SOLUTION AIR HANDLING UNITS - 2000 TO 100,000 CFM (Indoor & Outdoor Models)

 
SOLUTION AIR HANDLING UNITS - 2000 TO 100,000 CFM (Indoor & Outdoor Models)
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

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SOLUTION AIR HANDLING UNITS
                  2000 TO 100,000 CFM
               (Indoor & Outdoor Models)
SOLUTION AIR HANDLING UNITS - 2000 TO 100,000 CFM (Indoor & Outdoor Models)
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

GENERAL INFORMATION                                                            STAGGERED COIL OPTIONS
  Introduction ............................................................3      Angle Wall ............................................................32
  A Proud History of Experience & Qualifications .....3                           Back-to-Back ........................................................32
  Assurance of Johnson Controls Backing ...............3                          Multizone (MC) .....................................................33
  Computer Selection Programs ...............................4                 HEATING SEGMENTS
  Innovative Engineering & Design ...........................5                    Integral Face & Bypass ........................................34
  Flexibility of Design ................................................6         Indirect Gas-Fired ................................................35
  Superior Casing Performance ................................6                   Turndown Examples and Guidelines....................36
  Pre-engineered Packaged Controls .......................7                       Electric Heat Options & Applications ....................37
  Customized Variable Size Openings ......................7                    ENERGY RECOVERY
  Airflow Measurement Performance ........................8                       Heat Wheel ..........................................................40
  State-of-the-Art Certification & Testing ...................8
                                                                               FILTER SEGMENTS
  New Sound Testing Laboratory ..............................8
                                                                                  Applications & Options Table ...............................41
  Quality Construction Equals Improved IAQ............9
                                                                                  Mechanical Air Filters ...........................................42
  Multi-Sloped Drain Pans ........................................9
                                                                                  MERV Analysis .....................................................43
  Raceways...............................................................9
                                                                               MIXING SEGMENTS & ECONOMIZERS
  Improve Cost Savings ............................................9
                                                                                 Mixing Box /Economizers .....................................44
  A Complete Line of Filters ....................................10
                                                                                 Mixing Box Optimization Chart .............................46
  Energy Saving Fan Options .................................10
                                                                                 Typical Economizer Application............................47
  Energy Consumption............................................11
                                                                                 Building Pressurization.........................................47
  Sound Attenuation ................................................13
                                                                                 Methods of Pressurization Control .......................48
  Inertia Base ..........................................................13
                                                                                 Economizer Arrangements ...................................48
  Quick Selection ....................................................14
                                                                                 Face Damper .......................................................49
FAN APPLICATION REVIEW
                                                                                 Inlet Plenum .........................................................49
  Fan Laws .............................................................15
                                                                               ACCESSORY SEGMENTS
  Variable Air Volume ..............................................16
                                                                                 Diffuser Segment .................................................50
  Component Temperature Margins ........................17
                                                                                 Access Segment ..................................................50
  Fan Motor Heat ....................................................17
                                                                                 Vertical Plenum ...................................................51
COIL OPTIONS
                                                                                 Discharge Plenum ................................................51
  Cooling Coils ........................................................18
                                                                                 Sound Attenuator .................................................52
  Heating Coils ........................................................19
                                                                                 Noise and Vibration ..............................................53
  Typical Application of AH Coils .............................20
                                                                                 Air Blender - Mixers..............................................54
SOLUTION SEGMENT IDENTIFICATION                                                  Face & Bypass Damper Segment ........................55
  Segment Listing ...................................................21          Turning Segments ................................................56
  Unit & Coil Hand Selection ...................................21               Humidifier Segment..............................................56
FAN SEGMENTS – FS, FR, FE                                                        UV Segment .........................................................57
  Fan Applications ...................................................22         Pipe Chase Enclosure..........................................58
  Dual Fan Considerations......................................22                Roof Curb .............................................................58
  Dual Fan Applications ..........................................22             Special Curb Requests ........................................59
  Door and Discharge Locations .............................23                 CONTROLS
  Single Fan DWDI Options ....................................24                 F. P. Controls & Motor Control Centers ................60
  Single Fan SWSI Options ....................................25                 Typical FPC Wiring...............................................60
  Dual Fan DWDI Options.......................................26                 Software Process .................................................61
  Dual Fan SWSI Options .......................................27                Field Equipment Controller...................................61
  SWSI vs. DWDI ....................................................28           Power Wiring Options ..........................................62
  Fan Motor Control Methods .................................29
                                                                               INDUSTRY FORMULAS
COIL SEGMENTS                                                                    Miscellaneous Industry Formulas.........................63
  Cooling (CC) ........................................................30
                                                                               GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS WITH TIPS
  Heating (HC) ........................................................30
                                                                                 Part 1 - General....................................................64
  Vertical Coil (VC) ..................................................31
                                                                                 Part 2 - Products ..................................................67
                                                                                 Part 3 - Execution.................................................81
2                                                                                                                               JOHNSON CONTROLS
SOLUTION AIR HANDLING UNITS - 2000 TO 100,000 CFM (Indoor & Outdoor Models)
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

GENERAL INFORMATION

Introduction                                                      Assurance of Johnson Controls Backing
This Equipment Guide will provide engineers with                  With every Solution system, you get the support and
a summary of Solution air handling information in the             resources that come from dealing with a worldwide
most convenient, time-saving manner possible. The                 manufacturer – JOHNSON CONTROLS. You are not
guide will direct you to various sources of data and infor-       tied to the limitations of a regional supplier. Instead, you
mation helpful in solving questions concerning product            get the flexibility being able to design in one part of the
options, design application, as well as installation and          country, and buy and install in another location.
operation.
                                                                  Johnson Controls Factory Service
A Proud History of Experience & Qualifications
                                                                  Turn to the experts at Johnson Controls/YORK.
Johnson Controls combined with YORK heating, ventila-             Johnson Controls/York carries the burden of single-
tion, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) sys-           source responsibility since Johnson Controls/YORK
tems and solutions creates the largest global provider of         packages the total system, including custom air han-
integrated products, systems and services for the $200            dlers, chillers, controls, and variable air-volume boxes
billion global building environment industry.                     and building automation systems. For added peace
                                                                  of mind, Johnson Controls/YORK offers Inspection
Johnson Controls/YORK is:                                         Only, Preventive Maintenance and Inspection, or Total
 • A global leader in control systems and services                Service Contracts to meet your specific financing and
   for heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC),             management requirements. Johnson Controls service
   lighting, security and fire management for non-                can also provide certified technicians available locally
   residential buildings, facility management and                 for factory start-up, drawing from over 700 factory-
   consulting services.                                           trained service technicians in 100 strategically-located
                                                                  offices nationwide – a capability not offered by indepen-
 • Represented in over 125 countries, including
                                                                  dent manufacturers.
   North America, Asia, Europe, the Middle East,
   Africa and Latin America and in all markets.
       ®                                                          Full Service Support
YORK Solution® air-handling units (AHUs) from John-
son Controls–the only names you need to know for a line           Because JOHNSON CONTROLS factory packaged
that has no limits. Johnson Controls/YORK engineers               devices and motor controls are an integral part of the
have developed an AHU line that is so flexible, and able          equipment, who better to troubleshoot and service the
to deliver such high standards of performance, that it can        system than a professional Johnson Controls Service
handle virtually any application. Whatever the air-han-           Technician. The Johnson Controls Service technician
dling challenge–IAQ, acoustics, energy, controls, you             knows not only the equipment and the hardware, but
name it–Johnson Controls/YORK can build a Solution                also has a working knowledge of equipment applica-
AHU that will meet your needs.                                    tion and operation. Every unit is backed by this kind of
                                                                  professional support.
Solution® AHU’s from Johnson Controls
comprise a complete AHU line to meet commercial,
institutional and industrial indoor and outdoor unit              Development and Preparation of Service Literature
applications. For more than 50 years, YORK air
                                                                  Johnson Controls/YORK produces quality product
handling units have been installed in every type of facility to
                                                                  literature to ensure proper installation, operation and
handle any type of requirement; manufacturing, education,
                                                                  maintenance. Installation, Operation and Maintenance
healthcare, life sciences and process manufacturing.
                                                                  manuals must be followed to realize the full capacity
Solution® AHU’s come equipped with industry-leading               and life of the units. In addition, literature supplements
Metasys® controls that are installed and commissioned             of special characteristics and features are distributed as
at the factory. Factory installation assures superior             required to support regular product enhancements.
quality, saves time on the jobsite and delivers accurate
performance. Plus, you can count on seamless opera-
tion with a Metasys building management system.

JOHNSON CONTROLS                                                                                                            3
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

GENERAL INFORMATION

Computer Selection Programs                                 This powerful software tool brings flexibility and com-
                                                            puting power to the desktop of designers. The software
YORKworks™ software is the primary source for the
                                                            allows you and the customer to make product decisions
latest product design and performance data.
                                                            and view performance data in a user-friendly, step-by-
    1. Includes the latest innovations, updates, and ef-    step, screen-driven environment.
       ficiencies of YORK® products
                                                            YORKworksCE™ software is a necessity for your
    2. Includes general functionality used to select        customer’s engineering toolbox. YORKworks revolution-
       equipment factory packaged controls.                 izes the way you specify HVAC equipment. Johnson
                                                            Controls/YORK can optimize the selection of any air
    3. Sound data for air-handling units
                                                            handling unit for a specific job requirement with its
    4. All screens are interconnected and are continually   computer selection programs.
       updated according to configuration inputs.

                                                            Quick and Easy selection

                                                             • Save Time – choose components and
                                                               complete configurations with a couple
                                                               of clicks.
                                                             • Reduce Errors – use pre-programmed
                                                               rules and guidelines for component
                                                               selection.

                                         Just Click to
                                       select and add
                                         components

Literature Reference — see ‘Sales Guide – YORK works CE’ Form 70.02-SG1

4                                                                                              JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

Innovative Engineering & Design                                                              5. Solution’s Variable Aspect Ratio eliminates the
                                                                                                need for costly modifications.
Solution Air Handlers are not just ‘fans-in-a-box’!
                                                                                             6. Solution fits the specification and the space!
 1. Solution is a structure that withstands deflection
 2. Solution is a sound/noise barrier                                                       Innovative Engineering & Design allows you to choose
                                                                                            from a limitless variety of configurations. See con-
 3. Solution is a container of clean and conditioned air
                                                                                            figurations below for some of the popular applications
 4. Solution is an integral part of a building’s fire and                                   designed to meet your particular need.
    safety plans

Configuration 1 (Stacked Unit) –                                                            Configuration 2 (Stacked Unit) –
Mechanical room favorite. Reduced footprint with tiered                                     Ultra-quiet design with plenum fan and U-shaped
supply fan                                                                                  cabinet
                                                                                                                               AT        DP
              FS

                                                                                                               TN

                                                                                                               TN

                        VC         XA HC     FM

                                                                                                                           FS       XA    EH   XA RF   MB

                                             Configuration 3 – Minimum frills. Maximum IAQ

                                                                       FS        CC       XA HC FF        MB

                        Configuration 4 – Exhaust air flexibility with gas-heat and humidification

                   DP         HM     XA            IG              XA           FS                CC       AF             EE                   FE

                                   Configuration 5 – Cooling-only lab design with HEPA filtration

                                                        DP        HF    XA DI        FS           CC      RF        MB

                    Configuration 6 – Classic hospital design with return fan economizer operation.

                             DP      RF    XA DI             FS                 CC        XA HC      AF              EE                  FR

JOHNSON CONTROLS                                                                                                                                                  5
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

GENERAL INFORMATION

Flexibility of Design                                        Component Flexibility
Solution AHUs offer the ultimate in dimensional, mate-       AHUs are responsible for providing
rial, and component flexibility. Solution AHUs have the      the environment with quality indoor
same appeal for both “standard” and “custom” markets.        air, in an energy efficient and quiet
How an air-handling unit is designed and built deter-        manner. Solution AHUs help meet
mines how well it performs.                                  that responsibility by offering every
                                                             available component, from energy
Engineering Flexibility                                      wheels to air-monitoring stations
                                                             to specialty-purpose filters. As
    • Variable cabinet dimensions
                                                             technology creates new capabilities, Johnson Controls/
    • Material and component flexibility                     YORK will apply these to our Solution line.
    • Full line of factory packaged controls installed,      Superior Casing Performance
      tested and commissioned by Johnson Controls
                                                             The foam injected panels of our Solution air handling
      certified technicians
                                                             units enhance performance, maximizing the indoor air
    • Variable sized inlet and discharge openings            quality and help to create ASHRAE 62-2000 compliant
                                                             designs while reducing costs. The direct result of the
    • Indoor and outdoor constructions
                                                             foam injection insulation is a rigid panel, low leakage,
    • Tiered (stacked) and custom configurations             high pressure air handler, with increased energy sav-
                                                             ings, and reduced initial cost.
                                                             Better IAQ
                                                             Deflection presents a potential in leaks that form over
                                                             time from the operational pressure. The foam injected
                                                             Solution panels are 20% more rigid (L/240 vs. L/200)
                                                             then the typical fiberglass or foam board construction.
                                                             In addition the smaller deflections can be achieved using
                                                             lighter sheet metal gauges then required by fiberglass
                                                             construction. The result is a lower initial cost unit with
                                                             greater performance.
                                                             Lower leakage reduces the infiltration of unfiltered and
                                                             unconditioned air into the space. The infiltration of un-
    • Panels are individually removable without affect-      conditioned air can lead to condensation in unit walls,
      ing structural integrity.                              crevices and/or insulation. When the infiltration occurs
                                                             in a negative pressure atmosphere downstream of the
Dimensional Flexibility                                      filter, it will lead to unfiltered air being supplied to the
                                                             space. Maintaining a low leakage for positive pressure
You can design Solution AHUs to fit the application and
                                                             segments reduces the loss of conditioned air to a po-
the space. Length, height and width can all be varied
                                                             tentially warm and humid ambient environment, causing
to match building constraints. With hundreds of cross-
                                                             increased condensation. Condensation can lead to
sectional possibilities, you choose the best match for the
                                                             premature corrosion as well as IAQ concerns.
application. In addition, all Solution AHU components
have been designed with a variable-aspect ratio to meet      The Solution foam injected wall panels help to seal and
your space and air-velocity requirements.                    maintain the leakage at maximum of 1% with a minimum
                                                             +/-8” of static pressure. Options for a maximum leakage
Material Flexibility                                         rate of 1/2% at a minimum of +/-10” of static pressure
                                                             are available for those projects which demand it.
A complete line of construction materials are available,
including galvanized steel, aluminum, painted steel,         Coil carryover, humidification, and periodic wash downs
stainless steel, and more. Solution AHUs can handle          are all instances where water is present in the unit.
a multitude of environments, from the most benign to         Foam insulated panels will not absorb, and retain water,
the most corrosive. NOTE: All units/unit segments are        like a fiberglass insulated panel will. In addition the ther-
shrink-wrapped to protect unit from contamination dur-       mal properties of foam are not degraded by an incident
ing shipping                                                 where the insulation comes in contact with water.

6                                                                                                   JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

Energy Savings                                                Factory Installation
The energy savings associated with high performing air        Factory installation improves quality and saves time.
handler construction is directly associated with leakage      While a Solution AHU is being manufactured, Johnson
and insulating properties.                                    Controls technicians can easily access all its segments.
                                                              So there are no accessibility problems to cramp the
The infiltration of unconditioned air downstream of a coil,
                                                              quality of the controls installation, which often occurs
or the loss of conditioned air downstream of a coil are
                                                              on the jobsite.
just two examples of reduced energy efficiency in an air
handler. The foam injected panel helps to reduce both         All sensor probes have been pre-engineered to deter-
of these potential losses by creating a more rigid, lower     mine the best mounting location, ensuring accurate and
leakage air handling over the life of the unit.               reliable readings.
Another form of energy loss associated with air handlers      This improves performance of the unit while eliminat-
is the thermal energy that is lost through the cabinet of     ing unwanted air leakage common in field-mounted
the air handler. The Solution foam injected panels lower      solutions.
energy consumption with better insulating properties.
With the standard R-12.5 and optional R-18.8, or R-25,        Factory engineering speeds field connections
the Solution can help to reduce the energy usage. The
                                                              The goal is to provide
injected panel provides additional thermal advantages in
                                                              you with an AHU that
that the foam will fill voids, and gaps that aren’t reached
                                                              simplifies field connec-
with fiberglass or foam board type constructions.
                                                              tion of the controls. For
Solution air handler units are capable of being factory       example, coil valves
tested to prove out both leakage and deflection. With         are shipped uninstalled,
the Solution product it’s not all about construction, it’s    but pre-wired with quick
also about performance.                                       connects. If an AHU is
                                                              too large to ship in one
Pre-engineering Packaged Controls
                                                              piece, you can still count
Pre-engineering of sensors ensures the most accurate          on fast and easy assem-
performance. There are great advantages to selecting          bly of Metasys controls
factory mounted and wired end devices for your Solution       because labeled quick connects come standard on all
air handling units.                                           shipping splits.
 1. Factory mounting maintains leakage performance
                                                              Customized variable size openings
 2. Factory wiring is plug and play
                                                              Solution offers the most comprehensive option for facto-
 3. Factory testing of each mounted and wired device          ry provided openings. Custom size, custom location and
                                                              custom shapes along with custom sized dampers,are
 4. Factory generated control diagrams specifically
                                                              designed to lower installation costs and risk while dra-
    for each unit
                                                              matically improving the quality of the application and
                                                              performance of the air handler.

                                                                  DP        FS       EE     EE        FR       IP

Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘Applying VSO Option to Solution Air Handling Units’ - Form
102.20-AG14

JOHNSON CONTROLS                                                                                                    7
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

GENERAL INFORMATION

Airflow Measurement Performance                                air-flow station offered for air handling units which is in-
                                                               corporated into mixing box and economizer segments to
Solution AMS-60 qualifies to bear the AMCA Ratings
                                                               meet the most stringent ASHRAE 90.1 requirements
Seal for Airflow Measurement Performance. Ventilation
air flow can be controlled dynamically with the Solution       There are 3 damper options to give various measure-
AMS-60 which is tested to AMCA Standard 611-95.                ments of air flow. See FIG. 1.
The Solution AMS-60 continues to be the best integral
                                                               NOTE: Dampers are split vertically

                      VIEWED
                      FROM                                                    25%                              25%
                      TOP

                                                 100%

                                                                              75%                              75%

FIG. 1 – DAMPER OPTIONS

 Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘AMS60 for use with Solution AHU’ - Form 102.20-AG1

State-of-the-Art Certification & Testing
                                                                • ASHRAE 90.1 compliant
Solution Air Handlers are subject to stringent testing
using certified, comprehensive and industry recognized          • ASHRAE 62 compliant coil and drain pan design
testing laboratories. Testing is in accordance with ARI           maximizes indoor air quality
Standard 430 which evaluates the performance of the
                                                                • Outstanding thermal capacity proven through
entire unit. This assures that each Certified Solution unit
                                                                  independent testing
will indeed perform with certainty and reliability.
                                                                • HEPA filtration system exceeds the most stringent
Solution AHUs have also undergone extensive and rigor-
                                                                  military DOP tests
ous testing to verify conformance with all U.S. and Cana-
dian safety standards, and they bear the ETL Label.             • AMCA 611 certified airflow measurement stations
Extensive testing includes:                                     • ISO Quality Certification
    • ARI 430 certified performance                             • Seismic certificate of compliance
    • ARI 260 sound data                                       Labeled Solution units are tested and listed by ETL in
                                                               accordance with UL 1995, Standard for Safety Heating
    • Full line of ARI 410 certified coils
                                                               and Cooling Equipment, and thereby fully complying
    • ETL listing for product safety per UL 1995               with NFPA 90A material requirements.

New Sound Testing Laboratory                                   our customers will continue to obtain the best available
                                                               Solution sound data in the marketplace.
The new AHU laboratory at the Johnson Controls
Grantley Park Tech Center includes the capability for          This facility will be the largest AHU sound test facility in
sound power measurements on Air Handling Units up to           the world. Note that in order for a laboratory to measure
100,000 CFM in accordance with ARI 260. The facility           ARI 260 sound data, the laboratory must be pure tone
will also include the capability for testing unit airflow in   qualified to 50 Hz. This facility will be pure tone quali-
accordance with AMCA 210 to 100,000 CFM. For fan               fied to 50 Hz. Pure tone qualification ensures that the
alone testing, the facility will also have AMCA 300 and        test facility is capable of accurately measuring a noise
AMCA 210 accreditation. All of this capability will be         source producing tones – such as a fan. Not qualifying
available for product development testing and for cus-         the facility for pure tone response could lead to errone-
tomer witness testing on critical projects. This facility      ous results with a tonal noise source. This is why ARI
will allow verification and calibration of sound models        requires pure tone qualification of reverberation rooms in
used for unique features of Solution units, which will         the HVAC industry for anything other than VAV boxes.
increase the accuracy of our predictions and ensure that

8                                                                                                    JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

Quality Construction Equals Improved IAQ                     states that “The drain pan outlet shall be located at the
                                                             lowest point(s) of the pan.”
Quality construc-
tion is a key to a                                           Solution units remove the condensate with a multi-sloped
minimum amount of                                            drain pan that ensures positive drainage. Our pan design
AHU leakage. Leak-                                           also offers the highest level of accessibility for periodic
age is an adversary                                          cleaning, now required by ASHRAE Standard 62.
of indoor air quality.
It will depreciate the                                       Raceways
quality of the supply
                                                             Raceways are used as the exterior skeletal construction
air by allowing dirty,
                                                             of Solution.
unfiltered air to seep
into the air-stream                                           • Raceways provide the form and shape as well as
downstream of the                                               structural support for panels, base and internal.
filters.
                                                              • Raceway material is Galvanized
To prevent this leakage, the rigid, thermally superior
                                                             Solution is offered with a full-perimeter base-rail with
panels of Solution AHUs are matched with a rugged
                                                             integral lifting lugs.
framework to provide an extraordinary casing perfor-
mance.                                                        • Optional base-rails
The maximum allowable air leakage is less than 1% at          • Lifting lugs are provided
+/- 8" w.g. and a maximum L/240 deflection.                     as necessary for material
                                                                handling
The Shell of Solution is made up of double wall panels
and doors.                                                   A ‘Curb Rest’ is provided to
                                                             direct, guide and indicates align-
 • Standard liner material is galvanized
                                                             ment when setting a unit on the
 • Stainless liners are optional                             curb.
 • Perforated aluminum liners are optional                    • Galvanized steel strip at-
                                                                tached to the raceway or
The floor is a double wall construction, with a galvanized
                                                                base-rail
steel walk-on surface.
                                                              • ‘Curb Rest’ is not to be
 • Optional stainless steel
                                                                considered a flashing
 • Optional aluminum tread plate                                receiver for the curb.

Multi-Sloped Drain Pans                                      Improve Cost Savings
The way to control micro-organisms, which can flourish       Solution UV-C light options
in drain pans, is to control the moisture of cooling-coil    eliminate the potential for a build-up of microbiological
condensate which can remain in the pan during “off” or       agents.
“heating” cycles.
                                                              1. Heat exchangers continue to operate at high-
                           Poorly designed drain pans            efficiency levels due to sustainable, like-new,
                           are often breeding grounds            reduced pressure drop.
                           for mold and poor IAQ.
                                                              2. HVAC equipment operates for shorter periods of
                           ASHRAE 62-2001, section
                                                                 time saving cost on electricity.
                           5.11.1 states that drain pans
                           “...shall be sloped at least       3. Improved IAQ as the first line of defense against
                           1/8" per foot from the hori-          sick building syndrome.
                           zontal toward the drain outlet
                                                             Installation of UV-C lamps promotes a cleaner, healther,
                           whether the fan is in the on or
                                                             more productive work environment.
                           off position.” Section 5.11.2
                                                             More detailed information on page 57 of this manual.

 Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘Solution IAQ Series General AHU Construction’ - Form 102.20-
 AG3

JOHNSON CONTROLS                                                                                                      9
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

GENERAL INFORMATION

A Complete Line of Filters
A complete line of clean air solutions for industrial plants,
hospitals, schools, pharmaceutical process, airports and
commercial buildings are available to control or remove
airborne contaminants from the air stream.
Achieving acceptable indoor air quality is more involved
than calculating and applying the appropriate ventilation
rate. Specific AHU performance and other common
sense specification items, tied to ASHRAE 62.1 rec-
ommendations, can help achieve the healthy indoor air
quality environment desired.

  Light pre-filtering duty:                 Stringent filtration requirements:        Odor or VOC removal
  –   pleated                               –   HEPA                                  – Activated carbon
  –   extended surface                      –   Ultra-HEPA
                                            –   17 to 18 MERV                         Air purification systems
  Higher filtration efficient               –   0.3 & 0.1 microns respectively        High-performance
  –   60% to 95%                            –   99.97% & 99.99 % effectiveness        –   Near-HEPA performance
  –   11 to 14 MERV                                                                   –   Germicidal capability
  –   rigid & bags                                                                    –   Low-resistance-to-airflow (initial
                                                                                          pressure drop equal to a low-end
                                                                                          pre-filter).

Energy-Saving Fan Options                                          Economizers (EE) provide an exhaust path for return
                                                                   air, allowing the outdoor air conditions, when suitable,
In any AHU, the fan is the largest energy consumer.
                                                                   to take advantage of 100% outside air for “free” cooling,
Solution fans offer a range                                        allowing the chillers to be turned off a percentage of the
of energy-saving options                                           time during the cooling season. Return and exhaust
through fan types and con-                                         fans are available to meet the needs of varying building
trols.                                                             pressurization requirements.
 – Light aluminum fan
   wheels
 – Direct-drive plenum
   fans, which eliminate
   belt-and-pulley energy
   losses
                                    To assure the quietest
                                    possible operation,
                                    fans and motors are
                                    common base isolated
                                    from the cabinet.

 Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘Solution - Reducing AHU Energy Consumption’ - Form 102.20-
 AG13

10                                                                                                       JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

Energy Consumption                                                  Rearranging Equation 1 to solve for duct leakage class:
The HVAC industry has taken a leadership role by creat-             Eq. 2     CL = Lmax/P0.65
ing energy-performance guidelines, such as ASHRAE                             CL = (0.5 cfm/ft2 x 100 ft2)/50.65
90.1. Solution AHUs are designed with ASHRAE 90.1                             CL = 17.6
in mind.
In extreme ambient conditions, heat transfer through                According to this, regardless of unit size or capacity,
the casing must be controlled. Solution casing offers               this type air-unit is roughly equivalent to a SMACNA
maximum thermal performance in the floors, walls and                leakage class of 18.
roof. To prevent energy-robbing air leaks, Solution units
are designed for a maximum casing leakage of less                   Analyzing Solution units is a little more complex than
than 1%.                                                            analyzing the other typical unit, since Solution strives
                                                                    for a maximum leakage rate of 1% of the unit design
                                                                    airflow at ± 8 in-w.c. That means that the leakage in
                                                                    cfm/100 ft2 of unit casing varies based on the size and
                                                                    capacity of the unit. A 4,000 cfm Solution unit will have
                                                                    a maximum leakage rate of 40 cfm, whether the unit is
                                                                    8’ long or 10’ long. Therefore, the 10’ long unit will have
                                                                    an inherently lower cfm/100 ft2 leakage rate than the 8’
                                                                    long unit, as shown in Table 1.

For every 1% of air leakage at the AHU, 1% more air                 Table 1. Comparative Solution Leakage Rates
must be conditioned, and 1% more energy is con-                      Unit CFM:              4000     4000   16000    16000   32000   32000
sumed.                                                               H (Inches)              36      36       66       66    114     114
                                                                     W (inches)              54      54       96       96    102     102
Comparing Apples-to-Apples                                           L (inches)              98      124     105      132    125     150

Competitors claim “Air leakage rates between 1/2 and                 Area (ft2)             150      182     324      385    537     612
1 percent” on their AHUs, but they don’t mention at what             1% Leakage (cfm)        40      40      160      160    320     320
pressure this performance is achievable, nor do they                 Leakage (cfm/ft²)      0.27    0.22     0.49     0.42   0.60    0.52
even specify a leakage rate for the air units.
                                                                    Using the Solution performance at ± 8 in-w.c. we can use
This typically makes it difficult to analyze their leakage          the SMACNA leakage class as a standard comparator.
performance by not qualifying it based on air pressure.             By plugging the values from Table 1 into Equation 2, we
However, if we reference to SMACNA class 3 air leakage              find the leakage class for the various Solution units as
this is a good place to begin our analyses.                         shown in Table 2.
SMACNA class 3 refers to a standardized method                      Table 2. Solution AHU Leakage Classes
of classifying duct leakage. While this classification
                                                                     Unit CFM:              4000     4000   16000    16000   32000   32000
doesn’t technically apply to AHUs, it is a useful method
of comparing the performance claims of different manu-               Leakage (cfm/ft²)      0.27    0.22     0.49     0.42   0.60    0.52
facturers. According to SMACNA Duct Leakage Test                     Leakage Class
                                                                                              7       6       13       11     15      14
Procedures (1985), duct leakage is calculated using                  at ± 8 in-w.c
the equation:
Eq. 1     Lmax = CLP0.65                                            Even on large AHUs, the leakage class of a Solution
                                                                    unit is lower than that of most competition. Many design
where,                                                              engineers don’t realize this, because when they compare
                                                                    YORK’s performance to others they aren’t comparing
Lmax = maximum permitted leakage in cfm/100ft2 duct surface area;
                                                                    apples-to-apples unless the performance is translated
CL   = duct leakage class, cfm/100ft2 at 1 in-w.c.                  into the common language of leakage class.
P0.65 = test pressure in in-w.c.

 Literature Reference — see Application Guide Form 102.20-MG1. See also M-42-06.

JOHNSON CONTROLS                                                                                                                        11
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

GENERAL INFORMATION

EPAct Efficient Performance
Consumption of energy can also be reduced by more
efficient motors. Solution AHU motors meet EPAct
efficient performance standards for general purpose
motors. Standard Solution EPAct efficient and Premium-
efficiency motors can be specified and used with fre-
quency control as listed by NEMA Standards Publication
MG 1-2006 (Motors and Generators):
 • MG 1-2006 Part 30
     Application Considerations for General Purpose
     Motors used with Adjustable - Voltage OR Adjust-
     able - Frequency Controls or Both
 • MG 1-2006 Part 31
     Definite-Purpose Inverter-Fed Poly-phase Motors

Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘Solution Air Handling Units AC Induction Motor Data’ -
Form 102.20-AG15.

Energy Saving Air-Modulator™                                  3. Eliminates need for motor
                           When the air system is de-            starter panels.
                           signed for variable-air vol-       4. Improved system control
                           ume (VAV), Solution offers            and response – DDC
                           the most efficient method of          controls with LED digital
                           VAV fan control with our Air-         display.
                           Modulator™ drive, which is
                           mounted, wired and tested in       5. Proven reliability.
                           our factory.
                           Fans characteristically require   Typically HVAC systems consume
                           much less power as the speed      a third of the energy used in com-
is reduced. With the Air-Modulator™, any reduction in        mercial buildings. Therefore an
fan speed results in a cubic reduction in fan horsepower.    energy-efficient HVAC system can
For example, a 10% speed reduction results in a 27%          represent a significant savings in
fan horsepower reduction!                                    building operating costs. ASHRAE
Air Modulator benefits include:                              90.1 provides architects and engi-
                                                             neers with guidelines for the design
 1. Extended Equipment Life – soft start of motor and        of energy efficient buildings, with
    fan.                                                     the exception of low-rise residential
 2. Quieter Fan Operation –                                  buildings.
    fan operating at reduced speed and constant line
    of efficiency.

Literature Reference — See Application Guides ‘ASHRAE 90.1 Guidelines’ – Form 102.20-AG2 & ‘Understand-
ing AHU Casing Leakage’ – Form M-42-06

12                                                                                               JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

Sound Attenuation                                                           What little noise is left can be further reduced with direct
                                                                            methods of sound
An important component of indoor environmental qual-
                                                                            attenuation. Using
ity (IEQ) is acoustics. There are very few constants
                                                                            perforated sound-
when it comes to acoustics, however it is always less
                                                                            absorbing walls as
expensive to design and install a system correctly the
                                                                            sound traps in the
first time than it is to make the system quiet after it is
                                                                            fan and discharge-
installed. The best way to reduce noise is not to create
                                                                            plenum sections,
it in the first place.
                                                                            Johnson Controls/
ARI 260 requires that the unit be rated across its entire                   YORK equipment
operating range according to the AMCA 300 test method.                      engineers can help
Johnson Controls/YORK has been and continues to be                          you design units
fully engaged in a rigorous ARI 260 testing program.                        to meet your criti-
Solution testing includes a wide variety of fan types,                      cal sound require-
unit sizes and configurations. As a result, Solution can                    ments.
with assurance say sound power levels are reported in
accordance with ARI 260.
                                                                            Inertia Base
Solution AHU offers a variety of noise-reducing tech-
                                                                            A concrete inertia base, which is inserted between the
nologies.
                                                                            fan and its supportive structure, can be quickly and eco-
Solution AHUs are available                                                 nomically installed in all Solution unit cabinet sizes.
with a nearly endless array
                                                                             – Inertia fan bases will accommodate both belt
of fan types, all custom
                                                                               driven and direct drive fans
selected for the exacting
requirements of your project.                                                – The added mass of the inertia base allows for a
Direct drive plenum fans                                                       softer isolation system and greater isolation ef-
can reduce vibration and                                                       ficiencies as well as an effective means of damp-
drive noise by eliminating                                                     ening mechanical noise.
the belt-and-pulley mecha-
                                                                             – Concrete fill is furnished by contractor.
nism. A range of fan-base
construction and isolation techniques are available to
help control sound.
                                     SOUND
                                     ATTENUATION
                                                   Source attenuation
                                                   is the first sound-re-
                                                   duction method that
                                                   should be consid-
                                                   ered, and is typical-
                                                   ly least expensive.
                                                   Since the fan is the
                                                   primary moving part
                                                   in an air-handling
                                                   system, it’s the first
                       RACEWAY ASY
                                                   place to look when
                                                   reducing noise.
                                                                            Application Note - As a rule of thumb the inertia base
                 BULKHEAD ASY
                                                                            should be used when:
                                                                             • Class II & III fans with 40” diameter wheel or larger
                                                                             • All centrifugal fans driven by motors of 75HP or
                                                                               larger

JOHNSON CONTROLS                                                                                                                     13
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

GENERAL INFORMATION

Quick Selection
The Quick Selection Guide for the Solution AHU was developed and intended to aid the Consulting Engineer, Ar-
chitect, Design/Build Contractor, and Equipment /Controls Engineer in establishing overall estimates for (minimally)
footprint dimensions, unit weight, & max motor horsepower.
Contents consist of:
 – Applications, Features & Benefits
 – Instructions
 – Data
 – Notes
 – Reference Formulas and Conversions

Literature Reference — See Quick Select Tool – Solution Slide Chart – Form 102.20-SC1

14                                                                                              JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

FAN APPLICATION REVIEW

Fan Laws (Recommended Accepted Practice)                                                                                                                               System curves will always have a square function slope
                                                                                                                                                                       (parabola) because the SP varies as a square of the
The fan laws are used to calculate performance char-
                                                                                                                                                                       CFM. The point where the system curve intersects the
acteristics; fan speed (RPM), fan air capacity (CFM),
                                                                                                                                                                       RPM curve is the operating point of the fan (point A).
static pressure (SP) and brake horsepower (BHP) of
                                                                                                                                                                       If the system resistance changes (i.e., dirty filters or
a particular fan at conditions other than those at which
                                                                                                                                                                       change in ductwork), the operating point will move along
the data was taken.
                                                                                                                                                                       the RPM curve to a different operating point and there-
By using the fan laws in conjunction with a fan curve, the                                                                                                             fore, new system curve (point B). With a fixed system,
fan performance can be calculated accurately at various                                                                                                                the effects of change in RPM, air density of BHP can
operating conditions. Every fan has its own unique fan                                                                                                                 be calculated and plotted on the system curve by using
curve. FIG. 2 shows a fan curve at various RPMs.                                                                                                                       the following fan laws:
The system resistance curve relates the total pres-                                                                                                                     • The CFM varies directly with the RPM:
sure loss in an air handling system to the flow rate of
                                                                                                                                                                                                  RPM2
air through the system. The system curve is unique to                                                                                                                      CFM2 = CFM1 x
each system because it expresses the pressure losses                                                                                                                                              RPM1
associated with the system. (AHU cabinet, coils, filters,
supply and return ductwork, grilles and diffusers).The
                                                                                                                                                                        • The SP varies as a square of the RPM:
SP and CFM values are used to create the system curve
for the particular system. FIG. 3 represents a fan curve                                                                                                                                         RPM2       2
                                                                                                                                                                           SP2   =   SP1 x
with 2 system curves identified.                                                                                                                                                                  RPM1
                                                                                                                                PEAK EFFICIENCY LINE
                           9
                                                                                                                              75
                                                                                                                                 M

                                                                                                                                                                        • The BHP varies as a cube of the RPM:
                                                                                                                                AX
                                                                                                                                     .H
                                                                                                                                      P

                           8                                                                  50
                                                                                                                                                            15
                                                                                                                              13

                                                                                                   HP
                                                                                                                                                             00
                                                                                                                                00
                                                                                                                                     RP

                                                                                                                                                                  RP

                                                                                                                                                                                                 RPM2       3
                                                                                                                                      M

                                                                                                                                                                   M

                           7                                                      40
                                                                                       HP                                                                                  BHP2 = BHP1 x
                                                                                                                               60

                                                                                                                                                                                                  RPM1
                                                                                                                                 HP
STATIC PRESS. – (IN. WG)

                           6
                                                                                                               11
                                                                             30                                  00
                                                                                  HP                                  RP
                                                                                                                          M
                           5
                                                             900
                                                                   RP
                                                                                                                                                                        • The SP and BHP are directly proportional to the
                                                                                  25

                                                                     M
                                                                                       HP

                           4
                                                                                  20
                                                                                       HP                                                                                 air density:
                           3                       10
                                                        HP                   10
                                                             70                   HP
                                                               0R
                                             7.5
                                                   HP               PM                                                                                                                           Density2               RPM2   2
                           2                                                                                                                                               SP2 = SP1 x                          x
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Density1               RPM1
                           1                                 50
                                                               0R
                                                                   PM

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Density2              RPM2     3
                                                                                                                                                                           BHP2 = BHP1       x                      x
                               50   100 150              200 250 300 350 400                                                          450 500 550 600 650 700
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Density1              RPM1
                                                                                    AIRFLOW – CFM (100)

FIG. 2 – CURVE AT VARIOUS RPMs
                                                                                                                                                                       The fan laws can only be used to project performance
                                                                                                                               PEAK EFFICIENCY LINE
                                                                                                                                                                       along a specific system curve. Referencing FIG. 3, Point
                           9                                                                            1300
                                                                                                                                                                       A can be used to project the performance of Point C and
                                                                                                                                                           1500        similarly, Point B can be used to project the performance
                           8
                                                                                                                                              75 MAX. HP
                                                                                                                                                                       of Point D. Point A cannot be used to predict any other
                           7                                                                                                                                           point on the RPM curve, it can only project performance
                                                                             1100

                                                                                                                                                                       on the system curve created by Point A.
STATIC PRESS. – (IN. WG)

                                                                                                                                      60
                           6
                                                                                                                                50
                                                                                                                      B
                           5
                                                                                                                40

                                                                    900                                  30
                           4                                                                                                              A
                                                                                                    25
                                                                                       20
                                                                                              D
                           3
                                                                               2
                                                                          em
                                                                          st
                                                                        Sy

                                                              700
                                                                                       15
                                                                                                    1
                           2                                                                 ste
                                                                                                m
                                                                                         Sy
                                       500
                                                                               10
                           1
                                                                                       7.5

                               50   100 150              200 250 300 350 400                                                          450 500 550 600 650 700

                                                                                    AIRFLOW – CFM (100)

FIG. 3 – FAN CURVE WITH TWO SYSTEM CURVES

JOHNSON CONTROLS                                                                                                                                                                                                                       15
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

FAN APPLICATION REVIEW

Variable Air Volume
A common mistake when selecting a fan with variable                   Select the most efficient fan that can deliver both the
air volume is to assume a fan with VAV will follow a                  design and minimum CFM requirements. If the initial
constant design system curve (passing through the point               selection does not provide sufficient “turn down”, select
0 CFM and 0 TSP) to maintain control. VAV systems                     the next smallest fan and re-plot the VAV system for the
do not have a constant system line, but rather a range                smaller fan and re-evaluate. Typically, the largest fan that
of operating points necessary to satisfy the building                 can supply the required modulation is the most efficient.
requirements. In VAV systems, the operating point will                Each application should be considered individually and
continue to move based on the air modulation and as                   evaluated to be sure the fan will not be forced into the
the CFM and SP change, the fan is modulated to match                  unstable region at modulated condition.
the new requirements, developing its own system curve.
                                                                      For variable speed drive (VSD) applications, the fan
This modulation is accomplished by using inlet vanes,
                                                                      drive assembly is selected to operate approximately in
variable speed drives or discharge dampers. Before
                                                                      the middle of the VSD’s range. When selecting a fan to
finalizing the fan selection, plot the new VAV system
                                                                      be used with a VSD, if the RPM is close to or approach-
curve to confirm the modulation range required does
                                                                      ing the Class I limit, select the Class II fan. Selection of
not enter into the instability range of operation.
                                                                      a Class I fan may result in premature bearing failure.
Example
Calculate the minimum CFM and at least 2 arbitrary
points which fall within the stable operating range of
the curve (using equations below) and plot these points
along with the design points to create the new VAV
system. (See FIG. 4.)

     Design CFM = 40,000 CFM = CFMd
     Design TSP = 4.5 in WG = SPd
     Static Pressure Control Point = 1.25 in WG = SPd

1st: Calculate the Minimum CFM:

                                      SPS                                                      1.25
 Min CFM = CFMd x                                              =   40,000 x                                                 = 10,517
                                            2
                                  CFMd                                                     40,000       2

                     √   SP1 x
                                  CFM1
                                                + SPS – SPd
                                                                               √    3 x
                                                                                           15,000
                                                                                                             + 1.25 – 4.5

where: CFM1, SP1 = arbitrary point located on surge line
Min CFM = 10,517

2nd: Calculate the Arbitrary Points:

                             30,000 CFM                                                                 20,000 CFM
       where: CFM2 = 30,000                                              where: CFM3 = 20,000
                   CFM2 2                                                              CFM3         2
            SP2 =           x (SPd – SPs) + SPs                                 SP3 =                       x (SPd – SPs) + SPs
                   CFMd                                                                CFMd

                                                                                                        2
                         30,000   2                                                        20,000
             SP2 =                     x (4.5 – 1.25) + 1.25                       SP3 =                     x (4.5 – 1.25) + 1.25
                         40,000                                                            40,000

                            SP2 = 3.1                                                          SP3 = 2.1

16                                                                                                                   JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

                                                                                                                              PEAK EFFICIENCY LINE
                                         9

                                         8

                                                                                                                                                                            15
                                                                                                                               13

                                                                                                                                                                             00
                                                                                                                                00
                                                                                                                                    R

                                                                                                                                                                                 RP
                                                                                                                                     PM

                                                                                                                                                                                   M
                                         7
                                                                                         1100
                                                                                                RPM
              STATIC PRESS. – (IN. WG)

                                         6

                                                                                                                                                          75
                                                                                                                                                             M
                                                                                                                                                               AX
                                                                                                                                                                 .H
                                                                                                                                                                   P
                                         5                                                                                                    .
                                                                                                                                         Pt
                                                                                                           30                        n
                                                                                                                HP               sig
                                                                                                25                             De
                                                                        300                          HP
                                                                              RPM
                                         4

                                                                                                                                                  50

                                                                                                                                                               60
                                                                                                                                40
                                                                                            20

                                                                                                                                                   HP

                                                                                                                                                                 HP
                                                                                                                                    HP
                                                                                                 HP

                                         3                        10
                                                                       HP

                                         2
            Static Pressure
            Control Point
                                         1
                                                                              MODULATION
                                                                                RANGE

                                                     Minimum CFM                                                              Design CFM
                                             50     100     150         200          250              300            350     400         450            500           550         600        650     700
                                                                                          AIRFLOW – CFM (100)

FIG. 4 – FAN CURVE AT VARIOUS RPMs

Solution Component Temperature Margins                                                                               • Pre-filters - 150°F.
 • Standard motors (Class B Insulation) -104°F.                                                                      • High Efficiency Filters - 200°F.
 • Motors with Class F Insulation -140°F.                                                                            • Fan Bearings - 120°F (FC), 180°F (AF)
 • Power Wiring - 140°F.                                                                                             • Gasketing - 200°F
 • Controls & Control Wiring - 140°F.                                                                                • Foam - Flash Point: 415°F (213°C)

Fan Motor Heat (MBH)
        HEAT                                                                                                          Horsepower
                                              5       7.5          10               15                    20           25           30                  40              50              60          75     100
Fan Motor                                    2.8      3.6         4.4               6.2                   7.5          8.7          9.4                13.0            16.0            19.0        21.0    25.0
Fan                                          12.7    19.1         24.5              38.2              51.0            63.6         76.3            102.0               127.0           153.0       191.0   254.0
Fan & Fan Motor                              15.5    22.7         28.9              44.4              58.5            72.3         85.7                115.0           143.0           172.0       212.0   279.0

JOHNSON CONTROLS                                                                                                                                                                                              17
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

COIL OPTIONS

Flexibility and Performance illustrate the variety of coils         Coil Performance is certified in accordance with ARI
which are available to meet every application. These                Standard 410.
                                                                                                                   1/4" FPT PLUGGED
carefully engineered coils are designed for an optimum                                                             VENT FITTING

                                                                    Chilled water / Hot water
balance between air pressure drop and heat transfer
coefficient, to allow the maximum amount of cooling
or heating capacity without the added expense of high
air-pressure drops. The coil designs are subjected to
constant extensive evaluation studies comparing dif-
ferent fin corrugations with various tube arrangements.
The Johnson Controls/YORK Equipment Engineer in
your area will welcome the opportunity to assist you                                                                                    RETURN

                                                                                                                                      SUPPLY
with your coil applications.

Cooling Coils – Water and Direct Expansion                          Direct expansion (DX)                                                        SUPPLY
                                                                                                                                                 RETURN

Solution optimizes coil performance with customized coil
options. Solution coils are offered in a wide variety of
types, sizes, arrangements and materials. Coil software
optimizes capacity and pressure drop requirements.

AHU Chilled water cooling coil
 • Available in CC, VC, MZ segments

AHU Hot water heating coil
 • Available in CC, VC, HC, MZ segments

AHU (DX) Direct Expansion cooling coil
 • Available in CC, VC, MZ segments
                                                           Notes & Options
Hand of Unit determines connection side of coil. See page 21.

Header material:                                                    Fin Spacing:
 •   Copper                                                          •   A vast range of fins per inch available
 •   Red Brass                                                      Fin Coatings: (Coatings reduce max face velocities)
Connector material:                                                  •   Electro-fin
 •   Red brass                                                       •   Phenolic
 •   Steel                                                          Coil Casing:
Connection Type:                                                     •   Galvanized
 •   MPT                                                             •   Stainless Steel
 •   Grooved                                                        Choice of heat transfer medium:
Fin type:                                                            •   Water, Glycol (Ethylene glycol coils are ARI
 •   5/8” tube: Sine or Flat                                             certified)
 •   1/2” tube: Sine corrugated only                                 •   DX – (a variety of refrigerants to choose from)
Fin Material & Thickness:
 •   Aluminum - 0.006”, 0.008”, 0.010”
 •   Copper - 0.006”

18                                                                                                                 JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

Heating Coils – Integral face and bypass
Integral face and bypass coils have alternating channels                         Steam or Hot Water
of heat transfer surface and bypass zones. The air flow
is directed over the heat transfer surface or through the
by-pass zone by modulating dampers that are integral
with the coil construction.

Integral face and bypass coil (IFB/VIFB)
 • Coils are available in the ‘IC’ segment
 • Tubes either Vertical or Horizontal
 • Coils for maximum freeze protection
                                                                 INTEGRAL FACE & BYPASS (IFB) COIL
 • Hot water or Steam coils
 • Multiple rows deep

                                                        Notes & Options
Coil Style:                            Rows:                                     Fin Material:
 •   IFB                                 •   1,2,3,4                              •   Aluminum
 •   VIFB                              Connection:                               Fin Spacing:
Coil Type:                               •   SCH 40 pipe                          •   A range of fins per inch available
 •   Water (Glycol)                    Thermostat:                               Coil Casing:
 •   Steam                               •   None                                 •   Galvanized
                                         •   Electric

Heating Coils – Steam Distributing
The construction of a Steam Distributing Coil is entirely        Steam Distributing - 1” diameter tube
different than that of a Standard Steam.
                                                                  • Available in CC, VC, HC, MZ segments
Everyplace that you see an outside tube or header, there
is an inside tube and header that you can’t see. Steam is         • A vast range of fins per inch available
distributed through these inside tubes and headers and            • Multiple tube wall thickness options
slowly released to the outside tubes as the steam turns
to condensate. The condensate then flows back down                                        Steam
the outside tubes in the same direction that the entering
steam comes from. The idea is that all the steam in the
inside tubes keeps the condensate in the outside tubes
from freezing when air passes across the coil at less
than 32ºF. However, under exactly the correct conditions,
even steam distributing coils can freeze.

JOHNSON CONTROLS                                                                                                           19
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

COIL OPTIONS

Typical Application of Air Handling Coils                     solenoid valves in the refrigerant liquid lines, which are
                                                              energized to shut-off the flow of refrigerant to part of the
Heating Coils                                                 coil. There are several problems with the application of
                                                              VAV to a direct expansion (DX) coil which require the
Heating coils can use steam or hot water to add heat
                                                              designer to take special precautions when considering
to the air stream. In a cooling-only VAV system, the
                                                              this system. First, the balance point temperature for
heating coil is generally placed in the ‘preheat’ position
                                                              the DX coil will change as the air flow rate changes.
between the filters and cooling coil. The preheat coil
                                                              Assuming constant coil capacity, reducing the CFM will
can be omitted in this system if the minimum outside
                                                              reduce the suction temperature and pressure, making
air requirement is low and would not result in a mixed
                                                              close control of air temperature difficult. In addition,
air temperature below 50ºF to 55ºF.
                                                              compressor unloading at reduced load will cause step
Heating coil capacity is controlled by means of a modu-       changes in capacity and suction temperature, which
lating control valve in the water or steam piping. The        can cause hunting in the flow control loop. In short, the
control valve position is usually controlled by means of      use of variable air flows with a DX coil requires careful
a thermostat in the supply air duct in sequence with the      consideration of the effect air flow changes make to the
cooling coil control valve.                                   system. Balance point temperatures must be carefully
                                                              considered.
Cooling Coils
                                                              Design Considerations
Cooling coils remove both sensible and latent heat from
the mixed air and can use chilled water, chilled brine, or    In order to insure predicted coil performance, air distri-
refrigerant as the cooling source. In the case of chilled     bution must be uniform. There are two design checks
water, the supply water temperature generally ranges          for this:
from 42ºF to 50ºF, depending on the latent load to be
                                                               1. ‘45 degree rule’ – This rule states that the perfor-
removed. Brine or a solution of ethylene or propylene
                                                                  mance of the coil will not be affected as long as the
glycol in water is traditionally used at temperatures of
                                                                  diffusion angle from the most restrictive block-off to
32ºF to 40ºF for applications in which piping is exposed
                                                                  the finned portion of the coil is 45 degrees or less.
to freezing temperatures. Control of the cooling coil ca-
                                                                  This rule holds true unless there are unusual flow
pacity at the air-handling unit is achieved by means of
                                                                  fields, caused by such components as upstream
a two-way ‘throttling’ or three-way ‘mixing’ control valve.
                                                                  fans or mixing boxes where not applied properly.
In VAV systems, a supply duct thermostat is typically
used to modulate the control valve so as to maintain           2. ‘Uniform pressure rule’ – This rule states that the
a constant temperature of air leaving the unit, usually           performance of the coil will not be affected as long as
55ºF to 60ºF.                                                     the maximum difference in upstream, downstream,
                                                                  and combined static pressure due to local velocity
When refrigerant is used as the cooling source, it enters
                                                                  pressure at any one point on the coil compared to
the coil in liquid form from a condensing unit and pro-
                                                                  another point that does not exceed 10 percent of
vides cooling by a process called ‘direct expansion’. The
                                                                  the pressure drop through the coil. The basis for
liquid refrigerant evaporates as the warmer air moves
                                                                  this rule is that the flow rate through the coils at any
across the coil, removing heat from the air during the
                                                                  one point is a function of the local upstream and
process. The evaporated refrigerant is then compressed
                                                                  downstream pressures, and if pressure differences
in the condensing unit, which also houses the condens-
                                                                  are small, distribution will be uniform.
ing coil where the heat is rejected to the outside. Control
of the coil capacity is typically by means of a series of

Literature Reference — See “DX Piping Guide” – Form 050.40-ES2

20                                                                                                  JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

SOLUTION SEGMENT IDENTIFICATION

FAN SEGMENTS                                          HEAT SEGMENTS                                      ACCESSORY SEGMENTS
 • FS – Supply                                         • IC – Integral Face & Bypass Coil                 • VP – Vertical Plenum
   • Forward Curved                                    • IG – Indirect Gas Fired Furnace                  • DP – Discharge Plenum
   • Airfoil                                           • EH – Electric Heater                             • TN – Turning Plenum
   • Industrial Airfoil                                                                                   • DI – Diffuser
   • SWSI Plenum                                      ENERGY RECOVERY                                     • XA – Access segment
     (Belt and Direct Drive)                           • ER – Energy Recovery                             • AB- Air Blender
 • FR – Return                                                                                            • EB – External Bypass
   • Forward Curved                                   FILTER SEGMENTS                                     • IB – Internal Bypass
   • Airfoil                                           • FF – Flat Filter (2” or 4”)                      • FD – Face Damper
   • Industrial Airfoil                                • AF – Angle Filter (2” & 4”)                      • AT – Attenuator
   • SWSI Plenum                                       • RF – High Efficiency Filter                      • HM - Humidifier
     (Belt and Direct Drive)                              • Rigid Filter (12”)                            • UV - UVC Lamps
 • FE – Exhaust                                           • Bag Filter (21”)
   • Forward Curved                                       • Mini-Pleat Filter (4”)
   • Airfoil                                           • HF – HEPA Filter
   • Industrial Airfoil
                                                      INLET SEGMENTS
COIL SEGMENTS                                           • MB – Mixing Box
 • CC – Cooling Coil                                    • FM – Filter/Mixing Box
 • HC – Heating Coil                                    • EF – Filter/Economizer
 • VC – Vertical Coil                                   • EE – Economizer
 • MZ - Multizone                                       • IP – Inlet Plenum
                                                        • VE – Vertical Economizer
                                                        • VF – Vertical Filter/Economizer

Unit & Coil Hand Identification

              FAN SECTION

                                                                      RIGHT
           REAR
                                                                                RIGHT HAND (RH)
                                                                                COIL CONNECTION

                 LEFT HAND (LH)
               COIL CONNECTION
                                         RETURN AIR

                                                                                                             OUTSIDE AIR
                                  LEFT

                                                                                                  INLET SECTION
                              DRIVE HAND AND COIL HAND DETERMINED
                                   BY FACING THE INLET SECTION
                                                                                                            FRONT

JOHNSON CONTROLS                                                                                                                       21
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)

SINGLE FAN SEGMENT – FS, FR AND FE

Fan Applications
Fan segments are available as supply, return and or exhaust applications. Unit configurations have a segment op-
tion of utilizing a single fan or a dual fan arrangement. Isolation consists of 1" or 2" springs with a seismic snubber
option. Thrust restraints and OSHA belt guards are available as required.

Double-width/Double-inlet (DWDI)                              Bearing options for fans with lubricating bearings: (refer
 • Forward Curve or Airfoil centrifugal                       to Notes & Options)
 • Belt Driven                                                  • Extended Lube Line
Single-width/Single-inlet (SWSI)                                • External Lube Line
 • Airfoil plenum
 • Belt Drive or Direct Drive

In most fan systems a segment with a single fan is
adequate for the required system design and rating.
Methods of control can vary and may include dampers
or variable speed drives. Also included in a single fan
design may be the allowance for future expansions.

In some situations, there may be a need for a system design using multiple fans in a cabinet. The following are some
reasons to consider a dual fan arrangement:

Dual Fan Considerations                                        4. Critical systems are often equipped with redundant
                                                               or back-up fans in case of a fire or accident or some
 1. One fan may be too large and not fit into the desired
                                                               other emergency that requires a sudden increase in
    space, or it may weigh too much if supported on
                                                               flow. Redundant fans are also used to eliminate down-
    upper levels.
                                                               time during fan maintenance.
 2. The required operating range of the system may
                                                               5. Some systems for process applications may require
    necessitate multiple fans instead of one large fan
                                                               pressures that are greater than a single fan can pro-
    controlled over a wide operating range.
                                                               duce or when noise may be a special concern.
 3. Multiple fans for capacity control may be more eco-
    nomical if cost of operation is critical, especially at
    very low flow rates for long time intervals.

Dual Fan Applications
Solution dual fan application methods include 50/50 where both fans operate together to share the load equally or
100/100 where only one fan at a time is in operation.

 • In a 50/50 application, the failure of one fan will re-
   sult in a condition where the other fan will continue
   to operate. The single fan will provide partial load
   capabilities
 • In a 100/100 application, the failure of one fan will
   result in the operation of the other (standby) fan to
   provide full capacity

Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘AHU Dual Fan Options’ - Form 102.20-AG17

22                                                                                                 JOHNSON CONTROLS
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