Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone - Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL) - "Sapienza" ...

 
Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone - Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL) - "Sapienza" ...
Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for
Sierra Leone

Inception Report

Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL) – “Sapienza” Università di Roma
FRED Engineering Srl (FRED)

ReCAP Reference number: SLE2129A

April 2018
Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone - Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL) - "Sapienza" ...
Preferred citation: Antonino Tripodi, Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica - FRED Engineering Srl
(2018). Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone, Inception report, SLE2129A.
London: ReCAP for DFID.
For further information, please contact: Antonino Tripodi, antonino.tripodi@uniroma1.it
ReCAP Project Management Unit
Cardno Emerging Market (UK) Ltd
Level 5, Clarendon Business Centre
42 Upper Berkeley Street, Marylebone
London W1H 5PW United Kingdom

The views in this document are those of the authors and they do not necessarily reflect the views of the
Research for Community Access Partnership (ReCAP) or Cardno Emerging Markets (UK) Ltd for whom the
document was prepared
Cover photo: http://cocorioko.net

Quality assurance and review table
 Version                    Author(s)                           Reviewer(s)                      Date
 1            Antonino Tripodi                        Paulina Agyekum                  27-04-2018
 2            Antonino Tripodi                                                         01-05-2018
 3                                                    Annabel Bradbury                 25-06-2018
 4            Antonino Tripodi                                                         27-06-2018

ReCAP Database Details: Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone
 Reference No:          SLE2129A                         Location           Freetown – Sierra Leone
                        ReCAP Website                    Procurement        Competitive Tender
 Source of Proposal
                                                         Method
 Theme                  Transport Services               Sub-Theme          Road Safety
 Lead                   Centro di ricercar per il                           FRED Engineering Srl
                                                         Partner
 Implementation         Trasporto e la Logistica
                                                         Organisation
 Organisation
 Total Approved         £125,550                         Total Used         £19,110
 Budget                                                  Budget
 Start Date             5 March 2018                     End Date           31 August 2018
 Report Due Date        30 March 2018                    Date Received      19 April 2018

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Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone - Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL) - "Sapienza" ...
Contents

Abstract ...................................................................................................................................................................... vi
Key words ................................................................................................................................................................... vi
Acronyms, Units and Currencies ................................................................................................................................ vii
Executive summary .................................................................................................................................................. viii
1       Background ........................................................................................................................................................ 1
2       Objectives of the study ...................................................................................................................................... 1
3       Strategy and approach ....................................................................................................................................... 2
3.1         Methodology ......................................................................................................................................................... 2
3.2         Description of Activities ......................................................................................................................................... 4
4       Work plan .........................................................................................................................................................13
4.1         Milestones and deliverables ................................................................................................................................ 14
5       Management structure and procedures ............................................................................................................14
5.1         Quality assurance ................................................................................................................................................ 14
5.2         Backstopping ....................................................................................................................................................... 15
5.3         Risks and mitigation actions ................................................................................................................................ 15
6       Mobilisation plan ..............................................................................................................................................16
6.1         Facilities and services .......................................................................................................................................... 16
6.2         Team members .................................................................................................................................................... 17
6.3         Communication channels .................................................................................................................................... 17
6.4         Suggested logistical actions toward full mobilisation.......................................................................................... 17
6.5         Health and security measures ............................................................................................................................. 18
7       Initial findings from the situation analysis .........................................................................................................18
7.1         Country background ............................................................................................................................................ 18
7.2         Road safety status ............................................................................................................................................... 21
7.3         Current RTC data collection process in Sierra Leone ........................................................................................... 26
8       RTC data collection and analysis systems ..........................................................................................................31
8.1         RTC data collection system in other countries .................................................................................................... 32
8.2         Comparison of RTC data collection processes ..................................................................................................... 40
8.3         Review of international RTC data types .............................................................................................................. 45
8.4         Review of international RTC data collection tools and blackspot management systems ................................... 46
9       Preliminary proposal for RTC data types ...........................................................................................................49
10      Sampling strategy for pilot RTC data collection .................................................................................................51
11      Conclusions .......................................................................................................................................................54
12      References ........................................................................................................................................................54
13      Annex 1 - SLRSA data collection form ................................................................................................................55
14      Annex 2 - SLP data collection form ....................................................................................................................58
15      Annex 3 - Example of RTC data collection form – UK STAT19 ............................................................................60

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Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone - Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL) - "Sapienza" ...
Tables and Figures
Table 1    Project deliverables ......................................................................................................................................... 14
Table 2    Major milestones ............................................................................................................................................ 14
Table 3    Main risks and contingency actions ................................................................................................................ 16
Table 4    Key experts mobilisation ................................................................................................................................. 18
Table 5    RTC by vehicle category in 2012...................................................................................................................... 23
Table 6    Trend of RTC, fatalities and injuries – 2009 to 2013 ....................................................................................... 23
Table 7    RTC by vehicle category from 2005 to 2014.................................................................................................... 25
Table 8    RTC by nature in 2015 and 2016 ..................................................................................................................... 25
Table 9    RTC by region in 2016...................................................................................................................................... 26
Table 10      Stakeholders’ consultations ........................................................................................................................ 28
Table 11      Entities involved in data collection process in Finland ............................................................................... 32
Table 12      Tools for collection, transfer and storage of data in Finland ...................................................................... 33
Table 13      Entities involved in data collection process in France ................................................................................ 33
Table 14      Tools for collection, transfer and storage of data in France ....................................................................... 33
Table 15      Entities involved in data collection process in Germany ............................................................................ 34
Table 16      Tools for collection, transfer and storage of data in Germany ................................................................... 34
Table 17      Entities involved in data collection process in Italy .................................................................................... 35
Table 18      Tools for collection, transfer and storage of data in Italy ........................................................................... 35
Table 19      Entities involved in data collection process in Spain .................................................................................. 35
Table 20      Tools for collection, transfer and storage of data in Spain ......................................................................... 36
Table 21      Entities involved in data collection process in UK ...................................................................................... 36
Table 22      Tools for collection, transfer and storage of data in UK ............................................................................. 37
Table 23      Entities involved in data collection process in Cameroon .......................................................................... 37
Table 24      Tools for collection, transfer and storage of data in Cameroon ................................................................. 38
Table 25      Entities involved in data collection process in Ghana ................................................................................. 38
Table 26      Tools for collection, transfer and storage of data in Ghana ....................................................................... 38
Table 27      Entities involved in data collection process in Nigeria................................................................................ 39
Table 28      Tools for collection, transfer and storage of data in Nigeria ...................................................................... 39
Table 29      Comparison of RTC data collection processes ............................................................................................ 40
Table 30      Minimum data elements recommended by WHO ...................................................................................... 46
Table 31      Preliminary data elements recommended for Sierra Leone Police forces ................................................. 51
Table 32      Preliminary data elements recommended for Sierra Leone health services .............................................. 51
Table 33      Feeder road functionality and cross-section .............................................................................................. 52
Table 34      Minimum RTC cases to be collected ........................................................................................................... 52

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Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone - Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL) - "Sapienza" ...
Figure 1    Main tasks of the study ..................................................................................................................................... 2
Figure 2    Interrelation of project activities .................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 3    List of Terms of the Quality Control Plan ........................................................................................................ 15
Figure 4    Map of Sierra Leone ........................................................................................................................................ 19
Figure 5    Trends of vehicles registered in Sierra Leone ................................................................................................. 21
Figure 6    Summary of RTC injured by region in 2009 ..................................................................................................... 21
Figure 7    Summary of RTC injured by region in 2012 ..................................................................................................... 22
Figure 8    RTC injured by region in 2012 ......................................................................................................................... 22
Figure 9    Trend of RTC fatality rate – 2010 to 2013 ....................................................................................................... 24
Figure 10      Entities involved in RTC data collection process ......................................................................................... 27
Figure 11      RTC data collection system ......................................................................................................................... 32
Figure 12      Screenshot of data collection through SFINGE ........................................................................................... 47
Figure 13      Screenshot of data analysis through SFINGE .............................................................................................. 47
Figure 14      Screenshots of data location through SFINGE ............................................................................................ 48
Figure 15      Screenshots of Safety Manager .................................................................................................................. 48
Figure 16      Screenshots of analysis on map in Safety Manager .................................................................................... 49

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Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone - Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL) - "Sapienza" ...
Abstract
The pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone aims to set up a methodology for road
traffic crash data collection using sample data on a pilot basis and to develop and implement an electronic
data management system for road traffic crash data storage, analysis and retrieval for Low Volume Roads.
This inception report provides an overview of the organisation of the study and the preliminary results of
consultations with the main Sierra Leone stakeholders involved in the road traffic crash process.
The consultations showed that a uniform data collection process for accident data still does not exist in
Sierra Leone. Currently few data on the number of crashes and of victims are collected mainly by Sierra
Leone Police and by Sierra Leone Road Safety Authority. A lack of cooperation between the stakeholders
for data sharing has been identified, calling for a revision of the current practices adopted. Preliminary
recommendations on the minimum RTC data elements to be collected are provided in the report and will
be verified during a workshop with all the stakeholders.

Key words
Crash; Consultation; Data; Road; Safety; Sampling; Stakeholder; Workplan

                     Research for Community Access Partnership (ReCAP)
                               Safe and sustainable transport for rural communities

ReCAP is a research programme, funded by UK Aid, with the aim of promoting safe and sustainable transport for rural
  communities in Africa and Asia. ReCAP comprises the Africa Community Access Partnership (AfCAP) and the Asia
   Community Access Partnership (AsCAP). These partnerships support knowledge sharing between participating
countries in order to enhance the uptake of low cost, proven solutions for rural access that maximise the use of local
                resources. The ReCAP programme is managed by Cardno Emerging Markets (UK) Ltd.

                                               www.research4cap.org

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Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone - Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL) - "Sapienza" ...
Acronyms, Units and Currencies
  €                  Euro (€ 1.00 ≈ SLL 9,348.26)
  $                  United States Dollar (US$ 1.00 ≈ SLL 7,695.07)
  ADB                Asian Development Bank
  AfCAP              Africa Community Access Partnership
  AsCAP              Asia Community Access Partnership
  CADaS              Common Accident Dataset
  GPS                Global positioning system
  ITPSIP             Integrated Transport Policy, Strategy and Investment Strategy
  LVRs               Low Volume Roads
  MoHS               Ministry of Health and Sanitation
  ONISR              French Inter-ministerial Observatory for Road Safety
  PRSP-III           Third Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
  ReCAP              Research for Community Access Partnership
  RTC                Road Traffic Crash
  SLICOM             Sierra Leone Insurance Commission
  SLRA               Sierra Leone Roads Authority
  SLRSA              Sierra Leone Road Safety Authority
  SLP                Sierra Leone Police
  SSL                Sierra Leone Statistics
  ToR                Terms of Reference
  UNECA              United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
  UK                 United Kingdom (of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)
  UKAid              United Kingdom Aid (Department for International Development, UK)
  WB                 World Bank
  WHO                World Health Organization

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Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone - Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL) - "Sapienza" ...
Executive summary
A study has been started to set up a methodology for road traffic crash data collection using sample data
on a pilot basis with relevant attributes and related protocols for the management of road safety in Sierra
Leone. The study will also develop and implement an accident data management system for road traffic
crash data storage, analysis and retrieval.
Main road safety stakeholders in Sierra Leone have been consulted to understand the current practices for
road traffic crash data collection and management:
   Sierra Leone Police (Traffic Management and Road Safety Directorate).
   Sierra Leone Road Safety Authority.
   Ministry of Health and Sanitation (mortuary service and Emergency Centre in Freetown).
   Statistics Sierra Leone.
   Insurance Companies.

Sierra Leone Police, Sierra Leone Road Safety Authority, Emergency services and hospitals, mortuary
services collect some information and data about road traffic crashes. However, these data are not uniform
(there is no standardised data collection method) and they lack details for successive road safety analysis.
A comparison of the current Sierra Leone road traffic crash data collection and management process with
that of some European and African countries has highlighted the following main considerations:
   A standard data collection form complying with international standards does not exist.
   Information about precise locations of road traffic crashes are not available.
   The information contained in the data collection forms currently used does not allow for understanding
    of patterns and causes of crashes. However, they allow for understanding of main outcomes (e.g.
    fatalities, injuries, etc.).
   There is no standard data collection form, as well as no unique national database including information
    on fatalities and injuries.
   Data are collected in the field on paper.
   The entity in charge of road safety at national level (SLRSA) is an active actor of the data collection
    process.
   It is possible to link the road traffic crash data with other existing databases (i.e. mortuary services,
    vehicle registration and driver licences).

A preliminary proposal of road traffic crash data elements that could be collected at national level have
been discussed with Sierra Leone Police and Sierra Leone Road Safety Authority, which agreed on their
potential use. They will be further explored in the framework for accident data collection and management
and presented for validation to all the Sierra Leone stakeholders during a workshop being organised in June
2018.
When validated, the proposed framework for data collection and management will be tested through a
pilot data collection activity. Three enumerators will attend road traffic crash scenes to collect the relevant
information based on the framework being proposed.
Data collection will be performed by the enumerators using the data collection form developed for police
forces. In addition to the collection of data on the scene, enumerators will be requested to identify the
victims of crashes and to perform a follow-up with health services to verify their health status.
All the data collected will successively be stored in the database of the accident data management system
so that all its functionalities can be tested.

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Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone - Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL) - "Sapienza" ...
1         Background
Sierra Leone is one of the most exposed countries in the world regarding road traffic crashes. The World
Health Organization (WHO) in the Global status report on road safety 2015 (1) refers to Sierra Leone as one
of the worst countries in terms of fatalities per population (27.3 fatalities per 100,000 population, while the
average value in Africa is equal to 26.6 and that in Europe is 9.3).
Moreover, it is likely that these negative figures continue increasing in the next years, due to the current
growing of vehicle registration in the country.
Even worst figures can be expected due to the current high level of under-reporting of road traffic crashes.
The current process for collection and management of road traffic crash data is extremely poor, so that
assessing the real road safety situation in Sierra Leone is difficult and highly uncertain.
The Government of Sierra Leone (GoSL) has thus decided to develop a new process for the collection,
management and analysis of road traffic crash (RTC) data, accompanied by an accident data management
system. These actions will allow the country to prepare evidence-based road safety strategies.
To achieve this objective, a comprehensive RTC database is necessary to capture crash data and to provide
a better understanding of the road safety needs (starting from Low Volume Roads - LVRs) so that
appropriate interventions can be applied.
Such RTC data are lacking since currently, the RTC data collected by the Traffic Police are mainly focused on
cities whilst most RTC situations on LVRs remain unreported mainly in the rural areas. Thus, there are
limited RTC data available for LVRs and even when such data are available they are incomplete, non-
standard and lacking an efficient and proper analysis. In addition, there are no mechanisms in place to store
and share RTC data so that they can be used in a meaningful way.

2         Objectives of the study
The main objective of the study is to establish a framework for an efficient RTC data collection system on
LVRs in Sierra Leone on a pilot basis.
Such a framework will capture all essential elements of RTC data requirements as a pilot/case study that
will guide an expanded and sustainable RTC data collection on LVRs for the rest of the country in order to
ensure data-led and evidence-based measures are taken to improve road safety. It will contain relevant
accident data resources to aid the identification and understanding of the scale of the road safety problem
in order to implement strategic interventions for the reduction of RTCs on LVRs.
The specific objectives of the study are twofold:
   Setting up a methodology for road traffic crash data collection using sample data on a pilot basis with
    relevant attributes and related protocols for the management of road safety on LVRs in Sierra Leone.
   Developing and implementing an electronic data management system for road traffic crash data
    storage, analysis and retrieval for LVRs in Sierra Leone.

The above-mentioned objectives shall be achieved by undertaking the following main tasks (Figure 1),
which will be developed during the six-month duration of the study.

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Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone - Centro di ricerca per il Trasporto e la Logistica (CTL) - "Sapienza" ...
Figure 1 Main tasks of the study

             Task 1                           Task 8                          Task 9
             •Situation analysis              •Accident data                  •Training and
                                               management                      capacity
                                               system                          development

             Task 2                           Task 7                          Task 10
             •Literature review of            •Data analysis                  •Final report
              similar studies                  framework

             Task 3                           Task 6
             •Stakeholder                     •Data collection
              consultations

             Task 4                           Task 5
             •Framework for RTC               •Stakeholder
              data collection &                worshops
              management

The study will provide the following outcomes to the Sierra Leone Government:
     A conceptual framework for RTC data collection and management.
     A set of RTC data collected on a pilot basis in three locations across the Country.
     An RTC data analysis framework.
     An accident data management system.
     A capacity building framework on RTC data collection, analysis and management.

3          Strategy and approach

3.1        Methodology
Understanding the road traffic crash phenomenon and being able to analyse related data is crucial for
setting up effective mitigation strategies and road safety strategies and policies. The importance of a road
traffic data collection process is recognised internationally. For this reason, it is highly important to use
information systems able to support activities carried out by “road safety stakeholders” during collection,
analysis and management of RTC data, as well as during decision-making on interventions.
Methodologies and tools derived from the scientific literature on road safety and from the results of
European research projects having dealt with road traffic crash data will be adapted to the local conditions
of Sierra Leone.
The conceptual framework for RTC data collection and management will take into consideration the
recommendations of the main international entities (such as World Health Organization - WHO, World
Bank - WB, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa - UNECA).
Similarly, the RTC data analysis framework will be developed based on international practices and on the
specific needs of the Sierra Leone stakeholders regarding statistical analysis, reporting and decision-making.

ReCAP | Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone                              2
The accident data management system will be based on the adaptation of two specific tools (SFINGE and
Safety Manager), which have been developed by the Consultant for several years and have already been
adapted to African contexts such as Cameroon. The information systems will be tailored to the specific
needs of the main Sierra Leone stakeholders, such as Sierra Leone Road Safety Authority (SLRSA), Sierra
Leone Roads Authority (SLRA), Sierra Leone Police (SLP) Traffic Management and Road Safety Directorate,
Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MoHS), and Statistics Sierra Leone (SSL).
The pilot activity for the collection of RTC data, aimed at obtaining a set of data to be used to customise the
accident data management system, will be based on a sampling strategy ensuring that a minimum set of
RTC data are collected (i.e. ensuring sufficient data are available to customise the software). Details on the
sampling strategy are provided in Section 10.
Site selection for pilot RTC data collection will be performed based on results of Task 1 and on the
consultation with the project partners (SLRA and SLRSA).
Site selection will be firstly oriented at identifying zones within the country having high, medium and low
rainfall patterns. Since the rainy season slightly varies between the North and the South, as an initial
orientation, pilot sites within the three regions will be selected (i.e. Northern, Southern and Eastern
regions). Also, the conditions of roads (e.g. bad, fair good) will be considered for the selection of pilot sites.
Within each province the specific sites for pilot data collection will be decided based on the expected
rainfall patterns, on road condition and on the availability of the local traffic police to be involved in the
pilot activity. The enumerators need to be contacted by the traffic police officers when a road traffic crash
occurs, so that they can attend the crash scene to collect information.
The Terms of Reference (ToR) clearly refer to the lack of RTC data collection on LVRs and to the need of
establishing a framework for an efficient RTC data collection system on LVRs as the main objective of the
study. Certainly, the conditions of RTC on rural roads are different from that of crashes occurring in cities or
on higher volume roads. One could expect, for instance, that, due to lack of traffic, the number of single
vehicle crashes would be higher on rural roads than on other roads. Similarly, RTC on non-paved roads can
be highly influenced by infrastructural deficiencies.
When developing the conceptual framework for RTC data collection and management (Task 4), attention
will be paid to maintaining consistency with frameworks and methodologies currently used within the
Country for data collection (e.g. in cities) but also at including specific attributes from LVRs in the data
collection format/tool. Currently both Sierra Leone Police (SLP) and Sierra Leone Road Safety Authority
(SLRSA) utilise forms for collection of data on RTC. Even if they are not sufficiently detailed for RTC data
analysis, they include some data elements that can be maintained (e.g. number of victims, types of vehicle
involved in RTC). More details are provided in Chapter 7.3.
The attributes specifically related to Low Volume Roads will be analysed during the study and agreed with
relevant stakeholders during consultations and workshops. Examples of these attributes are:
   Type of road, allowing for selection of variables such as: Primary road, Secondary road, Feeder (rural)
    road, Urban road.
   Road functional class, allowing for selection among variables such as: Principal arteria, Secondary
    arterial, Collector, Local.
   Road surface conditions, allowing for selection among variables such as: Dry, Slippery, Wet, Flood,
    Other.
   Socio-economic areas connected to the road, allowing for selection among areas such as: farm areas,
    markets, hospitals, schools, etc.

The “LVR-related” attributes will also be specifically considered when designing the data analysis
framework (Task 7). The possibility to apply filters related with the attribute “type of road” (to select, for
instance, LVRs or rural roads) will be defined in the data analysis framework and made available in the
accident data management system. For instance, this means that the following types of analysis will be
performed with a distinction according to the type of road. The list below is a non-exhaustive example.

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Practically, all the data elements included in the RTC data collection framework (i.e. collected when an RTC
occurs) can be filtered based on the type of road.
       The trends of road traffic crashes by number of accidents, injuries and deaths.
       Location of road crash.
       Type of road users involved in the crash (driver, passenger, pedestrian, etc.).
       Type of vehicle involved in the crash (car, bus, truck, bicycle, motorcycle, etc.)
       Road user characteristics (age, gender, etc.).
       Temporal characteristics of road crashes (seasons, week days, hours, etc.).
       Type of RTC (head-on, rear-end, lateral, etc.).
       Cause of RTC (speeding, fatigue, influence of alcohol, vehicle failure, etc.).
       Etc.

An important attribute to be considered is related to the location of the road traffic crash. In addition to
including the above-mentioned “type of road” attribute, the specific location of the crash is also deemed
important.
Since positioning the RTC can be difficult on many roads (especially LVRs, non-paved), e.g. km markers are
usually missing on those roads, the use of GPS coordinates is considered important. The data collection
format will also include this attribute and enumerators will be equipped with GPS devices to collect this
information. This will facilitate the mapping of road traffic crashes and consequently also the data
disaggregation.
Other methodologies to locate road traffic crashes, when GPS information is not available, will also be
developed during the study.
Finally, based on the frameworks for RTC data collection and analysis, the accident data management
system will be adapted in order to allow for data disaggregation to extract information related to LVRs. The
system will thus allow for storage of road traffic crash data into a single database but also for extraction of
an “LVR database”. Similarly, the system will allow for filtering the type of roads when performing the RTC
analysis.

3.2          Description of Activities
    Task 1 – Situation Analysis
                 Objective:                                                             Duration:
                 Conducting an overview of the state of road safety                     Weeks 1 –5
                 data needs in Sierra Leone

                 Task description:
                 This activity starts with the collection of information on the stakeholders currently
                 involved in the RTC data collection process in Sierra Leone and on their roles and
                 responsibilities. This will include:
        Sierra Leone Police Traffic Management and Road Safety Directorate.
        Ministry of Health and Sanitation.
        SLRSA.
        SLRA.
        Sierra Leone Insurance Commission.

    The following information will be collected for all these actors:
        which safety-related information is currently collected;
        where safety-related information is collected (e.g. cities);
        which are the sources of information;

ReCAP | Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone                                4
   who collects data on road crashes;
    how data are collected;
    who the key users are;
    how data are used.

 This activity will also collect existing data on road crashes in Sierra Leone which are available at
 national level. These data should ideally include information on the location of road crashes, causes
 and contributing factors.
 If possible (depending on the available data), data will be collected for at least five years, in order to
 be able to describe trends for different variables and to perform analysis.
              Results:                                                              Reporting:
              Actors involved in RTC data collection                                Inception report
                                                                                    (week 7)
              Current RTC data collection process
              RTC data
              Road safety management information

 Task 2 - Literature Review of Similar Studies

              Objective:                                                            Duration:
              Reviewing best international practices towards RTC                    Weeks 2 - 7
              data types, data collection tools, blackspot
              management systems, in order to compare the
              current situation with the international standards
             Task description:
             Task 2-A - Literature review on the scope of RTC data types and elements based on
             best international practices. An extensive review of RTC collection, analysis and
             management methodologies used at international level (especially in Africa and Europe)
 will be performed. This will also include reviewing the data collection, analysis and management
 tools and the blackspot management systems developed at international level.
 Task 2-B - Benchmark analysis of RTC data quality. This sub-task will compare the RTC data
 currently collected in Sierra Leone with those collected in other African and European countries,
 with the aim of assessing quality regarding completeness of data. Firstly, a set of minimum RTC data
 will be defined based on international standards. Reference will be made, for instance, to the
 minimum set of data defined by the International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group (IRTAD) of
 International Transport Forum of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
 (OECD). Then, data collected in Sierra Leone will be compared with this set of minimum data and
 with data from other countries. As far as possible, countries with similar characteristics to Sierra
 Leone will be selected for comparison.
 Task 2-C - Identification of a set of RTC data types required in Sierra Leone. Based on the
 information previously collected and on the results of the benchmark analysis, a set of data types
 that should be considered for collection in Sierra Leone will be defined. Various factors will be
 considered when defining data types: consistency with international standards, minimum set of data
 needed for a detailed analysis of road traffic crashes and for selection of road safety measures,
 possibility of adhering to networks such as IRTAD in the future, etc. Data types will include several
 conventional road safety elements such as: road infrastructure safety; vehicle safety; road user
 safety; road safety enforcement and road traffic emergency response for rural roads.

ReCAP | Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone                                 5
Results:                                                            Reporting:
              International practices on RTC data collection                      Inception report
                                                                                  (week 7)
              Comparison of RTC data collection processes
              Preliminary set of RTC data types

 Task 3 - Stakeholder Consultations

              Objective:                                                          Duration:
              Consulting stakeholders to assess if the defined                    Weeks 6 - 9
              data types are suitable with the local conditions
              and needs
             Task description:
            Building government capacity and cooperation in developing a road safety policy
            framework is essential to the long-term sustainability of road safety. This task aims at
            establishing partnerships with relevant government departments, private sector and
 development partners for each area of intervention. Consultations include the following
 stakeholders:
    SLRSA.
    SLRA.
    Sierra Leone Police Traffic Management and Road Safety Directorate.
    Ministry of Health and Sanitation.
    Sierra Leone Insurance Commission.
    Local health centres/clinics.

 The goals of the consultations are:
    Task 3-A - Determining how RTC data are collected by type, processed, stored and analysed.
    Task 3-B - Assessing the quality of current RTC data outputs by user need category.
    Task 3-C - Agreeing and finalising the set of data types identified in Task 2. Stakeholders will be
     especially asked to comment on the proposed data types and to assess if they can be effectively
     used in Sierra Leone, or if changes and/or additional data need to be included.
    Task 3-D - Establishing the critical linkages required for RTC data integration, synergy and
     coordination, as well as data sharing by different stakeholder agencies. Stakeholders will be
     requested to comment on roles and responsibilities identified for them, on the proposed
     process and to assess if it can be effectively used in Sierra Leone.

 Consultations will be carried out through face to face interviews with every stakeholder category.
              Results:                                                            Reporting:
              Further information on current RTC data collection                  Inception report
              process                                                             (week 7)
              Review / finalisation of RTC data types                             Report on framework
                                                                                  for RTC data
              Synergies between actors involved in RTC data
                                                                                  collection &
              collection, analysis and management
                                                                                  management (week
                                                                                  11)

ReCAP | Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone                              6
Task 4 - Conceptual Framework for RTC Data Collection & Management

              Objective:                                                           Duration:
              Designing an RTC data collection, analysis and                       Weeks 8 - 11
              management framework for LVRs in Sierra Leone
             Task description:
             Task 4-A - This task will focus on the design of a comprehensive RTC data collection tool
             to be used as reference at national level for collecting, managing and analysing data on
             road crashes. The proposed tool will be especially suitable for LVRs, even though its
 possible extension/use for all roads in Sierra Leone will receive particular attention.
 The main objective is to design a data collection process, accompanied by dedicated information
 systems allowing for data management and analysis.
 This task will especially develop:
    An RTC Data Collection Form to be used by Traffic Police when a crash occurs.
    A Road Injury Data Collection Form to be used by health services for collecting information about
     the people injured in RTC (allowing, for instance, to collect information consistent with the
     international nomenclatures for victims of road traffic crashes).
    A Protocol for Communication of Data among the actors involved (e.g. Traffic Police, Hospitals,
     SLRSA, etc.), providing explanations on the roles and responsibilities of the actors, modalities for
     communication, etc.
    An RTC Database integrated into an information system for the collection, transfer, treatment,
     analysis and storage of data.
    Operational Manuals to use the above-mentioned tools.

 Task 4-B - Designing an effective and reliable data collection system at national level is not simple
 and requires a sound experience, especially to define the methodologies and tools adapted to a
 specific country. The information collected during the stakeholder consultations will also be used to
 design the conceptual framework for Sierra Leone.
 The data collection system will be composed by three main elements:
    Data collection process (i.e. the set of tasks performed for data collection needs).
    The techniques and tools being used during data collection.
    The people involved in data collection.

 The data collection process is composed of two main phases: i) collection of road crash data
 according to specific encoded procedures and ii) storage of collected data to make them accessible
 to people in charge of road safety management.
 Initially, a document on the organisation of the data collection process will be prepared, describing:
    People involved in the data collection activities and their roles (e.g. SLP and SLRSA for data
     collection in the field, health services for follow up of injured, institutional bodies for data
     management and analysis).
    The reorganisation of the RTC data flow.
    The definition of the contents of the RTC data collection forms, in terms of information and
     methodologies (e.g. form formats, their coding, their validation schemes, etc.).
    The information tools to be used during data collection (e.g. notebooks, GPS, etc.).

 The RTC collection process will be designed with the final goal of allowing Sierra Leone to gradually
 implement a system totally consistent with international standards. For instance, this includes the
 possibility of having geo-coded data or to understand the seriousness of injuries.

ReCAP | Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone                                7
The conceptual framework will provide direct linkages between RTC causal and mitigation factors.
 An existing computerised road traffic data management system (SFINGE) will be used as a basis for
 the system to be developed in Sierra Leone. It will be customised to the characteristics and needs of
 Sierra Leone.
              Results:                                                             Reporting:
              RTC data collection framework                                        Report on framework
                                                                                   for RTC data
              RTC data collection forms, protocols, databases,
                                                                                   collection &
              etc.
                                                                                   management (week
              Operation manuals                                                    11)

 Task 5 - Stakeholder Workshops
              Objective:                                                           Duration:
              Conducting workshops to validate the solutions                       Weeks 14 - 15 (1st
              identified for Sierra Leone                                          workshop) and 18 -
                                                                                   19 (2nd workshop)
             Task description:
            Within this task two stakeholder workshops will be organised in two different periods.
            Those stakeholders invited for consultations (Task 3) will also be invited to attend the
            workshops and to actively participate. The support from the main project partners will
 be requested for contacts with stakeholders.
 Task 5-A - The 1st stakeholder workshop aims at building consensus on identified RTC data types by
 elements, stakeholder needs, data sources (including police crash files, hospital records, insurance
 claims etc.), as well as common definitions for defined variables (such as injury, severity, fatality,
 etc.). This workshop will follow the definition of the conceptual framework defined in Task 4.
 Task 5-B - The 2nd stakeholder workshop aims at demonstrating and validating the accident data
 management system developed in Task 8.
              Results:                                   Reporting:
              Workshop for validation                    1st workshop: report (week 15) summarising the
              of framework on RTC                        views of stakeholders on the inception report
              data collection and                        and the proposed draft framework for the road
              analysis                                   traffic crash data collection and management
                                                         system. It will contain stakeholder inputs on
              Workshop for validation
                                                         accident data management system before pilot
              of the accident data
                                                         test with field data (Task 6).
              management system
                                                         2nd workshop: report (week 19) summarising
                                                         the views of stakeholders on the draft final
                                                         report. It aims to agree on the developed and
                                                         recommended accident data management
                                                         system for effective use at wider rollout and
                                                         application.

ReCAP | Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone                                 8
Task 6 - Data Collection

              Objective:                                                             Duration:
              Piloting RTC data collection activities to verify the                  Weeks 12 - 17
              reliability of the proposed framework

             Task description:
             During this task a pilot activity related to the collection of road traffic crash data will be
             carried out.
 Task 6-A - A pilot location on a LVRs will be selected and the support of the main project partners
 will be agreed. Attention will be given to the selection of a location allowing for tests in at least three
 different ecological zones within high, medium and low rainfall patterns.
 Other options will also be discussed with the main project partners to identify eventual further road
 traffic crash scenarios that could be of interest for the pilot activities.
 Task 6-B - Eligible enumerators will be trained in the application of the proposed RTC data collection
 tools (i.e. data collection forms, manuals, coding procedures, etc.)
 The selection of the enumerators will be done with the support of the main project partners. The
 training activity will entail both theoretical and practical sessions, as well as successive verifications
 and discussions. A team of at least three enumerators will be created.
 Task 6-C - Once the pilot locations have been selected and the enumerators have been selected and
 trained, a road safety data collection process will be implemented. Enumerators will collect data in
 the selected locations for a period of at least two weeks.
 Data will be collected on paper and eventually with the use of electronic devices (provided for the
 pilot activity by the consultant), allowing the piloting of different data collection conditions.
 Electronic devices will be equipped with a preliminary version of the accident data management
 system being finalised in Task 8.
              Results:                                                               Reporting:
              Selection of enumerators                                               Draft final report
                                                                                     (week 18)
              Pilot activities for RTC data collection
              Set of RTC data to be analysed

 Task 7 - Data Analysis Framework
              Objective:                                                             Duration:
              Defining a framework for detailed analysis of RTC                      Weeks 12 - 14
              data
             Task description:
             Task 7-A - The data analysis framework to be defined will allow for the identification of
             different types of information from the collected RTC, such as crash patterns, high-crash
             locations, crash causes, crash trends, mitigation strategies, etc.
 The framework will also define how crash patterns can be characterised according to statistical
 analyses (frequencies, rates, severity, etc.), depending on the users’ needs.
 The data analysis framework will especially allow to:
    Perform a descriptive analysis of RTC in Sierra Leone, aimed at highlighting the current trends
     and the main accidents characteristics. For instance:

ReCAP | Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone                                     9
o  The status and the trends of accidents by using indicators such as number of accidents,
             injuries and deaths.
         o The “local” characteristics of road traffic crashes, with reference to data related to the
             location or road users.
         o The temporal characteristics of road crashes, with reference to seasons, week days,
             hours, etc.
         o The characteristics of the end-users involved in road crashes (age, gender, etc.).
         o The dynamic patterns and circumstances of road crashes.
    Performing a disaggregated analysis of road crashes, aimed at analysing the phenomenon
     looking at zones and traffic components at risk. For instance, the analysis could deal with:
         o Road infrastructure characteristics (e.g. type of road, intersection, etc.).
         o Road traffic crashes involving pedestrians, powered-two-wheelers, cars, etc.
         o Road traffic crashes involving children, elderly users, etc.

 Task 7-B - The data analysis framework will also define how crash patterns, road traffic causes and
 mitigation strategies can be assessed. For instance, a five-step approach (see Figure below) will be
 adapted to the local conditions and to the road traffic data collection framework, including:
    Selection and classification of critical road elements based on severity of RTC, type of element to
     be assessed (e.g. road section, junction) and statistical method (e.g. frequency, rate, probability
     index).
    Analysis of selection and classification results, allowing for the identification of the RTC variables
     associated to critical road elements.
    Analysis of crash causes for every critical road elements, including:
         o Identification of crash patterns and their statistical information (e.g. frequency, rate).
         o Identification of crash causes associated to the selected crash patterns.
    Identification of mitigation strategies associated to the crash causes identified.
    Cost-benefit analysis of the possible mitigation strategies, allowing for the selection of the most
     effective ones.

                             Five-step approach for analysis of road traffic crashes

                              Selection of critical road
                              elements
                                 Analysis of critical road
                                 elements
                                    Analysis of crash patterns
                                    and crash causes
                                       Identification of mitigation
                                       strategies

                                           Cost-benefit analysis

              Results:                                                                 Reporting:
              RTC data analysis framework                                              Draft final report
                                                                                       (week 18)
              Statistical methods for in-depth analysis of RTC
              data
              Methods for selection of mitigation strategies

ReCAP | Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone                                   10
Task 8 - Accident Data Management System
              Objective:                                                          Duration:
              Implementing an accident data management                            Weeks 9 - 21
              system for storage, processing and analysis of RTC

             Task description:
           Based on the outcomes of the 1st stakeholder workshop (Task 5) and on the data analysis
           framework (Task 7), an Accident Data Management System will be implemented,
           allowing for the storage, processing and analysis of road traffic crashes, as well as for the
 maintenance of the road traffic crash database.
 The Consultant will adapt and integrate already existing information systems, developed by CTL (i.e.
 SFINGE and Safety Manager).
 Task 8-A - The Consultant will adapt existing software to the local conditions of Sierra Leone. The
 selected information systems will contain all the selected crash data types and elements with their
 desirable features.
 Task 8-B - Subsequently, RTC data collected during the pilot activity will be entered into the
 database management system for storage, processing and analysis.
 Task 8-C– ARTC data output mechanism will be embedded into the information systems (data
 management system).
 Task 8-D – The system will also embed a data integration and linkage system which can be shared
 amongst the respective actors involved in the road traffic crash data collection process (e.g. police,
 vehicle and driver licensing authority, health, etc.).
 All the information systems will be accompanied by guidelines on their use, available both on paper
 and on-line.
              Results:                                                            Reporting:
              Accident data management system implemented                         Draft final report
              and adapted to local conditions                                     (week 18)

 Task 9 - Training and Capacity Development
              Objective:                                                          Duration:
              Training of selected staff for a trainer of trainers in             Weeks 18 - 20
              RTC data collection and the use of the accident
              data management system
             Task description:
             This task will follow the implementation of the accident data management system (Task
             8) focusing on the design and the implementation of the train of trainers activities.
 A selected staff composed by ten people will be trained on the use of the developed RTC data
 collection process and the associated accident management system.
 The training will be organised according to a “train-the-trainers” scheme allowing the selected team
 to in turn train other staff members involved in data collection, analysis and management.
 The selected ten-member staff will be composed by different types of actors involved in the data
 collection process: traffic police officers, data analysts, etc. This team will be selected with the
 support of the main project partners.

ReCAP | Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone                               11
Training activities will be organised according to the specific skills of the staff, so some members will
 be trained on data collection, others on data analysis, etc. Specific training modules will be created
 to this aim. All training modules will include theoretical and practical sessions.
              Results:                                                                    Reporting:
              Selection of future trainers                                                Training report (week
                                                                                          20)
              Staff trained on RTC data collection, analysis and
              management

 Task 10 – Final report

              Objective:                                                                  Duration:
              Describing all the activities and products developed                        Weeks 21 – 24
              during the study
             Task description:
             This task will consist in preparing the study final report including detailed information
             about all the activities performed, as well as a description of the information systems and
             frameworks developed.
              Results:                                                                    Reporting:
              Description of all products and results obtained                            Final report (week
              during the study                                                            24)

The project methodology is depicted in Figure 2, showing how Tasks and sub-tasks interrelate with each
other.

                                      Figure 2 Interrelation of project activities

               1               2-A                 3
           Situation       Scope of RTC       Stakeholder
            analysis           data          consultations

                                2-B
                                                 2-C                                                  5-B
                            Quality of
                                              Set of RTC                                          Stakeholder
                           existing RTC
                                                 data                                              workshop
                               data

                                                   4                                                  8
                                                                                       7
                               5-A            Framework                6                          Accident
                                                                                  Framework
                           Stakeholder       for RTC data         Pilot data                        data
                                                                                 for RTC data
                            workshop         collection &         collection                     management
                                                                                    analysis
                                             management                                            system

                                                                                                       9
                                                                                                   Capacity
                                                                                                 development

                                                            10
                                                       Final Report

ReCAP | Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone                                       12
4           Work plan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     30 July-3 August
                                                                                                                                                                              30 April-4 May

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  28 May-1 June

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13-17 August
                                                                               12-16 March
                                                                                             19-23 March
                                                                                                           25-30 March

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6-10 August
                                                                                                                                                  16-20 April
                                                                                                                                                                23-27 April

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             11-15 June
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          18-22 June
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       25-29 June
                                                                                                                                                                                                          14-18 May
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21-25 May
                                                                   5-9 March

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           16-20 July
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13-27 July
                                                                                                                                     9-13 April

                                                                                                                                                                                               7-11 May

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               9-13 July
                                                                                                                         2-6 April

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4-8 June
Task                          Title / Week

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2-6 July
                                                                      1           2             3             4           5             6            7             8              9             10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
  1    Situation analysis                                                                                                D1
  2    Literature Review of similar studies
 2-A     Literature review on scope of RTC data types & elements                                                         D1
 2-B     Assess existing RTC data quality                                                                                                          D1
 2-C     Set of RTC data types required in Sierra Leone                                                                              D1
  3    Stakeholder Consultations
 3-A     Assess how RTC data are collected                                                                                                         D1
 3-B     Assess the quality of current RTC data                                                                                                    D1
 3-C     Finalise a set of data types                                                                                                              D1
 3-D     Critical linkages required for RTC data integration                                                                                                                   D2
  4    Conceptual framework for RTC data collection & management
 4-A     RTC data collection format/tool                                                                                                                                                       D2
 4-B     Conceptual framework for a RTC data management system                                                                                                                                            D2
  5    Stakeholder workshops
 5-A     Workshop #1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          D3
 5-B     Workshop #2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           D5
  6    Data Collection
 6-A     Select a pilot location                                                                                                                                                                                                   D4
 6-B     Train eligible enumerators                                                                                                                                                                                                               D4
 6-C     RTC data collection                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           D4
  7    Data Analysis Framework
 7-A     Set an analytical framework                                                                                                                                                                                               D4
 7-B     Characterize crash patterns by statistical tools                                                                                                                                                                                         D4
  8    Accident data management system
 8-A     Coding of the system                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       D4
 8-B     Enter crash data into the database                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         D4
 8-C     Define a RTC data output mechanism                                                                                                                                                                                                       D4
 8-D     Set up a RTC data integration and linkage system                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           D4
  9    Training and Capacity Development                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    D6
  10   Final report                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    D7

          Eventual activity

          Missions in Sierra Leone

ReCAP | Pilot study to collect more robust accident data for Sierra Leone                                                                                                                                                                                                 13
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