve as key reference values for the National
published its recommendations for a sustainable     Action­Plan. It is the common reference document
education policy in 2010 (RNE 2010). In 2002,       for protagonists in Germany involved in imple­
the Federal Ministry for Education and Research     menting the Decade.
(BMBF), acting on the Bundestag’s ‘Educa­
tion for Sustainable Development’ resolution of     The first National Action Plan was published
2000, presen­ted the first ‘Federal Government      in 2005 and was updated in 2008. The present
Report on Education for Sustainable Develop­        revision­addresses the current state of the Decade
ment’, which described the progress made in Ger­    activities and provides an outlook for the period
many’s various­ educational sectors in the years    until 2014.
1997–2001 (BMBF, 2002). Follow-up reports
were published in 2005 and 2009 (BMBF 2005,
BMBF 2009).

A major milestone in the international implemen­
tation of the UN Decade in recent years was the
first UNESCO World Conference on ESD, which
took place in Bonn in the spring of 2009. The
conference was organised by UNESCO and the
BMBF in cooperation with the DUK. It brought
together 900 delegates and experts from some 150
countries, including around 50 ministers and dep­
uty ministers. The ‘Bonn Declaration’ adopted as
a consensus from this gathering issued an urgent
appeal, given the global challenges, to UNESCO
and its Member States to align education to the



                                                                                                                           11
Ob j ec t i v e s of t h e N ational Action Plan f or Germany




    The 1000th Decade Project
            is honoured at the
  didacta 2010 fair in Cologne


                                 Objectives of the
                                 National Action Plan
                                 The primary goal of the strategies formulated in the Action Plan is to permanently embed the concept
                                 of sustainable development throughout all education sectors in Germany, so that Germany can make
                                 substantial progress toward sustainable development – initially until 2014, but in principle also beyond
                                 this date. As a country with special international responsibility, Germany is pursuing this approach at
                                 both the national and international levels.

                                 To achieve this primary goal, Germany has set four strategic objectives.

                                 1. Further develop and pool                              ·· Ensure that decision-makers in the Federal­
                                 activities,­and ensure the transfer                         Government, Federal states, companies,
                                                                                             non-governmental organisations (NGOs),
                                 of good practice to a broad base                            as­sociations and communities recognise the
                                                                                             opportunities ESD offers; embrace the cause
   It is crucial to take         In Germany there is a broad spectrum of ESD                 of ESD; and actively work for its in­te­gra­tion
the step from project            initiatives and good practice. A lot of innovative          into all educational sectors.
  towards structural             and successful activities are in place all over the
             anchoring           country­ and in all sectors of education, but not        ·· Further develop ESD concepts for the early-
                                 always at the same level of intensity and – still –         childhood development sector in such a way
                                 not with the necessary degree of proliferation              that they can be put into practice in a grow­
                                 and anchoring. The task for the next few years is           ing number of children’s day-care centres.
                                 therefore to ensure that these activities are further       Anchor ESD in the new education plans for
                                 developed, interrelated more amongst each other,            the elementary level, and expand staff quali­
                                 and made available to the entire educational land­          fication accordingly. Based on the discussion
                                 scape. It is crucial to take the step from temporary        contribution developed by the German Com­
                                 project towards a permanent anchoring in the                mission for UNESCO (DUK) as part of the
                                 structure. The idea is to reach all educational insti­      Decade, ‘Delivering Future Capacity in the
                                 tutions from children’s day-care centres, schools,          Kindergarten: Giving Children a Stronger
                                 universities and vocational education facilities to         Role, Advancing Sustainable Development’
                                 continuing education centres, as well as the broad          (2010), cultivate an intensive exchange about
                                 spectrum of informal learning places, and estab­            implementing the recommendations between
                                 lish sustainability as an object of lifelong learning.      decision-makers and experts.

                                 All protagonists are called on to focus especially       ·· Systematically establish ESD in schools for
                                 on working towards the following sub-goals in the           general education, based on the KMK/BMZ
                                 next few years:                                             ‘Cross-Curricula Framework for Global



12
Objectives o f the National Action P lan f o r G e r m a n y




  Development Education in the context of              ·· ESD is characterised by numerous cross-
  Education for Sustainable Development’ and              sectoral issues. For example, no educational­
  the KMK/DUK ‘Education for Sustainable                  area can be singled out to assess the sustain­
  Development at School’ recommendation of                ability of products and services and of one’s
  June 2007. This refers both to the refinement           own lifestyle all on its own. In addition to
  of guidelines and curricula and to promoting            the formal educational sectors informal
  the development and profiling of schools in the         education is of great importance for ESD.
  spirit of ESD. Another part of this is to strive        Intensify the consideration of aspects of
  for comprehensive education and training                sustainability in the mass media, in work­
  of teachers in this area of learning. Intensify         place communications, and in leisure acti­
  cooperation with partners outside the school            vities. The goal is to increase the public’s
  sector, and utilise instruments to improve              knowledge of sustainability and to expand
  and assure quality. Recognise schools that              their awareness of the existing necessities
  are particularly active in the field of ESD.            and opportunities to take their own actions.

·· Make available examples of good practice,           As part of the ‘Strategy for the Second
   especially from model projects and research         Half of the Decade in Germany’ (see
   results in the area of corporate and edu­ca­        page 70), possible approaches for realis-
   tional­ vocational training, for broad-scale        ing this objective were further assessed
   use in vocational education. One important          according to importance and feasibil-
   focus in this process is the integration of         ity. The points mentioned there under
   ESD aspects in the regulations on vocational        Priority­1 ‘Underlining the fundamental
   education/training. It is important to advance      contribution of ESD to educational
   not only the content aspect of sustainability-      quality­and anchoring ESD in all sectors
   related professions, but also to pursue the         of the formal Education’ contribute to
   didactic principles that support Education for      the realisation of this sub-objective.
   Sustainable Development.

·· Based on the Declaration of the University
   Rector’s Conference and the DUK ‘Univer­          2. Create a network
   sities for Sustainable Development’ (2010),       of ESD protagonists ­
   intensify and structurally integrate ESD at
   Universities for Sustainable Development.         As an integrative educational concept, ESD is
   Give student initiatives devoted to this area a   promoted by a wide range of protagonists and
   platform and support them in their demands.       players in public administration, business, NGOs,
                                                     educational institutions and various areas of
·· Increasingly integrate sustainable-develop­       politics, such as education, development, the
   ment topics in extracurricular learning and       environment,­ consumer affairs and economics.
   continuing education. Expand forms of public      Networking between these protagonists, as well
   participation in shaping the public sphere and    as their communications to the outside, needs to
   future policies as important areas of life-long   be further improved in order to win new demo­
   learning. Systematically open up initiatives      graphics for ESD. Because of Germany’s feder­
   from independent educational institutions and     alist educational system, the Federal states are of
   in the context of projects, evaluate them using   great importance and have great potential. Since
   quality criteria, and further develop them.       the launch of the UN Decade in Germany, numer­
                                                     ous State Plans of Action have been developed­
                                                     by the Federal states (see page 55). At the regional­
                                                     and local government level, there is also the
                                                     special­ opportunity of getting existing local pro­
                                                     tagonists involved, not least because education
                                                     that takes place ‘on location’ always takes place
                                                     ‘for the location’, too (see page 64).




                                                                                                                 13
Ob j ec t i v e s of t h e N ational Action Plan f or Germany




                        All protagonists are called on to focus especially          research, international activities and news on
                        on working towards the following sub-goals in the           the www.bne-portal.de web portal.
                        next few years:
                                                                                  As part of the ‘Strategy for the Second
                          ·· Deepen the involvement of protagonists in
                                                                                  Half of the Decade in Germany’ (see
                             the various educational fields that make sig­
                                                                                  page 70), possible approaches for realis-
                             nificant contributions to ESD (such as global
                                                                                  ing this objective were further assessed
                             learning, environmental education, intercul­
                                                                                  according to importance and feasibility.
                             tural edu­cation, consumer education, civic
                                                                                  The points mentioned there under Priori-
                             education, health education), in line with
                                                                                  ties 4 and 5 ‘Intensify cooperation
                             ESD’s claim to being an integrative approach.
                                                                                  with the private sector / local authorities’
                                                                                  contribute to the realisation of this sub-
                          ·· Support protagonists through central spe­
                                                                                  objective.
                             cialised service agencies and trained ‘multi­
                             pliers’, including in the areas of vocational
                             education and training, universities, extra­
                             curricular education and informal learning.        3. Improve public awareness
                             Establish­ mentor- and sponsorship schemes         of Education for Sustainable
                             that let experienced players and projects
                             make their expertise available to ‘beginners’      Development
                             interested in ESD.
                                                                                Nearly everyone endorses the basic ideas of
                          ·· In the school sector, expand existing national     sustainable development. Education plays a sig­
                             networks (e. g. UNESCO ASPnet School,              nificant role in this and, by imparting relevant
                             ‘International Agenda 21 Schools’) and other       knowledge and values, it creates the conditions
                             initiatives, especially state-specific ones, and   necessary for these principles being put into
                             use them intensively for broadening the dis­       practice in everyday life, in the workplace and
                             semination of ESD. Also, intensify the vari­       in society as a whole. A deeper understanding of
                             ous forms of cooperation with extracurricular      the contexts of sustainable development also con­
                             partners such as the private sector, munici­       tributes to a greater public acceptance of measures
                             palities and NGOs. Student enterprises are a       initiated on a political level to promote sustainable
                             particularly promising tool for reaching less      development. The UN Decade of Education for
                             scholastically inclined teens. Here, the task      Sustainable Development seeks, through projects,
                             is to continue developing existing student         persons and organisations throughout Germany,
                             enterprises for the purposes of ESD and to         to enhance public awareness of the fact that each
                             establish new, sustainable student enterprises.    and every person can support and help shape sus­
                                                                                tainable development. Its goal is to demonstrate
                          ·· Expand local networks by involving local           the chances that lie in this educational concept,
                             authorities, businesses, non-school youth          and stimulate interest in them.
                             and adult education facilities, clubs, founda­
                             tions, and social and cultural institutions. The   All protagonists are called on to focus especially
                             ‘Lernende Regionen’ (Learning Regions),            on working towards the following sub-goals in the
                             lo­cal educational landscapes, and community       next few years:
                             education networks provide good models for
                             this.                                                ·· Ensure that, as citizens become more aware
                                                                                     of the importance of sustainable develop­
                          ·· Establish a network between Decade Projects             ment, they begin to recognise the personal
                             to enable knowledge transfer and mutual                 options available to them for promoting sus­
                             motivation.­                                            tainability and start demanding more ESD
                                                                                     offers proactively.­
                          ·· Expand the academic research on ESD and
                             link it more closely with the practical imple­       ·· Familiarise professionals in all educational
                             mentation of ESD.                                       sectors with the essential elements of ESD.
                                                                                     Make sure they see ESD not as one educa­
                          ·· Publicise examples of good practice, inno­              tional approach among many, but as a com­
                             vative ideas and plans, ESD protagonists                prehensive new approach to teaching and
                             and their activities, findings from relevant            learning and interacting with the world.



14
Objectives o f the National Action P lan f o r G e r m a n y




                                           ESD makes it easier for people
                                                   to rethink the true meaning of development
                                                and put it into action.

                                           			                         Shankar Musafir, India

                                  What is ESD for me?




  ·· Increase media coverage of how people can         tunity of making a difference internationally and
     acquire awareness for acting in the spirit of     contributing to achieving a global perspective and
     sustainable development. Have them refer          global cooperation. One of the priorities in imple­
     directly to the UN Decade in their reporting,     menting the UN Decade in Germany is therefore
     to illustrate the worldwide common frame of       to contribute Germany’s experience and model
     reference, the importance of the issue, and the   solutions into the global discussion on ESD while
     quality of the presented activities. The media    also learning from the experience and positions of
     should motivate people to take action.            other countries and cultures.

  ·· Make the ESD achievements of high-quality         All protagonists are called on to focus especially
     projects and communities visible by recog­        on working towards the following sub-goals in the
     nising them as official UN Decade of ESD          next few years:
     projects/communities. This recognition illus­
     trates to the public the diversity of possible      ·· Intensify international cooperation and part­
     approaches to ESD, encourages the parties              nership, so as to contribute to the international
     involved to continue their commitment, and             success of the UN Decade. In 2009, halfway
     motivates other people to actively and practi­         through the Decade, Germany organised the
     cally deal with this issue themselves.                 ‘Education for Sustainable Development’
                                                            World Conference. Steadily expand the con­
                                                            tacts for which this joint UNESCO/BMBF
  As part of the ‘Strategy for the Second                   event in cooperation with the DUK laid the
  Half of the Decade in Germany’ (see                       basis.
  page 70), possible approaches for realis-
  ing this objective were further assessed               ·· Give Germany’s contributions to the UN
  according to importance and feasibility.                  Decade international visibility, among other
  The points mentioned there under                          things through the worldwide network of
  Priority­2­‘Increase the public visibility                UNESCO National Commissions and the
  of ESD’ contribute to the realisation                     UNESCO Secretariat in Paris.
  of this sub-objective.
                                                         ·· Introduce examples of good practice from
                                                            other countries into the German education
4. Strengthen international                                 sector. Strengthen the global perspective and
                                                            international exchange to significantly enrich
cooperation­                                                the German education sector.

Shaping the future of life on our planet in a sus­       ·· Increase the integration of ‘Sustainable De­
tainable way is an objective that depends more on           velopment’ as a focus topic in educational
successful international cooperation for its attain­        projects and programmes at European level,
ment than virtually any other political goal. As a          and have the EU Commission define relevant
global initiative, the UN Decade offers the oppor­          thematic emphases.



                                                                                                                   15
Ob j ec t i v e s of t h e N ational Action Plan f or Germany




                          ·· Further expand the focus on ‘education’,         protagonists and interested parties. New experi­
                             ‘the environment’, and ‘sustainable use of       ences, insights and current events will influence
                             resources’ in Germany’s bilateral and multi­     the UN Decade’s progress and therefore both our
                             lateral development cooperation with partner     general and strategic aims, too. In addition to
                             countries in Africa, Asia and the Americas,      these objectives, the numerous policy statements
                             and with ‘threshold countries’, especially       and recommendations that have been drawn up in
                             with regard to the Millennium Development        recent years in the run-up to the Decade and as
                             Goals.                                           part of its activities also serve as benchmarks and
                                                                              signposts. They are meant to support protagonists
                        The strategic objectives of the National Action       in their work and lend urgency to the shared cause.
                        Plan were drawn up in cooperation with respon­
                        sible parties at Federal, state and local level,
                        from business and academia, as well as other            As part of the ‘Strategy for the Second
                        civil-society groups. They serve as guidelines          Half of the Decade in Germany’ (see
                        for strengthening ESD in Germany. It is the re­         page 70), possible approaches for realis-
                        sponsibility of the National Committee of the           ing this objective were further assessed
                        UN Decade appointed by the German Commis­               according to importance and feasibility.
                        sion for UNESCO to continuously observe and             The points mentioned here under
                        assess how we are progressing on this path. The         Priority­3 ‘Strengthen ESD internationally’­
                        UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Devel­           contribute to the realisation of this sub-
                        opment is an ongoing process that welcomes all          objective.­­




                                                                            For me ESD is the only way
                                                                               to establish equity on our planet.

                                                                      Leonardo Enrique Velasquez Garcia,
                                                                    		            Honduras




                                       What is ESD for me?




16
D ocu m e n t s




Documents
UN Resolution ‘United Nations Decade of
Education for Sustainable Development’ (2002)

UNITED NATIONS RESOLUTION 57/254
Adopted at the 78th plenary meeting on 20 December 2002 without a vote, on the recommendation of
the Committee (A/57/532/Add.1, Clause 10).

57/254. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

The General Assembly,                               of education for sustainable development starting
  Recalling chapter 36 of Agenda 21, on promot­     in 20052­,
ing education, public awareness and training,
adopted at the United Nations Conference on           Emphasizing that education is an indispensable
En­vironment and Development, held in Rio de        element for achieving sustainable development,
Janeiro, Brazil, in 19921,
                                                      1. Decides to proclaim the ten-year period be­
  Reaffirming the internationally agreed de­        ginning on 1 January 2005 the United Nations
velopment goal of achieving universal primary       Decade of Education for Sustainable Develop­
education, in particular that, by 2015, children    ment;
everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to
complete a full course of primary schooling,           2. Designates the United Nations Educational,
                                                    Scientific and Cultural Organization as the lead
  Appreciating the contribution made by the         agency for the promotion of the Decade, and
Com­mission on Sustainable Development to the       requests it to develop a draft international im­
issue of education for sustainable development      plementation scheme, clarifying its relationship
since the United Nations Conference on Environ­     with the existing educational processes, in par­
ment and Development,                               ticular the Dakar Framework for Action adopted
                                                    at the World Education Forum3 and the United
   Welcoming the fact that the Plan of Implemen­    Nations Literacy Decade4, in consultation with the
tation of the World Summit on Sustainable De­       United Nations and other relevant international
velopment (‘Johannesburg Plan of Implementa­        organizations, Governments, non-governmental
tion’) confirmed the importance of education for    organizations and other stakeholders, with a view
sustainable development and recommended that        to providing recommendations for Governments
the General Assembly consider adopting a decade     on how to promote and improve the integration



                                                                                                                   17
Do cu m e n t s




                  of education for sustainable development in their      1 See Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and

                  respective educational strategies and action plans
                                                                           Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3–14 June 1992 (United Nations
                                                                           publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and corrigenda), vol. I: Resolutions
                  at the appropriate level;                                adopted by the Conference, resolution 1, annex II.

                                                                         2 See Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development,

                    3. Invites Governments to consider the inclu­
                                                                           Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August–4 September 2002
                                                                           (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.03.II.A.1 and corrigendum),
                  sion of measures to implement the Decade in their        chap. I, resolution 2, annex.

                  respective educational strategies and action plans     3 See United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organiza-
                                                                           tion, Final Report of the World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal,
                  by 2005, taking into account the international           26–28 April 2000 (Paris, 2000).

                  implementation­ scheme to be prepared by the           4 See resolution 56/116.

                  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul­        http://www.un-documents.net/a57r254.htm
                  tural Organization;

                    4. Decides to include in the provisional agenda
                  of its fifty-eighth session an item entitled ‘United
                  Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable
                  Development’­.




                                                                 The value of ESD lies in respect -
                                                                      respect for other people,
                                                                           living now or in the future,
                                                                   respect for their diversity,
                                                                                   for the environment
                                                               and for the resources of our living planet.

                                                         			 Berate Sotima Constant,
                                                         				     Benin
                                            What is ESD for me?




18
D ocu m e n t s




‘Hamburg Declaration’ by the DUK on
‘The Learning of Sustainability’ (2003)

63rd General Assembly of the German Commission for UNESCO (DUK)
Hamburg, 10–11 July 2003


The Learning of Sustainability: Hamburg Declaration by the German Commission for UNESCO
on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005–2014)

As recommended by the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, on 20 December
2002 the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the years 2005 to 2014 the ‘World Decade of
Education for Sustainable Developmentʼ. UNESCO was tasked with its coordination. In autumn 2003
its General Conference will adopt corresponding resolutions. In this connection, the German Commis-
sion for UNESCO adopted the following ‘Hamburg Declaration’ at its General Assembly on 11 July in
Hamburg:

The German Commission for UNESCO welcomes the decision of the UN General Assembly to declare                   Attitudes,
a World Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. It serves to highlight the importance of              ways of thinking
education and lifelong learning for a comprehensive sustainability policy. The orientation of cultural         and behaviour
and educational institutions and educational curricula towards the ideal of sustainable development is         need to be changed
a joint international, worldwide task; a task for which experience and ideas must be gathered from all
countries. It not only concerns schools, universities, institutions of continuing education, and research
institutes: kindergartens, clubs, businesses and families are also places of learning. It requires a change
in the entire population’s attitudes, ways of thinking and behaviour. Industrialised societies in particular
are called upon to develop sustainable economies and new patterns of consumption, taking into account
the interrelationships between ecological, economic, social and cultural processes. The aim is a genera­
tional contract in which the people alive today pledge, in meeting their own needs, to preserve equal
options for future generations.

The German Commission for UNESCO calls upon all responsible stakeholders from Federal govern­
ment, Federal states and local authorities as well as interested business, research and education institu­
tions and civil-society groups to form an ‘alliance for the learning of sustainability’ in order to develop
a common Action Plan for the UN Decade, and create programmes and coordination mechanisms for its
implementation.

                         I.                            respect as the teaching of sustainable habits of
                                                       consumption. Education for Sustainable Develop­
The German Commission for UNESCO recom­                ment requires interdisciplinary, action-oriented
mends that the following measures be included in       teaching, innovative concepts and integrated
a National Action Plan:                                cross-curricular lesson materials (such as Agen­
                                                       da 21 kits). In particular, kindergartens and pri­
   1. Existing networks such as the UNESCO As­         mary schools require expert support and suitable
sociated Schools, European Eco-Schools or BLK          materials.
21 schools should be used intensively for the
transfer of innovation, and should receive appro­        3. Education for Sustainable Development re­
priate support. Projects tested to date should be      quires teachers, educators, trainers and a variety­
expanded and integrated into classroom teaching        of multipliers. Any training deficits should be
at the various school levels.                          identified and eliminated.

  2. Textbooks, curricula and examination criteria       4. Following the example of the ‘Learning Re­
should be revised with the Agenda 21 goals in          gions’, extracurricular youth and adult learning
mind. Scientific knowledge, intercultural compe­       and continuing education should be developed
tence and the development of comprehensive             in cooperation with local Agenda 21 initiatives
participation­ skills are just as important in this    and non-governmental organisations, associa­



                                                                                                                                19
Do cu m e n t s




                  tions, foundations and community groups, as well         10. Research on the topic of Education for Sus­
                  as museums and cultural institutions, artists, the     tainable Development should be intensified.
                  media, and educational services. Networks such
                  as environmental centres, development policy           The German Commission for UNESCO will
                  organisations, UNESCO biosphere reserves and           actively­ participate in this joint task and commu­
                  World Heritage Sites are ideally suited for ad­        nicate the experience gained to an international
                  vancing the learning of sustainability through         audience through UNESCO.
                  inno­vative projects.
                                                                                                 II.
                     5. Cooperation with business is an essential
                  prerequisite for successful Education for Sustain­     By setting annual themes, UNESCO shall provide
                  able Development. Examples include partnerships        incentives for state and civil society participa­tion
                  between schools and companies; the organisa­           in all Member States and promote the world­wide
                  tion of student enterprises; and the signing of        reorientation of education to the goal of ‘learning­
                  in-house Agenda 21 agreements at companies.            sustainability’. The German Commission for
                  The revision of vocational education programmes        UNESCO therefore proposes the following ten
                  in accordance with Agenda 21 principles should         subjects as possible annual themes for the
                  be discussed in an international context via the       Decade:­
                  UNESCO International Centre for Technical and            ·· Consumer behaviour and sustainable econo­
                  Vocational Education and Training (UNEVOC)                  mies
                  in Bonn. UNEVOC can build on the results and             ·· Cultural diversity
                  resolutions of the 1999 International Congress on        ·· Health and quality of life
                  Technical and Vocational Education in Seoul.             ·· Water and energy supply
                                                                           ·· Biosphere reserves as places of learning
                    6. The ‘UNI 21 – Higher Education for Sustain­         ·· World Heritage Sites as places of learning
                  able Development’ study commissioned by the              ·· The learning of sustainability in our knowl­
                  Federal government should be used to encourage              edge society
                  German universities to commit to the Agenda 21           ·· Citizen participation and good governance
                  concept. This includes integrating the dimensions        ·· Poverty reduction through sustainable devel­
                  of sustainability into research and teaching.               opment projects
                                                                           ·· Fairness between generations: human rights
                     7. Educational institutions should be encouraged         and ethical orientation
                  to organise the management of their own institu­
                  tions in accordance with sustainability criteria.­     In reference to the ‘The Results of the World
                  Initiatives, groups, associations and NGOs should      Summit in Johannesburg’ resolution by the 62nd
                  be encouraged to create exemplary ‘beacons of          General Assembly of the German Commission
                  sustainability’.                                       of UNESCO in Nuremberg of 8 November 2002,
                                                                         the German Commission of UNESCO suggests
                    8. Structures and working methods should be          that the German Federal government work,
                  created for a national ‘alliance for the learning of   within the intergovernmental bodies of UNESCO,
                  sustainability’. These include:                        towards­ UNESCO incorporating sustainability
                    ·· A national committee with a secretariat that      perspectives in all programmes in order to imple­
                       coordinates Decade projects; brings together      ment the results of Earth Summit 2002 in Johan­
                       various stakeholders at a ‘round table’; and      nesburg. Innovative interdisciplinary projects in
                       adopts the Action Plan;                           education, science, culture and communica­
                    ·· A reporting process to enable regular moni­       tion should be developed for this. The German
                       toring of the Decade;                             UNESCO Commission asks the Federal govern­
                    ·· The establishment of an informal group of         ment to prepare its own German contributions to
                       public figures who support the objectives of      the planned UN World Decade of Education for
                       the Decade and advocate them in public;           Sustainability (2005–2014). UNESCO should
                    ·· A network-based platform for sharing infor­       be tasked with working out an international re­
                       mation and experience during the Decade.          commendation on ‘The Learning of Sustainable
                                                                         Development’­.
                     9. Government research funding should effec­
                  tively support the goals of sustainability. Coordi­
                  nation and networking between Federal and state
                  technology programmes should be improved.



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