SHEDDING LIGHT - A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England

SHEDDING LIGHT - A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England
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A survey of local authority
approaches to lighting in England
SHEDDING LIGHT - A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England
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CPRE gratefully acknowledges the kind financial support
of Thurstan Adburgham that made this study possible.
The author of this report, Emma Marrington, also wishes
to thank the 83 local authorities who responded to our
survey about how they deal with lighting in their areas.
Without them, this report would not have been possible.

Dark skies above Westermill Farm near Exford
SHEDDING LIGHT - A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England
Shedding light
A survey of local authority
approaches to lighting in England


                                    Executive summary                               2
                                    About our survey                                3
                                    Lighting and CPRE                               4
                                    Planning, lighting and the law                  6
                                    Survey results and analysis, including CPRE’s
                                    view and recommendations:
                                    Local planning and lighting                      8
                                    Street light switch-off schemes                 14
                                    Street light dimming schemes                    16
                                    Crime and street lighting                       20
                                    Lighting types                                  22
                                    New lighting in previously unlit areas          24
                                    Conclusion                                      26
                                    Recommendations                                 27
                                    Appendix: CPRE lighting survey questions        28
SHEDDING LIGHT - A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England
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                                                              Shedding light                                       Executive summary
                                                              A survey of local authority
                                                              approaches to lighting in England

Executive summary

            he Campaign to Protect                            l   l ocal authorities told us that                   examining the cost, energy and carbon
            Rural England (CPRE) has                               communities are far more supportive               savings. This should be done in full
            long been a leading voice in                           of street light dimming schemes than              consultation with the local community;
            the campaign against light                             switching off street lights between             l all local authorities who are switching
pollution. We have a special interest in                           midnight and 5am.                                  off or dimming street lighting should
this issue: darkness at night is one of the                                                                           monitor crime and accident statistics
key characteristics of rural areas and it                     There has been a lot of progress in recent              and consider taking part in the
represents a major difference between                         years in developing policies to control the             Institution of Lighting Professionals/
what is rural and what is urban.                              use of lighting, both by the Department                 LANTERNS research project which aims
    But light doesn’t respect boundaries;                     for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs                 to quantify any effects of changes to
it can spread for miles from the source                       and local authorities. Street light switch-             street lighting on road traffic accidents
and blurs the distinction between town                        off and dimming schemes have become                     and crime;
and country. Light spilling up into the                       increasingly popular as local authorities            l local authorities should give careful
night sky is also a waste of energy and                       look for ways to save money and energy,                 consideration to the type of Light-
money – local authorities were estimated                      and to reduce their carbon emissions.                   Emitting Diode (LED) lighting they use
to spend £616 million on street lighting                      The reduction in light pollution is a                   and consider the potential impacts that
in 2013-141 – and the lights can account                      welcome side effect of these schemes but                higher temperature blue rich lighting
for between 15-30% of a local authority’s                     it has rarely been the main motivation.                 has on ecology and on human health;
carbon emissions.                                                 We believe that there is still a lot of          l local authorities with responsibility
    In 2012, CPRE welcomed the first ever                     potential to improve the way that lighting              for street lighting could set targets for
planning policy on light pollution. This                      is managed in ways which reduce light                   replacing all their street and road lights
was contained in the National Planning                        pollution. More effective sharing of best               with less light polluting types, such as
Policy Framework (NPPF). To help us                           practice between and within local                       full cut off flat glass lamps;
understand how local authorities are                          authorities is an important way to take              l new street lighting should be tested
responding to this change, we decided                         this forward.                                           ‘in situ’ before a lighting scheme is
to carry out a survey of English local                            As a result of the evidence presented               rolled out across a wider area to ensure
authorities to find out more about their                      in this report, CPRE makes the following                that it is the minimum required for
approaches to lighting.                                       recommendations:                                        the task and does not cause a nuisance
    The survey results have given us a                                                                                to residents;
better understanding of how decisions                         l   ll local authorities should have a
                                                                 a                                                 l local authorities should have a strong
are made about lighting at the local level,                      policy to control light pollution in their           presumption against new lighting in
including how lighting is dealt with in                          Local Plan, in line with the NPPF and                existing dark areas, unless essential
local planning and how local authorities                         the associated National Planning                     as part of a new development or for
are working to make street lighting more                         Practice Guidance (NPPG) on light                    public safety reasons that have been
energy and cost efficient.                                       pollution. This should include                       clearly demonstrated;
                                                                 identifying existing dark areas that              l the Highways Agency should review the
The key findings are:                                            need protecting;                                     lighting section of the Design Manual
l  the NPPF policy to control light pollution                l local authorities should consider                    for Roads and Bridges, which is used
  does not appear to have made a real                            preparing a Street Lighting Policy,                  to design motorway and trunk road
  impact in local policies. Only six of the                      which could include Environmental                    lighting, to ensure it remains relevant
  49 local authorities who have a lighting                       Lighting Zones to ensure that the                    for local authorities.
  policy said it was introduced due to                           appropriate lighting levels are used
  the NPPF;                                                      in each zone, with very strict
l local authorities can potentially save                        requirements applying in identified
    hundreds of thousands of pounds each                         dark areas;
    year by either switching off street                       l we encourage local authorities to
    lighting in suitable locations between                       investigate how part-night lighting
    midnight and 5am, or dimming lights.                         schemes (e.g. switching off between
    These schemes can also reduce carbon                         midnight and 5am) or dimming
    emissions and save energy;                                   could work in their areas, including

     epartment for Communities and Local Government ‘Local authority revenue expenditure and financing England:
    2013 to 2014 budget’
SHEDDING LIGHT - A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England
Shedding light                                                  About our survey
A survey of local authority
approaches to lighting in England

About our survey

         n early 2014 (between January                          city authorities in England (a total of 351                In 2003, CPRE published maps of light
         and February), CPRE carried out a                      authorities) with detailed questions about:             pollution across the UK, as part of our
         survey of English local authorities                                                                            Night Blight!2 report.
         to find out how they approach                          l  whether local authorities have adopted              We also carried out a short survey at the
lighting in their areas. Up until now there                       new or revised lighting policies as a                 time, of 44 district and unitary councils
has been a serious lack of information                            result of the NPPF;                                   and five county councils, to inform a
about how local authorities in England                          l the type of lighting that is used by                 section of the Night Blight!2 report about
deal with lighting as part of the local                             local authorities and how decisions                 lighting and local planning. Of the district
planning process (e.g. new development),                          are made on whether to install new or                 and unitary councils surveyed then,
how they design street light switch-off                           replacement lighting;                                 39% had specific light pollution policies
or dimming schemes, and how they                                l whether local authorities have                       in their Local Plan and 7% had some
decide which street lighting to install in                        introduced schemes for switching off                  coverage of light pollution in other
new developments or when replacing                                street lights or installing dimming                   policies. Another 5% said they had
existing schemes.                                                 technology to offer varied levels of                  included consideration of light pollution
    CPRE worked with the Department                               lighting during the hours of darkness.                in the review of their plan, 9% were
for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs                                                                                 considering including it in the future
(Defra) and the British Astronomical                            We received responses from 83 local                     and 5% had included guidance on the
Association’s Campaign for Dark Skies                           authorities – including 17 county councils,             reduction of light pollution, although
(CfDS) in the development and design of                         31 district councils, 10 metropolitan                   not a specific policy.3
the survey.                                                     borough councils, 18 unitary authorities                   This report is based on a far more
    We sent our survey questionnaire to                         and seven London boroughs. This                         comprehensive survey and creates a
all county, district, borough, unitary and                      represents a 24% response rate. Responses               detailed picture of how local authorities
                                                                were received from every English region.                are currently dealing with lighting issues.

     Light pollution of Eastbourne, from Warren Hill

     PRE Night Blight! (2003)
     Despite the national planning system having changed dramatically since 2003, the local approach to planning and
      lighting is similar, which is why we refer to the short 2003 survey in this report.
SHEDDING LIGHT - A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England
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                                                              Shedding light                                            Lighting and CPRE
                                                              A survey of local authority
                                                              approaches to lighting in England

Lighting and CPRE                                                                                                       ‘THE STREET LIGHTS ARE ONE
                                                                                                                        OF THE REASONS I AM PLANNING
                                                                                                                        TO MOVE HOUSE WITHIN THE
                                                                                                                        NEXT FEW YEARS.’

The impact of light pollution                                 an individual’s risk of developing
Light pollution is a generic term                             oestrogen-related malignancies, such                      The main sources of light
referring to artificial light which shines                    as breast cancer.                                         pollution mentioned in the
where it is neither wanted nor needed.                           In recent years, CPRE has carried out                  survey were:
In broad terms, there are three types of                      a variety of initiatives to find out more
light pollution:                                              about light pollution, for example how                    Road lighting                        89%
                                                              excess light affects people’s lives and                   Domestic security lights             79%
Skyglow – the pink or orange glow                             views of the night sky.                                   Old street lights
we see for miles around towns and cities,                                                                               (>5 yrs old with orange glow)        77%
spreading deep into the countryside,                          Sources of light pollution                                Businesses                           56%
caused by a scattering of artificial light                    In 2010, CPRE worked with the Campaign                    Sports grounds                       53%
by airborne dust and water droplets;                          for Dark Skies to carry out a ‘Lighting                   Supermarkets                         41%
                                                              Nuisance survey’6 to find out how light
Glare – the uncomfortable brightness                          pollution is affecting people’s lives.
of a light source;                                            Almost 1,400 people took part and the                     Many of the people who took part in the
                                                              results showed the range of sources                       survey said they were angry and frustrated
Light intrusion – light spilling                              that cause a light nuisance; road lighting                about the problems caused by light
beyond the boundary of the property                           was cited as a source of light pollution                  pollution. Some people responding to the
on which a light is located, sometimes                        by almost nine out of ten respondents,                    survey had moved house to escape from
shining through windows and curtains.                         along with almost eight in ten people                     the problems caused by light intrusion,
                                                              who mentioned the orange glow of                          one respondent said that ‘The street lights
Light pollution can also affect wildlife.                     older streetlights.                                       are one of the reasons I am planning to
Artificial light can interrupt natural                                                                                  move house within the next few years.’
rhythms including migration, reproduction
and feeding patterns. For instance,                            The survey revealed that:
man-made light is known to cause
confusion to migrating birds, often with                       l   3% had their home view of night
fatal outcomes. Exposure to artificial                            sky blighted by light pollution;
light, which simulates short nights, is                        l 50% of the respondents had their
known to induce early breeding in some                            sleep disrupted by light spilling in
species of birds. Another well-known                              to their bedrooms;
example is the effect on the feeding                           l 68% have fitted thicker curtains;
behaviour of bats caused by insects                            l 37% told us that excess lighting
clustering around outdoor light sources.4                         shines across their drive or garden;
   There are also concerns about the                           l 30% said that light intruded into
effect of light pollution on people.                              another room in their property;
Recent studies5 suggest that exposure                          l 71% of people had not complained
to light at night can disrupt the body’s                          to anyone about the lighting;
production of melatonin, a brain hormone                       l 24% had complained to their local
best known for its daily role in resetting                        council but only 27% of those said
the body’s biological clock. Secreted                             their council had been supportive.
primarily in the brain, and at night,
melatonin triggers a host of biochemical
activities, including a nocturnal reduction
in the body’s production of oestrogen.
Research has shown that decreasing
nocturnal melatonin production increases                                                                                  Canbury Park Road, Kingston-upon-Thames,
                                                                                                                          by day and by night

  Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution Artificial Light in the Environment (2009)
   British Astronomical Association’s Campaign for Dark Skies Blinded by the Light? A handbook on light pollution
  Chapter 4 ‘Light pollution and human health’ Steven W Lockley Ph.D
    CPRE Lighting Nuisance survey (2010)
SHEDDING LIGHT - A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England
Shedding light                                                  Lighting and CPRE
A survey of local authority
approaches to lighting in England

Night Blight maps                                               broadly consistent each year. Around
                                                                                                               FIG 1 CPRE’S LIGHT
In 2003, CPRE published satellite maps of                       8,000 star counts have been submitted
                                                                                                               POLLUTION MAPS
the UK in 1993 and 2000 which showed,                           since the survey began. Star Count 2014
for the first time, how much light was                          revealed that only 4% of participants
spilling up into the night sky. The data                        said they could see more than 30
revealed that light pollution increased                         stars, which the British Astronomical
by 26% in England and 24% across the                            Association deem to show truly dark
United Kingdom as a whole. The maps                             skies, compared with 59% who saw fewer
showed the brightness of night time lights                      than ten stars in Orion – a level which
at both a national and regional level.                          indicates severe light pollution.
   The maps were created by dividing the
land surface into small pixels less than                        CPRE county branches and
a mile across and giving them each a                            the light pollution campaign
value – from 0 to 255 – according to the                        CPRE has branches in every English
accumulated brightness of lights within                         county and many of them work locally
each square. The scale was then divided                         in the campaign against light pollution,
into five bands – from darkest blue, to two                     for example:
lighter blue shades, to yellow then red
(see the key alongside fig 1). Red shows                        l   PRE Norfolk engages with public
the brightest pixels, yellow corresponds to                        and private sector organisations
sprawling suburbs, towns and lit stretches                         and individuals in order to prevent          1993
of roads and the darkest blue covers the                           unnecessary, excessive and
most remote, thinly populated areas.                               inappropriate lighting in the county.
   Across England, 26% of all pixels,                              The branch have organised conferences
representing just over a quarter of the                            on the issue and have also recognised
nation’s total land area, had shifted up a                         good practice, giving CPRE Norfolk
brightness band while only two per cent                            Awards to sensitive lighting schemes.7
had shifted down a band. The biggest                            l CPRE Isle of Wight presented a ‘Good
change of all involved the two lighter blue                       Lighting Award’ in 2013 to the island’s
bands, with great tracts of the lowland                           highway service provider for their work
countryside becoming more brightly lit                            to enhance or replace all street lights
at night. The proportion of England’s                             across the island by 2016, converting
land area within the darkest band fell                            existing lights to energy-saving, carbon
from 15% in 1993 to 11% in 2000.                                  efficient LED units. The branch is also
                                                                  part of the ‘DarkWightSkies’8 initiative
Counting stars to monitor                                          which aims to gain ‘Dark Skies’ status
light pollution                                                    for the Isle of Wight.
In 2007, CPRE and the Campaign for                              l Friends of the Lake District, CPRE’s
Dark Skies organised a Star Count to                               representatives in Cumbria, ran a pilot      2000
encourage the public to get engaged with                           project in 2011/12 called See the Stars9,
the campaign against light pollution.                              funded by the Lake District Sustainable
We asked people to count the number                                Development Fund. The project aimed
of stars they could see within the Orion                           to interest people in the night sky and      0 – 1.7
constellation and send us their result.                            raise awareness of how light pollution       1.700000001 – 50
We then created a map of star counts                               is spoiling our view of the stars, as        50.00000001 – 150
around the country to illustrate how light                         well as wasting energy and money.            150.0000001 – 240
pollution affects people’s view of the night                       As part of this work they produced a         240.0000001 – 255.163325
sky. We also ran the event in 2011, 2012                           ‘Stargazing Guide for Beginners’ leaflet.
and 2013 and the results have been

    CPRE Norfolk:
    CPRE Isle of Wight and the DarkWightSkies initiative:
    Friends of the Lake District:
SHEDDING LIGHT - A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England
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                                                              Shedding light                                               Planning, lighting
                                                              A survey of local authority                                  and the law
                                                              approaches to lighting in England

Planning, lighting
and the law
National planning                                             are exempt from the statutory nuisance
                                                                                                                             Ineffient car park flood
In March 2012, the Government                                 regime for artificial light, so it is even                     lighting in Eynsford, Kent
introduced the first ever policy to                           more important to get the lighting design
control light pollution in the NPPF.                          for these premises right at the outset’.
CPRE welcomed this as a significant step                         The Guidance goes on to explore
forward. Paragraph 125 of the NPPF                            which factors should be considered
states: ‘By encouraging good design,                          when assessing whether a development
planning policies and decisions should                        proposal might have implications for light
limit the impact of light pollution                           pollution and which factors are relevant
from artificial light on local amenity,                       when considering where, when and how
intrinsically dark landscapes and nature                      much the light shines and possible
conservation.’ CPRE had campaigned for                        ecological impacts. CPRE applauds the
many years for planning guidance to                           Department for Environment, Food and
control light pollution, so we welcomed                       Rural Affairs for its proactive work on
this important move.                                          this issue and its willingness to take on
    National Planning Practice Guidance                       board the views of CPRE in creating this
has also been published (in March 2014)                       Guidance. We hope that it will encourage
on how local authorities should address                       more local authorities to address light
light pollution10. This Guidance sets out                     pollution by adopting effective local
how the Government defines the link                           planning policies in their Local Plans
between lighting and planning:                                and associated local guidance.
    ‘Artificial light provides valuable
benefits to society, including through                        IF SOMEONE’S LIFE IS                                         health or a nuisance’ a criminal offence.12
extending opportunities for sport and                         BEING NEGATIVELY AFFECTED                                       This law does not tackle all forms
                                                              BY EXCESSIVE LIGHT THIS
recreation, and can be essential to a new                                                                                  of light pollution, only incidents of
                                                              COULD BE DEEMED AS A
development. Equally, artificial light is                     LIGHTING NUISANCE                                            particularly bad lighting from some types
not always necessary, has the potential                                                                                    of premises which cause people real
to become what is termed ‘light pollution’                       One of the aims of our survey was                         nuisance. But CPRE would like to see it
or ‘obtrusive light’ and not all modern                       to find out whether the NPPF policy                          used, to raise awareness of the issue and
lighting is suitable in all locations. It can                 to control light pollution has made a                        to help people who are suffering from
be a source of annoyance to people,                           difference to how lighting is dealt with                     severe light pollution. If someone’s life is
harmful to wildlife, undermine enjoyment                      by local authorities.                                        being negatively affected by excessive
of the countryside or detract from                                                                                         light this could be deemed as a lighting
enjoyment of the night sky. For maximum                       Lighting and the law                                         nuisance, although it may not fall
benefit, the best use of artificial light is                  CPRE welcomed the first UK law tackling                      under the official criteria for a statutory
about getting the right light, in the right                   light pollution which came into force in                     nuisance. For example, if a street light is
place and providing light at the right time.                  2006 under Section 102 of the Clean                          shining into a bedroom window it can
    Lighting schemes can be costly and                        Neighbourhoods and Environment Act                           affect quality of sleep but it is exempt
difficult to change, so getting the design                    (2005)11. Exterior lighting joins noise and                  from the statutory nuisance criteria.13
right and setting appropriate conditions                      smells on the list of things that can be
at the planning stage is important.                           treated as a statutory nuisance; things
In particular, some types of premises                         against which local council Environmental
(including prisons, airports and transport                    Health Departments can take legal action.
depots where high levels of light may be                      The law makes ‘exterior light emitted
required for safety and security reasons)                     from premises so as to be prejudicial to

   Planning Practice Guidance: Light pollution
    Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act (2005)
     Morgan-Taylor, M. (2012) The Legal Methods of Controlling Light Pollution in the UK. in Conference proceedings,
   pp 257-276, 19 September 2012, Seoul, Korea
      CPRE Light pollution as a statutory nuisance: a how to guide (2014)
SHEDDING LIGHT - A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England
    Shedding light
    A survey of local authority
    approaches to lighting in England

    Survey results
    and analysis
    The results and analysis are divided into
    six sections which include CPRE’s view
    and recommendations:

                       Local planning and lighting

                                  Street light switch-off schemes

                                          Street light dimming schemes

           Crime and
        street lighting                                                   ew lighting in
                                                                         previously unlit areas

                                                       Lighting types

    Dunkery Beacon, Exmoor
SHEDDING LIGHT - A survey of local authority approaches to lighting in England
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                                                                 Shedding light                                          Local planning
                                                                 A survey of local authority                             and lighting
                                                                 approaches to lighting in England

Local planning
and lighting
Find out more about how local authorities
deal with lighting, both in planning policies
and decisions about planning applications.

                e asked local authorities
                to tell us about how they
                dealt with lighting in
                connection with their
planning responsibilities, including policy
making and when making decisions on
planning applications. Out of the 76 local
authorities who responded to the question
on whether they had a lighting policy in
either their Local Plan or related document,
49 of them (65%) said they did have a
policy on lighting. This includes 12
county councils, 16 district councils, four
London Boroughs, seven Metropolitan
Boroughs and ten unitary authorities.
This is an improvement compared with
the survey we carried out in 2003. At that
time only 39% of respondents reported                               Full cut off lighting should be shielded when close to homes
they had specific light pollution policies
in their Local Plan and 7% had some
coverage of light pollution in other policies.                   Light pollution is defined as being any                 design quality, development must, at a
   41 of 47 local authorities responding                         light emitting from artificial sources into             minimum, meet the following principles,
said that it was the continuation of a                           spaces where this light is unwanted, such               including: Require the design and
lighting policy they have had for some                           as spillage of security lights surrounding              layout to take account of noise and light
time, this compares with six who said it                         car parking areas into residential                      implications, together with the amenity
was an entirely new policy due to the                            accommodation such as bedrooms,                         of adjacent residential areas or operations
NPPF. 16 said they had adapted the                               where this causes inconvenience to their                of existing activities.’
lighting policy to comply with the NPPF                          occupants. Design solutions to control                      Hampshire County Council was one of
whereas over two thirds (34) had not                             the effect of new lighting may include                  the first local authorities to introduce a
adapted their policy.                                            the type of technology used to control                  street lighting policy in 1994. The County
   There was a wide variation in the length                      the distribution of light and minimise                  Council was hailed by the Institution of
of time that local authorities have had                          glare. Other solutions include screening,               Lighting Professionals (ILP) as setting the
lighting policies in place, ranging from                         shielding, reducing lantern mounting                    standard for other local authorities to
under a year to some which had long-                             heights and managing the operating                      achieve. The Hampshire policy is now in
standing policies which have evolved over                        hours of the light source. The visual impact            its 4th edition14 following a comprehensive
a number of years. The London Borough                            of light fittings should also be considered.            review in 2009. The document aims to
of Barnet, for example, has had a policy                             Five of the local authorities who                   strike a balance between the aspiration
since 2006, which has been adapted to                            responded to the question about how long                to reduce the effect of artificial light
become part of its Supplementary                                 they have had a lighting policy said that               intrusion on the night-time environment
Planning Document on Sustainable Design                          it had been in place for less than two                  and the need to provide the necessary
and Construction. This was adopted in                            years. An example is Stafford District                  illumination to enhance the safety of
April 2013 and states, in policy 2.4B:                           Council whose Local Plan is currently                   highway users. The county policy also
   Light Pollution – Ensure that the design                      under examination. It includes a policy                 includes Environmental Lighting Zones
minimises adverse impacts from the                               under the design section (N1) which                     (as recommended by the ILP) and divides
lighting of a building or external areas.                        states that ‘To secure enhancements in                  Hampshire into four zones (see fig 2).

     Hampshire County Council, Street Lighting Policy Document, 4th Edition
Shedding light                                              Local planning
A survey of local authority                                 and lighting
approaches to lighting in England

                                                                                                                 SAID THIS WAS A CONTINUATION

                                                            OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES
                                                                                                                 OF AN EXISTING POLICY

                                                                                                                 SAID THIS WAS AN ENTIRELY
                                                            HAVE A POLICY ON LIGHTING                            NEW POLICY DUE TO THE NPPF

 Environmental Lighting Zones

 Zone EI                                                    lighting should not be provided in Zone      areas shall be lit to the levels originally
 National Parks, Areas of Outstanding                       E2 areas unless the County Council, or the   provided at the time of adoption. For the
 Natural Beauty, Sites of Special                           Local Lighting Authority, deem it to be in   sake of clarity, replacement columns
 Scientific Interest and other                              the best interest of the local community     shall be installed on a 1:4:1 basis with
 Dark Areas                                                 from either a road safety or a personal      new columns being positioned at the
 The general presumption is that street                     security point of view.                      rear of the footway and on property
 lighting should not be provided in Zone                                                                 party lines wherever possible.
 E1 areas unless the County Council,                        Zone E3
 or the Local Lighting Authority, can                       Areas of Medium District Brightness          Zone E4
 demonstrate an overriding road safety                      (Low Crime Urban Locations)                  Areas of High District Brightness
 issue which cannot be overcome by                          Roads falling into this category include     (Major Traffic Routes, High Crime
 other means.                                               all urban residential local access roads     Urban Areas, and Town Centres)
                                                            and footpaths (as defined by “Well Lit       Major traffic routes are defined as all A,
 Zone E2                                                    Highways”) where reported crimes, per        B and C class roads and contain all
 Areas of Low District Brightness                           1000 households, are less than, or equal     strategic routes, main/secondary
 (Rural Areas outside Zone E1)                              to, the County average.                      distributor and link roads as defined
 The general presumption is that street                         As a general rule, roads in Zone E3      in “Well Lit Highways”.15


        Zone E1
        Zone E2
        Zone E3
        Zone E4

        K Lighting Board Well-lit Highways: Code of Practice
       for Highway Lighting Management (Updated 2013)
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                                                                                                           Shedding light                                     Local planning
                                                                                                           A survey of local authority                        and lighting
                                                                                                           approaches to lighting in England

Consideration of lighting impact said that they would consider a change                                                                                       in the development. Westminster Council
The survey asked local authorities what                                                                    to the lighting of an existing development         explained how it required a hotel in their
type of developments they considered                                                                       or a highway proposal only if it required          area to reduce up-lighting and remove
the lighting impact of; new development,                                                                   planning permission. This could mean               250 items of equipment in order to
change to lighting of existing development                                                                 that new lighting could be added to                meet the Westminster Council Design
or highway proposals. 80 authorities                                                                       an existing development without                    Guide requirements. North Yorkshire
responded (see fig 3).                                                                                     any restrictions.                                  County Council described a recent case
                                                                                                              Two local authorities described how             where lighting design was provided
                                                                                                           they lead on lighting designs for the              by external consultants for a new
                                                                                                           majority of developments in their areas.           housing development. However, the
                                                                                                           This means they can monitor proposed               design was amended by the council to
  THE LIGHTING IMPACT OF?                                                                                  lighting schemes put forward by developers         reduce both the number and wattage
                                                                                                           and recommend adjustments if needed.               of the proposed lighting columns.
                                                                                                              In Essex, Braintree District Council said          Changes in land use can also mean
                                             80                                                            that all new major and the majority of             adjustments to lighting requirements,
 Number of local authorities who responded

                                                        78 considered

                                             70                                                            minor developments will have a lighting            as a recent example in Dacorum,
                                                                                                           condition attached which sets out the              Hertfordshire shows. A planning
                                                                           66 considered

                                             60                                                            agreed external lighting that is permitted         application was submitted for a change
                                                                                           59 considered


                                             40                                                              Floodlighting from nearby rugby club in London
                                                                                                             causing a nuisance to nearby homes




                                                                       pm of


                                                                   elo g


                                                                ev tin

                                                             g d igh


                                                          in o l


                                                       ist t

                                                    ex nge


                                                  an ha



    Brighton and Hove City Council said
it considered the lighting impact of all
three types and explained that it was in
the process of developing a lighting policy
for the authority. A similar approach is
taken by Cumbria County Council in
its Cumbria Design Guide, which
addresses lighting on new developments,
replacement lighting on existing
developments and lighting for all highway
schemes as part of an Environmental
Impact Assessment. The London Borough
of Barnet and Worcester District Council
Shedding light                                 Local planning
A survey of local authority                    and lighting
approaches to lighting in England

                                                                                                                                                                                WHEN ASSESSING DEVELOPMENT
                                                                                                                                                                                OR HIGHWAY LIGHTING PROPOSALS:
                                                                                                                                                                                OVER TWO THIRDS
                                                                                                                                                                                OF COUNCILS SAID
                                               ALTERATIONS TO A                                                                                                                 ENERGY
                                               PROPOSED SCHEME                                                                                                                  EFFICIENCY
                                               TO ENSURE LIGHTING IS                                                                                                            WAS THE MOST
                                               ONLY INSTALLED IF NEEDED                                                                                                         IMPORTANT FACTOR

of use from household waste recycling          was either very important or considered.                                                                                         later and turning off ten minutes earlier.
centre to waste vehicle depot with the            Almost two thirds (47) of respondents                                                                                         They also dim lighting by means of
construction of new CCTV/lighting              said that in relation to highway lighting                                                                                        photocell and electronic control
columns. The submitted lighting scheme         proposals the ability to control the light                                                                                       technology located in individual lights.
was deemed unacceptable due to the             centrally, e.g. to allow dimming, was                                                                                               We asked local authorities whether
sensitive location – classed as Zone E1        an important or a considered factor.                                                                                             they had recommended or required
Lighting Zone, close to a SSSI, within the     Cumbria County Council stated that                                                                                               alterations to a proposed lighting
Chilterns AONB, open countryside and           while they were not in a position to                                                                                             scheme to ensure lighting is installed
Green Belt – and a condition was imposed       justify the costs of installing and                                                                                              appropriately and only if needed. Of the
to address this.                               maintaining a Central Management                                                                                                 69 local authorities who responded, 49
   The fact that just 59 local authorities     System they do trim the times lights                                                                                             said they had and 20 said they had not.
reported that they consider the lighting       are on, e.g. by turning on ten minutes
impact of a highway proposal is due to
the mixture of district and county level
authorities responding to the question.             FIG 4 HOW IMPORTANT ARE THESE FACTORS TO YOUR
                                                    LOCAL AUTHORITY WHEN ASSESSING DEVELOPMENT/
County and unitary councils have
                                                    HIGHWAY LIGHTING PROPOSALS?
responsibility for highway lighting in
their areas but would consult relevant

district councils when considering a new
lighting scheme.



   We asked local authorities how

important a variety of factors were when
                                                Percentage of local authorities who answered either


assessing development/highway lighting

proposals (fig 4). Out of 74 who responded                                                                                        80

to this question, over two thirds (51) of
                                                                                              ‘Very important’ or ‘Considered’


respondents said that the factor that was

classed as most important was energy                                                                                              60
efficiency. All respondents said that the
potential impact of light shining into
residential/business premises was either
very important or at least considered,
followed by more than 9 out of 10 (70)
respondents who said that the potential
impact of light pollution on the night sky                                                                                        20
was very important or considered when
they assess lighting proposals; however,
four of the local authorities said this                                                                                            0
factor was not a consideration for them.
This factor was closely followed by 70                                                                                                   Cost                                        Impact of the street lights and columns
                                                                                                                                                                                     in the daytime (i.e. street clutter)
(95%) local authorities saying that lamp                                                                                                 Energy efficiency
                                                                                                                                                                                     Impact of the street lights in the
design was either important or considered.                                                                                               Lamp design
                                                                                                                                                                                     open countryside
   The potential impact of light on                                                                                                      Potential impact on light pollution
                                                                                                                                                                                     Impact of the street lights in intrinsically
                                                                                                                                         of the night sky
wildlife and habitat was classed as very                                                                                                                                             dark landscapes (e.g. National Parks)
important or considered by more than                                                                                                     Potential impact of lights shining
                                                                                                                                                                                     Ease of maintenance
                                                                                                                                         into residential/business premises
9 out of 10 (91%) respondents while                                                                                                                                                  Ability to control the light centrally,
                                                                                                                                         Potential impact of light on
slightly fewer respondents (89%) said                                                                                                    wildlife and habitat
                                                                                                                                                                                     for example to allow dimming
that the impact of street lights and
columns in the daytime (i.e. street clutter)
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                                            Shedding light                                  Local planning
                                            A survey of local authority                     and lighting
                                            approaches to lighting in England

Huntingdonshire District Council
Huntingdonshire District Council has strong planning
policies to control the use of artificial light in the area.

         t has had a Supplementary          2)	Need more information –
         Planning Guidance document,            e.g. luminaire type, lamp type, aiming       Conditions for approval
         ‘External Artificial Lighting’,        angle (if floodlight), mounting height
         since 1998 and includes a policy       and iso-lux contours to 1 lux (which
                                                                                             Lighting scheme before installation
on obtrusive light in its draft Local           shows where the light is distributed)        Prior to the erection of or installation of
Plan to 2036. The draft Plan states:        3)	Poor design and unacceptable for range       any outdoor lighting onsite a detailed
‘Development proposals will be required         of reasons e.g. glare, light intrusion or    outdoor lighting scheme shall be submitted
to demonstrate how a high standard of           sky glow being the main reasons.             to and approved in writing by the Local
amenity for existing and future users,                                                       Planning Authority and thereafter
                                                                                             implemented in accordance with the
of both the proposed development and        For the second and third options, the            approved scheme.
surroundings, will be provided for with     Project Engineer would try to have
specific reference to: e) the potential     technical discussions with the applicant’s       09002
for adverse impacts on air quality, from    lighting designer (if they had used one)         Floodlight details
obtrusive light and the contamination       with the aim of obtaining a scheme that          Prior to the erection of the floodlights
of land, groundwater or surface water.      gives the applicant lighting in the right        hereby approved, details of the light source,
                                                                                             the headgear cowling and light intensity
The policy also defines obtrusive light     place without affecting neighbours or            footprint and spillage shall be submitted
as ‘Light pollution that includes the       public amenity. A condition to secure this       to and approved in writing by the Local
brightening of the night sky (sky glow),    would then be attached to approval of a          Planning Authority and thereafter
uncomfortably bright light (glare) and      planning application (see box on the right).     implemented in accordance with the
light spilled beyond the area being lit        In 2011, the Council advised on               approved details.
(light intrusion)’.                         lighting a proposed housing development.
    The council’s Project Engineer is       The council’s Project Engineer specified         Lighting scheme before development
sent planning applications that             a pre-commencement condition on the              Prior to the commencement of
involve external lighting so that they      type of lighting that should be installed        development (on any phase) a scheme
can advise on the proposal. There are       but this was ignored and an inappropriate        showing the method of lighting and extent
three possible outcomes:                    scheme was installed. The Planning               of illumination to the access roads, parking
                                                                                             and circulation areas shall be submitted
                                            Officer informed the developer they were         to and approved in writing by the Local
1)	Good, well-designed scheme –            in breach of condition and the Project           Planning Authority and thereafter
    no objections if conditioned as per     Engineer offered solutions. The developer        implemented in accordance with the
    the lighting design plan;               then removed all unapproved lanterns             approved scheme.
                                            and bollards and installed appropriate,
                                            approved lighting.

 Before                                                             After
Shedding light                                                    Local planning
A survey of local authority                                       and lighting
approaches to lighting in England

                                                                                                                                 THE TOP FACTORS
                                                                                                                                 WHEN ASSESSING LIGHTING PROPOSALS:

                                                                                                                                 1   ST
                                                                                                                                                 2   ND
                                                                                                                                                               3   RD

                                                                                                                                 LIGHT MAY       LIGHT MAY     DESIGN
                                                                                                                                 SHINE INTO      POLLUTE       OF THE
                                                                                                                                 PROPERTIES      NIGHT SKY     LAMP

CPRE’s view
                                                                     Newer lights but with sag lense so causing light
CPRE is encouraged that almost two                                   pollution, shield fitted at request to council
thirds of local authorities have a lighting
policy in their Local Plan or similar.
Almost 90% of these policies were the
continuation of a long term lighting
policy and a third of these had been
adapted to comply with the NPPF.
Only six local authorities (13%) said
they had an entirely new policy due to
the NPPF. It is disappointing that there
is not more evidence of local authorities
adopting lighting policies. We would
like to see many more local authorities
adopting a lighting policy based on the
NPPF and the related National Planning
Practice Guidance on light pollution.
    We believe that local authorities should
always consider the lighting scheme
of any new development and require
notification of a change to the lighting
scheme of an existing development.
The lighting impact of highway
proposals should also be given careful
consideration, particularly at junctions                          is used or installed in the most                               Recommendations
and roundabouts which may be closer                               sensitive zones it could do much to                            l   ll local authorities should have a
to residential areas and visible over a                           prevent the spread of light pollution                             policy to control light pollution in
wider area. We welcomed the Highways                              and contribute to saving energy and                               their Local Plan, in line with the
Agency’s revision of standards in 2007                            reducing carbon emissions.                                        National Planning Policy Framework
to require there to be no light above the                             The top three factors that local                              and the associated National Planning
horizontal (90°), which was previously                            authorities consider when assessing                               Practice Guidance on light pollution.
mandatory only in National Parks.                                 development/highway lighting proposals                            This should include identifying existing
CPRE hopes this means that if lighting                            were the potential impacts of lights                              dark areas that need protecting;
is to be installed along new stretches of                         shining into residential or business                           l local authorities should consider
road it will be full cut off flat glass which                     properties and light pollution of the                             preparing a Street Lighting Policy,
minimises light pollution.                                        night sky, followed by lamp design.                               which could include Environmental
    We also strongly support the                                  CPRE welcomes the importance that                                 Lighting Zones16 to ensure that
Institution of Lighting Professionals’                            local authorities appear to place on                              the appropriate lighting levels are
recommendations for Environmental                                 ensuring that new lighting schemes do                             used in each zone, with very strict
Lighting Zones, as adopted in Hampshire.                          not cause nearby residents a nuisance or                          requirements applying in identified
While this might be seen as a major project                       light pollution. However, there are still                         dark areas.
for a local authority to undertake, it would                      many thousands of cases of bad lighting
make a big difference to the protection of                        causing such problems, and we urge
dark skies and tranquillity. By ensuring                          all local authorities to take action to
that the most suitable, if any, lighting                          improve this situation.

     Institution of Lighting Professionals Guidance Notes for the Reduction of Obtrusive Light GN01: 2011 https://www.theilp.
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                                              Shedding light                                  Street light
                                              A survey of local authority                     switch-off schemes
                                              approaches to lighting in England

Street light
switch-off schemes
Our survey asked local authorities if they are engaged
in a street light switch-off scheme – also referred to as
part-night lighting.

             ut of 71 local authorities who   of the county’s street lights have now
             responded to this question       been converted to operate for part of           Money saved by adjustments
             almost a third (23) said they    the night only but the remaining 30%            to street lighting
             were switching off street        of lights continue to operate overnight
lighting in their areas. Of these, 16 were    and are on ‘A’ roads, town centres,             Cost saving was a motivation for nine
permanent schemes and seven were              junctions and roads with a history of           out of ten (91%) local authorities who
trials. More than a third (39%) of the        night time accidents.                           were running a street light switch-off
switch-off schemes had been running for           Essex County Council was one of the         scheme and eight out of ten (78%) of
a year or two, and a further quarter (26%)    first to run a street light switch-off trial;   those running a dimming scheme.
had been running for less than a year.        part-night lighting has been in effect in
                                              Maldon and Uttlesford since early 2007.         Examples in this report are:
Here are examples of local                    The Council is nearing completion of
authorities who are exploring                 part-night lighting across the county,          l  Sefton Council expects to save
street light switch-off/part-                 following recent public consultations.            £15,000 during 2013/14 by trialling
night lighting schemes:                       Over 70% of the 127,000 Council-owned             switching off alternate street lights.
Sefton Council, in Merseyside, is running     streetlights are switched off at night          l Essex County Council previously
a street light switch-off trial where                                                           spent approximately £4.6m on
it is switching off alternate street          THE REMAINING 30% OF                              electricity for street lighting
lights. Following a review and public         LIGHTS CONTINUE TO OPERATE                        each year but expect that switching
consultation, it was agreed that selected     OVERNIGHT AND ARE ON                              to part-night lighting will save
                                              ‘A’ ROADS, TOWN CENTRES,
lengths of semi-rural roads would be          JUNCTIONS AND ROADS
                                                                                                approximately £1m per year.
subject to a 12 month pilot scheme            WITH A HISTORY OF NIGHT                         l Bradford Council’s street light
during 2013/14. This scheme is expected       TIME ACCIDENTS                                    dimming scheme is designed to
to save the Council £15,000 during                                                              save £400,000 a year.
2013/14 and also reduce the Council’s         between midnight and 5am, with certain          l North Somerset Council estimates
carbon emissions.                             exceptions. The Council previously spent            £300,000 a year will be saved
    Cornwall County Council is running        approximately £4.6m on electricity for            following the completion of
both a street light switch-off and dimming    street lighting each year but expects that        their dimming and part-night
trial in nine villages across the county      switching to part-night lighting will save        lighting scheme.
where communities have shown an               approximately £1m per year. It also
interest in operating reduced levels          expects to reduce carbon emissions by
of street lighting. This follows the          over 8,000 tonnes per year.                     We asked local authorities whether they
installation of new street lighting control      Our survey asked local authorities what      had to invest in new technology to run
system infrastructure and new lamp            had motivated them to pursue a street           the switch-off scheme. Almost two thirds
technology in over 51,000 street lights       light switch-off scheme in their area;          (62%) said they did compared with
throughout the county. Shropshire County      21 responded to this question. It comes         just over one third (38%) who did not.
Council is engaged in a three year trial      as little surprise that energy saving           The majority of respondents (59%) did
to switch off 70% of the lighting in the      topped the list with all bar one authority      not plan to remove street lighting that
county (12,500) lamps. They also hope to      (95%) saying it was a motivation, closely       had been switched off but almost two
save up to 600 tonnes of CO2 per year,        followed by cost saving cited by 19             out of ten (18%) planned to do just
which is around 15% of current street         authorities (91%). A reduction in light         that while almost a quarter (23%) were
lighting emissions in the county.             pollution was cited as a factor by just two
    For the last couple of years,             out of five (43%) of respondents. Four of       COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT
Hertfordshire County Council has been         the local authorities also added that           IS VITAL WHEN LOCAL
running a permanent street light switch-      carbon reduction was an additional factor       AUTHORITIES ARE
off scheme in all residential areas           they considered.                                CONSIDERING PART-NIGHT
including towns and villages between                                                          LIGHTING AND SWITCHING
                                                                                              OFF STREET LIGHTING
midnight and 6am. Approximately 70%
Shedding light                                Street light
A survey of local authority                   switch-off schemes
approaches to lighting in England

95% ENERGY SAVING                                       A THIRD
                                              OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES SAID
                                                                                                 SAID THE RESPONSE FROM
91% COST SAVING                               THEY WERE SWITCHING OFF
                                              STREET LIGHTING, EITHER
                                                                                                 THE LOCAL COMMUNITY
                                                                                                 HAD BEEN MIXED ABOUT
                                              PERMANENTLY OR AS A TRIAL                          PART-NIGHT LIGHTING

considering removing the lighting.
                                                Exmoor National Park is a Dark Sky Reserve, which means
   Community engagement is vital when           it has exceptional views of the night sky
local authorities are considering part-
night lighting and switching off street
lighting, commonly between midnight
and 5am. Nine out of ten respondents
(91%) said they had consulted the local
community about the street light switch-
off scheme proposals (N.B. the remaining
two local authorities were not responsible
for the scheme or it related to a short
section of motorway.) For example,
Norfolk County Council said that they
carried out a written consultation process
with both key stakeholders and residents
of affected streets and that all feedback
was considered prior to part-night lighting
being implemented. In Cheshire, Halton
Borough Council published information
on the Council’s website and issued a
press release (due to the potential impact
being on the travelling public rather
than specific residents) to consult a
wider audience.
   The survey asked how the local
community had reacted to the switch-off
scheme; 21 local authorities responded
and the majority – 18 (86%) said the
response had been mixed. This compares
with two local authorities (10%) who
said their community had been very
supportive and one (5%) who said the
community was not supportive.
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                                                                  Shedding light                                                  Street light
                                                                  A survey of local authority                                     dimming schemes
                                                                  approaches to lighting in England

Street light
dimming schemes
An increasing number of local authorities are investing
in new lighting technology which can be dimmed –
allowing local discretion for lighting levels.

                e asked local authorities
                                                                       Sag lense with shield
                whether they were
                engaged in a dimming
                scheme; almost half (32)
of the 67 respondents to this question
said they were. Of the councils who are
running a dimming scheme 26 said it
was permanent compared with five
who are currently running dimming
trials. Three quarters (23) of the 31 local
authorities who stated how long they
had been running a dimming scheme
said that it had been for under three years
with the remainder reporting that their
scheme had been running for between
three and five years.

Here are examples of local
authorities who are exploring
street light dimming schemes:
In West Yorkshire, Bradford Council‘s first
dimming scheme had been installed in
2008 in a mainly residential street in                               Dudley Council, in the West Midlands,                        has part-night lighting but not all lights
the outskirts of Bradford. The trial was                          is now rolling out a dimming scheme                             can be dimmed due to the cost of
unpublicised but was deemed a success                             to all residential areas in the Borough,                        dimming equipment; remaining street
due to there being no impact on public                            following a successful 2010 trial in a                          light columns will be replaced as needed.
safety. More than 1,000 street lights are                         housing estate, which required a small                          Up to 18,000 lights (80% of the lights
now being dimmed between 11pm and                                 scale Central Management Scheme                                 in North Somerset) could be converted
5am as part of energy saving measures                             (CMS)17 – this allows lighting to be tailored                   to part-night or dimming. The Council
across the district designed to save                              to the needs of different areas. A larger                       currently has more than 2,000 street
£400,000 a year and reduce power                                  CMS scheme was commissioned in 2013                             lights dimming at 50% between the
consumption by 25%.                                               to operate borough-wide, complemented                           hours of 8pm and 6am and estimates
   Northumberland County Council                                  by a lantern replacement or conversion                          £300,000 a year will be saved following
described how they are currently in the                           programme which will install a white                            the completion of the lighting scheme.
process of appointing a private sector                            light source and CMS control across all                             East Sussex County Council is making
partner to help modernise the street                              residential roads by early 2017.                                changes to street lighting on residential
lighting stock within the county. It will                            A number of respondents described                            and main roads across the county to
involve the use of LED lighting and a                             how dimming schemes are underway                                save energy and money. There are
dimming regime for all residential                                in a variety of areas ranging from short                        two different lighting schemes in
lighting. Over the last year, the council                         sections of road to across entire counties.                     East Sussex – the LED Lighting Scheme
has begun installing LED luminaires and                           For example, North Somerset Council is                          and the Part-night Lighting Scheme.
are dimming residential areas with the                            running both street light switch-off and                        In Eastbourne and Hastings most of the
technology in place, between midnight                             dimming schemes across their area.                              lights will be changed to new white LED
and 6am.                                                          Over two thirds (70%) of North Somerset                         lighting and some lights will be dimmed
                                                                                                                                  along main roads between midnight
                                                                                                                                  and 6.00am. The Part-night scheme is
     The central management system (CMS) uses wireless technology (radio waves) to communicate with each street light
     that is being monitored. The operating times can be controlled and changed if required. Variable lighting levels, or
                                                                                                                                  in operation in most other towns and
     dimming, can be set to different levels and over different durations for those units that have a dimming module installed.   villages in the county.
Shedding light                                             Street light
A survey of local authority                                dimming schemes
approaches to lighting in England

                                                                                                               OF THE COUNCILS WHO
                                                                                                               RESPONDED SAID THEY
                                                                                                               WERE ENGAGED IN A
                                                                                                               DIMMING SCHEME

 Reducing carbon emissions by
 adjusting street lighting

  Old, inefficient sag lens lighting (right) next to new full cut-off lighting (left)

 Many of the local authorities who took                    authorities who were running part-night            l   erbyshire County Council has a
 part in the survey said how they hoped                    lighting schemes and more (97%) who                   commitment to reduce carbon
 to reduce their carbon emissions by                       were running dimming schemes said that                emissions by 25% by 2015 which it
 adjusting their approach to street                        energy saving was the leading motivation.             hopes to achieve through part-night
 lighting. Almost a third (30%) of the UK’s                Examples in this report are:                          lighting schemes.
 carbon dioxide emissions come from                                                                           l Leicestershire County Council is
 fossil-fuelled electricity generation18.                  l  hropshire County Council hopes
                                                             S                                                   aiming to reduce carbon emissions
 As a result, the Government has                             to save up to 600 tonnes of CO2 per                 by 30% by 2014 by dimming and
 initiated a mandatory carbon trading                        year, which is around 15% of current                part-night lighting scheme.
 scheme for large private and public                         street lighting emissions as a result            l Cornwall County Council hopes to save
 sector organisations called the ‘Carbon                     of their part-night lighting trial.                 up to 4,700 tonnes of CO2 per year due
 Reduction Commitment’ which began                         l Essex County Council expects to                   to part-night lighting and dimming trial.
 in 2011. The aim of this scheme is to                       reduce carbon emissions by over
 reduce CO2 emissions by putting a price                     8,000 tonnes per year due to their
 on carbon. Almost all (95%) of local                        part-night lighting scheme.

      Figure calculated from Department of Energy and Climate Change report on UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Previous        Next           Contents

                                               Shedding light                                 Street light
                                               A survey of local authority                    dimming schemes
                                               approaches to lighting in England

 Leicester City Council
 Leicester City Council is updating its street lighting as part
 of its commitment to reduce the council’s carbon footprint
 by 50% before 2025.
             he £13.9m project began in
             March 2013, after a trial in
             2010, and will contribute a
             saving of 5,350 tonnes of
 carbon emissions per annum. Leicester
 City Council has a lighting stock of
 37,490 public lights, of which 32,560 will
 be replaced with LED lights. 4,930 of
 the existing High Intensity Discharge
 (HID) white light luminaire in the City
 will remain unchanged. The replacement
 units will be installed over a three year
 period with the completion of the project
 in March 2016.
    Existing lighting is run at 100% of
 the specified power output. This project        New lighting in contrast to older
                                                 lighting in background, Leicester
 includes a Central Management System
 (CMS) which allows remote control of
 lighting levels for individual streets.          Replacing the existing lighting stock       a year in electricity costs based on
 Street lights are programmed to operate       with LED luminaires will mean that             2013 prices.
 at full power from dusk until 8.00pm          energy usage and carbon emissions will            The local community and the police
 and at 75% from 8.00pm until dawn.            be reduced by over 40% compared with           have been quite supportive of the White
 This level of reduction is not normally       current levels, saving £0.84m a year in        Light/CMS conversation project as they
 noticeable to the human eye. The CMS          electricity costs based on 2013 prices.        were not able to tell the difference in the
 will allow the use of other lighting          Using the CMS should conservatively            lighting levels after dimming. Leicester
 patterns, customised by street, for           provide a further 17% reduction on             City Council plans to collate before and
 example reducing down to 50% of               these levels, increasing the overall savings   after crime figures to assess any impact
 maximum output from 11.00pm                   to 57% of current energy usage and             this scheme may have had on night
 to dawn.                                      carbon emissions. This would save £1.2m        time activities.

Investing in new technology                    in the process of installing 180 CMS           street lights with 16,500 LED luminaires.
for dimming schemes                            controlled lanterns in an area of the City     The new lights are expected to bring a 73%
We asked the local authorities who were        that borders the South Downs National          energy saving in street light consumption.
running street light dimming schemes           Park. Bournemouth Council has been             The Council currently spends £1.1m a year
whether they had to invest in new              running a dimming scheme for almost            on street lighting energy.
technology in order to run the dimming         five years and has invested in a CMS              As with the top reason cited for
scheme. Almost nine in ten (28) of                                                            switching off street lights, the leading
respondents had done so, compared with         THE LEADING MOTIVATION FOR                     motivation for dimming lights was
four who said they hadn’t needed to.           DIMMING LIGHTS WAS ENERGY                      energy saving at 97%. This is followed by
Cumbria County Council explained that          SAVING AT 97%                                  78% of local authorities saying it was
it had investigated the potential for                                                         cost saving. Just over half (53%) said
introducing a Central Management               which allows lower levels of lighting          that reducing light pollution had been
System (CMS) to enable dynamic switching       during quiet times but is boosted in the       a factor. In West Yorkshire, Wakefield
of its road lighting. Brighton and Hove        town centre for CCTV surveillance during       Council said that ‘Improvements in light
Council said that it has invested in a trial   busy club nights. The Council is planning      pollution are a positive benefit of the
of a Central Management System and is          to replace all of Bournemouth’s current        actions driven by Climate Change Act
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