SHEDDING LIGHT - A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England
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Previous Next Acknowledgements CPRE gratefully acknowledges the kind financial support of Thurstan Adburgham that made this study possible. The author of this report, Emma Marrington, also wishes to thank the 83 local authorities who responded to our survey about how they deal with lighting in their areas. Without them, this report would not have been possible. Dark skies above Westermill Farm near Exford
1 Shedding light A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England Contents Executive summary 2 About our survey 3 Lighting and CPRE 4 Planning, lighting and the law 6 Survey results and analysis, including CPRE’s view and recommendations: Local planning and lighting 8 Street light switch-off schemes 14 Street light dimming schemes 16 Crime and street lighting 20 Lighting types 22 New lighting in previously unlit areas 24 Conclusion 26 Recommendations 27 Appendix: CPRE lighting survey questions 28
Previous Next Contents 2 Shedding light Executive summary A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England Executive summary he Campaign to Protect l l ocal authorities told us that examining the cost, energy and carbon Rural England (CPRE) has communities are far more supportive savings. This should be done in full long been a leading voice in of street light dimming schemes than consultation with the local community; the campaign against light switching off street lights between l all local authorities who are switching pollution. We have a special interest in midnight and 5am. off or dimming street lighting should this issue: darkness at night is one of the monitor crime and accident statistics key characteristics of rural areas and it There has been a lot of progress in recent and consider taking part in the represents a major difference between years in developing policies to control the Institution of Lighting Professionals/ what is rural and what is urban. use of lighting, both by the Department LANTERNS research project which aims But light doesn’t respect boundaries; for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs to quantify any effects of changes to it can spread for miles from the source and local authorities. Street light switch- street lighting on road traffic accidents and blurs the distinction between town off and dimming schemes have become and crime; and country. Light spilling up into the increasingly popular as local authorities l local authorities should give careful night sky is also a waste of energy and look for ways to save money and energy, consideration to the type of Light- money – local authorities were estimated and to reduce their carbon emissions. Emitting Diode (LED) lighting they use to spend £616 million on street lighting The reduction in light pollution is a and consider the potential impacts that in 2013-141 – and the lights can account welcome side effect of these schemes but higher temperature blue rich lighting for between 15-30% of a local authority’s it has rarely been the main motivation. has on ecology and on human health; carbon emissions. We believe that there is still a lot of l local authorities with responsibility In 2012, CPRE welcomed the first ever potential to improve the way that lighting for street lighting could set targets for planning policy on light pollution. This is managed in ways which reduce light replacing all their street and road lights was contained in the National Planning pollution. More effective sharing of best with less light polluting types, such as Policy Framework (NPPF). To help us practice between and within local full cut off flat glass lamps; understand how local authorities are authorities is an important way to take l new street lighting should be tested responding to this change, we decided this forward. ‘in situ’ before a lighting scheme is to carry out a survey of English local As a result of the evidence presented rolled out across a wider area to ensure authorities to find out more about their in this report, CPRE makes the following that it is the minimum required for approaches to lighting. recommendations: the task and does not cause a nuisance The survey results have given us a to residents; better understanding of how decisions l ll local authorities should have a a l local authorities should have a strong are made about lighting at the local level, policy to control light pollution in their presumption against new lighting in including how lighting is dealt with in Local Plan, in line with the NPPF and existing dark areas, unless essential local planning and how local authorities the associated National Planning as part of a new development or for are working to make street lighting more Practice Guidance (NPPG) on light public safety reasons that have been energy and cost efficient. pollution. This should include clearly demonstrated; identifying existing dark areas that l the Highways Agency should review the The key findings are: need protecting; lighting section of the Design Manual l the NPPF policy to control light pollution l local authorities should consider for Roads and Bridges, which is used does not appear to have made a real preparing a Street Lighting Policy, to design motorway and trunk road impact in local policies. Only six of the which could include Environmental lighting, to ensure it remains relevant 49 local authorities who have a lighting Lighting Zones to ensure that the for local authorities. policy said it was introduced due to appropriate lighting levels are used the NPPF; in each zone, with very strict l local authorities can potentially save requirements applying in identified hundreds of thousands of pounds each dark areas; year by either switching off street l we encourage local authorities to lighting in suitable locations between investigate how part-night lighting midnight and 5am, or dimming lights. schemes (e.g. switching off between These schemes can also reduce carbon midnight and 5am) or dimming emissions and save energy; could work in their areas, including 1 epartment for Communities and Local Government ‘Local authority revenue expenditure and financing England: D 2013 to 2014 budget’
3 Shedding light About our survey A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England About our survey n early 2014 (between January city authorities in England (a total of 351 In 2003, CPRE published maps of light and February), CPRE carried out a authorities) with detailed questions about: pollution across the UK, as part of our survey of English local authorities Night Blight!2 report. to find out how they approach l whether local authorities have adopted We also carried out a short survey at the lighting in their areas. Up until now there new or revised lighting policies as a time, of 44 district and unitary councils has been a serious lack of information result of the NPPF; and five county councils, to inform a about how local authorities in England l the type of lighting that is used by section of the Night Blight!2 report about deal with lighting as part of the local local authorities and how decisions lighting and local planning. Of the district planning process (e.g. new development), are made on whether to install new or and unitary councils surveyed then, how they design street light switch-off replacement lighting; 39% had specific light pollution policies or dimming schemes, and how they l whether local authorities have in their Local Plan and 7% had some decide which street lighting to install in introduced schemes for switching off coverage of light pollution in other new developments or when replacing street lights or installing dimming policies. Another 5% said they had existing schemes. technology to offer varied levels of included consideration of light pollution CPRE worked with the Department lighting during the hours of darkness. in the review of their plan, 9% were for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs considering including it in the future (Defra) and the British Astronomical We received responses from 83 local and 5% had included guidance on the Association’s Campaign for Dark Skies authorities – including 17 county councils, reduction of light pollution, although (CfDS) in the development and design of 31 district councils, 10 metropolitan not a specific policy.3 the survey. borough councils, 18 unitary authorities This report is based on a far more We sent our survey questionnaire to and seven London boroughs. This comprehensive survey and creates a all county, district, borough, unitary and represents a 24% response rate. Responses detailed picture of how local authorities were received from every English region. are currently dealing with lighting issues. Light pollution of Eastbourne, from Warren Hill 2 C PRE Night Blight! (2003) http://www.cpre.org.uk/resources/countryside/dark-skies/item/1986- 3 Despite the national planning system having changed dramatically since 2003, the local approach to planning and lighting is similar, which is why we refer to the short 2003 survey in this report.
Previous Next Contents 4 Shedding light Lighting and CPRE A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England Lighting and CPRE ‘THE STREET LIGHTS ARE ONE OF THE REASONS I AM PLANNING TO MOVE HOUSE WITHIN THE NEXT FEW YEARS.’ The impact of light pollution an individual’s risk of developing Light pollution is a generic term oestrogen-related malignancies, such The main sources of light referring to artificial light which shines as breast cancer. pollution mentioned in the where it is neither wanted nor needed. In recent years, CPRE has carried out survey were: In broad terms, there are three types of a variety of initiatives to find out more light pollution: about light pollution, for example how Road lighting 89% excess light affects people’s lives and Domestic security lights 79% Skyglow – the pink or orange glow views of the night sky. Old street lights we see for miles around towns and cities, (>5 yrs old with orange glow) 77% spreading deep into the countryside, Sources of light pollution Businesses 56% caused by a scattering of artificial light In 2010, CPRE worked with the Campaign Sports grounds 53% by airborne dust and water droplets; for Dark Skies to carry out a ‘Lighting Supermarkets 41% Nuisance survey’6 to find out how light Glare – the uncomfortable brightness pollution is affecting people’s lives. of a light source; Almost 1,400 people took part and the Many of the people who took part in the results showed the range of sources survey said they were angry and frustrated Light intrusion – light spilling that cause a light nuisance; road lighting about the problems caused by light beyond the boundary of the property was cited as a source of light pollution pollution. Some people responding to the on which a light is located, sometimes by almost nine out of ten respondents, survey had moved house to escape from shining through windows and curtains. along with almost eight in ten people the problems caused by light intrusion, who mentioned the orange glow of one respondent said that ‘The street lights Light pollution can also affect wildlife. older streetlights. are one of the reasons I am planning to Artificial light can interrupt natural move house within the next few years.’ rhythms including migration, reproduction and feeding patterns. For instance, The survey revealed that: man-made light is known to cause confusion to migrating birds, often with l 3% had their home view of night 8 fatal outcomes. Exposure to artificial sky blighted by light pollution; light, which simulates short nights, is l 50% of the respondents had their known to induce early breeding in some sleep disrupted by light spilling in species of birds. Another well-known to their bedrooms; example is the effect on the feeding l 68% have fitted thicker curtains; behaviour of bats caused by insects l 37% told us that excess lighting clustering around outdoor light sources.4 shines across their drive or garden; There are also concerns about the l 30% said that light intruded into effect of light pollution on people. another room in their property; Recent studies5 suggest that exposure l 71% of people had not complained to light at night can disrupt the body’s to anyone about the lighting; production of melatonin, a brain hormone l 24% had complained to their local best known for its daily role in resetting council but only 27% of those said the body’s biological clock. Secreted their council had been supportive. primarily in the brain, and at night, melatonin triggers a host of biochemical activities, including a nocturnal reduction in the body’s production of oestrogen. Research has shown that decreasing nocturnal melatonin production increases Canbury Park Road, Kingston-upon-Thames, by day and by night 4 Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution Artificial Light in the Environment (2009) https://www.gov.uk/ government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/228832/9780108508547.pdf.pdf 5 British Astronomical Association’s Campaign for Dark Skies Blinded by the Light? A handbook on light pollution Chapter 4 ‘Light pollution and human health’ Steven W Lockley Ph.D 6 CPRE Lighting Nuisance survey (2010) http://www.cpre.org.uk/resources/countryside/dark-skies/item/1974-lighting- nuisance-survey-2009-10-report
5 Shedding light Lighting and CPRE A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England Night Blight maps broadly consistent each year. Around FIG 1 CPRE’S LIGHT In 2003, CPRE published satellite maps of 8,000 star counts have been submitted POLLUTION MAPS the UK in 1993 and 2000 which showed, since the survey began. Star Count 2014 for the first time, how much light was revealed that only 4% of participants spilling up into the night sky. The data said they could see more than 30 revealed that light pollution increased stars, which the British Astronomical by 26% in England and 24% across the Association deem to show truly dark United Kingdom as a whole. The maps skies, compared with 59% who saw fewer showed the brightness of night time lights than ten stars in Orion – a level which at both a national and regional level. indicates severe light pollution. The maps were created by dividing the land surface into small pixels less than CPRE county branches and a mile across and giving them each a the light pollution campaign value – from 0 to 255 – according to the CPRE has branches in every English accumulated brightness of lights within county and many of them work locally each square. The scale was then divided in the campaign against light pollution, into five bands – from darkest blue, to two for example: lighter blue shades, to yellow then red (see the key alongside fig 1). Red shows l PRE Norfolk engages with public C the brightest pixels, yellow corresponds to and private sector organisations sprawling suburbs, towns and lit stretches and individuals in order to prevent 1993 of roads and the darkest blue covers the unnecessary, excessive and most remote, thinly populated areas. inappropriate lighting in the county. Across England, 26% of all pixels, The branch have organised conferences representing just over a quarter of the on the issue and have also recognised nation’s total land area, had shifted up a good practice, giving CPRE Norfolk brightness band while only two per cent Awards to sensitive lighting schemes.7 had shifted down a band. The biggest l CPRE Isle of Wight presented a ‘Good change of all involved the two lighter blue Lighting Award’ in 2013 to the island’s bands, with great tracts of the lowland highway service provider for their work countryside becoming more brightly lit to enhance or replace all street lights at night. The proportion of England’s across the island by 2016, converting land area within the darkest band fell existing lights to energy-saving, carbon from 15% in 1993 to 11% in 2000. efficient LED units. The branch is also part of the ‘DarkWightSkies’8 initiative Counting stars to monitor which aims to gain ‘Dark Skies’ status light pollution for the Isle of Wight. In 2007, CPRE and the Campaign for l Friends of the Lake District, CPRE’s Dark Skies organised a Star Count to representatives in Cumbria, ran a pilot 2000 encourage the public to get engaged with project in 2011/12 called See the Stars9, the campaign against light pollution. funded by the Lake District Sustainable KEY We asked people to count the number Development Fund. The project aimed of stars they could see within the Orion to interest people in the night sky and 0 – 1.7 constellation and send us their result. raise awareness of how light pollution 1.700000001 – 50 We then created a map of star counts is spoiling our view of the stars, as 50.00000001 – 150 around the country to illustrate how light well as wasting energy and money. 150.0000001 – 240 pollution affects people’s view of the night As part of this work they produced a 240.0000001 – 255.163325 sky. We also ran the event in 2011, 2012 ‘Stargazing Guide for Beginners’ leaflet. and 2013 and the results have been 7 CPRE Norfolk: http://www.cprenorfolk.org.uk/campaigns/light-pollution/ 8 CPRE Isle of Wight and the DarkWightSkies initiative: http://www.darkwightskies.com/ 9 Friends of the Lake District: http://www.fld.org.uk/see-the-stars.html
Previous Next Contents 6 Shedding light Planning, lighting A survey of local authority and the law approaches to lighting in England Planning, lighting and the law National planning are exempt from the statutory nuisance Ineffient car park flood In March 2012, the Government regime for artificial light, so it is even lighting in Eynsford, Kent introduced the first ever policy to more important to get the lighting design control light pollution in the NPPF. for these premises right at the outset’. CPRE welcomed this as a significant step The Guidance goes on to explore forward. Paragraph 125 of the NPPF which factors should be considered states: ‘By encouraging good design, when assessing whether a development planning policies and decisions should proposal might have implications for light limit the impact of light pollution pollution and which factors are relevant from artificial light on local amenity, when considering where, when and how intrinsically dark landscapes and nature much the light shines and possible conservation.’ CPRE had campaigned for ecological impacts. CPRE applauds the many years for planning guidance to Department for Environment, Food and control light pollution, so we welcomed Rural Affairs for its proactive work on this important move. this issue and its willingness to take on National Planning Practice Guidance board the views of CPRE in creating this has also been published (in March 2014) Guidance. We hope that it will encourage on how local authorities should address more local authorities to address light light pollution10. This Guidance sets out pollution by adopting effective local how the Government defines the link planning policies in their Local Plans between lighting and planning: and associated local guidance. ‘Artificial light provides valuable benefits to society, including through IF SOMEONE’S LIFE IS health or a nuisance’ a criminal offence.12 extending opportunities for sport and BEING NEGATIVELY AFFECTED This law does not tackle all forms BY EXCESSIVE LIGHT THIS recreation, and can be essential to a new of light pollution, only incidents of COULD BE DEEMED AS A development. Equally, artificial light is LIGHTING NUISANCE particularly bad lighting from some types not always necessary, has the potential of premises which cause people real to become what is termed ‘light pollution’ One of the aims of our survey was nuisance. But CPRE would like to see it or ‘obtrusive light’ and not all modern to find out whether the NPPF policy used, to raise awareness of the issue and lighting is suitable in all locations. It can to control light pollution has made a to help people who are suffering from be a source of annoyance to people, difference to how lighting is dealt with severe light pollution. If someone’s life is harmful to wildlife, undermine enjoyment by local authorities. being negatively affected by excessive of the countryside or detract from light this could be deemed as a lighting enjoyment of the night sky. For maximum Lighting and the law nuisance, although it may not fall benefit, the best use of artificial light is CPRE welcomed the first UK law tackling under the official criteria for a statutory about getting the right light, in the right light pollution which came into force in nuisance. For example, if a street light is place and providing light at the right time. 2006 under Section 102 of the Clean shining into a bedroom window it can Lighting schemes can be costly and Neighbourhoods and Environment Act affect quality of sleep but it is exempt difficult to change, so getting the design (2005)11. Exterior lighting joins noise and from the statutory nuisance criteria.13 right and setting appropriate conditions smells on the list of things that can be at the planning stage is important. treated as a statutory nuisance; things In particular, some types of premises against which local council Environmental (including prisons, airports and transport Health Departments can take legal action. depots where high levels of light may be The law makes ‘exterior light emitted required for safety and security reasons) from premises so as to be prejudicial to 10 Planning Practice Guidance: Light pollution http://planningguidance.planningportal.gov.uk/blog/guidance/ light-pollution/ 11 Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act (2005) http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2005/16/part/9/crossheading/ statutory-nuisances 12 Morgan-Taylor, M. (2012) The Legal Methods of Controlling Light Pollution in the UK. in Conference proceedings, pp 257-276, 19 September 2012, Seoul, Korea http://www.sustainablehealthybuildings.org/PDF/8th/martintaylor.pdf 13 CPRE Light pollution as a statutory nuisance: a how to guide (2014) http://www.cpre.org.uk/resources/countryside/ dark-skies/item/3545-light-pollution-as-a-statutory-nuisance-a-how-to-guide
7 Shedding light A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England Survey results and analysis The results and analysis are divided into six sections which include CPRE’s view and recommendations: Local planning and lighting Street light switch-off schemes Street light dimming schemes Crime and street lighting ew lighting in N previously unlit areas Lighting types Dunkery Beacon, Exmoor
Previous Next Contents 8 Shedding light Local planning A survey of local authority and lighting approaches to lighting in England Local planning and lighting Find out more about how local authorities deal with lighting, both in planning policies and decisions about planning applications. e asked local authorities to tell us about how they dealt with lighting in connection with their planning responsibilities, including policy making and when making decisions on planning applications. Out of the 76 local authorities who responded to the question on whether they had a lighting policy in either their Local Plan or related document, 49 of them (65%) said they did have a policy on lighting. This includes 12 county councils, 16 district councils, four London Boroughs, seven Metropolitan Boroughs and ten unitary authorities. This is an improvement compared with the survey we carried out in 2003. At that time only 39% of respondents reported Full cut off lighting should be shielded when close to homes they had specific light pollution policies in their Local Plan and 7% had some coverage of light pollution in other policies. Light pollution is defined as being any design quality, development must, at a 41 of 47 local authorities responding light emitting from artificial sources into minimum, meet the following principles, said that it was the continuation of a spaces where this light is unwanted, such including: Require the design and lighting policy they have had for some as spillage of security lights surrounding layout to take account of noise and light time, this compares with six who said it car parking areas into residential implications, together with the amenity was an entirely new policy due to the accommodation such as bedrooms, of adjacent residential areas or operations NPPF. 16 said they had adapted the where this causes inconvenience to their of existing activities.’ lighting policy to comply with the NPPF occupants. Design solutions to control Hampshire County Council was one of whereas over two thirds (34) had not the effect of new lighting may include the first local authorities to introduce a adapted their policy. the type of technology used to control street lighting policy in 1994. The County There was a wide variation in the length the distribution of light and minimise Council was hailed by the Institution of of time that local authorities have had glare. Other solutions include screening, Lighting Professionals (ILP) as setting the lighting policies in place, ranging from shielding, reducing lantern mounting standard for other local authorities to under a year to some which had long- heights and managing the operating achieve. The Hampshire policy is now in standing policies which have evolved over hours of the light source. The visual impact its 4th edition14 following a comprehensive a number of years. The London Borough of light fittings should also be considered. review in 2009. The document aims to of Barnet, for example, has had a policy Five of the local authorities who strike a balance between the aspiration since 2006, which has been adapted to responded to the question about how long to reduce the effect of artificial light become part of its Supplementary they have had a lighting policy said that intrusion on the night-time environment Planning Document on Sustainable Design it had been in place for less than two and the need to provide the necessary and Construction. This was adopted in years. An example is Stafford District illumination to enhance the safety of April 2013 and states, in policy 2.4B: Council whose Local Plan is currently highway users. The county policy also Light Pollution – Ensure that the design under examination. It includes a policy includes Environmental Lighting Zones minimises adverse impacts from the under the design section (N1) which (as recommended by the ILP) and divides lighting of a building or external areas. states that ‘To secure enhancements in Hampshire into four zones (see fig 2). 14 Hampshire County Council, Street Lighting Policy Document, 4th Edition http://www3.hants.gov.uk/street-lighting- policy-100930.pdf
9 Shedding light Local planning A survey of local authority and lighting approaches to lighting in England 87% SAID THIS WAS A CONTINUATION 65% OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES OF AN EXISTING POLICY 13% SAID THIS WAS AN ENTIRELY HAVE A POLICY ON LIGHTING NEW POLICY DUE TO THE NPPF Environmental Lighting Zones Zone EI lighting should not be provided in Zone areas shall be lit to the levels originally National Parks, Areas of Outstanding E2 areas unless the County Council, or the provided at the time of adoption. For the Natural Beauty, Sites of Special Local Lighting Authority, deem it to be in sake of clarity, replacement columns Scientific Interest and other the best interest of the local community shall be installed on a 1:4:1 basis with Dark Areas from either a road safety or a personal new columns being positioned at the The general presumption is that street security point of view. rear of the footway and on property lighting should not be provided in Zone party lines wherever possible. E1 areas unless the County Council, Zone E3 or the Local Lighting Authority, can Areas of Medium District Brightness Zone E4 demonstrate an overriding road safety (Low Crime Urban Locations) Areas of High District Brightness issue which cannot be overcome by Roads falling into this category include (Major Traffic Routes, High Crime other means. all urban residential local access roads Urban Areas, and Town Centres) and footpaths (as defined by “Well Lit Major traffic routes are defined as all A, Zone E2 Highways”) where reported crimes, per B and C class roads and contain all Areas of Low District Brightness 1000 households, are less than, or equal strategic routes, main/secondary (Rural Areas outside Zone E1) to, the County average. distributor and link roads as defined The general presumption is that street As a general rule, roads in Zone E3 in “Well Lit Highways”.15 FIG 2 HAMPSHIRE ENVIRONMENTAL ZONES FOR STREET LIGHTING KEY Zone E1 Zone E2 Zone E3 Zone E4 15 K Lighting Board Well-lit Highways: Code of Practice U for Highway Lighting Management (Updated 2013) http://www.ukroadsliaisongroup.org/en/guidance/index.cfm
Previous Next Contents 10 Shedding light Local planning A survey of local authority and lighting approaches to lighting in England Consideration of lighting impact said that they would consider a change in the development. Westminster Council The survey asked local authorities what to the lighting of an existing development explained how it required a hotel in their type of developments they considered or a highway proposal only if it required area to reduce up-lighting and remove the lighting impact of; new development, planning permission. This could mean 250 items of equipment in order to change to lighting of existing development that new lighting could be added to meet the Westminster Council Design or highway proposals. 80 authorities an existing development without Guide requirements. North Yorkshire responded (see fig 3). any restrictions. County Council described a recent case Two local authorities described how where lighting design was provided they lead on lighting designs for the by external consultants for a new FIG 3 WHAT TYPE OF majority of developments in their areas. housing development. However, the DEVELOPMENTS DO LOCAL This means they can monitor proposed design was amended by the council to AUTHORITIES CONSIDER THE LIGHTING IMPACT OF? lighting schemes put forward by developers reduce both the number and wattage and recommend adjustments if needed. of the proposed lighting columns. In Essex, Braintree District Council said Changes in land use can also mean 80 that all new major and the majority of adjustments to lighting requirements, Number of local authorities who responded 78 considered 70 minor developments will have a lighting as a recent example in Dacorum, condition attached which sets out the Hertfordshire shows. A planning 66 considered 60 agreed external lighting that is permitted application was submitted for a change 59 considered 50 40 Floodlighting from nearby rugby club in London causing a nuisance to nearby homes 30 20 10 0 t t pm of l sa en en elo g po m ev tin lop ro g d igh yp ve in o l wa de ist t gh ex nge ew hi yn an ha A An c A Brighton and Hove City Council said it considered the lighting impact of all three types and explained that it was in the process of developing a lighting policy for the authority. A similar approach is taken by Cumbria County Council in its Cumbria Design Guide, which addresses lighting on new developments, replacement lighting on existing developments and lighting for all highway schemes as part of an Environmental Impact Assessment. The London Borough of Barnet and Worcester District Council
11 Shedding light Local planning A survey of local authority and lighting approaches to lighting in England 71% WHEN ASSESSING DEVELOPMENT OR HIGHWAY LIGHTING PROPOSALS: OVER TWO THIRDS OF COUNCILS SAID RECOMMENDED ALTERATIONS TO A ENERGY PROPOSED SCHEME EFFICIENCY TO ENSURE LIGHTING IS WAS THE MOST ONLY INSTALLED IF NEEDED IMPORTANT FACTOR of use from household waste recycling was either very important or considered. later and turning off ten minutes earlier. centre to waste vehicle depot with the Almost two thirds (47) of respondents They also dim lighting by means of construction of new CCTV/lighting said that in relation to highway lighting photocell and electronic control columns. The submitted lighting scheme proposals the ability to control the light technology located in individual lights. was deemed unacceptable due to the centrally, e.g. to allow dimming, was We asked local authorities whether sensitive location – classed as Zone E1 an important or a considered factor. they had recommended or required Lighting Zone, close to a SSSI, within the Cumbria County Council stated that alterations to a proposed lighting Chilterns AONB, open countryside and while they were not in a position to scheme to ensure lighting is installed Green Belt – and a condition was imposed justify the costs of installing and appropriately and only if needed. Of the to address this. maintaining a Central Management 69 local authorities who responded, 49 The fact that just 59 local authorities System they do trim the times lights said they had and 20 said they had not. reported that they consider the lighting are on, e.g. by turning on ten minutes impact of a highway proposal is due to the mixture of district and county level authorities responding to the question. FIG 4 HOW IMPORTANT ARE THESE FACTORS TO YOUR LOCAL AUTHORITY WHEN ASSESSING DEVELOPMENT/ County and unitary councils have HIGHWAY LIGHTING PROPOSALS? responsibility for highway lighting in their areas but would consult relevant 100% district councils when considering a new lighting scheme. 95% 95% 100 91% We asked local authorities how 89% 85% important a variety of factors were when Percentage of local authorities who answered either 80% assessing development/highway lighting 74% proposals (fig 4). Out of 74 who responded 80 72% to this question, over two thirds (51) of ‘Very important’ or ‘Considered’ 65% respondents said that the factor that was 59% classed as most important was energy 60 efficiency. All respondents said that the potential impact of light shining into residential/business premises was either 40 very important or at least considered, followed by more than 9 out of 10 (70) respondents who said that the potential impact of light pollution on the night sky 20 was very important or considered when they assess lighting proposals; however, four of the local authorities said this 0 factor was not a consideration for them. This factor was closely followed by 70 Cost Impact of the street lights and columns in the daytime (i.e. street clutter) (95%) local authorities saying that lamp Energy efficiency Impact of the street lights in the design was either important or considered. Lamp design open countryside The potential impact of light on Potential impact on light pollution Impact of the street lights in intrinsically of the night sky wildlife and habitat was classed as very dark landscapes (e.g. National Parks) important or considered by more than Potential impact of lights shining Ease of maintenance into residential/business premises 9 out of 10 (91%) respondents while Ability to control the light centrally, Potential impact of light on slightly fewer respondents (89%) said wildlife and habitat for example to allow dimming that the impact of street lights and columns in the daytime (i.e. street clutter)
Previous Next Contents 12 Shedding light Local planning A survey of local authority and lighting approaches to lighting in England Huntingdonshire District Council Huntingdonshire District Council has strong planning policies to control the use of artificial light in the area. t has had a Supplementary 2) Need more information – Planning Guidance document, e.g. luminaire type, lamp type, aiming Conditions for approval ‘External Artificial Lighting’, angle (if floodlight), mounting height 09001 since 1998 and includes a policy and iso-lux contours to 1 lux (which Lighting scheme before installation on obtrusive light in its draft Local shows where the light is distributed) Prior to the erection of or installation of Plan to 2036. The draft Plan states: 3) Poor design and unacceptable for range any outdoor lighting onsite a detailed ‘Development proposals will be required of reasons e.g. glare, light intrusion or outdoor lighting scheme shall be submitted to demonstrate how a high standard of sky glow being the main reasons. to and approved in writing by the Local amenity for existing and future users, Planning Authority and thereafter implemented in accordance with the of both the proposed development and For the second and third options, the approved scheme. surroundings, will be provided for with Project Engineer would try to have specific reference to: e) the potential technical discussions with the applicant’s 09002 for adverse impacts on air quality, from lighting designer (if they had used one) Floodlight details obtrusive light and the contamination with the aim of obtaining a scheme that Prior to the erection of the floodlights of land, groundwater or surface water. gives the applicant lighting in the right hereby approved, details of the light source, the headgear cowling and light intensity The policy also defines obtrusive light place without affecting neighbours or footprint and spillage shall be submitted as ‘Light pollution that includes the public amenity. A condition to secure this to and approved in writing by the Local brightening of the night sky (sky glow), would then be attached to approval of a Planning Authority and thereafter uncomfortably bright light (glare) and planning application (see box on the right). implemented in accordance with the light spilled beyond the area being lit In 2011, the Council advised on approved details. (light intrusion)’. lighting a proposed housing development. 09003 The council’s Project Engineer is The council’s Project Engineer specified Lighting scheme before development sent planning applications that a pre-commencement condition on the Prior to the commencement of involve external lighting so that they type of lighting that should be installed development (on any phase) a scheme can advise on the proposal. There are but this was ignored and an inappropriate showing the method of lighting and extent three possible outcomes: scheme was installed. The Planning of illumination to the access roads, parking and circulation areas shall be submitted Officer informed the developer they were to and approved in writing by the Local 1) Good, well-designed scheme – in breach of condition and the Project Planning Authority and thereafter no objections if conditioned as per Engineer offered solutions. The developer implemented in accordance with the the lighting design plan; then removed all unapproved lanterns approved scheme. and bollards and installed appropriate, approved lighting. Before After
13 Shedding light Local planning A survey of local authority and lighting approaches to lighting in England THE TOP FACTORS WHEN ASSESSING LIGHTING PROPOSALS: 1 ST 2 ND 3 RD LIGHT MAY LIGHT MAY DESIGN SHINE INTO POLLUTE OF THE PROPERTIES NIGHT SKY LAMP CPRE’s view Newer lights but with sag lense so causing light CPRE is encouraged that almost two pollution, shield fitted at request to council thirds of local authorities have a lighting policy in their Local Plan or similar. Almost 90% of these policies were the continuation of a long term lighting policy and a third of these had been adapted to comply with the NPPF. Only six local authorities (13%) said they had an entirely new policy due to the NPPF. It is disappointing that there is not more evidence of local authorities adopting lighting policies. We would like to see many more local authorities adopting a lighting policy based on the NPPF and the related National Planning Practice Guidance on light pollution. We believe that local authorities should always consider the lighting scheme of any new development and require notification of a change to the lighting scheme of an existing development. The lighting impact of highway proposals should also be given careful consideration, particularly at junctions is used or installed in the most Recommendations and roundabouts which may be closer sensitive zones it could do much to l ll local authorities should have a a to residential areas and visible over a prevent the spread of light pollution policy to control light pollution in wider area. We welcomed the Highways and contribute to saving energy and their Local Plan, in line with the Agency’s revision of standards in 2007 reducing carbon emissions. National Planning Policy Framework to require there to be no light above the The top three factors that local and the associated National Planning horizontal (90°), which was previously authorities consider when assessing Practice Guidance on light pollution. mandatory only in National Parks. development/highway lighting proposals This should include identifying existing CPRE hopes this means that if lighting were the potential impacts of lights dark areas that need protecting; is to be installed along new stretches of shining into residential or business l local authorities should consider road it will be full cut off flat glass which properties and light pollution of the preparing a Street Lighting Policy, minimises light pollution. night sky, followed by lamp design. which could include Environmental We also strongly support the CPRE welcomes the importance that Lighting Zones16 to ensure that Institution of Lighting Professionals’ local authorities appear to place on the appropriate lighting levels are recommendations for Environmental ensuring that new lighting schemes do used in each zone, with very strict Lighting Zones, as adopted in Hampshire. not cause nearby residents a nuisance or requirements applying in identified While this might be seen as a major project light pollution. However, there are still dark areas. for a local authority to undertake, it would many thousands of cases of bad lighting make a big difference to the protection of causing such problems, and we urge dark skies and tranquillity. By ensuring all local authorities to take action to that the most suitable, if any, lighting improve this situation. 16 Institution of Lighting Professionals Guidance Notes for the Reduction of Obtrusive Light GN01: 2011 https://www.theilp. org.uk/documents/obtrusive-light/
Previous Next Contents 14 Shedding light Street light A survey of local authority switch-off schemes approaches to lighting in England Street light switch-off schemes Our survey asked local authorities if they are engaged in a street light switch-off scheme – also referred to as part-night lighting. ut of 71 local authorities who of the county’s street lights have now responded to this question been converted to operate for part of Money saved by adjustments almost a third (23) said they the night only but the remaining 30% to street lighting were switching off street of lights continue to operate overnight lighting in their areas. Of these, 16 were and are on ‘A’ roads, town centres, Cost saving was a motivation for nine permanent schemes and seven were junctions and roads with a history of out of ten (91%) local authorities who trials. More than a third (39%) of the night time accidents. were running a street light switch-off switch-off schemes had been running for Essex County Council was one of the scheme and eight out of ten (78%) of a year or two, and a further quarter (26%) first to run a street light switch-off trial; those running a dimming scheme. had been running for less than a year. part-night lighting has been in effect in Maldon and Uttlesford since early 2007. Examples in this report are: Here are examples of local The Council is nearing completion of authorities who are exploring part-night lighting across the county, l Sefton Council expects to save street light switch-off/part- following recent public consultations. £15,000 during 2013/14 by trialling night lighting schemes: Over 70% of the 127,000 Council-owned switching off alternate street lights. Sefton Council, in Merseyside, is running streetlights are switched off at night l Essex County Council previously a street light switch-off trial where spent approximately £4.6m on it is switching off alternate street THE REMAINING 30% OF electricity for street lighting lights. Following a review and public LIGHTS CONTINUE TO OPERATE each year but expect that switching consultation, it was agreed that selected OVERNIGHT AND ARE ON to part-night lighting will save ‘A’ ROADS, TOWN CENTRES, lengths of semi-rural roads would be JUNCTIONS AND ROADS approximately £1m per year. subject to a 12 month pilot scheme WITH A HISTORY OF NIGHT l Bradford Council’s street light during 2013/14. This scheme is expected TIME ACCIDENTS dimming scheme is designed to to save the Council £15,000 during save £400,000 a year. 2013/14 and also reduce the Council’s between midnight and 5am, with certain l North Somerset Council estimates carbon emissions. exceptions. The Council previously spent £300,000 a year will be saved Cornwall County Council is running approximately £4.6m on electricity for following the completion of both a street light switch-off and dimming street lighting each year but expects that their dimming and part-night trial in nine villages across the county switching to part-night lighting will save lighting scheme. where communities have shown an approximately £1m per year. It also interest in operating reduced levels expects to reduce carbon emissions by of street lighting. This follows the over 8,000 tonnes per year. We asked local authorities whether they installation of new street lighting control Our survey asked local authorities what had to invest in new technology to run system infrastructure and new lamp had motivated them to pursue a street the switch-off scheme. Almost two thirds technology in over 51,000 street lights light switch-off scheme in their area; (62%) said they did compared with throughout the county. Shropshire County 21 responded to this question. It comes just over one third (38%) who did not. Council is engaged in a three year trial as little surprise that energy saving The majority of respondents (59%) did to switch off 70% of the lighting in the topped the list with all bar one authority not plan to remove street lighting that county (12,500) lamps. They also hope to (95%) saying it was a motivation, closely had been switched off but almost two save up to 600 tonnes of CO2 per year, followed by cost saving cited by 19 out of ten (18%) planned to do just which is around 15% of current street authorities (91%). A reduction in light that while almost a quarter (23%) were lighting emissions in the county. pollution was cited as a factor by just two For the last couple of years, out of five (43%) of respondents. Four of COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT Hertfordshire County Council has been the local authorities also added that IS VITAL WHEN LOCAL running a permanent street light switch- carbon reduction was an additional factor AUTHORITIES ARE off scheme in all residential areas they considered. CONSIDERING PART-NIGHT including towns and villages between LIGHTING AND SWITCHING OFF STREET LIGHTING midnight and 6am. Approximately 70%
15 Shedding light Street light A survey of local authority switch-off schemes approaches to lighting in England THE TOP REASONS ALMOST FOR SWITCHING OFF: 95% ENERGY SAVING A THIRD OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES SAID 86% SAID THE RESPONSE FROM 91% COST SAVING THEY WERE SWITCHING OFF STREET LIGHTING, EITHER THE LOCAL COMMUNITY HAD BEEN MIXED ABOUT 43% RPOLLUTION EDUCING LIGHT PERMANENTLY OR AS A TRIAL PART-NIGHT LIGHTING considering removing the lighting. Exmoor National Park is a Dark Sky Reserve, which means Community engagement is vital when it has exceptional views of the night sky local authorities are considering part- night lighting and switching off street lighting, commonly between midnight and 5am. Nine out of ten respondents (91%) said they had consulted the local community about the street light switch- off scheme proposals (N.B. the remaining two local authorities were not responsible for the scheme or it related to a short section of motorway.) For example, Norfolk County Council said that they carried out a written consultation process with both key stakeholders and residents of affected streets and that all feedback was considered prior to part-night lighting being implemented. In Cheshire, Halton Borough Council published information on the Council’s website and issued a press release (due to the potential impact being on the travelling public rather than specific residents) to consult a wider audience. The survey asked how the local community had reacted to the switch-off scheme; 21 local authorities responded and the majority – 18 (86%) said the response had been mixed. This compares with two local authorities (10%) who said their community had been very supportive and one (5%) who said the community was not supportive.
Previous Next Contents 16 Shedding light Street light A survey of local authority dimming schemes approaches to lighting in England Street light dimming schemes An increasing number of local authorities are investing in new lighting technology which can be dimmed – allowing local discretion for lighting levels. e asked local authorities Sag lense with shield whether they were engaged in a dimming scheme; almost half (32) of the 67 respondents to this question said they were. Of the councils who are running a dimming scheme 26 said it was permanent compared with five who are currently running dimming trials. Three quarters (23) of the 31 local authorities who stated how long they had been running a dimming scheme said that it had been for under three years with the remainder reporting that their scheme had been running for between three and five years. Here are examples of local authorities who are exploring street light dimming schemes: In West Yorkshire, Bradford Council‘s first dimming scheme had been installed in 2008 in a mainly residential street in Dudley Council, in the West Midlands, has part-night lighting but not all lights the outskirts of Bradford. The trial was is now rolling out a dimming scheme can be dimmed due to the cost of unpublicised but was deemed a success to all residential areas in the Borough, dimming equipment; remaining street due to there being no impact on public following a successful 2010 trial in a light columns will be replaced as needed. safety. More than 1,000 street lights are housing estate, which required a small Up to 18,000 lights (80% of the lights now being dimmed between 11pm and scale Central Management Scheme in North Somerset) could be converted 5am as part of energy saving measures (CMS)17 – this allows lighting to be tailored to part-night or dimming. The Council across the district designed to save to the needs of different areas. A larger currently has more than 2,000 street £400,000 a year and reduce power CMS scheme was commissioned in 2013 lights dimming at 50% between the consumption by 25%. to operate borough-wide, complemented hours of 8pm and 6am and estimates Northumberland County Council by a lantern replacement or conversion £300,000 a year will be saved following described how they are currently in the programme which will install a white the completion of the lighting scheme. process of appointing a private sector light source and CMS control across all East Sussex County Council is making partner to help modernise the street residential roads by early 2017. changes to street lighting on residential lighting stock within the county. It will A number of respondents described and main roads across the county to involve the use of LED lighting and a how dimming schemes are underway save energy and money. There are dimming regime for all residential in a variety of areas ranging from short two different lighting schemes in lighting. Over the last year, the council sections of road to across entire counties. East Sussex – the LED Lighting Scheme has begun installing LED luminaires and For example, North Somerset Council is and the Part-night Lighting Scheme. are dimming residential areas with the running both street light switch-off and In Eastbourne and Hastings most of the technology in place, between midnight dimming schemes across their area. lights will be changed to new white LED and 6am. Over two thirds (70%) of North Somerset lighting and some lights will be dimmed along main roads between midnight and 6.00am. The Part-night scheme is 17 The central management system (CMS) uses wireless technology (radio waves) to communicate with each street light that is being monitored. The operating times can be controlled and changed if required. Variable lighting levels, or in operation in most other towns and dimming, can be set to different levels and over different durations for those units that have a dimming module installed. villages in the county.
17 Shedding light Street light A survey of local authority dimming schemes approaches to lighting in England ALMOST HALF OF THE COUNCILS WHO RESPONDED SAID THEY WERE ENGAGED IN A DIMMING SCHEME Reducing carbon emissions by adjusting street lighting Old, inefficient sag lens lighting (right) next to new full cut-off lighting (left) Many of the local authorities who took authorities who were running part-night l erbyshire County Council has a D part in the survey said how they hoped lighting schemes and more (97%) who commitment to reduce carbon to reduce their carbon emissions by were running dimming schemes said that emissions by 25% by 2015 which it adjusting their approach to street energy saving was the leading motivation. hopes to achieve through part-night lighting. Almost a third (30%) of the UK’s Examples in this report are: lighting schemes. carbon dioxide emissions come from l Leicestershire County Council is fossil-fuelled electricity generation18. l hropshire County Council hopes S aiming to reduce carbon emissions As a result, the Government has to save up to 600 tonnes of CO2 per by 30% by 2014 by dimming and initiated a mandatory carbon trading year, which is around 15% of current part-night lighting scheme. scheme for large private and public street lighting emissions as a result l Cornwall County Council hopes to save sector organisations called the ‘Carbon of their part-night lighting trial. up to 4,700 tonnes of CO2 per year due Reduction Commitment’ which began l Essex County Council expects to to part-night lighting and dimming trial. in 2011. The aim of this scheme is to reduce carbon emissions by over reduce CO2 emissions by putting a price 8,000 tonnes per year due to their on carbon. Almost all (95%) of local part-night lighting scheme. 18 Figure calculated from Department of Energy and Climate Change report on UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2012/2013: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/295968/20140327_ 2013_UK_Greenhouse_Gas_Emissions_Provisional_Figures.pdf
Previous Next Contents 18 Shedding light Street light A survey of local authority dimming schemes approaches to lighting in England Leicester City Council Leicester City Council is updating its street lighting as part of its commitment to reduce the council’s carbon footprint by 50% before 2025. he £13.9m project began in March 2013, after a trial in 2010, and will contribute a saving of 5,350 tonnes of carbon emissions per annum. Leicester City Council has a lighting stock of 37,490 public lights, of which 32,560 will be replaced with LED lights. 4,930 of the existing High Intensity Discharge (HID) white light luminaire in the City will remain unchanged. The replacement units will be installed over a three year period with the completion of the project in March 2016. Existing lighting is run at 100% of the specified power output. This project New lighting in contrast to older lighting in background, Leicester includes a Central Management System (CMS) which allows remote control of lighting levels for individual streets. Replacing the existing lighting stock a year in electricity costs based on Street lights are programmed to operate with LED luminaires will mean that 2013 prices. at full power from dusk until 8.00pm energy usage and carbon emissions will The local community and the police and at 75% from 8.00pm until dawn. be reduced by over 40% compared with have been quite supportive of the White This level of reduction is not normally current levels, saving £0.84m a year in Light/CMS conversation project as they noticeable to the human eye. The CMS electricity costs based on 2013 prices. were not able to tell the difference in the will allow the use of other lighting Using the CMS should conservatively lighting levels after dimming. Leicester patterns, customised by street, for provide a further 17% reduction on City Council plans to collate before and example reducing down to 50% of these levels, increasing the overall savings after crime figures to assess any impact maximum output from 11.00pm to 57% of current energy usage and this scheme may have had on night to dawn. carbon emissions. This would save £1.2m time activities. Investing in new technology in the process of installing 180 CMS street lights with 16,500 LED luminaires. for dimming schemes controlled lanterns in an area of the City The new lights are expected to bring a 73% We asked the local authorities who were that borders the South Downs National energy saving in street light consumption. running street light dimming schemes Park. Bournemouth Council has been The Council currently spends £1.1m a year whether they had to invest in new running a dimming scheme for almost on street lighting energy. technology in order to run the dimming five years and has invested in a CMS As with the top reason cited for scheme. Almost nine in ten (28) of switching off street lights, the leading respondents had done so, compared with THE LEADING MOTIVATION FOR motivation for dimming lights was four who said they hadn’t needed to. DIMMING LIGHTS WAS ENERGY energy saving at 97%. This is followed by Cumbria County Council explained that SAVING AT 97% 78% of local authorities saying it was it had investigated the potential for cost saving. Just over half (53%) said introducing a Central Management which allows lower levels of lighting that reducing light pollution had been System (CMS) to enable dynamic switching during quiet times but is boosted in the a factor. In West Yorkshire, Wakefield of its road lighting. Brighton and Hove town centre for CCTV surveillance during Council said that ‘Improvements in light Council said that it has invested in a trial busy club nights. The Council is planning pollution are a positive benefit of the of a Central Management System and is to replace all of Bournemouth’s current actions driven by Climate Change Act
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