The Diplomats - Canadian Politics and Public Policy

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The Diplomats - Canadian Politics and Public Policy                        January — February 2023

               Canadian Politics and Public Policy

                The Diplomats

$7.95                                             Volume 11 – Issue 1
The Diplomats - Canadian Politics and Public Policy

      the challenges
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The Diplomats - Canadian Politics and Public Policy
In This
                                         Canadian  Politics Issue
                                         and Public
                                              2 FromPolicy
                                                         the Editor / L. Ian MacDonald
                                                      The Diplomats
     Canadian Politics and
        Public Policy                          3      Bob Rae
                                                      Memories of My Father: Sharing a Mission, 50 Years Apart
          L. Ian MacDonald                  7      Larisa Galadza
                                                      Dispatch from a Wartime Ambassador
           Lisa Van Dusen
                                               9      Jeremy Kinsman
                                                      The Strengths and Weaknesses of Canada’s Diplomacy Game
 Thomas S. Axworthy, Andrew Balfour,
       Yaroslav Baran, James Baxter,
                                               12     Lisa Van Dusen
                                                      Trade Diplomacy in a Time of Flux: Policy Q&A With Nadia Theodore
     Daniel Béland, Derek H. Burney,
 Catherine Cano, Stéphanie Chouinard,
     Margaret Clarke, David Coletto ,
                                               14     Kerry Buck
                                                      Changing the Face of Security: Being a Woman Ambassador
    Rachel Curran, Paul Deegan, John                  to NATO
   Delacourt, Susan Delacourt, Graham
  Fraser, Dan Gagnier, Helaina Gaspard,
Martin Goldfarb, Sarah Goldfeder, Patrick      17     Ailish Campbell
                                                      Letter from Brussels: The Power of a United Response
Gossage, Frank Graves, David Johnston,
 Jeremy Kinsman, Shachi Kurl, Philippe
 Lagassé, Brad Lavigne, Jeremy Leonard,        20     Lisa Van Dusen
                                                      Policy Q&A with Senator Peter Boehm: Is Canada’s Foreign
 Kevin Lynch, Leslie MacKinnon, Peter
                                                      Service ‘Fit for Purpose’?
Mansbridge, Carissima Mathen, Elizabeth
  May, Velma McColl, Elizabeth Moody
      McIninch, David McLaughlin,              23     Michael W. Manulak and Duncan Snidal
                                                      How the Internet Has Changed Multilateral Diplomacy
      David Mitchell, Don Newman,
   Geoff Norquay, Fen Osler-Hampson,
         Kevin Page, André Pratte,             26     Don Newman
                                                      Diplomacy as Crisis Management
    Lee Richardson, Colin Robertson,
    Robin V. Sears, Vianne Timmons,
 Brian Topp, Lori Turnbull, Jaime Watt,
       Anthony Wilson-Smith, Dan
                                               27     Mike Blanchfield and Fen Osler Hampson
                                                      How the Free World Helped Free Two Canadians: Diplomacy
               Woynillowicz                           and the Two Michaels
             WEB DESIGN
             Nicolas Landry
                                               Book Reviews
         Gray MacDonald
                                               30     Review by Bill Fox
                                                      Above the Fold: A Personal History of the Toronto Star
GRAPHIC DESIGN AND PRODUCTION                         By John Honderich
         Benoit Deneault
        DESIGN CONSULTANT                      33     Review by Gray MacDonald
                                                      Hope is a Woman’s Name
           Monica Thomas
                                                      By Amal Elsana Alh’jooj
  Policy is published six times annually       35     Review by Colin Robertson
                                                      Master Negotiator: The Role of James A. Baker, III at the End of
  by LPAC Ltd. The contents are
  copyrighted, but may be reproduced                  the Cold War
  with permission and attribution in                  By Diana Villiers Negroponte
  print, and viewed free of charge at the
  Policy home page at
  Price: $7.95 per issue
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                                               Connect with us:         @policy_mag 
The Diplomats - Canadian Politics and Public Policy
From the Editor / L. Ian MacDonald

                         The Diplomats

           elcome to our special issue,    Ailish Campbell, our Ambassador to          Huawei Technologies, in response to
           The Diplomats, on the Ca-       the European Union, offers a perspec-       an extradition request by US author-
           nadians who represent our       tive from Brussels, as she notes, “in the   ities. It’s called hostage diplomacy,
country to the world, a very different     context of war”—Russia’s invasion of        and as Mike Blanchard and Fen Os-
world in terms of issues and oppor-        Ukraine. Many of the repercussions          ler-Hampson write in their book, The
tunities than the one inherited from       against Putin’s criminal acts, from re-     Two Michaels, their release “was the
previous generations.                      taliation to sanctions, from the EU to      result of intensive behind the scenes
We begin with a personal recollection      NATO and the G7, have unfolded on           diplomacy led by Canada’s Ambassa-
and reflection from Bob Rae, Canada’s      the diplomatic stage in Brussels after      dor to Beijing, Dominic Barton.” No
Ambassador and Permanent Repre-            consultations and conversations be-         career diplomat, but an international
sentative to the United Nations, who       hind the scenes.                            business consultant and former CEO
shares memories of a cherished prede-      Peter Boehm served as Canada’s G7           of McKinsey and Company.

cessor on that global stage, his own fa-   Sherpa, and now keeps a close eye on            n Book Reviews, we lead with a de-
ther, Saul Rae. Like father like son. As   foreign affairs and diplomacy from              lightful essay from Bill Fox on John
Bob writes in Memories of My Father:       his seat in the Senate, where he chairs         Honderich’s memoir of his life at
“Modern Canadian diplomacy has to          the Standing Committee on Foreign           the Toronto Star, completed shortly
speak with confidence, candour, hu-        Affairs and International Trade. He         before his sudden passing last year at
mour and honesty and to ensure that        took time for a virtual conversation of     the age of 75. Honderich was the heir
its acts and deeds match its words.”       email exchanges with Policy Associate       apparent of Beland Honderich, and
In a riveting dispatch from Ukraine,       Editor Lisa Van Dusen, who has been         shared his father’s signature question
Canadian Ambassador Larissa Galadza        our lead in assembling The Diplomats        in the newsroom: “What does it mean
writes: “From Kyiv, I can see and feel     cover thematic.                             to Metro?” As in Toronto. And Fox,
the work of Canadian Heads of Mission                                                  himself a former “Star man” writes
                                           Michael Manulak of Carleton Univer-
around the globe as they find ways to                                                  that John practised “the Star’s philos-
                                           sity’s Norman Paterson School and
move the world to choke off President                                                  ophy” to “get it first, serve it up, play
                                           Oxford’s Duncan Snidal offer their
Putin’s and Russia’s war machine.”                                                     it big,” Fox concludes that his friend
                                           thoughts on How the Internet has
                                                                                       was “determined to be the son who
Jeremy Kinsman, an old diplomatic          Changed International Diplomacy. As
                                                                                       did the job.”
hand and our lead foreign affairs writ-    they write: “Now ‘Zoom Diplomacy’
er, observes that “Canada’s version        and digital diplomacy generally have        From Policy Social Media Editor Gray
of ‘soft power’ needs diplomats to be      brought transformative change,”             MacDonald, we offer a strong review
able to speak semi-autonomously in                                                     of Hope is a Woman’s Name by Amal
                                           In his column, Don Newman offers
the agitated global marketplace.”                                                      Elsana Alh’jooj. Gray writes that the
                                           some insights into the changing line-
                                                                                       memoir “covers a journey that has
Nadia Theodore, Canada’s new Am-           up of practising diplomats he’s seen
                                                                                       taken her from a childhood herding
bassador to the World Trade Organi-        in a remarkable career spanning more
                                                                                       sheep…to an international life of ac-
zation, says in an interview that “we      than half a century. “Foreign policy
                                                                                       tivism for peacemaking and minori-
are in an sweet spot of expertise meet-    and international affairs have passed
                                                                                       ty rights.”
ing opportunity” at the WTO.               from experts at foreign ministries and
                                           embassies,” he writes, “to a much larg-     Finally, Colin Robertson looks at Mas-
Former Ambassador to NATO Kerry
                                           er community of special interests.”         ter Negotiator by Diana Villiers Negro-
Buck reflects on the role of women
                                                                                       ponte, an important book on a great
in diplomacy. “Senior women dip-           Some of those special interests’ hands
                                                                                       American diplomat, James A. Baker, US
lomats across countries understand         were apparent in the backstage diplo-
                                                                                       Secretary of State under the first Presi-
how tricky it can be to be a woman         macy involved in the release of Ca-
                                                                                       dent George Bush, who led the peace-
working in international diplomacy,”       nadians Michael Kovrig and Michael
                                                                                       ful transition from the end of the Cold
she writes. “We stick together and of-     Spavor after a thousand days in cap-
                                                                                       War and the dissolution of the Soviet
fer support to each other in ways that     tivity in China, where they had been
                                                                                       empire, to the New World Order.
male diplomats might not, because          seized following the arrest at Vancou-
they don’t have to.”                       ver Airport of Meng Wanzou, CFO of          Enjoy.

The Diplomats - Canadian Politics and Public Policy

Canadian Ambassador to the United Nations Bob Rae and Haitian Foreign Minister Jean Victor Geneus after a Security Council meeting on the secu-
rity and economic crisis in Haiti. --UN Photo/Laura Jarriel

Memories of My Father:
Sharing a Mission,
50 Years Apart
When Bob Rae was appointed Canada’s ambassador to Bob Rae
the United Nations in 2020, the political backlash was

                                                                        y father Saul joined the for-
nonexistent. Rae is respected by all parties, and there was             eign service in the summer
an element of anticipation — what sort of diplomat will he              of 1940. With the help of a
                                                              Massey Fellowship, he had gone from
be? There was also the symmetry of his own father, Saul the University of Toronto to the Lon-
Rae’s, service in the same post 50 years earlier. As Rae has don School of Economics, where he
fervently upheld the Canadian values of democracy, hu- received a doctorate in 1938, and af-
                                                              ter a postgraduate year at Oxford,
man rights and pluralism amid an illegal war in Ukraine went to work with George Gallup in
and other crises, the question about his diplomatic style Princeton, New Jersey. He married
has been answered. Here’s the story of his late father’s path my mother, Lois, who was English,
                                                              in the fall of 1939, and together they
to the UN, and his own.                                       drove up to Ottawa in an old Ford. He
                                                                                                  soon went to work as executive assis-
                                                                                                  tant to Norman Robertson, who had
                                                                                                  been promoted to under-secretary

                                                                                                                 January—February 2023
The Diplomats - Canadian Politics and Public Policy
    (What we would now call a deputy           assistant to Lester Pearson when he        He enjoyed mentoring younger col-
    minister) when the hard-driving Dr         served as president of the UN Gener-       leagues, who were frequent guests at
    O.D. Skelton died of a massive heart       al Assembly), Hanoi — serving alone        our home, and appreciated, in those
    attack.                                    for more than a year with the Inter-       days, being able to work with two
                                               national Control Commission —              ambassadors who were both mentors
    The Department, as it immodestly
                                               Washington (David arriving in 1957),       and friends — Arnold Heeney (who
    called itself, was located in the East
                                               Geneva, Mexico, the UN again, and          had been Clerk of the Privy Coun-
    Block on Parliament Hill. It consist-
                                               finally at The Hague, from where he         cil in the East Block during the war),
    ed of fewer than a hundred employ-
                                               retired in 1980.                           and Norman Robertson.
    ees, with missions in London, Paris,
    Washington and Geneva, and its en-                                                    The friends my father made in The
    tire preoccupation in 1940 was the                  Our comfort level                 Department and in the wider world
    prosecution of the war effort. The                  with exclusively quiet            were friends for life. He had a ca-
    prime minister of the day, Macken-         diplomacy, where white men                 reer he believed in, whose values
    zie King, had his offices in the same                                                 were deeply felt, and made, with my
                                               in striped suits settle issues             mother, a life marked by great hu-
    building, as did his small person-
    al staff and the Privy Council. My         privately in a corner, or                  mour, love, and devotion that they
    Dad’s “class” at that time included        where nation states assume                 shared in full measure with their
    Herbert Norman, Arthur Menzies,            that asserting the primacy                 children.
    Ralph Collins, Ed Ritchie, and others      of sovereignty will somehow                My father served as ambassador to
    who would go on to become pillars                                                     the UN in Geneva from 1962-67,
    of Canadian diplomacy. The foreign
                                               answer all questions, must
                                                                                          and in New York from 1972-76. It
    service grew during the war with new       be irrevocably thrown out                  was a time when the membership in
    recruits, and then more substantially      the window.                                the UN grew rapidly, and decoloni-
    in the years after 1945, when Can-                                                    zation was the order of the day. The
    ada was playing an ever-increasing                                                    economic and social structures creat-
    role in creating the institutions that     He was happiest serving abroad, as         ed in the years after 1945 were be-
    marked the post-war international          The Department grew bigger, even-          ing tested by the arrival of develop-
    order.                                     tually moving to the Pearson Build-        ing countries, who felt that the UN
                                               ing, a fortress on Sussex Drive. He        itself needed to do more to correct
    Work was endless, morale was high,         felt that life in diplomacy was be-
    and my father’s life was a strong com-                                                the global imbalance. The Cold War
                                               coming too bureaucratic, too lay-          was in full swing, albeit with mod-
    bination of deep policy engagement         ered, too hierarchical, and much less
    and boundless mirth and humour.                                                       est progress on disarmament and
                                               personal. In his early days, everyone      nuclear testing, and Middle Eastern
    He had spent his early days on the         knew everyone, there was no wide
    vaudeville stage, with his sister Grace                                               conflict (the Suez Crisis in 1956, the
                                               gap between officials and politicians,
                                                                                          Six-Day War in 1967, and the Yom
    and his younger brother Jackie, in         and he felt it was more possible to
                                                                                          Kippur War in 1973) was a constant
    an act dubbed “The Three Little Raes       make an impact.
                                                                                          preoccupation. Throughout it all, he
    of Sunshine”. His love of music and
                                               It was in Washington that I became         maintained strong personal relation-
    comedy never left him, held in check
                                               aware of what my Dad did, and how          ships with diplomats from all sides
    only by a fear that he might not be
                                               he did it. His most obvious profes-        — he spoke fluent French, English,
    taken as seriously as some of his fel-
                                               sional characteristic, to me, was hard     and Spanish after his tour of duty
    low diplomats.
                                               work. He was indefatigable; working        in Mexico, and knew all the senior

           fter working at the centre of       in the evenings, sitting in a chair in     officials at the UN well. He had the
           things in Ottawa for a couple       his study going over “telegrams”, re-      highest regard for them.

           of years, he was sent off to join   ports, editing reports of others, writ-
                                                                                                   y own path to a formal dip-
    General Georges P. Vanier in Algiers,      ing speeches for himself and others.
                                                                                                   lomatic career was much
    leaving his pregnant wife behind.          He remained an avid reader of histo-
                                                                                                   more circuitous. Being a
    When France was liberated, he went         ry, political analysis, and novels until
                                                                                          student at the International School
    to Paris to reclaim the Embassy. My        his death in 1999.
                                                                                          of Geneva in the 60s had a lifelong
    mother and my sister Jennifer were
                                               On Saturdays, he would take me into        influence, and throughout my first
    reunited with him there and brother
                                               work at the old Canadian chancery          chosen career in politics I kept up a
    John arrived in October of 1945, bap-
                                               on Embassy Row in Washington —             strong interest in global affairs, both
    tized as John Alain Rae. Dad served as     the Canadian embassy before the Ar-        as an MP and political leader in On-
    Secretary of the Delegation to the Par-    thur Erickson landmark was erected         tario. When the Oslo Accords were
    is Peace Conference.                       in our prime spot on Pennsylvania          signed in 1993, we organized a re-
    Postings to Ottawa (I arrived in Au-       Ave. — and tell me to read a book          ception for both the Canadian Jew-
    gust of 1948), London, New York (as        while he continued with his routine.       ish and Palestinian communities at

The Diplomats - Canadian Politics and Public Policy
                                                                                                   connect by secure video conference
                                                                                                   with Global Affairs colleagues in Ot-
                                                                                                   tawa, and with meetings of Cabinet
                                                                                                   But some things have not changed:
                                                                                                   the public meetings of the UN are
                                                                                                   marked by endless repetition of
                                                                                                   talking points, more often than
                                                                                                   not prepared by officials in capitals
                                                                                                   whose main purpose seems to be
                                                                                                   to make sure that all boxes of strict
                                                                                                   conformity with domestic correct-
                                                                                                   ness have been ticked and no pos-
                                                                                                   sible tangent left unexplored. There
                                                                                                   are contentious divides, but they are
                                                                                                   more complex. The divide between
                                                                                                   richer and poorer, authoritarian and
                                                                                                   democratic, digitally connected and
                                                                                                   unconnected, egalitarian and patri-
                                                                                                   archal, dogmatic and pluralist, cli-
                                                                                                   mate concerned and climate com-
                                                                                                   placent, the list goes on — there are
                                                                                                   many fault lines, not just the obvi-
                                                                                                   ous ones.
Retired UN Ambassador Saul Rae at the family cottage in Portland , Ontario in 1984 with son Bob,
then NDP Leader in Ontario. --Rae family photo                                                     Canada took its place as a middle
                                                                                                   power after the Second World War,
the Ontario Legislature, and I took a            tion of Canadian diplomacy around                 and we have never left. What has
delegation of business leaders to Isra-          the world.                                        changed is the world around us. The

el, the West Bank, and Jordan. As pre-                                                             rise of China and other rapidly in-
                                                           y re-election to the Canadi-            dustrializing countries, the explo-
mier, I travelled frequently to the US,                    an Parliament in 2008 led
Europe, and Asia, and was part of the                                                              sion of new technologies, and the
                                                           immediately to my five-                  presence of deeper threats, mean
first Team Canada mission to China                year appointment as Liberal Par-
in the fall of 1994.                                                                               that our comfort level with exclu-
                                                 ty spokesman on foreign affairs. In               sively quiet diplomacy, where white
Later, I helped set up the Forum of              2017, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau               men in striped suits settle issues pri-
Federations, an international NGO                appointed me special envoy to Myan-               vately in a corner, or where nation
based in Canada whose mission is                 mar and asked me to help develop                  states assume that asserting the pri-
to study and promote pluralism                   Canada’s approach to the Rohing-                  macy of sovereignty will somehow
and better governance. Because of                ya crisis, then to humanitarian and               answer all questions, must be irrevo-
the circumstances surrounding the                refugee issues more broadly. On July              cably thrown out the window. And
end of the Cold War, the Forum got               6th, 2020, he appointed me Canadi-                it must be replaced by a firm recog-
drawn into dealing with conflict                  an Ambassador and Permanent Rep-                  nition that global engagement has
resolution and constitution-making               resentative to the United Nations,                to be at the centre of domestic de-
in a number of countries, and my                 where I’ve taken on the job my Dad                cision-making in every country, and
own work in this field took me to                 held 50 years ago.                                that decision makers have to be pre-
many places — Sri Lanka, Myanmar,                In those days, there was no inter-                pared to act more coherently and
Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Mexi-              net, social media, COVID-19, wor-                 quickly in real time, explaining why
co, Brazil, South Africa, Nigeria, Su-           ries about climate change, brutal, ki-            they are doing what they’ve con-
dan, Kenya, the Middle East, Iraq,               netic aggression by Russia against                cluded they have to do.

St. Kitts and Nevis, Eastern Europe,             Ukraine, or debates on digital divides                   nding gender bias, homopho-
the UK, Spain, and, of course, the               or LGBTQ rights. The sheer volume                        bia, misogyny, racism, all fears
older federal countries such as the              of meetings of all kinds on these and                    that repress people and make
US, Canada, Germany and Switzer-                 so many other issues has exploded.                life so difficult for millions of human
land. I wrote about my experiences               The Canadian mission has expand-                  beings is sometimes falsely called
in global governance, the perils and             ed, now sharing a floor in a Mid-                  “political correctness” or “wokeness”.
benefits of mediating disputes of all             town office building with the Cana-               Personal lives and careers in the for-
kinds, and saw firsthand the evolu-               dian consulate in New York, and we                eign services of every country, includ-

                                                                                                               January—February 2023
The Diplomats - Canadian Politics and Public Policy

    Special envoy Bob Rae briefs Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on the Rohingya crisis at the APEC summit in Da Nang, Vietnam, in October 2017.
    Then-Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland (second from left) and Gerry Butts, then the PM’s Principal Secretary (right) are among the senior
    officials in the meeting. --Adam Scotti photo

    ing Canada, have been devastated by                and platitudes, and some compro-                   Dad often quoted Robert Browning’s
    these terrible prejudices and it is only           mises are better than others, and ev-              words, “Man’s reach must exceed his
    right that we use our diplomatic voic-             erybody knows how disheartening                    grasp, or what’s a heaven for?”
    es and policies to put them firmly be-              some choices can be, but the search
                                                                                                          Canadian diplomacy has not irrevo-
    hind us, and to embrace the values of              for perfection brings its own form of
                                                                                                          cably declined, but it sometimes los-
    equality, diversity, and inclusion.                terror.
                                                                                                          es its way, its sense of its own context
    Civil society played a key role in the                                                                and history, its awareness of both its
    creation of the UN, and the UN Char-                       Dad often quoted                           strengths and weaknesses.
    ter’s preamble begins with the words,                      Robert Browning’s                          Because of the ravages of a stroke suf-
    “We, the peoples of the United Na-                 words, ‘Man’s reach must                           fered in his 60s, my Dad was never
    tions…”. The most active engagement
                                                       exceed his grasp, or what’s                        able to write his memoir. It was to be
    with public opinion requires the great-                                                               titled Shake Thoroughly Before Using:
    est openness, transparency and inclu-              a heaven for?’
                                                                                                          For External Use Only. After my first few
    sion in everything we do. There is no                                                                 months in New York, some brave em-
    avoiding the scrutiny and judgment                                                                    ployees, noting my tendency to shake
                                                       To cut through the din of lies, dis-
    of the global commons, as much as                                                                     things up a bit, sent me a plaque en-
                                                       information, propaganda, and the
    some might feel more comfortable do-                                                                  graved “Hurricane Bob”. When I was
                                                       equal sins of duplicity, self-serving
    ing business that way. Modern diplo-                                                                  appointed to this job, a reporter asked
                                                       rhetoric and an inability to make
    macy is messy, confusing, often loud,                                                                 me what my father would have to say.
                                                       decisions in a clear and timely way,
    and never reaches conclusions that ev-                                                                I’m sure he would have said, “Finally.
                                                       modern Canadian diplomacy has to
    eryone can wholeheartedly accept.                                                                     What took you so long?” And I would
                                                       speak with confidence, candour, hu-
    As Leonard Cohen reminded us,                                                                         have answered, “I had to make a few
                                                       mour, and honesty, and has to en-
    “There are no perfect offerings, there                                                                stops along the way.”
                                                       sure that its acts and deeds match its
    is a crack in everything. That’s where             words. We all know in our own lives                Bob Rae is Canada’s Permanent Rep-
    the light gets in.” The light is some-             how difficult this can be, and how                 resentative to the United Nations and a
    times accompanied by smoke, spin,                  we inevitably fall short of the mark.              contributing writer for Policy magazine.

The Diplomats - Canadian Politics and Public Policy

Dispatch from a
Wartime Ambassador
Canada is home to more Ukrainians than any other coun-                                  America and the Caribbean, the Middle
                                                                                        East, and Africa. We made sure it was
try in the world beyond Ukraine itself and Russia. So, when                             well known that Russia was destroying
Vladimir Putin invaded Ukraine on February 24, 2022,                                    agricultural infrastructure and holding
Canada’s response was not only strategic through NATO                                   grain hostage in Ukraine, while trying
                                                                                        to barter for sanctions relief.
and tactical via sanctions, it was deeply emotional. Am-
                                                                                        We are glad that our efforts have
bassador Larisa Galadza, who was born in Canada and                                     proven to be a strong complement to
whose eight grandparents emigrated from Ukraine, filed                                  Ukraine’s own diplomatic efforts, and
this piece from Kyiv on December 16th.                                                  the right tactic for getting stronger lan-
                                                                                        guage on multilateral resolutions and
                                                                                        increased numbers of votes condemn-
Larisa Galadza                             and that’s precisely what we set out to      ing Russia at the United Nations Gen-
                                           leverage on this war’s diplomatic front.     eral Assembly throughout the year. As

      iving in Kyiv has meant experi-                                                   a result of outreach of this kind, Ukrai-
                                           In multilateral arenas like the Unit-
      encing many forces: the force of                                                  nians have seen greater support from
                                           ed Nations and through bilateral dis-
      evil; the force of determination                                                  countries that have tended to abstain
                                           cussions, Canadian politicians and of-
that is way beyond survival instinct;                                                   or remain neutral when it comes to
                                           ficials are making sure Ukraine is a top
the force of an explosion, felt through                                                 Russia-related resolutions.
                                           agenda item. This is easy to do with our
the wall against my back and that I lat-
                                           like-minded community, but we have           Second is the force of Ukraine’s ambi-
er learn has snuffed out beautiful life;
                                           looked beyond traditional partners and       tion — one needs not be a close ob-
and the force of nature — cold and
                                           allies, and invested creative capital into   server of the war to realize that Ukrai-
darkness that is heavier and deeper be-
                                           influencing countries that may not fully     nians are stopping at nothing to quash
cause we are in a time of war.
                                           share our Canadian values, but are not       Russian aggression on all battlefronts,
But for me, there are two forces that      entirely siding with Russia either. By do-   and achieve victory. Ten months into
I feel particularly these days as I sit    ing our homework, identifying mutual         the war, the determination is more
at my desk, or across from Ukraine’s       interests and calling out disinformation,    solid than ever to fight Russia back to
leadership, doing the ambassador job.      we have been successfully able to influ-     the other side of the borders that were
First is the force of diplomacy — the      ence how much support for Ukraine’s          recognized internationally in 1991.
work of people far away from Ukraine       cause — our collective cause for a rules-    Canada supports this goal.

whose energy, determination, and cre-      based order — is received from the in-             eyond that, Ukraine sends grain
ativity are buoying the efforts that al-   ternational community.                             to the world’s most vulnerable
low Ukrainians to fight on all fronts —    Countering Russian disinformation has              populations, aims to launch
military, economic, humanitarian, and      become a regular undertaking for Ca-         the first-ever prosecution of a coun-
informational. From Kyiv, I can see        nadian diplomats. Canada has made it         try for the crime of aggression, and
and feel the work of Canadian Heads of     a part of its strategic approach to hold     is determined to build not only its
Mission around the globe as they find      Russia to account for its lies at bilater-   own defence arrangements, but also
ways to move the world to choke off        al meetings, at multi-stakeholder plat-      to strengthen the international peace
President Putin’s and Russia’s war ma-     forms, and anywhere else we have a           and security architecture so that no
chine financially, politically, and mor-   voice. We know that the sole purpose         country has to fight like this again.
ally. From early on in the invasion, I     of Russia’s disinformation is to create      It also continues on the path of legal,
knew that if there was one country         chaos, and to think that the truth is un-    judicial, and governance reforms, pre-
that understood Ukraine and its peo-       knowable. For example, when President        pares to withstand brazen war crime
ple, and could advocate for it with par-   Putin blamed Western sanctions for           attacks on its critical infrastructure, ex-
ticular credibility, it would be Canada.   food insecurity, we engaged with part-       pects Russia to pay damages and repa-
Every foreign diplomat I meet in Kyiv      ners around the world to fight Russian       rations, and works to accelerate its ac-
recognizes the inherently special re-      fiction with facts. Canadian diplomats       cession process for membership in the
lationship we have with Ukrainians,        targeted messaging to countries of Latin     European Union and the North Atlantic

                                                                                                     January—February 2023
The Diplomats - Canadian Politics and Public Policy
                                                                                              not necessarily motivate countries to
                                                                                              move from supporting Russia to sup-
                                                                                              porting Ukraine. Rather, it is their in-
                                                                                              terests that govern their behaviour.
                                                                                              Russia’s illegal and unjustifiable inva-
                                                                                              sion of Ukraine has brought Canadi-
                                                                                              an interests into stark focus. While a
                                                                                              sizeable diaspora is an important force,
                                                                                              the fact of the matter is that security
                                                                                              in Europe, and the survival of the sys-
                                                                                              tem that serves middle-power inter-
                                                                                              ests, is actually at stake. Yes, we value
                                                                                              these things, but only when you con-
                                                                                              vey this in the language of interests do
                                                                                              you have a clear sense of what must be
                                                                                              done to end this war. This clarity un-
                                                                                              leashes creativity and initiative, and
                                                                                              the resulting force is palpable.
                                                                                              As for the force of Ukrainian ambition,
    Ambassador Galadza participates in the Ukrainian Leadership Academy’s recent Forum on     what is more powerful than the interest
    Opportunities on Dec. 11, 2022. --Volodymyr Neizvestnyi photo
                                                                                              to survive? There is nothing more basic,
    Treaty Organization (NATO). Ukraine             — focused. President Zelensky knows       and Ukrainians understand that surviv-
    has set for itself, and its partners, a his-    this and he is right: it works.           al is only possible if they advance am-
    tory-defining task of huge ambition. For                                                  bitiously, unapologetically on all fronts.
                                                    What Ukraine, and Russia’s invasion
    us, their Western partners, each of these       of Ukraine, have managed to do to the     One final note: Ukrainians tell me reg-
    ambitions comes with expectations as            long-standing policies of their part-     ularly that they feel Canadian and
    to our own involvement.                         ners was unthinkable just 10 months       Western support — not that they know
    As we determine what that involvement           ago. Finland and Sweden will soon be      about it, but that they feel it. “We feel
    can be, we must work to maintain the            in NATO. Germany and Japan are pro-       that we are not alone,” said the cou-
    strong unity that proves our like-mind-         viding lethal aid. Switzerland has fro-   ple whose roof is now rebuilt because
    edness and institutional resilience             zen Russian assets. Canada has sanc-      of Canadians and the United Nations
    (more diplomatic work!). To be frank,           tioned 1577 individuals and entities      High Commissioner for Refugees (UN-
    it is daunting for governments that are         since February 2022. Would diplomats      HCR). The marine fighting on the
    post-COVID-19, hard-hit by inflation,           in January 2022 have believed this        frontlines testifies to the feeling of con-
    and engaged in a multitude of domestic          could happen? Further, what Ukraini-      nectedness because he knows we want
    challenges. And yet, inspired by Ukrai-         ans have done for their reputation in     the same thing as him. Even the pres-
    nians’ sheer determination — their will-        the world could not have been master-     ence of the diplomatic community in
    ingness to pay the ultimate price for           minded by the priciest global PR firm     Kyiv is held up by Ukrainian friends
    what we so often take for granted — we          — the prevalent (let’s face it) notion    and colleagues as a sign that we are
    too are brought into this ambition.             that Ukraine was somehow a “Little        confident in Ukraine’s victory.

           he ways Ukrainians set these             Russia” is gone forever. Russia did not
                                                    do this; Ukraine and Ukrainians did.      Russia’s tragic and foolish invasion of
           goals can seem counterintui-                                                       Ukraine has unleashed many forces.
           tive to a western bureaucrat. In         What’s behind these forces of unprec-     The forces of diplomacy and national
    our systems, we work up problemat-              edented diplomacy and ambition? A         ambition are elements of Ukraine’s fight
    ics, analyze options, consult across            powerful interplay of values and in-
                                                                                              for survival. We are all warriors in the
    government with stakeholders and                terests, but mostly interests. At a re-
                                                                                              effort — because that is in our interest.
    like-mindeds, and work through lay-             cent dinner, Ukrainian Foreign Min-
    ers of approvals and signoffs; Ukraini-         ister Dmytro Kuleba spoke about the       Larisa Galadza was appointed Cana-
    ans think fast, then act. They under-           power that is unlocked with his coun-     da’s ambassador to Ukraine in 2019. Pri-
    stand what it is they must achieve and          terparts in the Global South when he      or to this, she served as Director General
    announce boldly that they shall do so.          identifies a problem they have in com-    of the Peace and Stabilization Operations
    President Zelensky’s 10-point peace             mon. The leader of a UN body trav-        Program at Global Affairs Canada. Since
    plan, which he set out at the G20 in            elling through Kyiv, discussing voting    February 24, 2022, she has been deeply
    Bali in November 2022, is a prime ex-           trends on Ukraine-related resolutions     involved in Canada’s response to Russia’s il-
    ample. Vision motivates and keeps ev-           in the General Assembly, told me          legal and unjustifiable invasion of Ukraine.
    eryone — including us, their partners           that human rights commitments do          Ambassador Galadza is based in Kyiv.


The Strengths and Weaknesses
of Canada’s Diplomacy Game
Like so many elements of power projection, diplomacy has                               Their eclectic personal contacts created
                                                                                       networks of global influencers (before
spent the past two decades adjusting to a context of unprec-                           the word became a hashtag) that truly
edented disruption, normalized propaganda and covert and                               covered the world, beyond vital NATO,
overt threats to the rules-based international order that de-                          OECD, and North American partner-
                                                                                       ships. These contacts enormously val-
pends on it. Policy international affairs writer and former                            idated the access and influence of our
Canadian ambassador to Russia, the European Union and                                  diplomats overall. Canadians had glob-
the United Kingdom Jeremy Kinsman examines the state of                                al diplomatic reach abroad because we
                                                                                       engaged widely from the top and local-
Canada’s diplomacy game at the most critical juncture in                               ly on the ground.
international affairs since the Second World War.                                      Canadian diplomacy was best ex-
                                                                                       emplified by Pearson’s brokerage of
                                                                                       the 1956 Suez crisis that inaugurated
Jeremy Kinsman                               The effects reverberated the next day
                                                                                       UN peacekeeping. Some foreign poli-
                                             at the office. Before long, pushback at

        here was a time when an ambas-       home and in diplomatic workplaces         cy imperatives became national ques-
        sador could be described as “an                                                tions d’etat, pursued in secret; manag-
                                             at home and abroad ended the fun.
        honest gentleman sent abroad to                                                ing the long aftermath of Charles De
                                             In our real world, Russia’s throw-        Gaulle’s call for a “Québec libre!”, rec-
lie for the good of his country,” as Brit-
                                             back invasion of Ukraine has jolt-        ognizing Communist China, or free-
ish author, politician and diplomat Sir
                                             ed humanity back to the pre-1914          ing British diplomat James Cross with
Henry Wotton said in 1604. Diplomats
                                             world of would-be empires of coer-        Fidel Castro’s help. However, more
were emissaries for states competing
                                             cive force that caused the carnage of     and more, domestic and political pres-
for supremacy, often agents of decep-
                                             the “war to end all wars.” After the      sures squeezed the bandwidth for for-
tion, sent to conduct secret talks in for-
                                             postwar League of Nations failed to       eign affairs in prime ministerial atten-
eign courts in a non-democratic world.
                                             put an end to aggression, and Hitler’s    tion. Now, leaders are tempted to hype
Today’s diplomats are open, alive to the     next world war cost 126 million lives,    moves on the international stage for
truth that it is the people who make his-    the UN was created in 1945 to ensure      media at home. Outward relationships
tory, more than potentates (are you lis-     “never again” and make territorial in-    become secondary to the domestic au-
tening, Vladimir Putin?). Canada needs       vasion obsolete.                          dience that is the dominant consider-
its professionals with eyes and ears to                                                ation, especially for a minority govern-
the ground around the world, and lead-                                                 ment. Canadian media, cash-strapped
ers who have influence.
                                                     Our version of ‘soft              for representation abroad, have be-
                                                     power’ needs                      come overwhelmingly parochial.
A half-century ago, an adult board
game called Diplomacy was, briefly, a
                                             diplomats to be able to                   A default communications position is
passion among younger foreign ser-           operate semi-autonomously                 to enfold Canadian foreign policy into
vice officers in Ottawa. It drew from        in the agitated global                    chorus support for our allies. During
the delineations — geographical and          marketplace.                              the Cold War, Canada’s policies prior-
political — of 19th century Europe,                                                    itized our alliances but their wider glo-
when might made right. Gamers                                                          balist perspective and context were ad-
played the roles of the seven Europe-                                                  ditional diplomatic strengths. “Who is
an Great Powers just before the First        Rules-based multilateral diplomacy        my neighbour?” Pierre Trudeau asked
World War, instructing armies and            became a Canadian specialty. Our          in Parliament in 1981, answering that
navies to invade their neighbours,           diplomats became designers, fixers,       our “neighbours” were everywhere.
or ally with others for safety. Over         and frequent chairs of innumerable        The Economist urges us, in The World
several hours, to the despair of or-         committees. The tone was set at the       Ahead 2023, to face the “reality” that
phaned partners and spouses, players         top by internationalist prime min-        in our changing, troubled, and frac-
cut deals (best in a house with sever-       isters, and activist foreign ministers    tured world, “unpredictability is the
al rooms), and then betrayed them.           like Joe Clark and Lloyd Axworthy.        new normal.” But it’s not new. Histo-

                                                                                                   January—February 2023
     ry, like life, is full of surprises. Pierre
     Trudeau’s foreign policy briefing for
     ministers in November 1980, urged us
     to “expect the unexpected.” Surpris-
     es may seem somewhat crazier today,
     but Pol Pot and his killing fields, Lock-
     erbie and Chernobyl remind us that
     events, to put it politely, have always
     happened. However, we seem less
     well-equipped now to lift our game to
     meet the opportunity to operate with-
     in the wider dispersal of influence
     among middle powers. For example,
     Canadian aid workers cannot address
     the dangerous and growing human-
     itarian crisis in Afghanistan because
     2001 legislation labelled the Taliban a
     terrorist group. Other Western coun-
     tries amended similar national laws
     enacted after 9/11 to permit humani-
     tarian remittances in today’s changed
     circumstances. But Canadian bureau-
     cratic paralysis stymies adaptation.

             anada needs agility to advance
             diplomatic initiatives abroad.
             We should valorize initia-
     tives by professional diplomats on
     the ground to interpret and connect
     to countries that increasingly assert
     unique identities. Our version of “soft       “A half-century ago, an adult board game called Diplomacy was, briefly, a passion among younger
                                                   foreign service officers in Ottawa,” writes Jeremy Kinsman. --Avalon Hill Games
     power” needs diplomats to be able to
     operate semi-autonomously in the agi-
     tated global marketplace. The excessive       rectly to citizens. It made diplomatic           for universities abroad offering Cana-
     executive power at the government’s           accreditation a virtual duality. The ba-         dian studies (which the Trudeau gov-
     core needs to resist its centralizing in-     sic confidential relationship with the           ernment has, oddly, still not restored).
     stincts, illustrated by the Harper PMO        host state was paralleled by a public one        Above all, public diplomacy relies on
     wanting all public speeches by ambas-         with NGOs and civil society, though              reputational credibility. We need to
     sadors to be vetted. Ottawa’s bureau-         re-emerging authoritarian governments            stay current in our claim that we can
     cratic “centre,” has long resented for-       began painting NGOs as internal adver-           lead, not just follow.
     eign service separateness, colonizing         saries more than a decade ago to neu-
                                                                                                    Our military focus has shifted from
     Global Affairs with appointments from         tralize them as democracy and human
     domestic government departments.              rights-advocating threats to power.              peacekeeping to supporting our al-
     It partly explains why we now evacu-                                                           lies in the unfortunate wars of the
                                                   Our diplomats pitch Canada’s mer-                21st century, especially Afghanistan.
     ate needed diplomatic personnel from          its and interests. The Trade Commis-
     posts that become risky, as in Kabul                                                           We still organize peacekeeping con-
                                                   sioner Service’s invaluable partner-             ferences, but curtail actual commit-
     and Kyiv. Foreign Service tradition kept      ship with Canadian business pre-dated
     diplomatic shoes on the ground even                                                            ments, as in Mali.
                                                   our entry into government-to-govern-

     when bombs start dropping.                    ment diplomacy. Diplomats pursue                        redible leadership is earned most-
     Today’s diplomacy is public as well as        markets, technology, finance, and de-                   ly at the top. Chrystia Freeland
     private. It relies even more on field pro-    fence pacts. They vaunt Canada’s in-                    as foreign minister convened in
     fessionals to navigate the super-charged      ternationalist, pluralist brand, connect         Vancouver an international ministeri-
     digital communications culture of ram-        our civil society and centres of excel-          al conference in 2018 on North Korea,
     pant social media, disinformation and         lence and showcase Canadian perform-             where we didn’t even have an embassy,
     propaganda. The initial wave of “one-         ers and artists, though the Harper gov-          primarily to help politically endangered
     world” democratization unleashed by           ernment cut “all that cultural stuff,” as        US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson.
     the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 le-       the late Jim Flaherty once put it to me.         Trump dumped Tillerson a few weeks
     gitimized embassies reaching out di-          A dumb move, as was cutting support              later, went his own way with “Rock-

         Justin Trudeau’s international image is an asset to                            he couldn’t dump the prime minister
         Canadian diplomacy. Foreign leaders welcome                                    of Israel just before a war against Sadd-
                                                                                        am Hussein that would rely on Israeli
meeting their pleasant and reasonable colleague, who is by                              self-restraint to succeed.
instinct and interest more substantive than Canadians know.
                                                                                        Prime Minister Brian Mulroney led
                                                                                        the seminal debate at the 1990 Hara-
                                                                                        re Commonwealth Summit that was
et-Man” Kim Jong-un (which led no-          home pushing reports Chinese con-           meant to enshrine respect for human
where), and the Vancouver conference        sular officials had made cash advances      rights as a criterion for membership.
was instantly forgotten by everyone.        to some candidates in our 2019 elec-        When the heated session broke up,
Justin Trudeau’s international image is     tion, was stuck for an answer.              Kenyan autocrat Daniel arap Moi con-
an asset to Canadian diplomacy. For-        By alphabetical order, China sits next      tested Mulroney’s argument in private.
eign leaders welcome meeting their          to Canada at G20s, so a short intro-        Mulroney told Moi exactly why we
pleasant and reasonable colleague, who      ductory pull-aside when media were in       could not turn our eyes away from hu-
is by instinct and interest more sub-       the room was hastily negotiated. The        man rights abuse and corruption and
stantive than Canadians know. It has        PMO then briefed Canadian media             regard them as inevitable, normal, and
not been revealed that when the seces-      that Trudeau had pressed Xi Jinping         none of the Commonwealth’s busi-
sionist crisis of Tigray recently threat-   over China’s interference in Canada’s       ness. The draft Harare Declaration
ened not just famine but outright war       elections. Reports dutifully emerged        went through the next day without ob-
in Ethiopia, Trudeau spent a very help-     hailing the PM’s act of national self-de-   jection. Did Mulroney authorize brief-
ful hour talking over the options with      fence. The next day, Xi initiated his       ing Canadian media on this likely deci-
the Ethiopian PM, encouraging him in        own pull-aside to express dismay that       sive conversation? Absolutely not.
private to align with non-forceful ap-      “Everything we discussed has been           When Prime Minister Jean Chretien
proaches. But sometimes, the PMO’s          leaked to the paper; that’s not appro-      raised in China with president Jiang
compulsion to go public, prompted by        priate,” adding that they should focus      Zemin the case of a young man jailed
the need to defend against “gotcha”         first on establishing their relationship.   since Tiananmen in 1989 — he wasn’t
critics, gets diplomacy wrong.              Should this report have been the cen-       Canadian, but his sister was — he was
The PMO naturally welcomes the ac-          trepiece of Trudeau’s rare meeting with     on a plane the next day, a transaction
companiment of byline media on big          the leader of the world’s second-larg-      made in silence.
diplomatic trips (they need to pay          est economy, with whom our rela-            As a contrary example, Prime Min-
their way). But the travelling pool         tions are in the tank? Is that “diplo-      ister Harper briefed Canadian media
then has to be fed news. It comes less      macy” or grandstanding for the home         before a G20 meeting a decade or so
easily given that Trudeau is not a ma-      audience? Shouldn’t we first deploy         ago that he would meet with Chi-
jor player, though on today’s overrid-      evidence, expel the offending diplo-        na’s president to give him hell about
ing issue of ensuring the survival of       mats, and charge alleged candidates?        the imprisonment of Canadian-Chi-
Ukraine’s democracy and the defence         Yet, a few days later, under question-      nese Uyghur mullah Huseyin Celil.
of the all-important post-Second            ing in Parliament, the Prime Minister       An ex-Canadian ambassador to Chi-
World War norm against aggression,          said “there has never been any infor-       na accurately predicted to me imme-
Canada has been front and centre.           mation given to me on the funding of        diately that a) Harper wouldn’t get
Putin didn’t go to Bali for the G20 Sum-    federal candidates by China.”               the meeting and b) the hapless Cel-
mit for obvious reasons, but sent his       This example of “open and public di-        il would have his sentence doubled.
Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov. Can-        plomacy” in which a leader plays to the     So, diplomacy has changed in a lot of
ada’s activism-inclined foreign minis-      electoral audience at home, or to demo-     ways for diplomats and leaders. But one
ter, Mélanie Joly, briefed the Canadian     graphic electoral sub-sets, side-swipes     thing is constant: Relationships of trust
press contingent that she would “not        professionalism and undermines cred-        are a prerequisite to getting import-
meet with Lavrov” That Lavrov hadn’t        ibility on which relationships depend.      ant things done. They require perpetu-

asked to meet was beside the com-                    iplomacy is not about lectur-      al investment and meticulous curation,
munications point. Trudeau was then                  ing. Israeli PM Yitzhak Sham-      both from the top in Ottawa and on the
asked if he would meet with Lavrov. He               ir, in a meeting on the eve of     ground from our foreign service profes-
said reasonably that he had no reason       the 1991 Gulf War in his tiny Knesset       sionals around the world.
nor intention to do so.                     office, told Foreign Minister Joe Clark     Contributing Writer Jeremy Kinsman
The press then asked if he’d meet with      that Palestinians were “animals.” Clark     served as Canada’s Ambassador to Rus-
Chinese President Xi Jinping, who           could have challenged him, or left. But     sia, the European Union, Italy and as
was meeting Australian and Japanese         his substantive view was clear from the     High Commissioner to the United King-
prime ministers. The PM, on the de-         fact he’d spent the previous day in Ra-     dom. He is a Distinguished Fellow of the
fensive from opposition critics at          mallah. He’d never be Shamir’s pal, but     Canadian International Council.

                                                                                                     January—February 2023

     Canada’s ambassador to the World Trade Organization, Nadia Theodore (third from left) at a WTO meeting on trade and environmental sustainabili-
     ty in Geneva. --WTO Photo

     Trade Diplomacy in a Time of
     Flux: Q&A With Nadia Theodore
     Nadia Theodore was appointed in August 2022 as Canada’s                                           the siloed way that we used to ap-
                                                                                                       proach much of global governance is-
     ambassador to the World Trade Organization in Geneva.                                             sues, including global economic gov-
     She is the first woman to serve in this position. Prior to this,                                  ernance, is no longer serving us and
     she served as consul general in Atlanta before spending two                                       won’t get us the results we are look-
                                                                                                       ing to for the future. From the trade
     years as a senior vice president at Maple Leaf Foods.                                             world, there is finally a mainstream-
                                                                                                       ing of the various intersections of in-
     Policy Associate Editor Lisa Van Dusen           Ambassador Nadia Theodore: It’s                  ternational trade and the most signif-
     conducted this Q&A with Ambassador               funny because the examples you                   icant global challenges we face. From
     Theodore by email.                               have provided, to me don’t speak to              where I sit, the work on the role of
                                                      a diminishing relevance of trade but             trade in building not just better econ-
     Lisa Van Dusen: Between post-lock-
                                                      quite the opposite. They represent               omies, but better societies and a bet-
     down supply chain kinks, the weap-
                                                      examples of how critical trade still             ter planet, is intensifying – and that is
     onization of trade under a certain for-
                                                      is and is recognized as such. The fact           a good thing.
     mer American president and the World
                                                      that disruptions to, and diminution
     Trade Organization’s evolution over                                                               LVD: In broader diplomatic terms,
                                                      of, the ability of goods and services
     the past two decades as a proxy bat-             to flow across borders garners strong            there’s an impression emerging after
     tleground for geopolitical competi-              negative reaction is evidence of the             years of Brexit-driven, Trump-driven,
     tion, trade has had some reputational            fact that people understand global               China-driven disruption that, with
     issues lately. Having spent more than            trade to be crucial — whether to the             NATO unity in the face of Russian ag-
     a decade immersed in trade policy, in-           success of their business, big or small,         gression in Ukraine, with the US mid-
     cluding on the negotiating teams for             or to the prosperity of their econo-             term results and with at least a great-
     the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the            mies and communities. But what I                 er understanding of what the threats
     Comprehensive Economic and Trade                 will say is that international institu-          to democracy and global stability are,
     Agreement between Canada and the                 tions and multilateralism in gener-              some sanity is returning to interna-
     European Union, and now as WTO                   al are having some reputational is-              tional relations. Trade diplomacy be-
     ambassador, what’s your take on the              sues lately as folks realize that some           ing the vanguard of multilateralism,
     state of trade from the front lines?             of the old ways of doing things and              do you see that as too optimistic?

ANT: One can never be too optimistic!        ing and a powerful moment for Ca-           that others might not see. When I look
Seriously though, I don’t think that any     nadian representation. What did you         back at my time in Atlanta, the things
one type of diplomacy has a monopo-          learn while you were there?                 that I am most proud of and the areas
ly on new ideas and a modern way of          ANT: I have thought a lot about my          where I believe I had the most impact,
doing things. All disciplines have inno-     time in Atlanta. My biggest lessons         materialized when I and the Depart-
vations that we can draw from and bet-       from my time there and what has             ment embraced what I brought to the
ter yet, taking an integrated approach to    stayed with me the most is what I           table that was different and when we
public diplomacy and its various facets      learned about successful policy making      used that difference to open ourselves
for me is the key to success. WTO Di-        and successful diplomacy in today’s         up to different possibilities and different
rector General Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala       world. We live in a world where things      solutions to problems. The more we can
understands this better than many. She       are no longer linear. With any given is-    replicate that openness and innovation
has truly elevated the idea of looking at    sue or situation, there are a whole host    in diplomacy and feed it into our poli-
the role that trade can play to help solve   of relevant factors, inputs and perhaps     cy-making, the greater advantage Can-
global challenges and how internation-       most importantly, a whole range of po-      ada will enjoy on the global stage. The
al organizations and institutions can ac-    tential outcomes and usually, no one        good news is that I believe that Canada
complish more if we work together. Her       potential outcome is any more likely        gets it and is set up for success.
leadership at the WTO makes it easy to       than another. It is messy and winding       LVD: You’ve been back in Geneva now
remain optimistic.                           and the ability to predict and count on     for just over three months. Have you got
LVD: Where does Canada fit in this           any one particular outcome based on         a sense yet of what you want the next
moment of flux?                              historical context or dominant narra-       four years of your mandate to look like?
                                             tives is difficult if not impossible. The
ANT: Well, listen, I am a Canadian dip-      well-used phrase “the trend is your         ANT: One of my favourite quotes is
lomat and a senior executive in the Ca-      friend” no longer holds true.               from Toni Morrison: as you enter posi-
nadian federal public service, so my an-                                                 tions of trust and power, dream a little
swer is likely somewhat predictable!                                                     before you think. I actually have those
Canada is in an opportune position. We
                                                     From the trade                      words on a sticky note on my computer
are in a sweet spot of expertise meeting             world, there is finally             screen. I am trying very hard to take the
opportunity and we are leveraging our        a mainstreaming of the                      first six months to listen, learn and ex-
expertise at a time when leadership is       various intersections of                    ecute on the fantastic foundations that
needed. This is true in a myriad of orga-                                                have been set by the mission team and
nizations and contexts, but at the WTO
                                             international trade and the                 by my predecessors, in particular the
specifically, we are co-convenors to the     most significant global                     immediate past ambassador, Stephen
Trade and Environmental Sustainability       challenges we face.                         de Boer, who was an incredible leader
Structured Discussions; we are the con-                                                  in Geneva. Even though it is really hard
venors of the Ottawa Group, which fo-                                                    for me not to jump in with my own
                                             The countries, businesses, institutions
cuses on WTO reform issues; we played                                                    unique priorities, I think that taking
                                             that will thrive in this heightened real-
an instrumental role in seeing the suc-                                                  the time to dream a little at the front
                                             ity will be those that truly understand
cessful conclusion of the Agreement on                                                   end serves leaders in spades if you can
                                             and pay attention to having people in
Fisheries Subsidies. And I could go on.                                                  discipline yourself to do so. Having said
                                             policy making, relationship-building
On almost any global issue, when                                                         that, I have started fleshing out what I
                                             and decision making functions that
bridges need to be built or when the                                                     want success to look like for me and my
                                             have different ways of looking at the
conversations move into the solution                                                     thinking is converging around: digging
                                             world, different ways of showing up in
sorting phase, Canada is called upon.                                                    into Canada’s role around inclusion, re-
                                             the world, different contexts in which
We are known for our pragmatic, in-                                                      forming globalization or re-globaliza-
                                             the world looks at them and different
clusive approach and that is no differ-                                                  tion as some are calling it, environment
                                             ways of approaching problems.
ent in the WTO context. Canada be-                                                       and digital. More to come!
                                             That’s what I mean when I talk about
lieves that high, resilient and inclusive                                                Nadia Theodore is Canada’s Head of
                                             having more people who look more like
growth requires global systems and                                                       Canada’s Mission to the United Nations,
                                             me and my ancestors than perhaps like
global cooperation and we are ready                                                      the World Trade Organization and other
                                             you or your ancestors, around the deci-
to roll up our sleeves and do the work                                                   International Organizations in Geneva.
                                             sion making table, with real authority
required for success, both at home and                                                   Policy Magazine Associate Editor Lisa
                                             and decision-making power. It’s not just
on the global stage.                                                                     Van Dusen was a senior writer at Ma-
                                             about what I look like – it’s about how
LVD: Your tenure as Canadian consul          what I look like and who I am shapes the    clean’s, Washington columnist for the
general in Atlanta seemed like both a        way I look at the world, how I look at      Ottawa Citizen and Sun Media, interna-
long-overdue triumph of logic over           solving problems, what doors to rooms       tional writer for Peter Jennings at ABC
the factors that had delayed a Black         I may more easily be able to open and       News and an editor at AP National in
woman’s appointment to the post-             what I see when I get into those rooms      New York and UPI in Washington.

                                                                                                      January—February 2023

     Former NATO Ambassador Kerry Buck (far right) at the inauguration of the new Canadian Permanent Mission to NATO during the 2018 NATO Summit
     in Brussels with (L to R) LGen Marquis Hainse, Military Representative of Canada to NATO (now retired), then-minister of National Defence, Harjit Sajjan,
     then-minister of Foreign Affairs Chrystia Freeland, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, Chief of Defence Staff Jon Vance (now retired). --Adam Scotti photo

     Changing the Face of
     Security: Being a Woman
     Ambassador to NATO
     Canada’s diplomatic corps includes high-profile women Kerry Buck
     in senior roles, from Ambassador to the United States

                                                                n 2015, I was appointed Canada’s
     Kirsten Hillman to WTO Ambassador Nadia Theodore           Ambassador to NATO: the first wom-
     to Ambassador to Ukraine Larisa Galadza. Ambassador        an in that position in the 66 years
                                                             since Canada joined the alliance. I was
     Kerry Buck served as Canada’s permanent representative not the first woman permanent repre-
     to NATO from 2015 to 2018. As the first woman to serve sentative to NATO; this honour had
     in that role, she generously shares her experience as a gone to my Lithuanian colleague in
     woman both in the foreign service and in the male-domi- 2004,  when Lithuania had joined the
                                                             Alliance, appointed Ambassador Ginte
     nated halls of NATO headquarters.                       Damusis and broken the glass ceiling.
                                                                                                               My American friends Toria Nuland and
                                                                                                               Rose Gottemoller became, respectively,
                                                                                                               the first American woman Ambassador
                                                                                                               to NATO (2005) and first woman Dep-
                                                                                                               uty Secretary General of NATO (2016).
                                                                                                               In 2015, when I arrived at NATO, there
                                                                                                               were only three other women ambassa-
                                                                                                               dors out of a table of twenty eight allies.

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