Personal-Organizational Factors, OCB, and Job Performance: The Governance Bank Employees
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Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6 Personal-Organizational Factors, OCB, and Job Performance: The Governance Bank Employees Pankom Sriboonlue* and Jindarat Peemanee** Nowadays, the economic development on the basis of human resource development is viewed as a sustainable notion of the development that an organization needs to reinforce the employees enthusiastically on their tasks with full capabilities and to perform other tasks that are beyond the scope of their works in order to move forward with a certain growth. Therefore, the researchers were interested in the study of the effective factors, in terms of personal factors, organizational factors, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and job performance: the governmental bankers. The data was analyzed through the multiple correlation and regression method. The findings were that OCB positively relate to job performance, whereas personal factors have positive relation to OCB and job performance. As a consequence, the bank administrator should recognize the importance of required personality improvement for achieving the ultimate efficiency of an organization and empowering ability toward bank competition in the upcoming future. 1. Introduction: In a recent, the economic development on the basis of human resource development is viewed as a sustainable notion of development which focuses on people centered. For whether business or governmental organizations accept that in the situation which an organization has the limited and uniform budgets, the quality of human resource is an essential factor that lead the organization to obtain the competitive advantages and to overcome the rivals. Human resource is considered to be a valued resource rather than others which deserves to be improved in order to gain the knowledge and ability to create the usefulness of themselves and organizations efficiently (Tianput, 2002). Especially the recent business operation that is higher of intense-competitive environment and the pressure from local and international rivals. These are the reasons that each organizations effort new strategies or operational techniques to use in the reinforcing and developing human resource process in order to move forward with a certain growth (Angkinunt, 2003). The government savings bank as the governmental bank, it has been operating from 1913 in Thailand by royal intention of the King Rama 6. It is particularly important to adjust itself in order to reinforce the organizational strengths, competitive advantages or organizational survival in the stiff competitiveness nowadays. That the increase of competency and performance will be achieved, an organization has to improve both of organizational and employee development at the beginning from knowledge, thought, principle, and regulation which these are the composition of factors that support the developing efficiency of employees. The composition is combined as a conclusion will increase the knowledge and ability toward operational planning either organizational or personal in order to leading the action obviously. The organization will achieve better performance or not, it depends on the efficiency of people and organization that has to conduct together (Laksana, 2000). From the information mentioned above, human resource factor is a key that will support and drive an organization to the goal particularly the ethic awareness of ________________________ * Pankom Sriboonlue, Mahasarakham Business School, Mahasarakham University, Thailand. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org **Dr.Jindarat Peemanee, Mahasarakham Business School, Mahasarakham University, Thailand. Email: email@example.com
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6 people, honest, and social responsibility. An ideal component of organization: environment, customers, and employees which deserve to be treated fairly and humanity are to improve employee satisfaction and will help to finish their assigned jobs fully and will be willing to perform other tasks that are beyond the scope of theirs. Scott and Jaffe (1991) study the organizational working behavior, the problems which happen in the organization is the employees who are bored, downhearted, and despondent with their job and estrange from the organization because the organization has the strict regulation and very difficult to change that make the employees get lack of stability, career advancement, compensation, and welfare. According to Pratumthip (2001), most of the school employees tasks are individual responsibility so when that teacher takes a holiday or day off, no one else can teach instead. Teamwork or group working is rarely to reach a success it should be. From the mentioned behavior of organizational member will affect the working cultural change and operational system that influence directly and indirectly to the organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Thus if we can develop the employees or members in the organization to be kindness and willing to support each other without any rules and regulations or commands, it will affect positive feedbacks on organization. From the previous research Netemeyer et al. (1997; Skarlicki and Latham, 1997; Bolon, 1997) find that the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is the special role behavior which influence positively to the effectiveness and consequence of organization and affect to the personal performance getting better. Due to OCB is the behavior that as follow: 1) support colleague’s task and increase managerial productivity, 2) increase the workforce without adding staff, 3) employee can work with the various roles, 4) colleague help each other to work both of internal and external department, 5) can retain and impress on the smart employee to work with the organization, 6) enlarge the stability of organizational operation, and 7) escalate the efficiency of organizational adjustment (Podsakoff and MacKenzie, 1997). In addition, explore that OCB has the positive relationship with job satisfaction (Organ and Ryan, 1995) which influence to the willingness to participate with the organizational system. According to the reasons mentioned above, the researchers are interested on studying the personal-organizational factors, OCB, and job performance: the governance bank employees. The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between personal- organizational factors and OCB whether they affect on job performance and how? This research is valuable for the top management as management guidelines to be the information for planning and developing the management and human resource development process within the governmental units to accord with the economic environment that be changing all the time and to enlarge the competitiveness of governmental bank further. 2. Literature Review Organizational Citizenship Behavior Organizational citizenship behavior is the behavior of employee who supports the entire operation of organization to be efficient and effective which the employees express or act with the willingness without any concerning about organizational reward system directly. It is the behavior that employees are not forced to do by organizational roles, job description, or contract. Although it is not behaved, it will not be punished by organizational punishment system. From the review of organizational citizenship behavior, the theoretical importance and empirical research, and future research suggestions by Podsakoff et al.
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6 (2000), there are the notion of organizational citizenship behavior characteristics into categories as follows: George and Brief (1992) and George and Jones (1999), helping coworker, spreading goodwill, making constructive suggestion, and protecting the organization. Borman and Motowidlo (1997), helping and cooperating with others, endorsing, supporting and defending organizational objectives, following organizational rules and procedure, persisting with effort, and volunteering to carry out task activities. Moreover, Van et al. (1996), interpersonal facilitation, and job dedication. Job Performance Job performance is defined as the output of employee that operates in the period of time at both of the quality and quantity. It is the behavior that can be evaluated by how to support the goals or objectives of organization. Performance assessment is the process that the organization sets it up in order to assess how good and efficient the employees are able to work. Performance assessment is important to the operation of organization (Khagorranunth, 1998) as follows: 1) the personal importance, employees are able to take the result of performance assessment to improve their performance to be standardized by probably increasing their work effort or participating in the training and development. 2) the chief and subordinate importance, chief can use the performance assessment to manage compensation management, decision-making, staff promotion etc. And 3) the organizational importance, the fairly performance assessment and the equitable usage of consequence are a part of the morale building that will influence the operation with all one’s ability and will expand the operating efficiency of organization. The performance assessment that use in this research develop from the performance evaluation of the studied organization which include information that express about working behavior qualification as follows: resolution capacity, job cognition, work quality and quantity, organizational activity cooperation, planning and system capacity, job achievement, absenteeism, taking leave and late, introducing capacity, guidance, advising, rules and regulations obeying, learning capacity, efficient use of resources, and improving and developing commitment. Organizational Commitment Organizational commitment is to have an attitude, emotion, and behavior of employees to their organization by having the belief, acceptance of goals and organizational values, willingness to struggle their task, and having a strong passion to exist the membership where they work at, being proud to be a member of organization without desire to move, change, or resign even getting less compensation. Organizational commitment is important to organization. It makes organization accomplish objectives established which Phanomai (2004) concludes that organizational commitment has directly the significant and influence in organizational success which is the reason to an employee behaves the good behavior to organization. People will have the passion to work with. They will have the belief and faithful in organizational value and will be ready to join with all’s one ability, lead organization get achievement. And Atthasuriyanunth (2006), the organizational commitment is essential to organization and has an influence in organizational achievement. It establishes employee to feel commitment to organization and be willing to work without changing the job.
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6 Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is the good feeling that people have in their job responsibility, the satisfaction to job composition and job environment, including colleague’s relationship and supervisor’s fair, or sufficient compensation: monetary and non-monetary, including demands. Industrial psychologists are interested in job attitude so that they design the questionnaire in order to examine the attitude. The questions frequently ask about the feeling of job, supervisor, or organization. The answers frequently get into both of the inoffensive and offensive type. The study of job attitude gradually changes to be the study of job satisfaction of employees. If they satisfy the job, they will strongly intend to work fully functional whereas they don’t satisfy their job, they will not pay attention to work, absence from work, or have the non-suitable behavior to job. Generally, when to identify that people have how much job satisfaction, we have to explore the composition of job satisfaction first (Luthans, 1992). The conclusion of that composition is as follow: 1) the responding sensation to job situation, 2) the responding sensation to real-expected compensation comparing, and 3) the responding sensation to job characteristics: work itself, salary, promotion opportunities, supervisor, and colleagues. Personal Ethics Personal ethics is the conduct guideline of person that social thinks it is accurate. In the other hand, the behavior that social does not accept and want it is not right. Ethic is the behavior that people do or express in the good way in order to lead the peace to themselves and social. So that the level of accuracy probably is not 100 percent but it is in the level which most of social have the acceptance with no damage to themselves and society. The personal ethics consist (Wachung-ngern, 2002) as follow: 1) ethical knowledge, 2) ethical attitude, and 3) ethical reason so all of these compositions bring the ethical behavior which happens into 2 categories: the first, the ethical knowledge beget ethical attitude then lead to the first ethical behavior. The second, the ethical knowledge and ethical attitude lead to the ethical reason that brings the second ethical behavior which is wanted more. Organizational Atmosphere Organizational atmosphere is an opinion of employees about organizational environment that is directly influence to the feeling, attitude, and value of personnel which affect to their job satisfaction and performance. The organizational atmosphere can be classified into 3 levels as follow: 1) level of personal behavior and individualism: morale, challenge, and job responsibility, 2) level of group: colleagues relationship, and relationship between supervisor and subordinates, and unity, and 3) level of organization: job standard, organizational structure, and managerial policy when organization follows to manage by which one of theory or notion, it will have that atmosphere and when the theory or notion change, the organization will also change. The factors that make the organization is different from other and affect to personal behavior (Naweekarn, 2001) which are structure size, leader style, system complication, organizational goal, and connecting line. Organizational Support Organizational support is the process, management, planning, preparation, and resource allocating that the organization use them to convince worker to do their job the best and
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6 can reach all of organizational objectives. The organization that has an organizational support, it is a part that cause the more efficient of the organizational working. This is because an essential accelerator which the top management has to focus on. That is to motivate the employee has the happiness of working. The assigned tasks are successful and reach the goal because the operation, if it has the support from management team with the tools, it is the important-organizational support (Kitikul, 2005). The activities or command compositions that will help the operation work through well and achieve the objectives consists human factor, communication, and leadership (Kitikul, 2005). Organization Justice Organization justice is the employee perception about fair-organizational treatment to them. It is about the compensation, method or process that organization uses it to decide in order to gain outcome. The justice judgment can do straightly by considering the justice from decision, action, or set process in order to evaluate decision-making. Sheppard et al. (1992), there are 2 principles to judge the justice: balance and correctness. The organizational justice perception is a key of feeling and several compositions in organization for instance, attitude, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, employee’s behavior, efficiency of behavior, and self-awareness. The organizational justice perception is classified into categories as follows: distributive justice, procedural justice, and systematic justice (Sheppard et al., 1992). Thus, the hypotheses can be: Hypothesis 1: OCB is positively related to job performance. Hypothesis 2: Personal factors are positively related to OCB. Hypothesis 3: Organizational factors are positively related to OCB. Hypothesis 4: Personal factors are positively related to job performance. Hypothesis 5: Organizational factors are positively related to job performance. Personal Factors • Organizational commitment (COM) H4 • Job satisfaction (JOS) • Personal ethics (EIH) H2 Organizational Citizenship Behavior Job Performance H1 (OCB) (PER) H3 Organizational Factors • Organizational atmosphere (CLM) H5 • Organizational support (SUP) • Organization justice (JUS) Figure 1: Model of personal-organizational factors, OCB, and job performance 3. Methodology Sample and data collection In order to test our hypothesis, we have conducted an empirical study through rating-scale questionnaires which 216 completed questionnaires of governance bank employees were sent back, response rate was 81.51 %. That was enough according to Aaker et al. (2001) that the acceptable rate of questionnaire response is at least 20%
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6 Assessment of research tools Researcher examined the validity, reliability, and discrimination. Validity was verified by considering the content by the expertise. Reliability was verified by alpha coefficient of Cronbach’s method. The result showed that OCB, job performance, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, personal ethics, organizational atmosphere, organizational support, and organization justice had the coefficient alpha 0.879, 0.891, 0.890, 0.836, 0.887, 0.815, 0.899, and 0.917, respectively. The discrimination power was analyzed as well. The result showed that item-total correlation technique which OCB, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, personal ethics, organizational support, job performance, organizational atmosphere, and organization justice had the r between 0.493-0.734, 0.664-0.825, 0.523-0.760, 0.516-0.788, 0.506-0.869, 0.425-0.822, 0.495-0.736, and 0.654-0.867, respectively. According to Nunnally (1978), the acceptable rate of discrimination was more than 0.40. Research statistics Multiple correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used for examining the relation and effects of personal-organizational factors, OCB, and job performance: the governance bank employees. 4. The Findings: Table 1: Multiple Correlation Analysis of Personal-Organizational Factors, OCB, and Job Performance Variables OCB PER COM JOS ETH SUP CLM JUS VIF X 4.311 4.257 4.161 3.957 4.053 4.127 3.977 3.729 S.D. 0.619 0.658 0.725 0.602 0.653 0.646 0.554 0.711 OCB - 0.780** 0.658** 0.178** 0.151 0.165* 0.115 0.126 PER - 0.724** 0.214** 0.149** 0.248** 0.159* 0.135* COM - 0.115 0.208** 0.143* 0.128 0.234** 1.022 JOS - 0.178** 0.713** 0.725** 0.415** 1.833 ETH - 0.037 0.040 0.093 1.809 SUP - 0.503** 0.293** 1.364 CLM - 0.498** 1.634 JUS - 1.342 * and ** represent statistically significance at the 5% and 1% levels, respectively Table 1 shows that OCB has relationship with job performance, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction. The organizational support has relationship with OCB, and organizational commitment, and job satisfaction. The personal ethics has relationship with job performance which probably has multicollinearity. Thus, researcher determined multicollinearity by using VIF and explored that the VIF’s variable, personal-organizational factors, OCB, and job performance, are between 1.022-1.833 which are less than 10.
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6 Therefore, the relationships among independent variables are non-multicollinearity level (Black, 2006: 585). Table 2: Multiple Regression Analysis between OCB and Job Performance Job performance p- t B Std. Error value Constant 0.682 0.198 3.447 0.001* OCB 0.458 0.045 6.251 0.000* F = 38.3374 p = 0.000 AdjR2 = 0.429 * represents statistically significance at 1% level Table 2 shows that OCB is positively related to job performance inasmuch as there are plenty of bank employee’s workload so that employees have to help their colleagues to achieve the goals which was the willingness to work, and the behavior that apart from official job. The organization does not set it as a rule that everyone needs to obey but they are willing to do for their organization. According to Luthans (1998), an employee’s work behavior was more participated with organization than normal roles; the result of OCB had a relation to job performance and organizational efficiency. Moreover, according to the research result of Netemeyer et al. (1997; Skarlicki and Latham, 1997; Balon, 1997), OCB was the special behavior that affected positively to the effectiveness of organization and the personal operation. Table 3: Multiple Regression Analysis between Personal Factors and OCB OCB p- Personal factors t B Std. Error value Constant 1.877 0.278 5.743 0.000* Organizational commitment 0.541 0.043 8.459 0.000* Job satisfaction 0.239 0.070 3.411 0.001* Personal ethics 0.199 0.070 2.828 0.005* 2 F = 61.255 p = 0.000 AdjR = 0.464 * represents statistically significance at 5% level Table 3 shows that personal factors: organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and personal ethics are positively related to OCB in as much as when the personnel are loyalty to organization, it will be the continued process that express the concentration to achievement and completion of organization. It drives the workers to be willing to extremely use their effort in jobs. And it is the push of workers enthusiastically to finish their jobs because they feel that they are an owner of organization so that according to Organ and Ryan (1995), job satisfaction, organizational fair perception, organizational commitment, leader supporting, and operating time, so all of these variables affected to OCB. On the other hand, it is consistent with Geerathieynarth (1998), the person that had an ethics, and the gorgeous behavior straight to others was a qualification that reflected in
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6 type of mind, words, and behavior that would lead participation, helping with the ease and willingness. Table 4: Multiple Regression Analysis between Organizational Factors and OCB OCB p- Organizational factors t B Std. Error value Constant 1.475 0.340 6.236 0.000* Organizational atmosphere 0.003 0.096 0.029 0.977 Organization justice 0.073 0.068 1.079 0.282 Organizational support 0.134 0.075 1.781 0.076 F = 12.482 p = 0.062 AdjR2 = 0.134 * represents statistically significance at 5% level Table 4 shows that organizational factors: organizational atmosphere, organization justice, and organizational support are not positively related to OCB. Table 5: Multiple Regression Analysis between Personal Factors and Job Performance Job performance p- Personal factors t B Std. Error value Constant 1.303 0.268 4.867 0.000* Organizational commitment 0.392 0.072 5.628 0.000* Job satisfaction 0.282 0.067 4.189 0.000* Personal ethics 0.207 0.068 3.055 0.001** F = 70.345 p = 0.000 AdjR2 = 0.561 * and ** represent statistically significance at 1% and 5% levels, respectively Table 5 shows that personal factors: organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and personal ethics are positively related to job performance in as much as an employee believe in the good quality management of the bank and agree with the organizational goal setting, goal acceptance and organizational value, in order to get successful operation and work efficiency. Thus, employees have the satisfaction to work at the organization with full attention, time, and ability. It is consistent with Wittaya-audom (2004), job satisfaction of employee in entire levels would affect and influence to work efficiency and behavior of employee. When employees had the job satisfaction, employees would be feeling well to their job. On the other hand, according to Sereerat (1998), the vision of employee’s job shown through emotion, liking, satisfaction which these were the attitude in terms of feeling, thought, and intention that would affect to job achievement.
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6 Table 6: Multiple Regression Analysis between Organizational Factors and Job Performance Job performance p- Personal factors t B Std. Error value Constant 1.033 0.355 5.420 0.000* Organizational atmosphere 0.020 0.101 0.199 0.843 Organization justice 0.057 0.071 0.810 0.419 Organizational support 0.225 0.078 2.874 0.004** F = 24.982 p = 0.002 AdjR2 = 0.216 * and ** represent statistically significance at 1% and 5% levels, respectively Table 6 shows that organizational support is positively related to job performance in as much as the process that a managerial team use to convince employees to work the best and to reach the goals are a part of getting more internal working efficiency. According to Kitikul (2005), the employee’s operation supporting was a part of gaining higher internal- work efficiency because it was an essential accelerator that top management had to focus on to motivate and make employees felt happy with their assignment. Moreover, according to the research result of Wright (2006), the solution and improvement of organizational atmosphere in term of supporting built up was the better relation between employee in the organization which reinforced the employees obtain the better helping and supporting each other, their sensation, and also operation. 6. Summary and Conclusions The organizational citizenship behavior are positively related to job performance, whereas personal factors including, the organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and personal ethics show a positive relation and effect on the organizational citizenship behavior and job performance. As a consequence, it is considerably sensible that the bank administrator recognize the importance of required personality improvement, which includes an organizational citizenship behaviors, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and personal ethics, in order to achieve the ultimate efficiency of an organization, associated with a changing economic environment as well as to empower ability toward bank competition in the upcoming future. References: Aaker, D.A., Kumar, V. & Day, G.S. (2001), Marketing Research, 7th edn, John Wiley & Sons, New York. Angkinunt, A. (2003), Increasing Efficiency in the Organization, Vocational center publisher, Bangkok, Thailand. (in Thai) Atthasuriyanunth, N. (2006), ‘The impact of organizational commitment on the performance of the accountant in the Lower Northeast company’ Master’s thesis, Mahasarakham University. (in Thai) Balon, D.S. (1997). ‘Organizational Citizenship Behavior among hospital Employee: A
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