Reputation Symposium - Saïd Business School

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Reputation Symposium - Saïd Business School
Reputation Symposium - Saïd Business School
Reputation Symposium                                Contents
28-30 August 2019
Saïd Business School,
University of Oxford

                                                    4 Welcome
                                                    5 Saïd Business School information
                                                    6 Programme of events
                                                    8 Speakers and abstracts
                                                    25 Panellists, chairs and discussants
                                                    33 Annual awards 2018
                                                    35 Location map

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Reputation Symposium - Saïd Business School
Welcome                                                                                                                                       The Oxford University Centre
                                                                                                                                              for Corporate Reputation
                                                                                                                                              and Saïd Business School

Welcome to our tenth Reputation Symposium, now firmly                  our symposium steering group for many years. From next year            The Oxford University Centre for Corporate Reputation (CCR),
established as the most important annual global gathering              onwards, we have decided that the symposium will be organised          founded in 2008, is an independent research centre within
of reputation scholars. I am sure you are all looking forward,         by Alan together with a colleague selected from among our              Oxford University’s Saïd Business School. The CCR conducts
as I am, to three days of riveting, revelatory and even                International Research Fellows, and I am delighted that Michael        and supports world-class research that furthers understanding
provocative presentations and panels, with the usual impressive        Jensen has agreed to co-chair next year’s symposium. My                of how the reputations of organisations and individuals are
interdisciplinary sweep, covering everything from the reputation       thanks to Alan and Michael, and also to all of the track chairs this   created, sustained, enhanced, destroyed and rehabilitated. In
of AI to canon law, activism and country reputations.                  year for the fantastic line-up that they have helped curate.           addition to our annual Reputation Symposium, the CCR hosts
                                                                                                                                              conferences, seminars and workshops that feature leading
As we face our second decade as a centre, we are ensuring              Finally, I would like to thank our funders, our Visiting Fellows
                                                                                                                                              scholars of reputation and social evaluation more broadly. The
that we do not rest on our laurels. Innovations this year include      and our alumni from the various reputation programmes
                                                                                                                                              CCR is fortunate to have the support of an outstanding group
capturing more of everyone’s work in the form of short videos          run by Executive Education here in Oxford, many of whom
                                                                                                                                              of International Research Fellows from academic institutions
and podcast-style discussions which we will be hosting on our          are attending our opening debate and the gala dinner. Their
                                                                                                                                              around the world, as well as many distinguished Visiting Fellows
website. We will also be canvassing attendees for contributions        support, advice and wisdom as we shape our research and policy
                                                                                                                                              from business, the media and other organisations. We have also
to the debate we are currently having at the centre regarding          agenda is hugely valuable and much appreciated.
                                                                                                                                              devised and teach courses on the school’s MBA curriculum and
future research priorities as we continue to expand. We hope
                                                                       I very much hope that you all enjoy the symposium.                     for the school’s executive education programmes.
this will be a regular and useful driver for all the work of our
wider research community.                                                                                                                     Saïd Business School was founded in 1996, and since then
                                                                                                                                              has become one of the highest ranking business schools in the
As usual, we are delighted to underpin our support of the
                                                                                                                                              world, with a reputation for entrepreneurship and innovative
work of others with two awards. This year’s Best Published
                                                                                                                                              business education. The school has two sites: Park End Street
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Centre Staff
Paper award goes to Samuel P. Fraiberger, Roberta Sinatra,
                                                                                                                                              and Egrove Park. The city centre building at Park End Street       Sarah Livingstone, centre manager
Magnus Resch, Christoph Riedl and Albert-Laszlo Barabasi
                                                                                                                                              was constructed on the site of the Oxford Rewley Road railway
for “Quantifying reputation and success in art” (Science 362                                                                                                                                                     Sarah started her professional career in IT project
                                                                                                                                              station, which dates back to 1844. It opened in 2001 as the
-2018), an examination of the career trajectories of artists                                                                                                                                                     management for Hays Resource Management,
                                                                                                                                              result of a £23 million benefaction from businessman and
relative to the networks of galleries and museums. The award                                                                                                                                                     part of the Hays plc group. She has worked for
                                                                                                                                              philanthropist Wafic Saïd. More recently, a new wing of the
for Best Dissertation has gone to Abbie Oliver, Assistant                                                                                                                                                        Deloitte as an HR contractor/consultant based in
                                                                                                                                              school, the Thatcher Business Education Centre, was opened
Professor at the J. Mack Robinson College of Business,                                                                                                                                                           The Hague and at the Department of Health as a
                                                                                                                                              in 2012. It was formally inaugurated by His Royal Highness the
University of Georgia, for “Think Crisis, Think Female?:                                                                                                                                                         Project Coordinator in the Procurement, Investment
                                                                                                                                              Prince of Wales on 4 February 2013.
Stakeholder Reactions to CEOs Following Corporate Violations”.                                                                                                                                                   and Commercial Division. Sarah joined the centre in
We hope to welcome award winners to this year’s event as well                                                                                 The state-of-the-art design of Park End Street is the work of      2011.
as in future years.                                                                                                                           leading architects Jeremy Dixon and Edward Jones, who also
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Mark Hughes-Morgan, researcher/writer
                                                                                                                                              designed the £214 million redevelopment of the Royal Opera
Another consistent element of the symposium over the years             Rupert Younger                                                         House in London’s Covent Garden. While modern in materials         Before joining the centre in 2013, Mark was a
has been the contribution made by our Senior Research Fellow
and Centre Deputy Director Rowena Olegario. Rowena indicated
                                                                       Director, Oxford University Centre                                     and approach, their design for Oxford Saïd draws upon academic     journalist for many years, writing and editing
                                                                                                                                              tradition, with a classical outdoor amphitheatre, columns and      for national newspapers and magazines. He has
to me some time ago that she would like to return to full-time         for Corporate Reputation                                               cloisters, oak-panelled, horseshoe-style lecture theatres, two     also advised companies on global PR and internal
research, and so sadly for us this is the last year that she will be
                                                                                                                                              large outdoor garden spaces, and a contemporary interpretation     communications. He writes and edits the centre
co-chairing our symposium. She leaves the centre at the end
                                                                                                                                              of the traditional Oxford dreaming spires.                         publications, including our case studies and
of October to concentrate on her work at The Global History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Reputation magazine.
of Capitalism Project within the History department at the                                                                                    Our Egrove Park campus is located in a bucolic farm setting and
University of Oxford. I am personally delighted that she will                                                                                 is used for executive education. Built in 1967 in a modernist      With thanks to Wei Jiang and Eloise Fraser for their
remain in Oxford and would like to publicly thank Rowena on                                                                                   style, the campus has a combination of teaching, conference,       help in organising the Reputation Symposium and
behalf of the centre for her great wisdom and energy and the                                                                                  residential and recreational spaces.                               compiling this brochure.
huge contribution she has made to the centre’s success to date.
Going forward, I will continue to oversee the symposium
together with Alan Morrison, who has also played a critical
role in the centre’s development. Not only is Alan a prolific and
recognised reputation scholar, he also currently chairs our centre
steering group within Saïd Business School and has been part of

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Programme of Events

Day 1 – Wednesday 28 August                                     Day 2 – Thursday 29 August                                             Eni Lecture Theatre       Lecture Theatre VIII
15:30       Welcome coffee/tea, Cohen Quad on Walton St,                Eni Lecture Theatre        Lecture Theatre VIII
                                                                                                                                                                                          Professional Development Workshop
                                                                                                                               16:15   Session break, coffee/tea in Club Room
            Exeter College                                                                                                                                                                A professional development workshop (PDW) was held
                                                                08:30   Registration, entrance hall, Thatcher Business                                                                    on the afternoon of Wednesday 28 August.
                                                                                                                               16:45   Stigmatised Industries    Activism, Reputational
16:00       Opening Session: Reputation and Artificial                  Education Centre, Saïd Business School
                                                                                                                                       and Occupations           Threats and Social       A number of the centre’s International Research
            Intelligence                                                Coffee/tea on arrival in Club Room
                                                                                                                                       David Deephouse           Responsibility           Fellows and 2019 symposium speakers were in
            Nicole Gillespie (Moderator)
                                                                                                                                       (Chair)                   Brayden King (Chair)     attendance to provide guidance and feedback to the
            Natalia Efremova                                    09:00   Are Network Brokers        The Sound and the Fury:
                                                                                                                                       Kam Phung                 Edward Walker            following early career researchers:
            Brent Mittelstadt                                           Prone to Bad               Managing Corporate
                                                                                                                                       Rongrong Zhang            Mary-Hunter McDonnell
            Rachel Coldicutt                                            Behaviour?                 Reputations in the Social                                                              Dominik Bong, University of        Rongrong Zhang, University
                                                                                                                                       Romain Vacquier           Edward Carberry
                                                                        Ronald Burt (Chair)        Media Era                                                                              Passau                             of Alberta
                                                                                                                                       Cynthia Devers
17:00       Walk from Cohen Quad on Walton Street to the                Martin Kilduff             Rhonda Reger (Chair)
                                                                                                                                       (Discussant)                                       Radina Blagoeva, Erasmus           The PDW was facilitated
            Oxford Union, St Michael’s Street                           Sonja Opper                Margaret Duffy
                                                                                                                                                                                          University                         by:
                                                                                                   Michael Etter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Cynthia Devers, Texas A&M
17:30       Oxford Union Debate: “This house believes that                                         Xinran (Joyce) Wang                                                                    Rohini Jalan, Oxford
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             University (Co-Chair)
            social media promotes anti-social behaviour”.                                                                                                                                 University Centre for
            Rupert Younger, Oxford University Centre for        10:15   Session break, coffee/tea in Club Room                 Day 3 – Friday 30 August                                   Corporate Reputation               Michael Pfarrer, University
            Corporate Reputation (Chair)                                                                                                                                                                                     of Georgia (Co-Chair)
                                                                                                                                                                                          Anna McKean, University of
            Cynthia Devers, Mays Business School,               10:45   Canon Law and              Country Reputations                 Eni Lecture Theatre       Lecture Theatre VIII
                                                                                                                                                                                          Northwestern                       Daniel Gamache, University
            Texas A&M University                                        Reputation                 William Newburry (Chair)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of Georgia
            William Harvey, Exeter University Business School           Alan Morrison              Alper Darendeli             08:30   Coffee/tea on arrival in Club Room                 Kevin McSweeney, Oxford
            Alan Morrison, Saïd Business School,                        (Co-Chair)                 Chengguang Li                                                                          University Centre for              Jonathan Bundy, Arizona
            University of Oxford                                        Bill Wilhelm                                           09:00   Reputation in            Emerging Scholars         Corporate Reputation               State University
            Roger Parry, YouGov plc                                     (Co-Chair)                                                     Intermediated Markets Cynthia Devers
                                                                                                                                                                                          Nawon Oh, Penn State               Scott Graffin, University of
            Rhonda Reger, Trulaske College of Business, 		              Mary Anne Case                                                 Alan Morrison (Co-Chair) (Co-Chair)
                                                                                                                                                                                          University                         Georgia
            University of Missouri                                      Patrick Nash                                                   Bill Wilhelm (Co-Chair) Michael Pfarrer
            David Wighton, The Wall Street Journal                                                                                     Anja Shortland           (Co-Chair)                Tanja Ohlson, Oxford               Andreas König, University
                                                                12:00   Lunch, Pyramid Room, Saïd Business School                      Katya Neretina                                     University Centre for              of Passau
18:45       Pre-dinner drinks, Exeter College, Turl Street                                                                                                                                Corporate Reputation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Jeffrey Lovelace, University
                                                                13:15   New Theoretical            Reputation of Brands and    10:15   Session break, coffee/tea in Club Room
                                                                                                                                                                                          Ilaria Orlandi, Erasmus            of Virginia
19:30       Opening dinner, Exeter College dining hall                  Directions in Research     Consumers
                                                                        Michael Pfarrer (Chair)    Roland Rust (Chair)         10:45   Closing session: Brand Activism                                                       Yuri Mishina, Imperial
                                                                        Andreas König              Timothy Keiningham                  Harrie Vredenburg (Chair)                          Kam Phung, York University         College Business School
                                                                        Jonathan Bundy             Ming-Hui Huang                      Connie Van Der Byl
                                                                                                                                                                                          Eva Schlindwein, Oxford            Abbie Oliver, Georgia State
                                                                        Daniel Gamache             Kalinda Ukanwa                      Jessica Vredenburg
                                                                                                                                                                                          University Centre for              University
                                                                                                                                       Amanda Spry
                                                                                                                                                                                          Corporate Reputation
                                                                14:30   Session break, coffee/tea in Club Room                         Daniel Korschun                                                                       Owen Parker, Oklahoma
                                                                                                                                       Rupert Younger (Moderator)                         Cleo Silvestri, Imperial           State University
                                                                15:00   Leadership and Social      Rebuilding Individual                                                                  College Business School
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Timothy Pollock, University
                                                                        Evaluations                Reputation and White        12:00   Conference close, optional lunch in the Pyramid
                                                                                                                                                                                          Benno Stocklein, University        of Tennessee-Knoxville
                                                                        Timothy Pollock            Collar Crime                        Room, Saïd Business School
                                                                                                                                                                                          of Passau
                                                                        (Chair)                    Thomas Roulet (Chair)                                                                                                     Rhonda Reger, University of
                                                                        Owen Parker and            William Harvey                                                                         Liyue Yan, University of           Missouri
                                                                        Rachel Mui                 Eugene Soltes                                                                          Maryland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Anastasiya Zavyalova, Rice
                                                                        Elle Yoon
                                                                                                                                                                                          Elle Yoon, University of Georgia   University
                                                                        Jeffrey Lovelace

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Speakers and Abstracts

Wicked Problems:                                                     Network Brokers,                                                   Institutional Responses                                                  Sustainability in the
Managing Multiple Social                                             Bad Behaviour and                                                  to #MeToo Claims:                                                        Anthropocene and the
Evaluations in a Crisis                                              Reputational Governance                                            #Vaticantoo,                                                             Institutionalisation of
Jonathan Bundy, Assistant Professor,                                 Ronald S. Burt, Hobart W. Williams                                 #Kavanaughtoo and                                                        Corporate Greenwashing
W. P. Carey School of Business, Arizona                              Professor of Sociology and Strategy,
State University                                                     University of Chicago Booth School of Business
                                                                                                                                        the Stumbling Block of                                                   Edward Carberry, Associate Professor of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Management, University of Massachusetts, Boston
Despite the central role of social evaluations in crises and         This is a study of colleagues citing one another for bad
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Although the number of firms claiming significant sustainability
crisis management, confusion persists as to the nature of            behaviour, a third-generation research question about the          Mary Anne Case, Arnold I. Shure Professor of Law, University of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 efforts has dramatically increased over the last decade, climate
the different evaluations that stakeholders make. As a result,       externalities of broker behaviour, behaviour itself constituting   Chicago Law School
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 change continues at an alarming pace, raising questions about
crises may threaten different evaluations in different ways, and     a second generation of research built on the first generation
                                                                                                                                        The #MeToo movement has led institutions of all sorts to take            the impacts of corporate sustainability efforts. This paper
organisational attempts to manage one social evaluation may          that linked success with network structures rich in brokerage
                                                                                                                                        more seriously than heretofore claims that powerful men, in time         demonstrates, through an analysis of the sustainability efforts
harm or threaten others. Integrating research from the fields of     opportunities. Using three years of data on colleagues citing
                                                                                                                                        frames ranging from decades ago to very recently, have engaged           of the S&P 500, that despite the sophistication of corporate
management, strategy, organisational behaviour, communication        investment bankers for bad behaviour, I show that network
                                                                                                                                        in sexual imposition ranging from rape to crude suggestiveness.          environmental reporting, the actual impacts of sustainability
and public relations, we present an overarching framework for        brokers are associated with bad behaviour. The visible
                                                                                                                                        What the movement has not resolved is what is to be done going           programmes on measures taken seriously by climate scientists
understanding: 1) the nature of stakeholder’s different social       association, however, is spurious. Network brokers have larger
                                                                                                                                        forward with the men against whom such claims are credibly               are quite limited. We use this evidence to theorise how more
evaluations — including social approval, legitimacy, reputation,     networks, and bad-behaviour citations increase with total
                                                                                                                                        asserted. The hope that they would voluntarily and permanently           varied and complex forms of corporate greenwashing have
status and celebrity; 2) the role of each social evaluation in       number of citations. When network size is held constant, the
                                                                                                                                        step aside was, of course, over-optimistic. Yet the possibility that     become institutionalised, and highlight the implications of our
a crisis — including how each evaluation is threatened by a          association between brokers and bad behaviour disappears.
                                                                                                                                        no avenue for redemption seems open may have led many of                 findings for theories of corporate responses to activism.
crisis and how an organisation may differentially manage its         More, retribution for bad behaviour is exercised through
                                                                                                                                        the accused to make the rational calculation that anything short
evaluations. We then consider how future research might work         network status. Holding constant network size, the bankers                                                                                  CO-AUTHOR:
                                                                                                                                        of categorical denial would be career ending. The calculation for
to better understand the role of social evaluations in crisis. Our   cited more often for bad behaviour have lower network status.
                                                                                                                                        the institutions involved is also difficult. This paper will centre on   Matthew S. Urdan, PhD Student, Organisations and Social
primary recommendation is that scholars conduct more studies         Models predicting annual earnings show no direct association
                                                                                                                                        one kind of institutional response, actually - though disastrously       Change, College of Management, University of Massachusetts,
that consider multiple evaluations as antecedents, critical          with citations for bad behaviour, but the usual low returns for
                                                                                                                                        - used by the Catholic Church in its response over time to               Boston
conditions and outcomes of the crisis management process.            low-status bankers. In sum, the standard network model of
                                                                                                                                        allegations of clerical sexual abuse, a response the Church saw as
                                                                     reputational governance is supported: bad behaviour is punished
CO-AUTHORS:                                                                                                                             dictated by the canon law doctrine of scandal. As the Church saw
                                                                     by lower network status, which lowers returns to network
                                                                                                                                        it, even worse than the sexual sins committed by its clergy would
Michael Pfarrer, Professor, Terry College of Business, University    brokerage.
                                                                                                                                        be public acknowledgement of them in such a way as to present
of Georgia
                                                                     CO-AUTHOR:                                                         a stumbling block (“skandalon” in Greek) to the faith of believers.
Farhan Iqbal, PhD Student, Terry College of Business, University                                                                        Thus, secrecy to the point of cover-up could be seen not as a
                                                                     Song Wang, Associate Professor, Innovation, Entrepreneurship
of Georgia                                                                                                                              problem, but as an imperative, a contribution to the greater good.
                                                                     and Strategy, School of Management, Zhejiang University
                                                                                                                                        As many critics have noted, the project thus became one of
                                                                                                                                        reputation management rather than of victim protection. After
                                                                                                                                        reviewing ways in which the doctrine of scandal can be seen to
                                                                                                                                        account for institutional responses to allegations against Catholic
                                                                                                                                        clergy and in some analogous cases such as that of US Supreme
                                                                                                                                        Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh, the paper will suggest that
                                                                                                                                        while the idea behind the doctrine of scandal - that the effect of
                                                                                                                                        allegations of wrongdoing by those in power on the people’s faith
                                                                                                                                        in institutions is an important consideration - may be a sound
                                                                                                                                        idea, the doctrine itself needs to be reformed because it is the
                                                                                                                                        operation of the doctrine itself, as it motivates and justifies cover-
                                                                                                                                        up of wrongdoing, that has become a stumbling block to faith in
                                                                                                                                        the institutions affected..

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Speakers and Abstracts continued

Guilty by Association: The                                              Under the Influence:                                              User Comments and                                                    Simply the Best:
Effects of Terrorism on                                                 Corporate Reputation                                              Individuals’ Reactions                                               How Positive Social
Country Reputation and                                                  Management in a Social                                            to Corporate Crisis                                                  Evaluations Can Lead to
Corporate Activity                                                      Media World                                                       Responses: The                                                       Organisational Hubris
Alper Darendeli, Assistant Professor,                                   Margaret Duffy, Professor at the Missouri                         Amplification Effect on                                              Daniel Gamache,Assistant Professor, Terry
Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Business School               School of Journalism, University of Missouri                                                                                           College of Business, University of Georgia
                                                                                                                                          Reputational Outcomes
By exploiting variations in nationalities of foreign victims in local   Corporations, brands and marketing communication agencies                                                                              Social evaluations research has suggested a wide range of
                                                                                                                                          Michael Etter, Senior Lecturer, King’s Business School, King’s
terror attacks, we identify distortionary effects of terrorism on       are increasingly attentive to online “influencers”, individuals                                                                        benefits and costs associated with widespread social approval:
                                                                                                                                          College London
country reputations and corporate sales to foreign countries. The       who develop social media followings and thus are able to have                                                                          e.g., reputation and celebrity. We develop theory to show that
effects of terrorism are economically and statistically significant,    impacts on perceptions audiences may have. Using a range of       Other people’s opinions have substantial influence on individual     these forms of positive external evaluations of a firm can change
persistent and more pronounced after attacks with casualties and        tools and platforms, these influencers successfully compete       judgment formation. Social influence theory argues that a            the very nature of the firm itself. To do so, we introduce the
high levels of foreign media coverage. “Guilty-by-association”          for time and attention with professional marketing messaging.     perceived consensus or majority opinion about an issue affects       construct “organisational hubris”, which we define as a collective
firms, i.e., local country firms whose names resemble names from        Moreover, they have been shown to have impact on brand            individuals’ judgments. Accordingly, we study the effects of user    attitude marked by an inflated sense of pride and confidence
their countries of origin, are noticeably affected through greater      preferences and corporate reputation. Many firms have adopted     comments on individuals’ reactions to a firms’ crisis response       in the organisation that becomes a pervasive characteristic
deterioration in foreign segment sales. Distortions driven by           influencer strategies as part of their overall approaches to      in social media. With an in-between experiment, we test how          of the organisation and its members. Drawing on research on
terrorist activities are associated with reductions in overall firm     measuring and strengthening their corporate reputations.          Facebook comments about a firm’s crisis response influence           organisational-level attitudes, we propose that organisational
value, asset growth and profitability.                                  However, less attention has been paid to social media message     reputational outcomes. We find an amplification effect, whereby      hubris develops following intense or persistent positive social
                                                                        content and effectiveness or to the relative effectiveness of     supportive user comments decrease reputation loss, when a firm       evaluations from external sources and is collectivised as a result
                                                                        TV advertising versus influencer messaging. To that end, the      disseminates an apology or information response in an intentional    of shared cognition and emotional contagion. Organisational
Mehmet Ihsan Canayaz, Assistant Professor, Smeal College of             present study is one of a series of experiments using simulated   crisis scenario. Negative comments, on the other hand, increase      hubris is more durable than executive hubris and thus can have
Business, Pennsylvania State University                                 YouTube or other social media sites. The study tests corporate    reputation loss, when a firm denies its responsibility and uses a    influences that last beyond the tenure of a specific executive.
                                                                        or influencer messages examining how disclosures and narrative    scapegoating response. However, we find that user comments           Once developed, organisational hubris leads to decisions and
                                                                        conditions affect credibility, trust, persuasion knowledge,       were not able to offset the effect of inappropriate crisis           actions with two defining characteristics: latitude and insularity.
                                                                        message engagement and corporate reputation.                      responses. We explain these results with social judgment theory      Ultimately, organisational hubris becomes a powerful force that
                                                                                                                                          and discuss our findings in front of recent crisis communication     leads to reduced executive discretion and, as such, limits the
                                                                                                                                          literature.                                                          ability of the CEO and other top executives to shape the firm.
                                                                        Eunjin (Anna) Kim, Assistant Professor, Annenberg School for
                                                                                                                                          CO-AUTHORS:                                                          CO-AUTHOR:
                                                                        Communication and Journalism, University of Southern California
                                                                                                                                          Matthes Fleck, Professor, University of Applied Sciences, Lucerne,   Kevin Curran, Research Fellow, Oxford University Centre for
                                                                        Esther Thorson, Professor and Associate Dean, College of
                                                                                                                                          Switzerland                                                          Corporate Reputation
                                                                        Communication Arts and Sciences, Michigan State University
                                                                                                                                          Roy Mueller, Associate Consultant, Farner Consulting

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Speakers and Abstracts continued

Down and Out? A Case                                                Real-Time Longitudinal                                                Understanding the Drivers                                           Brokers Behaving Badly:
Study of White Collar                                               Analysis of Brand                                                     of Word-of-Mouth                                                    How Burnout Leads to
Prisoners in the United                                             Reputation                                                            Volume Across Industries                                            Abusive Behaviour
States Attempting to                                                Ming-Hui Huang, Distinguished                                         Timothy Keiningham, J. Donald Kennedy                               Martin Kilduff, Professor and Director of
                                                                    Professor of Electronic Commerce                                      Endowed Chair in E-Commerce and                                     Research, UCL School of Management
Recover from Reputation                                             in the Department of Information Management, College of               Professor of Marketing, Peter J. Tobin College of Business, St
                                                                                                                                                                                                              The returns to social network brokerage are well established,
Loss                                                                Management, National Taiwan University                                John’s University
                                                                                                                                                                                                              but the downsides are less examined. Brokerage involves
William Harvey, Director of Research and Professor of               Many brand reputation measures currently exist, mostly at the         Managers and researchers are keenly interested in understanding     effortful work, such as transferring information and facilitating
Management, Exeter University Business School                       aggregate level, such as the Interbrand “Best Global Brands” list,    the drivers of word-of-mouth (WOM) volume. This research            coordination. These work demands deplete energy, with
                                                                    that ranks leading companies in terms of their overall reputation.    investigates the different types of WOM behaviours associated       implications for abusive behaviour toward co-workers. Not
Despite extensive research on reputation and identity, our
                                                                    Other brand measures, such as the Y&R Brand Asset Valuator, rely      with six attitudinal drivers (customer satisfaction, positive       all brokerage is likely to exhibit this pattern. Whereas catalyst
understanding of how both constructs intersect is narrow
                                                                    on customer brand perception surveys. We develop a new social         emotions, negative emotions, affective commitment, calculative      brokerage involves bringing people together for mutual benefit
and limited. This paper draws on an ethnographic study of
                                                                    media-based brand reputation tracker by mining Twitter data for       commitment, self-brand connection). We began by building            (i.e., tertius iungens), divide-between brokerage involves creating
70 inmates at a federal prison camp in the United States to
                                                                    comments on three drivers of brand reputation — value, brand          a large-scale multi-national database that includes attitudinal     or maintaining disunion in pursuit of personal or organisational
understand how professionals can recover after a devastating
                                                                    and relationship —based on the Rust-Zeithaml-Lemon customer           drivers, customer characteristics, and a full range of WOM          goals (i.e., tertius gaudens). It is divide-between brokerage
loss of reputation. The paper provides three theoretical insights
                                                                    equity driver framework. The customer equity driver framework         behaviours, involving both sending and receiving positive and       that, we argue, leads to abusive behaviour mediated by broker
in relation to reputation. First, we explain the socio-cognitive
                                                                    was designed to map to strategic marketing expenditures and           negative WOM. Moreover, we distinguished between WOM                burnout. The physical and mental demands involved in maintaining
processes of how professionals cope with attempts to rebuild
                                                                    has been applied at many leading companies worldwide. We              between friends and family (i.e., strong ties) and WOM between      separation between different groups or people are likely to use
their reputation. Second, we argue that identity and construed
                                                                    collected longitudinal data for 100 leading global brands, from       weak ties such as online connections. The combination results       up valuable resources of time, attention and energy. By contrast,
image play an important role in rebuilding reputation when
                                                                    July 1 2016 to the end of 2018, on a weekly, monthly, and             in a typology of eight distinct WOM behaviours. We explore          coordinating across separated parties in pursuit of mutual gains is
reputation signals are absent. Third, we show the relative
                                                                    quarterly basis. We measure volume and sentiment on the three         the drivers of those behaviours, and their moderators, using        likely to provide catalyst brokers with positive emotion that helps
importance of capability and character as well as a more
                                                                    drivers of brand reputation and show that the tracker reflects        a hierarchical Bayes model in which all WOM behaviours are          ameliorate the emotional exhaustion and related symptoms of
important concept, contribution, for rebuilding reputation.
                                                                    important brand events, and that the three drivers of brand           simultaneously modelled. The data examined is from 15,147           burnout. Across four studies, we found support for the prediction
CO-AUTHORS:                                                         reputation vary in terms of the degree to which they reflect          unique respondents spanning 10 countries (Australia, Brazil,        that, relative to catalyst brokers, divide-between brokers whose
                                                                    those events. We explore the stationarity of the drivers and          Canada, China, France, India, Russia, Spain, UK and US) and 793     resources are depleted because of burnout are likely to engage
Navdeep Arora, University of Exeter Business School
                                                                    analyse the interdependence pattern between them. We further          different brands, representing eight broad industry categories      in abusive, aggressive and counter-productive work behaviour.
Dimitrios Spyridonidis, Associate Professor, University of          link the drivers to firm abnormal stock returns to demonstrate        (utilities, manufacturing, pharmacy, retail, transportation and     Engaging in divide-between brokerage puts the broker at risk of
Warwick Business School                                             the nomological validity of the drivers and their actionability for   warehousing, information, accommodation and food services,          not just tiredness but abusiveness toward others.
                                                                    brand management. The tracker connects social media mining            finance and insurance). Our findings clearly demonstrate that
                                                                    and marketing, making brand reputation measure accessible in an       when looking at the impact of each attitudinal driver across WOM
                                                                    almost real-time manner, and bridges the corporate reputation         behaviours simultaneously, almost all result in WOM behaviours      Jung Won Lee, Doctoral student, UCL School of Management
                                                                    literature with marketing outcomes by bringing in the customer-       that are both good and bad for the firm. Moreover, the strength
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Eric Quintane, Associate Professor, School of Management,
                                                                    focused measure of brand reputation.                                  of each key driver varies widely across WOM behaviour type.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
                                                                                                                                          Adding to the complexity, this effect differs greatly by industry
                                                                                                                                          type. As a result, this research provides a clear road map for      Sun Young Lee, Assistant Professor, UCL School of Management
                                                                    Roland T. Rust, Distinguished University Professor and David          managers to obtain the preferred set of WOM behaviours.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Camilla Umana, Doctoral student, School of Management,
                                                                    Bruce Smith Chair in Marketing, Robert H. Smith School of
                                                                                                                                          CO-AUTHORS:                                                         Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
                                                                    Business, University of Maryland
                                                                                                                                          Roland T. Rust, Distinguished University Professor and David
                                                                    William Rand, Assistant Professor of Marketing at the Poole
                                                                                                                                          Bruce Smith Chair in Marketing, University of Maryland
                                                                    College of Management, North Carolina State University
                                                                                                                                          Bart Larivière, Associate Professor of Marketing, KU Leuven
                                                                    Andrew T. Stephen, L’Oreal Professor of Marketing, Saïd
                                                                    Business School, University of Oxford
                                                                                                                                          Lerzan Aksoy, Professor of Marketing, Gabelli School of
                                                                    Gillian Brooks, Postdoctoral Career Development Fellow in
                                                                                                                                          Business, Fordham University
                                                                    Marketing, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford
                                                                                                                                          Luke Williams, Head of CX Strategy and Thought Leadership,
                                                                    Timur Chabuk, Director of Intelligent Information Systems at
                                                                    Perceptronics Solutions, Inc
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Speakers and Abstracts continued

Good Fun or Laughing                                                Country Reputation and                                                   The Push and Pull of                                                  Cloaking amidst
Stock? How CEO Trait                                                Investor Reactions to                                                    Attaining CEO Celebrity                                               Contestation: Firms’ Use
Humour Affects Corporate                                            Cross-border Acquisitions                                                Jeffrey Lovelace, Assistant Professor                                 of Obfuscating Branding
                                                                                                                                             of Commerce, McIntire School of
Reputation, Legitimacy                                              Chengguang Li, Assistant Professor, Ivey
                                                                                                                                             Commerce, University of Virginia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Strategies to Avoid
                                                                    Business School, Western University
and Social Approval                                                                                                                          Why do some CEOs become celebrities, while others with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Product-level Disruption
                                                                    Our paper examines the role of country reputation as a category
Andreas König, Professor of Management, University of Passau
                                                                    signal for investors evaluating cross-border acquisitions. We argue
                                                                                                                                             seemingly equal accomplishments do not? While two decades of          from Social Activism
                                                                                                                                             research on CEO social acclaim have furthered our understanding
We develop theory on how the CEO’s level of trait humour – i.e.,    that a country’s reputation imprints on its firms so that those                                                                                Mary-Hunter McDonnell, Assistant Professor of Management,
                                                                                                                                             of CEO celebrity, far more is known about its consequences than
his or her tendency to engage in playful social behaviour that      hailing from nations with better reputations are viewed as having                                                                              The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                             its determinants. Studies have shown that while CEOs derive
establishes an incongruent relationship or meaning and, thereby,    superior skills/capabilities. Investors frequently use heuristics
                                                                                                                                             considerable personal benefits from social acclaim in the forms of    Contentious social movements seek to compel corporate social
amuses followers – affects external constituents’ views of the      in their decision-making, as they often lack sufficient time and
                                                                                                                                             increased pay, external board seats, and protection from dismissal    reform through tactics like protests and boycotts that villainise
focal organisation. Combining the social psychology of humour       cognitive resources to thoroughly analyse all available information.
                                                                                                                                             their firms tend to suffer as a result. Celebrity, it seems, yields   a firm in order to threaten its reputation and drive consumers
with research on social evaluations of firms, we argue that         Thus, we expect investors to react more positively toward
                                                                                                                                             valuable validation for CEOs, but it can also go to their heads,      away from its products or services. In this paper, we introduce
CEO humour has differential effects, depending on the type of       cross-border acquisitions when the reputation of the acquirer’s
                                                                                                                                             causing various combinations of complacency, risk-taking, and         a defensive marketing strategy — what we call “cloaking” —
humour employed – i.e., positive versus negative, and self-         nation is greater than that of the target’s, since the difference
                                                                                                                                             hubris that negatively affect performance. While firm success and     that chronically targeted companies use to limit the disruptive
directed versus others-directed – and the category of social        signals that the acquirer is able to identify/exploit undervalued
                                                                                                                                             the attribution of that success to the CEO has been established       reach of activism. The strategy involves introducing products
evaluations – i.e., social approval, legitimacy, and reputation.    targets and leverage synergies. This relationship should be weaker
                                                                                                                                             as a minor predictor of CEO celebrity, other factors influencing      under sub-brands or through independently branded subsidiaries
For instance, we argue that a higher tendency of the CEO to         when substitute signals, such as news media reporting on the
                                                                                                                                             this process have not been systematically examined. This study        that obfuscate the parent firm’s ownership. We explore the
employ positive types of humour increases the social approval       merging firms, analyst coverage of the firms, and the acquirer’s
                                                                                                                                             aims to enhance our understanding of the process through which        relationship between activism and cloaking in a longitudinal
of the focal firm among constituents. In contrast, as humour        prior acquisition track record, are present, as investors will be less
                                                                                                                                             CEOs attain celebrity by introducing a theory that outlines key       panel that tracks the branding strategies employed in the launch
oftentimes includes norm violations, a higher tendency of the       reliant on country reputation as a signal. Furthermore, we propose
                                                                                                                                             antecedents of CEO celebrity, developing a novel measure of CEO       of over 64,000 products owned by public US firms. We suggest
CEO to employ humour – even positive humour – negatively            that news media reporting weakens the relationship between
                                                                                                                                             celebrity based on a comprehensive set of traditional and online      that a cloaking strategy is most prevalent when contested
affects constituents’ assessments of the firm’s legitimacy. We      country reputation differentials and investor reactions to a greater
                                                                                                                                             media sources that better reflects celebrity’s categorical nature,    firms seek to offer products in market niches aligned with a
extend our ideas by theorising on the degree to which these         extent than analyst coverage. Data on 4,792 cross-border
                                                                                                                                             and providing insights into the trajectory of CEO celebrity over      movement (such as products branded as “green” or “organic”),
effects might differ depending on the respective CEO’s celebrity    acquisitions in 48 countries between 2009 and 2017 support our
                                                                                                                                             the course of a CEO’s tenure.                                         especially when the parent has a poor reputation in the niche’s
and the type of external constituents – “main street” versus        hypotheses.
“Wall street” constituents. Our theorising contributes to the                                                                                CO-AUTHORS:
literature on corporate reputation, the unfolding conversation on                                                                                                                                                  CO-AUTHOR:
                                                                                                                                             Jonathan Bundy, Assistant Professor, W. P. Carey School of
social implications of executive personality, and leader humour     Oded Shenkar, Ford Motor Company Chair in Global Business
                                                                                                                                             Business, Arizona State University                                    Todd Schifeling, Assistant Professor of Strategic Management,
research.                                                           Management and Professor, Fisher College of Business, The Ohio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Fox School of Business, Temple University
                                                                    State University                                                         Timothy G. Pollock, Haslam Chair in Business, Distinguished
                                                                                                                                             Professor of Entrepreneurship, Haslam College of Business,
                                                                    William E. Newburry, Chair, Department of International
Dominik Bong, PhD Candidate, University of Passau                                                                                            University of Tennessee-Knoxville
                                                                    Business; Ryder Eminent Scholar of Global Business, Florida
Benno Stöcklein, PhD Candidate, University of Passau                International, University College of Business                            Donald C. Hambrick, Evan Pugh University Professor & Smeal
                                                                                                                                             Chaired Professor of Management, Penn State Smeal College of
Lorenz Graf-Vlachy, Assistant Professor, Chair of Strategic
Management, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship, University of

14    REPUTATION SYMPOSIUM 2019                                                                                                                                                                                                       WWW.SBS.OXFORD.EDU/REPUTATION              15
Speakers and Abstracts continued

The Scorpion & The Frog:                                             Underwriter Competition                                              The Grass is Always                                                   Surviving Bad Behaviour:
Making Sense of the                                                  and Bargaining Power                                                 Greener: The Impact of                                                What Explains the
Roman Catholic Church’s                                              in the Corporate Bond                                                Home and Host Country                                                 Reputation Penalty?
Response to the Clergy                                               Market                                                               CSR Reputation on Firm                                                Sonja Opper, Gad Rausing Professor of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                International Economics, Lund School of
Sex Abuse Crisis                                                     Katya Neretina, Assistant Professor of                               Internationalisation                                                  Economics and Management, Lund University
                                                                     Finance and Business Economics, University of South Carolina
Patrick Nash, Research Fellow at the Woolf Institute, University                                                                          William Newburry, Chair, Department of International Business;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bad behaviour in social exchange comes with a reputation penalty.
of Cambridge                                                         We study the impact of underwriter competition on corporate          Ryder Eminent Scholar of Global Business, Florida International
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Offenders are less likely to be trusted and are less likely to be
                                                                     bond contracts. We develop a new measure of underwriter              University College of Business
This paper will address three main issues. First, it examines the                                                                                                                                               approached for cooperative action in the future. Yet, not all
                                                                     power and a novel empirical approach, based on the
scale of and unique aggravating features present in the sex                                                                               The purpose of this study is to introduce the novel concept of        offenders experience the same penalty. Some recover quickly,
                                                                     underwriter’s comparative ability to place bonds. When an issuer
abuse crisis within the Church. Second, it provides an overview                                                                           CSR reputation and understand its impact on cross-country             others are avoided for a long time to come, or get cut-off from
                                                                     has few “outside options” to take his bond to the market, the
and assessment of the Church’s canonical response to clergy                                                                               investments. We combine Diffuse Reciprocity from international        the network. Using data on 384 people cited as problematic
                                                                     underwriter enjoys a stronger bargaining power over the issuer.
abuse. Third, it looks at the Church’s own understanding of the                                                                           relations literature and Institutional Theory to argue that having    connections within the networks around Chinese entrepreneurs,
                                                                     The key feature of our approach is that underwriter power
crisis in contrast to the way in which secular authorities and                                                                            a home country with a high CSR reputation is an advantage             this study explores the extent to which personal attributes of the
                                                                     varies within a given underwriter at a given point in time across
commentators often perceive it. The paper argues that the                                                                                 that firms can exploit as it makes these firms more attractive        offender, the substance of the “incident” and network structure
                                                                     different issuers, allowing us to separate the effects of power
Church’s actions and continuing failure to resolve the crisis — at                                                                        to potential host markets as policymakers contemplate inward          help to explain variation in individual reputation penalties.
                                                                     from those of reputation and certification with a fixed effects
great cost to its reputation — are best understood through                                                                                foreign direct investment strategies. Moreover, we propose            Personal attributes and the substance of the incident have a
                                                                     strategy. Using our measure, we document that powerful
the associational theory of Michael Oakeshott. In short, the                                                                              that there are increased cross-country investments between            negligible effect on the reputation penalty. What matters is the
                                                                     underwriters are able to extract rents at the expense of bond
Roman Catholic Church is by nature an enterprise association                                                                              countries with dissimilar CSR reputations so that firms can benefit   network around the offended entrepreneur and the offender.
                                                                     issuers, in the form of higher fees, issuance yield spreads, and
par excellence and the considerations it takes into account when                                                                          from the normative institutional gap, and that this relationship      Entrepreneurs surrounded by closed networks tend to impose
                                                                     underpricing. Issuers facing underwriters with the highest
handling abuse cases reflect this. The paper concludes with a                                                                             is positively moderated by the economic distance between              larger reputation penalties at the same time that offenders
                                                                     bargaining power have a $1.5 million higher issuance cost, or
final prognosis of the prospects of fundamental legal and cultural                                                                        the countries. Analyses of 45,344 country-pair observations           embedded in closed networks tend to “survive” the incident
                                                                     about 16% relative to the average issue. A number of checks
change within the Church, as well as suggesting pragmatic                                                                                 across 7,206 country pairs from 153 countries and eight years         with a smaller reputation penalty. This leads to a counter-
                                                                     rule out alternative explanations based on certification, loyalty,
measures to promote improvement.                                                                                                          provide robust support. Overall, our analyses suggest that high       intuitive conclusion: while closed networks are most effective in
                                                                     and omitted issuer and/or issue characteristics. Our findings
                                                                                                                                          country-level CSR reputations imprint on their firm as they invest    monitoring and detecting malfeasance within the network, closure
                                                                     suggest that lack of underwriter competition results in material
                                                                                                                                          abroad, helping to promote CSR on a global basis, thus supporting     around the offender guards against related penalties.
                                                                     costs for corporate bond issuers.
                                                                                                                                          policymakers as they pursue sustainable development and the
                                                                     CO-AUTHORS:                                                          2030 Agenda.
                                                                     Alberto Manconi, Assistant Professor, Department of Finance,         CO-AUTHORS:
                                                                     Bocconi University
                                                                                                                                          Luis Alfonso Dau, Associate Professor, International Business
                                                                     Luc Renneboog, Professor, Tilburg School of Economics and            and Strategy, D’Amore McKim School of Business, Northeastern
                                                                     Management                                                           University
                                                                                                                                          Elizabeth Moore, Teaching Professor, D’Amore McKim School of
                                                                                                                                          Business, Northeastern University

16    REPUTATION SYMPOSIUM 2019                                                                                                                                                                                                    WWW.SBS.OXFORD.EDU/REPUTATION               17
Speakers and Abstracts continued

Unwelcome Voices:                                                    When Stigma Doesn’t                                               The Joke’s on Us: The                                               Governance under the
The Gender Bias-                                                     Stick: Occupational                                               Power of Social Media to                                            Shadow of the Law:
Mitigating Potential of                                              Stratification in the                                             Influence Evaluations of                                            Trading High-value Fine
Unconventionality                                                    Sharing Economy                                                   Corporations and their                                              Art
Owen Parker, Assistant Professor, Spears                             Kam Phung, PhD Candidate and                                      Leaders                                                             Anja Shortland, Professor in Political
School of Business, Oklahoma State University                        Government of Canada Vanier Scholar, Schulich School of                                                                               Economy, King’s College London
                                                                                                                                       Rhonda Reger, M. Watkins Distinguished Professor of
                                                                     Business, York University, Canada
Rachel Mui, Assistant Professor, ESC Rennes School of Business                                                                         Management, Robert J. Trulaske, Sr. College of Business,            The market for paintings by well-known artists is booming despite
                                                                     Existing research suggests that when an occupation is             University of Missouri                                              widespread concern about art crime and difficulties in establishing
Substantial evidence indicates that leaders are perceived
                                                                     stigmatised, new entrants will quickly become stigmatised                                                                             authorship. Public law enforcement is limited, and court cases
through a lens of gender bias, but what mitigates such bias                                                                            This presentation develops new theory about the ability of
                                                                     because stigma is transferable. While such work has advanced                                                                          are often deemed problematic. So how is this thriving market
remains underexplored. Examining men and women in creative,                                                                            social media content to affect social evaluations of firms and
                                                                     our understanding of stigma, we argue that existing theorising                                                                        governed in practice? We analyse the protocols used by the top
project-based leadership roles, we integrate insights from role                                                                        their leaders. It further presents results testing that theory
                                                                     on the transferability or stickiness of stigma does not account                                                                       auction houses to identify and resolve problems of illicit supplies
congruity and gender-bias literatures to predict how project                                                                           using a unique form of figurative content, internet memes.
                                                                     for large-scale shifts in the modern workforce that are                                                                               – fakes, forgeries, and items with defective legal titles – through
unconventionality and leader gender affect external perceptions                                                                        Most research in management on the power of media to
                                                                     changing the face and nature of many traditionally stigmatised                                                                        the lens of institutional analysis. We uncover a polycentric private
of project quality. We argue that prejudice against female leaders                                                                     influence evaluations of corporations and their leaders has
                                                                     occupations. In particular, the emergence of the “sharing”                                                                            governance system in which different actors govern distinct
is strongest for conventional projects due to the established                                                                          content analysed traditional information intermediary content
                                                                     or “gig” economy has radically re-defined many occupations                                                                            but overlapping issue areas; motivated by profit, prestige or the
presence of male-centric prototypical projects which induce bias,                                                                      (traditional media and industry analysts), which tends to be
                                                                     through the use of modern technologies that alter the ways in                                                                         search for truth. When the financial stakes rise, opportunistic
but that project unconventionality weakens this bias by distancing                                                                     literal, factual and temperate. In contrast, the content we
                                                                     which new members enter an occupation and are perceived.                                                                              behaviour undermines the credibility of private governance.
the project from these male-centric prototypes. We find support                                                                        are interested in on social media relies on more figurative
                                                                     So, when new entrants are numerous and associated with                                                                                We argue that as litigious, super-rich investors entered the art
for this using a sample of 1,414 films by 32 major film studios                                                                        communication including metaphors, hyperbole and parody,
                                                                     sharing economy innovation, will stigma transfer as readily                                                                           market, the interaction between public law and the traditional
(1990-2014) across three measures of perceived quality:                                                                                which are more powerful rhetorical devices. We will share the
                                                                     and impact reputation? We explore this through an inductive                                                                           private governance system restricted the supply of “blue chip”
moviegoer ratings, critic ratings, and film awards.                                                                                    results of a series of laboratory studies that test a theoretical
                                                                     study of Uber’s entry to taxi driving in Canada. We find that                                                                         art, driving the escalation of prices.
                                                                                                                                       framework using memes about firms and CEOs. We find that
CO-AUTHOR:                                                           new entrants can avoid stigma transfer and build reputation by
                                                                                                                                       memes are more than just funny cat pictures with silly captions;    CO-AUTHOR:
                                                                     creating categorical distinctiveness and showcasing identity
Varkey Titus, Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska-Lincoln                                                                      some of them significantly impact evaluations of corporations
                                                                     discrepancies that enable them to deflect the taint associated                                                                        Andrew Shortland, Professor in Forensic Archaeology, Cranfield
College of Business                                                                                                                    and their leaders, both positively and negatively. Ramifications
                                                                     with incumbents. These efforts result in media portrayals that                                                                        University
                                                                                                                                       for the management of social approval in the social media era
                                                                     entrench the stigma of incumbents, leading to occupational
                                                                                                                                       will be offered.
                                                                     stratification. In revealing this, we outline contributions to
                                                                     literature on stigma, stigmatised occupations and the sharing
                                                                     Madeline Toubiana, Assistant Professor of Strategic
                                                                     Management and Organisation, Alberta School of Business,
                                                                     University of Alberta
                                                                     Sean Buchanan, Assistant Professor of Business Administration,
                                                                     Asper School of Business, University of Manitoba
                                                                     Trish Ruebottom, Associate Professor of Management,
                                                                     DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University
                                                                     Luciana Turchick Hakak, Assistant Professor of Management,
                                                                     School of Business, University of the Fraser Valley

18    REPUTATION SYMPOSIUM 2019                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             19
Speakers and Abstracts continued

Is ‘Not Guilty’ the Same                                           Consumer Reputation:                                                 Using Narratives to                                                  The Movement for
as ‘Innocent’? Evidence                                            An Overlooked Topic in                                               Construct Reputation: A                                              Corporate Political
from SEC Financial Fraud                                           Reputation?                                                          New Organisational Form                                              Accountability
Investigations                                                     Kalinda Ukanwa, Assistant Professor,                                 Serving a Stigmatised                                                Edward Walker, Professor of Sociology,
                                                                   Marshall School of Business, University of                                                                                                UCLA
Eugene Soltes, Jakurski Family Associate
                                                                   Southern California
Professor of Business Administration, Harvard Business School                                                                                                                                                In the absence of required disclosure of expenditures of many
                                                                                                                                        Romain Vacquier, PhD Candidate, Dauphine University
                                                                   There has been much research into the antecedents and                                                                                     forms of corporate political activity in the US, shareholder
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) routinely
                                                                   consequences of corporate reputation. However, there has been        Organisations are stigmatised for many reasons, including for        activists have stepped up their campaigns to get firms to
investigates firms for financial fraud, but investors only learn
                                                                   very little research on the reputations of consumers and their       serving and representing stigmatised populations. In this case,      disclose these expenditures voluntarily. These campaigns have
about regulators’ concerns if managers voluntarily disclose
                                                                   impact on firm decision-making. In this presentation, I present      those stigmatised organisations must navigate between being          become widespread, with over 60 per cent of S&P firms facing
news of the investigation, or regulators sanction the firm.
                                                                   two studies in which I investigate the potential implications        perceived as “small worlds” or “total institutions”. In other        shareholder resolutions in recent years (and many of those
We investigate the effects of disclosing investigations using
                                                                   of consumer reputations on firm decision-making. The first           words, they either seek to reduce their own and their members’       firms making concessions). This research examines the targeting
confidential records on all opened investigations, regardless
                                                                   is a study of the impact of firm interventions on competitive        stigmatisation through building alliances and advocating for         strategies, coalition building and reputational aspects of what
of outcome. Markets exhibit some ability to identify which
                                                                   reputation building among consumers on an online platform. The       the stigmatised, or by isolating and limiting interactions with      has come to be known as the broader movement for corporate
investigations will eventually lead to sanctions. Nonetheless,
                                                                   study centres on a model of an actor’s decision to upload pirated    stigmatising audiences, risking isolating themselves even more.      political accountability.
even when no charges are ultimately brought, firms that
                                                                   content in order to build his reputation, despite facing threats     When new organisational forms emerge that seek to serve the
voluntarily disclose an investigation have significant negative
                                                                   from copyright lawsuits (firm interventions seeking to deter         stigmatised, how they manage their reputation both with targeted
returns, underperforming non-sanctioned firms that stayed
                                                                   uploading activity) and intense competition on the platform.         constituencies and with potential outside alliance partners, while
silent by 12.7 per cent for a year after the investigation
                                                                   Supported by empirical evidence, I present a novel theory that       simultaneously managing stigmatising audiences, is crucial for
begins. Consistent with limited investor attention, disclosing
                                                                   proposes the following: because competition for reputation is        building these organisations. In this study, we use a narrative
in a more prominent manner is associated with worse returns.
                                                                   active on the site, the lawsuits may deter uploading in the short    approach to understand the management of stigma through
CEOs who disclose an investigation are also 14 per cent more
                                                                   run but may actually lead to more piracy in the long run. The        reputation building in the context of organisational emergence.
likely to experience turnover. Our results are consistent with
                                                                   second study is an examination of the impact that a consumer         Empirically, we are conducting a longitudinal study of a project
transparency about bad news being punished, rather than
                                                                   group’s reputation can have on firm decision-making. Specifically,   to create the first retirement home dedicated to serving LGBT
rewarded, by financial and labour markets.
                                                                   it investigates 1) conditions under which a non-prejudiced firm      seniors in France. Our results suggest that the members elaborate
CO-AUTHOR:                                                         may discriminate in service against its consumers based on           a multi-vocal organisational narrative to build reputation(s) of
                                                                   group reputation, and 2) how subsequent consumer word-of-            the stigmatised organisation towards its multiple audiences.
David Solomon, Assistant Professor, Carroll School of
                                                                   mouth can impact demand and profits over time. This study            This elaboration is seen as a key activity in the management of
Management, Boston College
                                                                   shows that discrimination in service based on the reputation         organisational stigma.
                                                                   of consumer groups can be profitable in the short run but can
                                                                   backfire in the long run. This is due to the effects of consumer
                                                                   word-of-mouth and firm competition. This research emphasises         Bryant A. Hudson, IESEG School of Management
                                                                   the long-term benefits of switching to a service policy that does
                                                                                                                                        Thomas Roulet, University of Cambridge Judge Business School
                                                                   not use group reputation information in service decisions. Both
                                                                   studies contribute to the marketing literature by providing new
                                                                   insights into how the reputation of the consumer, an overlooked
                                                                   researched area, can have direct impact on firm decision-making.
                                                                   Roland T. Rust, Distinguished University Professor, Robert H.
                                                                   Smith School of Business, University of Maryland

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