Personal-Organizational Factors, OCB, and Job Performance: The Governance Bank Employees

 
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference
Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6

   Personal-Organizational Factors, OCB, and Job Performance:
               The Governance Bank Employees
                       Pankom Sriboonlue* and Jindarat Peemanee**
                 Nowadays, the economic development on the basis of human resource
                 development is viewed as a sustainable notion of the development that an
                 organization needs to reinforce the employees enthusiastically on their tasks
                 with full capabilities and to perform other tasks that are beyond the scope of
                 their works in order to move forward with a certain growth. Therefore, the
                 researchers were interested in the study of the effective factors, in terms of
                 personal factors, organizational factors, organizational citizenship behavior
                 (OCB), and job performance: the governmental bankers. The data was
                 analyzed through the multiple correlation and regression method. The
                 findings were that OCB positively relate to job performance, whereas
                 personal factors have positive relation to OCB and job performance. As a
                 consequence, the bank administrator should recognize the importance of
                 required personality improvement for achieving the ultimate efficiency of an
                 organization and empowering ability toward bank competition in the
                 upcoming future.

  1. Introduction:
  In a recent, the economic development on the basis of human resource development is
  viewed as a sustainable notion of development which focuses on people centered. For
  whether business or governmental organizations accept that in the situation which an
  organization has the limited and uniform budgets, the quality of human resource is an
  essential factor that lead the organization to obtain the competitive advantages and to
  overcome the rivals. Human resource is considered to be a valued resource rather than
  others which deserves to be improved in order to gain the knowledge and ability to create
  the usefulness of themselves and organizations efficiently (Tianput, 2002). Especially the
  recent business operation that is higher of intense-competitive environment and the
  pressure from local and international rivals. These are the reasons that each organizations
  effort new strategies or operational techniques to use in the reinforcing and developing
  human resource process in order to move forward with a certain growth (Angkinunt, 2003).
  The government savings bank as the governmental bank, it has been operating from 1913
  in Thailand by royal intention of the King Rama 6. It is particularly important to adjust itself
  in order to reinforce the organizational strengths, competitive advantages or organizational
  survival in the stiff competitiveness nowadays. That the increase of competency and
  performance will be achieved, an organization has to improve both of organizational and
  employee development at the beginning from knowledge, thought, principle, and
  regulation which these are the composition of factors that support the developing
  efficiency of employees. The composition is combined as a conclusion will increase the
  knowledge and ability toward operational planning either organizational or personal in
  order to leading the action obviously. The organization will achieve better performance or
  not, it depends on the efficiency of people and organization that has to conduct together
  (Laksana, 2000). From the information mentioned above, human resource factor is a key
  that will support and drive an organization to the goal particularly the ethic awareness of
  ________________________
  * Pankom Sriboonlue, Mahasarakham Business School, Mahasarakham University, Thailand.
  Email: pankom.s@acc.msu.ac.th
  **Dr.Jindarat Peemanee, Mahasarakham Business School, Mahasarakham University, Thailand.
  Email: jindarat.p@acc.msu.ac.th
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference
Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6

  people, honest, and social responsibility. An ideal component of organization:
  environment, customers, and employees which deserve to be treated fairly and humanity
  are to improve employee satisfaction and will help to finish their assigned jobs fully and will
  be willing to perform other tasks that are beyond the scope of theirs.
  Scott and Jaffe (1991) study the organizational working behavior, the problems which
  happen in the organization is the employees who are bored, downhearted, and
  despondent with their job and estrange from the organization because the organization
  has the strict regulation and very difficult to change that make the employees get lack of
  stability, career advancement, compensation, and welfare. According to Pratumthip
  (2001), most of the school employees tasks are individual responsibility so when that
  teacher takes a holiday or day off, no one else can teach instead. Teamwork or group
  working is rarely to reach a success it should be. From the mentioned behavior of
  organizational member will affect the working cultural change and operational system that
  influence directly and indirectly to the organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Thus if
  we can develop the employees or members in the organization to be kindness and willing
  to support each other without any rules and regulations or commands, it will affect positive
  feedbacks on organization.
  From the previous research Netemeyer et al. (1997; Skarlicki and Latham, 1997; Bolon,
  1997) find that the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is the special role behavior
  which influence positively to the effectiveness and consequence of organization and affect
  to the personal performance getting better. Due to OCB is the behavior that as follow: 1)
  support colleague’s task and increase managerial productivity, 2) increase the workforce
  without adding staff, 3) employee can work with the various roles, 4) colleague help each
  other to work both of internal and external department, 5) can retain and impress on the
  smart employee to work with the organization, 6) enlarge the stability of organizational
  operation, and 7) escalate the efficiency of organizational adjustment (Podsakoff and
  MacKenzie, 1997). In addition, explore that OCB has the positive relationship with job
  satisfaction (Organ and Ryan, 1995) which influence to the willingness to participate with
  the organizational system.
  According to the reasons mentioned above, the researchers are interested on studying the
  personal-organizational factors, OCB, and job performance: the governance bank
  employees. The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between personal-
  organizational factors and OCB whether they affect on job performance and how? This
  research is valuable for the top management as management guidelines to be the
  information for planning and developing the management and human resource
  development process within the governmental units to accord with the economic
  environment that be changing all the time and to enlarge the competitiveness of
  governmental bank further.

  2. Literature Review
  Organizational Citizenship Behavior

  Organizational citizenship behavior is the behavior of employee who supports the entire
  operation of organization to be efficient and effective which the employees express or act
  with the willingness without any concerning about organizational reward system directly. It
  is the behavior that employees are not forced to do by organizational roles, job description,
  or contract. Although it is not behaved, it will not be punished by organizational
  punishment system. From the review of organizational citizenship behavior, the theoretical
  importance and empirical research, and future research suggestions by Podsakoff et al.
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference
Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6

  (2000), there are the notion of organizational citizenship behavior characteristics into
  categories as follows: George and Brief (1992) and George and Jones (1999), helping
  coworker, spreading goodwill, making constructive suggestion, and protecting the
  organization. Borman and Motowidlo (1997), helping and cooperating with others,
  endorsing, supporting and defending organizational objectives, following organizational
  rules and procedure, persisting with effort, and volunteering to carry out task activities.
  Moreover, Van et al. (1996), interpersonal facilitation, and job dedication.

  Job Performance

  Job performance is defined as the output of employee that operates in the period of time
  at both of the quality and quantity. It is the behavior that can be evaluated by how to
  support the goals or objectives of organization. Performance assessment is the process
  that the organization sets it up in order to assess how good and efficient the employees
  are able to work.
  Performance assessment is important to the operation of organization (Khagorranunth,
  1998) as follows: 1) the personal importance, employees are able to take the result of
  performance assessment to improve their performance to be standardized by probably
  increasing their work effort or participating in the training and development. 2) the chief
  and subordinate importance, chief can use the performance assessment to manage
  compensation management, decision-making, staff promotion etc. And 3) the
  organizational importance, the fairly performance assessment and the equitable usage of
  consequence are a part of the morale building that will influence the operation with all
  one’s ability and will expand the operating efficiency of organization.
  The performance assessment that use in this research develop from the performance
  evaluation of the studied organization which include information that express about
  working behavior qualification as follows: resolution capacity, job cognition, work quality
  and quantity, organizational activity cooperation, planning and system capacity, job
  achievement, absenteeism, taking leave and late, introducing capacity, guidance,
  advising, rules and regulations obeying, learning capacity, efficient use of resources, and
  improving and developing commitment.

  Organizational Commitment

  Organizational commitment is to have an attitude, emotion, and behavior of employees to
  their organization by having the belief, acceptance of goals and organizational values,
  willingness to struggle their task, and having a strong passion to exist the membership
  where they work at, being proud to be a member of organization without desire to move,
  change, or resign even getting less compensation.
  Organizational commitment is important to organization. It makes organization accomplish
  objectives established which Phanomai (2004) concludes that organizational commitment
  has directly the significant and influence in organizational success which is the reason to
  an employee behaves the good behavior to organization. People will have the passion to
  work with. They will have the belief and faithful in organizational value and will be ready to
  join with all’s one ability, lead organization get achievement. And Atthasuriyanunth (2006),
  the organizational commitment is essential to organization and has an influence in
  organizational achievement. It establishes employee to feel commitment to organization
  and be willing to work without changing the job.
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference
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  Job Satisfaction

  Job satisfaction is the good feeling that people have in their job responsibility, the
  satisfaction to job composition and job environment, including colleague’s relationship and
  supervisor’s fair, or sufficient compensation: monetary and non-monetary, including
  demands. Industrial psychologists are interested in job attitude so that they design the
  questionnaire in order to examine the attitude. The questions frequently ask about the
  feeling of job, supervisor, or organization. The answers frequently get into both of the
  inoffensive and offensive type. The study of job attitude gradually changes to be the study
  of job satisfaction of employees. If they satisfy the job, they will strongly intend to work fully
  functional whereas they don’t satisfy their job, they will not pay attention to work, absence
  from work, or have the non-suitable behavior to job. Generally, when to identify that people
  have how much job satisfaction, we have to explore the composition of job satisfaction first
  (Luthans, 1992). The conclusion of that composition is as follow: 1) the responding
  sensation to job situation, 2) the responding sensation to real-expected compensation
  comparing, and 3) the responding sensation to job characteristics: work itself, salary,
  promotion opportunities, supervisor, and colleagues.

  Personal Ethics

  Personal ethics is the conduct guideline of person that social thinks it is accurate. In the
  other hand, the behavior that social does not accept and want it is not right. Ethic is the
  behavior that people do or express in the good way in order to lead the peace to
  themselves and social. So that the level of accuracy probably is not 100 percent but it is in
  the level which most of social have the acceptance with no damage to themselves and
  society. The personal ethics consist (Wachung-ngern, 2002) as follow: 1) ethical
  knowledge, 2) ethical attitude, and 3) ethical reason so all of these compositions bring the
  ethical behavior which happens into 2 categories: the first, the ethical knowledge beget
  ethical attitude then lead to the first ethical behavior. The second, the ethical knowledge
  and ethical attitude lead to the ethical reason that brings the second ethical behavior which
  is wanted more.

  Organizational Atmosphere

  Organizational atmosphere is an opinion of employees about organizational environment
  that is directly influence to the feeling, attitude, and value of personnel which affect to their
  job satisfaction and performance. The organizational atmosphere can be classified into 3
  levels as follow: 1) level of personal behavior and individualism: morale, challenge, and job
  responsibility, 2) level of group: colleagues relationship, and relationship between
  supervisor and subordinates, and unity, and 3) level of organization: job standard,
  organizational structure, and managerial policy when organization follows to manage by
  which one of theory or notion, it will have that atmosphere and when the theory or notion
  change, the organization will also change. The factors that make the organization is
  different from other and affect to personal behavior (Naweekarn, 2001) which are structure
  size, leader style, system complication, organizational goal, and connecting line.

  Organizational Support

  Organizational support is the process, management, planning, preparation, and resource
  allocating that the organization use them to convince worker to do their job the best and
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Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6

  can reach all of organizational objectives. The organization that has an organizational
  support, it is a part that cause the more efficient of the organizational working. This is
  because an essential accelerator which the top management has to focus on. That is to
  motivate the employee has the happiness of working. The assigned tasks are successful
  and reach the goal because the operation, if it has the support from management team
  with the tools, it is the important-organizational support (Kitikul, 2005). The activities or
  command compositions that will help the operation work through well and achieve the
  objectives consists human factor, communication, and leadership (Kitikul, 2005).

  Organization Justice

  Organization justice is the employee perception about fair-organizational treatment to
  them. It is about the compensation, method or process that organization uses it to decide
  in order to gain outcome. The justice judgment can do straightly by considering the justice
  from decision, action, or set process in order to evaluate decision-making. Sheppard et al.
  (1992), there are 2 principles to judge the justice: balance and correctness.
  The organizational justice perception is a key of feeling and several compositions in
  organization for instance, attitude, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job
  performance, employee’s behavior, efficiency of behavior, and self-awareness. The
  organizational justice perception is classified into categories as follows: distributive justice,
  procedural justice, and systematic justice (Sheppard et al., 1992). Thus, the hypotheses
  can be:
          Hypothesis 1: OCB is positively related to job performance.
          Hypothesis 2: Personal factors are positively related to OCB.
          Hypothesis 3: Organizational factors are positively related to OCB.
          Hypothesis 4: Personal factors are positively related to job performance.
          Hypothesis 5: Organizational factors are positively related to job performance.

      Personal Factors
      • Organizational commitment (COM)
                                                                        H4
      • Job satisfaction (JOS)
      • Personal ethics (EIH)
                                          H2

                                               Organizational Citizenship Behavior        Job Performance
                                                                                     H1
                                                              (OCB)                            (PER)
                                          H3

      Organizational Factors
      • Organizational atmosphere (CLM)
                                                                        H5
      • Organizational support (SUP)
      • Organization justice (JUS)

     Figure 1: Model of personal-organizational factors, OCB, and job performance

  3. Methodology
  Sample and data collection

  In order to test our hypothesis, we have conducted an empirical study through rating-scale
  questionnaires which 216 completed questionnaires of governance bank employees were
  sent back, response rate was 81.51 %. That was enough according to Aaker et al. (2001)
  that the acceptable rate of questionnaire response is at least 20%
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference
Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6

  Assessment of research tools

  Researcher examined the validity, reliability, and discrimination. Validity was verified by
  considering the content by the expertise. Reliability was verified by alpha coefficient of
  Cronbach’s method. The result showed that OCB, job performance, organizational
  commitment, job satisfaction, personal ethics, organizational atmosphere, organizational
  support, and organization justice had the coefficient alpha 0.879, 0.891, 0.890, 0.836,
  0.887, 0.815, 0.899, and 0.917, respectively. The discrimination power was analyzed as
  well. The result showed that item-total correlation technique which OCB, organizational
  commitment, job satisfaction, personal ethics, organizational support, job performance,
  organizational atmosphere, and organization justice had the r between 0.493-0.734,
  0.664-0.825, 0.523-0.760, 0.516-0.788, 0.506-0.869, 0.425-0.822, 0.495-0.736, and
  0.654-0.867, respectively. According to Nunnally (1978), the acceptable rate of
  discrimination was more than 0.40.

  Research statistics

  Multiple correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used for examining the
  relation and effects of personal-organizational factors, OCB, and job performance: the
  governance bank employees.

  4. The Findings:
  Table 1: Multiple Correlation Analysis of Personal-Organizational Factors, OCB, and
                                    Job Performance

      Variables   OCB      PER       COM       JOS       ETH       SUP       CLM       JUS      VIF

          X       4.311   4.257     4.161     3.957     4.053     4.127     3.977     3.729
        S.D.      0.619   0.658     0.725     0.602     0.653     0.646     0.554     0.711
        OCB         -     0.780**   0.658**   0.178**   0.151     0.165*    0.115     0.126
        PER                  -      0.724**   0.214**   0.149**   0.248**   0.159*    0.135*
        COM                            -      0.115     0.208**   0.143*    0.128     0.234**   1.022
        JOS                                      -      0.178**   0.713**   0.725**   0.415**   1.833
        ETH                                                -      0.037     0.040     0.093     1.809
        SUP                                                          -      0.503**   0.293**   1.364
        CLM                                                                    -      0.498**   1.634
        JUS                                                                              -      1.342

  * and ** represent statistically significance at the 5% and 1% levels, respectively

  Table 1 shows that OCB has relationship with job performance, organizational
  commitment, and job satisfaction. The organizational support has relationship with OCB,
  and organizational commitment, and job satisfaction. The personal ethics has relationship
  with job performance which probably has multicollinearity. Thus, researcher determined
  multicollinearity by using VIF and explored that the VIF’s variable, personal-organizational
  factors, OCB, and job performance, are between 1.022-1.833 which are less than 10.
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference
Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6

  Therefore, the relationships among independent variables are non-multicollinearity level
  (Black, 2006: 585).

       Table 2: Multiple Regression Analysis between OCB and Job Performance

                                                 Job performance                     p-
                                                                            t
                                                 B       Std. Error                 value
      Constant                                0.682           0.198       3.447    0.001*
      OCB                                     0.458           0.045       6.251    0.000*
      F = 38.3374 p = 0.000 AdjR2 = 0.429
  * represents statistically significance at 1% level

  Table 2 shows that OCB is positively related to job performance inasmuch as there are
  plenty of bank employee’s workload so that employees have to help their colleagues to
  achieve the goals which was the willingness to work, and the behavior that apart from
  official job. The organization does not set it as a rule that everyone needs to obey but they
  are willing to do for their organization. According to Luthans (1998), an employee’s work
  behavior was more participated with organization than normal roles; the result of OCB had
  a relation to job performance and organizational efficiency. Moreover, according to the
  research result of Netemeyer et al. (1997; Skarlicki and Latham, 1997; Balon, 1997), OCB
  was the special behavior that affected positively to the effectiveness of organization and
  the personal operation.

       Table 3: Multiple Regression Analysis between Personal Factors and OCB

                                                        OCB                          p-
               Personal factors                                             t
                                                 B       Std. Error                 value
      Constant                                1.877           0.278       5.743    0.000*
      Organizational commitment               0.541           0.043       8.459    0.000*
      Job satisfaction                        0.239           0.070       3.411    0.001*
      Personal ethics                         0.199           0.070       2.828    0.005*
                                  2
      F = 61.255 p = 0.000 AdjR = 0.464
  * represents statistically significance at 5% level

  Table 3 shows that personal factors: organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and
  personal ethics are positively related to OCB in as much as when the personnel are loyalty
  to organization, it will be the continued process that express the concentration to
  achievement and completion of organization. It drives the workers to be willing to
  extremely use their effort in jobs. And it is the push of workers enthusiastically to finish
  their jobs because they feel that they are an owner of organization so that according to
  Organ and Ryan (1995), job satisfaction, organizational fair perception, organizational
  commitment, leader supporting, and operating time, so all of these variables affected to
  OCB. On the other hand, it is consistent with Geerathieynarth (1998), the person that had
  an ethics, and the gorgeous behavior straight to others was a qualification that reflected in
Proceedings of Annual Paris Business and Social Science Research Conference
Crowne Plaza Hotel, Republique, Paris, France, 4 - 5 July 2013, ISBN: 978-1-922069-27-6

  type of mind, words, and behavior that would lead participation, helping with the ease and
  willingness.

    Table 4: Multiple Regression Analysis between Organizational Factors and OCB

                                                        OCB                           p-
           Organizational factors                                            t
                                                 B        Std. Error                value
      Constant                                1.475           0.340        6.236    0.000*
      Organizational atmosphere               0.003           0.096        0.029    0.977
      Organization justice                    0.073           0.068        1.079    0.282
      Organizational support                  0.134           0.075        1.781    0.076
      F = 12.482 p = 0.062 AdjR2 = 0.134
  * represents statistically significance at 5% level

  Table 4 shows that organizational factors: organizational atmosphere, organization justice,
  and organizational support are not positively related to OCB.

        Table 5: Multiple Regression Analysis between Personal Factors and Job
                                      Performance

                                                 Job performance                      p-
               Personal factors                                              t
                                                 B        Std. Error                value
      Constant                                1.303           0.268        4.867    0.000*
      Organizational commitment               0.392           0.072        5.628    0.000*
      Job satisfaction                        0.282           0.067        4.189    0.000*
      Personal ethics                         0.207           0.068        3.055    0.001**
      F = 70.345 p = 0.000 AdjR2 = 0.561
  * and ** represent statistically significance at 1% and 5% levels, respectively

  Table 5 shows that personal factors: organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and
  personal ethics are positively related to job performance in as much as an employee
  believe in the good quality management of the bank and agree with the organizational goal
  setting, goal acceptance and organizational value, in order to get successful operation and
  work efficiency. Thus, employees have the satisfaction to work at the organization with full
  attention, time, and ability. It is consistent with Wittaya-audom (2004), job satisfaction of
  employee in entire levels would affect and influence to work efficiency and behavior of
  employee. When employees had the job satisfaction, employees would be feeling well to
  their job. On the other hand, according to Sereerat (1998), the vision of employee’s job
  shown through emotion, liking, satisfaction which these were the attitude in terms of
  feeling, thought, and intention that would affect to job achievement.
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     Table 6: Multiple Regression Analysis between Organizational Factors and Job
                                     Performance

                                                Job performance                       p-
              Personal factors                                               t
                                               B          Std. Error                value
      Constant                               1.033          0.355          5.420    0.000*
      Organizational atmosphere              0.020          0.101          0.199    0.843
      Organization justice                   0.057          0.071          0.810    0.419
      Organizational support                 0.225          0.078          2.874    0.004**
      F = 24.982 p = 0.002 AdjR2 = 0.216
  * and ** represent statistically significance at 1% and 5% levels, respectively

  Table 6 shows that organizational support is positively related to job performance in as
  much as the process that a managerial team use to convince employees to work the best
  and to reach the goals are a part of getting more internal working efficiency. According to
  Kitikul (2005), the employee’s operation supporting was a part of gaining higher internal-
  work efficiency because it was an essential accelerator that top management had to focus
  on to motivate and make employees felt happy with their assignment. Moreover, according
  to the research result of Wright (2006), the solution and improvement of organizational
  atmosphere in term of supporting built up was the better relation between employee in the
  organization which reinforced the employees obtain the better helping and supporting
  each other, their sensation, and also operation.

  6. Summary and Conclusions
  The organizational citizenship behavior are positively related to job performance, whereas
  personal factors including, the organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and personal
  ethics show a positive relation and effect on the organizational citizenship behavior and
  job performance. As a consequence, it is considerably sensible that the bank administrator
  recognize the importance of required personality improvement, which includes an
  organizational citizenship behaviors, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and
  personal ethics, in order to achieve the ultimate efficiency of an organization, associated
  with a changing economic environment as well as to empower ability toward bank
  competition in the upcoming future.

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