The Third Millennium Development Goals Report. Republic of Moldova - Planipolis

 
The Third Millennium Development Goals Report. Republic of Moldova - Planipolis
The Third
             Millennium Development
                   Goals Report.
               Republic of Moldova

 ERADICATE EXTREME   ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL      PROMOTE GENDER         REDUCE CHILD
POVERTY AND HUNGER   PRIMARY EDUCATION   EQUALITY AND EMPOWER       MORTALITY
                                                WOMEN

 IMPROVE MATERNAL     COMBAT HIV/AIDS,   ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL   GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP
      HEALTH         MALARIA AND OTHER       SUSTAINABILITY      FOR DEVELOPMENT
                         DISEASES
The Third Millennium Development Goals Report. Republic of Moldova - Planipolis
The Third
         Report on Millennium
          Development Goals.
          Republic of Moldova
                                  Chisinau, 2013

This Report was produced by the Government of the Republic of Moldova with the as-
sistance of the UN Agencies in Moldova. Opinions expressed in this publication do not
necessarily reflect the official views of the United Nations.
The Third Millennium Development Goals Report. Republic of Moldova - Planipolis
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors of the Report are: Valeriu Prohnitchi        Curasov (Positive Initiative), Valeriu Sava (SDC),
(MDG 1 and MDG 8), Valentina Bodrug-Lungu                Ala Negruta, Elena Vutcarau (National Bureau of
(MDG 2 and MDG 3), Arcadie Astrahan (MDG 4,              Statistics), Maria Nagornii, Veronica, Lopotenco
MDG 5 and MDG 6), and Valentin Cibotaru (MDG             Tatiana Plesco (Ministry of Environment), Vladimir
7). Valeriu Prohnitchi has provided the general co-      Girnet (Ecology Agency from Cahul), prof. Nicolae
ordination of the process at its initial stages, being   Opopol (State University of Medicine and Pharma-
succeeded later by Adrian Lupusor. The develop-          cy “Nicolae Testemitanu”, NCPM), Alexandru Coro-
ment of the Report has benefited from the sup-            novschi (Agency “Apele Moldovei”), Tatiana Tugui
port provided by a number of public authorities          (Waste Governance within the IEVP East), Rodica
and agencies of the Republic of Moldova, includ-         Iordanov (PA EcoContact), Andrei Isac, indepen-
ing the State Chancellery, National Bureau of Sta-       dent consultant, expert in environmental poli-
tistics, National Bank of Moldova, Ministry of Re-       cies), Alexei Andreev, (PA “BIOTICA”), Elena Bivol
gional Development and Constructions, Ministry           (PA BIOS), Mihai Mustea (National Environment
of Labour, Social Protection, and Family, Ministry       Centre), Victor Cimpoes (PA Cutezatorul), Valentin
of Education, National Commission of Financial           Sascov (National Famers’ Federation from Mol-
Market, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Health,         dova), Valentina Gak (PA “Territorial Association of
National Agency for Regulation in Electronic Com-        Mayors from Hincesti Rayon”), Alexandru Lesan,
munications and Information Technology, Border           (mayor, Cosnita village, Dubasari rayon), Nicolae
Police Department, Ministry of Economy, and Min-         Rusu (Irrigation Water Users’ Association “Cosnita”,
istry of Environment. A number of relevant and           Dubasari rayon), Arcadie Barbarosie (Institute for
useful comments were received from the mem-              Public Policies), Eugenia Ganea (Millennium Chal-
bers of the four thematic working groups, which          lenge Account Moldova), Catinca Mardarovici
were established to ensure the broad participa-          (Women’s Political Club 50/50), Olga Nicolenco
tion in developing this Report (“Poverty”, “Educa-       (gender expert), Ludmical Ceaglic (Mayor, Calfa vil-
tion and Gender”, “Health”, and “Environment”), as       lage), Mhitarean Cristina (Gender Center), Mariana
well as from the UNDP Moldova staff. In particular,       Ianachevici (Asociaţia pentru Abilitarea Copilului şi
the Report has benefitted from the valuable sug-          Familiei “AVE Copiii”), Galina Lavraniuc (Directoare,
gestions provided by Alexandru Oprunenco and             Gimnaziu, s.Voloviţa), Vera Bivol (pensioner, Cost-
Dumitru Vasilescu (UNDP Moldova), Ghenadie Cre-          esti village, Ialoveni rayon), Rimofei Bivol (farmer,
tu (International Organisation for Migration), Sil-      Costesti village, Ialoveni rayon).
viu Ciobanu, Larisa Boderscova (WHO Moldova),
                                                         The authors are sincerely grateful to all those who
Elena Laur, Angela Capcelea, Larisa Virtosu and
                                                         provided data and feedback for developing this
Ludmila Lefter (UNICEF Moldova), Oxana Lipcanu
                                                         Report. However, the responsibility for all inter-
(International Labour Organisation), prof. Petru
                                                         pretation of the data, the analysis, the conclusions,
Stratulat and conf. Stelian Hodorogea (Institute
                                                         and recommendations provided in the report lies
of Mother and Child), Liliana Caraulan (PAS), Mar-
                                                         with the authors.
cela Tirdea, Rodica Scutelnic (Ministry of Health),
Stela Gheorghita and Anatolie Melnic (NCPH),             This Report was produced by the Government of
Liliana Domente (Phthosioneumology Institute             the Republic of Moldova with the assistance of the
“Chiril Draganiuc”), Lilia Pascal and Diana Doros        UN Agencies in Moldova. Opinions expressed in
(Ministry of Labour, Social Protection and Family),      this publication do not necessarily reflect the of-
Galina Gavrilita (Ministry of Education), Alexandru      ficial views of the United Nations.
The Third Millennium Development Goals Report. Republic of Moldova - Planipolis
CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................... 5
FOREWORD ...................................................................................................................... 6
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................................... 8
MDGS AND TRANSCENDING DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES AT A GLANCE .... 13
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 25
NATIONAL CONTEXT: GLOBAL TURBULENCE AND INTERNAL CHALLENGES . 26

MDG 1 “Reduce extreme poverty and hunger”:
                                  hunger”
               a small and still uncertain success .................................................................................
                                                   .................................................................................30

MDG 2 “Achieve universal access to general compulsory education”:
                                                      education”
                                              quality ....................................................................34
               problems related to access and quality.

MDG 3 “Promote gender equality and empower women”:
                                           women”
               a real chance to speed up development ...................................................................40

MDG 4 “Reduce
       Reduce child mortality”:
                    mortality important progress
                              maintained .................................................................................................
               that should be maintained. .................................................................................................46

MDG 5 “Improve maternal health”:
                        health” sinuous evolution,
               uncertain perspectives ...........................................................................................................
                                      ...........................................................................................................52

MDG 6 “Combat HIV/AIDS,, tuberculosis and other diseases”:
                                                diseases”
               a very difficult objective ........................................................................................................
                                        ........................................................................................................58

MDG 7 “Ensure sustainable environment”:
                          environment” better balance
               between society and nature is needed ......................................................................64

MDG 8 “Create a global partnership for development”
                                       development”: towards a more
               advantageous integration into the global economy .......................................70

MDG: A finished agenda, or not yet? ..........................................................................................
                                   ..........................................................................................74
POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA ....................................................................... 78
LIST OF REFERENCES AND SOURCES ....................................................................... 81
ANNEX A: MDG Monitoring Indicators.................................................................................
                                  .................................................................................83
ANNEX B: Share
          hare of women employed in economy by types
         of economic activities, % .......................................................................................
                                   .......................................................................................88
ANNEX C: Forest Vegetation in the Republic of Moldova ..............................................89
ANNEX D: Share of area covered with forests in different countries of europe ....90

                                                                              The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova   3
The Third Millennium Development Goals Report. Republic of Moldova - Planipolis
List of TABLES:
                                Table 1.         Evolution of MDG 1 indicators, period 2006-2012
                                                 intermediary and final targets .........................................................................................................................
                                                                               .........................................................................................................................31
                                Table 2.         Indicators on children’s enrolment in education, % of the total, period 2003-2012.......36
                                Table 3.         Women in decision-making positions at the local level, % of the
                                                 total number of position holders ....................................................................................................................
                                                                                  ....................................................................................................................41
                                Table 4.         Women in decision-making positions at the central level, % of the
                                                 total position holders .............................................................................................................................................
                                                                        .............................................................................................................................................41
                                Table 5.         Gender disaggregation of civil servants by administrative levels and types
                                                 of held position, january 1, 2013 .....................................................................................................................
                                                                                   .....................................................................................................................42
                                Table 6.         Evolution of salary earnings based on gender .......................................................................................43
                                Table 7.         Evolution of HIV/AIDS incidence, cases per 100,000 population
                                                 during 2000-2012, final and intermediary targets................................................................................59
                                Table 8.         Evolution of mdg 7 indicators, period 2006-2011 and intermediary and final Targets .....65
                                Table 9.         Feasibility of the possibility to achieve MDG intermediary (2010)
                                                 and final targets (2015) ........................................................................................................................................
                                                                           ........................................................................................................................................76

                                List of FIGURES:
                                Figure 1.        Gross enrolment rate of children aged 3-6 years old in preschool institutions,
                                                 2003-2012, % ...............................................................................................................................................................
                                                              ...............................................................................................................................................................35
                                Figure 2.        Infant mortality rate (IMR)
                                                                       ( ) and under-5 mortality rate per 1,000 live births ........................47
                                Figure 3.        Share of under-2 children vaccinated against measles ....................................................................49
                                Figure 4.        Maternal mortality rate per 100 000 live births (MDG
                                                                                                 (    5 Target 1) ..............................................54
                                Figure 5.        Rate of abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age ................................................................55
                                Figure 6.        Distribution of new cases of HIV infection by the probable routes of transmission
                                                 in Moldova 1995-2011 ...........................................................................................................................................
                                                                       ...........................................................................................................................................60
                                Figure 7.        Evolution of MDG 6 indicator for TB                   TB, period 2006-2011 and intermediary
                                                 and final targets .........................................................................................................................................................
                                                                  .........................................................................................................................................................61
                                Figure 8.        Status of persons with TB,, 2012, % of global incidence....................................................................62
                                Figure 9.        Share of inhabitants with permanent access to improved water sources, % .....................66
                                Figure 10. Share of inhabitants with access to sewerage, % .................................................................................66
                                Figure 11. Sustainable development: compensation of the vicious cycle by the virtuous circle ..67

                                List of BOXES:
                                Box 1.           Moldovan emigrants build their future at home ..................................................................................33
                                Box 2.           Lessons to be learned for the Moldovan Educational System .....................................................39
                                Box 3.           Promotion of women in decision-making and political positions – the voice
                                                 of a female mayor .....................................................................................................................................................
                                                                   .....................................................................................................................................................44
                                Box 4.           The modernization of the healthcare system saves human lives ...............................................51
                                Box 5.           About the importance of adequate monitoring of pregnant women ...................................57
                                Box 6.           Poverty and tuberculosis......................................................................................................................................
                                                                         ......................................................................................................................................63
                                Box 7.           Elderly and tap water..............................................................................................................................................
                                                                      ..............................................................................................................................................69
                                Box 8.           Migrants’ expectations regarding moldova’s development perspectives.............................73

4   The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova
The Third Millennium Development Goals Report. Republic of Moldova - Planipolis
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

       AIDS    – Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

      DOTS     – Directly observed treatment, short course – strategy recommended by WHO

    GFATM      – Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

       HBS     – Household Budget Survey

        HIV    – Human Immunodeficiency Virus

       IBBS    – Integrated Bio Behavioural Survey

       IMCI    – Integrated Management of Childhood Illness

       KAP     – HIV Knowledge, Attitude, Practice

      MDG      – Millennium Development Goal

      MOH      – Ministry of Health

       MEc     – Ministry of Economy

       MEn     – Ministry of Environment

       MFin    – Ministry of Finance

  NARECIT      – National Agency for Regulation in Electronic Communication and Information Technology

       NBM     – National Bank of Moldova

        NBS    – National Bureau of Statistics

     NCFM      – National Commission of Financial Market

      NCPH     – National Centre for Public Health

       NGO     – Nongovernmental Organizations

        STI    – Sexually Transmitted Infections

         TB    – Tuberculosis

   UNGASS      – United Nations General Assembly Special Session for HIV/AIDS

       WSS     – Water and Sewerage Supply

      WHO      – World Health Organization

WSS Strategy   – Water and Sewerage Supply Strategy

                                                 The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova   5
FOREWORD
                              The Millennium Develop-                       The report’s utility is its emphasis on areas where the
                              ment Goals established mini-                  Government should seek to strengthen its efforts to
                              mum standards, for each                       achieve faster and more qualitative changes. In par-
                              state to reach, to ensure a                   ticular, progress made in combating tuberculosis is
                              decent standard of living for                 currently very slow, while the incidence of HIV / AIDS
                              its population. In partner-                   has become an increasing problem in rural areas,
                              ship with 189 countries, who                  especially in the Transnistrian region where the to-
                              signed the declaration at the                 tal prevalence of HIV infection is almost three times
                              United Nations Millennium                     higher, in comparison to the right side of the River
                              Summit in 2000, the Moldo-                    Nistru. When it comes to promoting gender equal-
    van Government made a commitment to ensure in-                          ity, by providing women with equal opportunities to
    clusive and sustainable development for its people.                     engage in social, professional, and political spheres
    The country’s long term future and competitiveness                      compared to men, clearly much remains to be done.
    depend on the ability to create the conditions for ev-                  Finally, the question of environmental quality remains
    ery citizen, individually and professionally, to be able                a pressing concern, and in this respect Moldova seeks
    to reach their full potential. However, a fundamental                   to increase forested areas and to continue efforts to
    prerequisite of this goal is ensuring the greatest pos-                 increase access to larger numbers of people in rural
    sible access to basic goods and services such as safe                   areas to sewerage systems and quality water.
    drinking water and proper sewage systems, quality
                                                                            In recent years, the Government has embarked on a
    healthcare, a clean environment, modern roads as
                                                                            number of systemic reforms to modernize the coun-
    well as equal opportunities regardless of gender.
                                                                            try and improve the quality of life of all citizens. We
    These criteria are included in the eight Millennium
                                                                            realize that we follow a long and difficult path, and
    Development Goals, which ultimately define quality
                                                                            the Millennium Development Goals serves as our
    of life and serve as pillars to modernize the country.
                                                                            guide on this ambitious journey. In this context, we
    The Third National MDG Report offers an objective                        remain partners in implementing the MDGs, and we
    analysis of Moldova’s progress towards reaching the                     acknowledge the importance of enlisting the sup-
    objectives which were established for 2010-2013,                        port of the entire population in this process, as well
    and the natural progression of efforts to measure                        as the need of an open dialogue and communica-
    implementation of the MDG agenda. Moldova has                           tion during the implementation process. At the same
    made tangible progress in reducing poverty and in-                      time, we rely on the support of our friends and part-
    fant mortality, and in ensuring access to compulsory                    ners from the international community who provide
    education. Hence, from 2006-2012 the poverty rate                       an indispensable contribution to the transformation
    decreased from 30.2% to 16.6%, the child mortality                      of the country from a transitional state into a pros-
    rate decreased from 11.8% to 9.8%, and preschool                        perous, and dynamic one, that has a clear European
    enrolment for children increased from 90.3% to                          perspective. However, to successfully reach these ob-
    93.5%. All these indicators reflect an improving stan-                   jectives we must actively harness the cooperation of
    dard of living and are the product of reforms which                     key stakeholders and institutions, at both the central
    are currently underway. At the same time, the Gov-                      and regional levels. And last, but not least, develop-
    ernment acknowledges the discrepancy in develop-                        ment which meets the interests of all the people can-
    ment between urban and rural areas, and the all too                     not be achieved without their active involvement in
    frequent marginalization of small towns in terms of                     this transformation, which the country is currently
    access to economic opportunities and access to clean                    witnessing. Therefore, we are committed to attract-
    water, healthcare and quality education. A number                       ing as large a number of people, as is possible, in
    of strategic planning documents, such as the Nation-                    the consultative and decision-making processes, be-
    al Decentralization Strategy adopted in 2012, have                      cause, ultimately, the Millennium Development Goals
    sought to address these problems in conjunction                         are designed to ensure a decent life for all citizens of
    with The Strategy of Agriculture and Rural Develop-                     this country. In this respect, we will seek to improve
    ment of Moldova which will be implemented starting                      the quality of life of the rural population, including
    in 2014.

6   The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova
Transnistria, where the development discrepancies        reforming and modernizing the country lies in our
are significant.                                          own hands, and in our own homes, in partnership
                                                         with the Moldovan people, not only can we leverage
We acknowledge that it is impossible to completely
                                                         our current opportunities, but we can also overcome
address all of Moldova’s development challenges by
                                                         the challenges outlined in this report.
2015. But with the initial premise that all Moldova’s
citizens deserve a decent living, in truth the Govern-
ment’s policies aim far beyond this near term horizon.
Together these sustained efforts will support our im-
plementation of the National Development Strategy,
“Moldova 2020”, in conjunction with other recently-      Iurie LEANCA,
developed sectoral strategies. The key to success in     Prime Minister of the Republic of Moldova

                                                             The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova   7
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
    MDGs’ importance for development
                               development. When the                        National Development Framework. After the
    Moldovan Government signed the Millennium                               stagnation witnessed in 2012 by the Moldovan
    Declaration at the Millennium Summit in 2000,                           economy, reflecting the mixed effect of the Eu-
    along with other 189 countries, they made a com-                        ropean economic crisis and the severe drought
    mitment to a comprehensive process of reform to                         affecting the agricultural sector, economically
    address poverty, ensure peace and security, and                         2013 looks rather promising. Agriculture contin-
    observe human rights and democratic principles.                         ues to be the most vulnerable sector, but also
    The MDGs are vitally important, because they serve                      the sector with the biggest potential to increase
    as useful tools to define policy priorities, monitor                     turnover, farmers’ revenues and living standards
    the impact of reforms implemented by each of the                        of rural communities’. Economic modernization
    countries which signed the Declaration, as well as                      together with entrenching the path to European
    mobilizing new domestic and international re-                           integration, the creation of jobs, and combating
    sources to address poverty reduction. All these                         corruption are the core priorities that the Govern-
    aspects make a contribution to increasing pub-                          ment has adopted to ensure development for the
    lic accountability, and in comparison with other                        people. The key constraints which limit the Gov-
    countries allows the international community                            ernment’s room for manoeuvre and to speed up
    and donors to target their programs more effec-                          development relates to the inefficient use of pub-
    tively to meet domestic needs. In general, moni-                        lic financial resources, insufficiently developed
    toring the implementation of the MDGs progress                          policy capacities, and a deficit of qualified people
    highlights key successes, as well as development                        drawn to public service. All these constraints have
    challenges, which should be dealt with through                          influenced the way in which the country has pro-
    further systemic reforms. The main drawback ob-                         gressed toward achieving the Millennium Devel-
    served across all of the 8 Goals is the gap between                     opment Goals (MDG).
    the rural and urban living standards, which has
    actually increased in recent years. Hence, in spite                     MDG 1. Reduce extreme poverty and hunger.
    of the remarkable progress witnessed in poverty                         For MDG 1, the Republic of Moldova has made
    reduction, rural populations continue to have lim-                      remarkable progress. In 2012, the country already
    ited access to basic assets and services, such as                       reached the final targets set for 2015. The inci-
    water and sewerage supply, health and education                         dence of poverty according to the international
    services. In this way, the fiscal poverty of the ru-                     threshold of 4.3 dollars per day decreased from
    ral population is magnified by a lack of economic                        34.5% in 2006 down to 20.8% in 2012 (the final
    and social infrastructure, which together with the                      target – 23.0%). The share of the population living
    absence of viable economic alternatives forces                          under the absolute poverty line decreased from
    the population to migrate. The discrepancies be-                        30.2% to 16.6% (the final target: 20.0%), while the
    tween the urban and rural areas are also apparent                       share of population suffering from hunger – from
    in terms of visible social inequities, in terms of so-                  4.5% to 0.6% (the final target: 3.5%). The main
    cial exclusion of the poor. Thus, children from the                     factors which favour progress include: economic
    less financially well-to-do families are less likely                     growth, the increase of revenues remitted by the
    to be enrolled in kindergartens, and poorer peo-                        emigrants and the social assistance provided by
    ple face limited access to quality health services,                     the Government according to a specific formula,
    water and sewerage supply. Another important                            which allows for a better targeting of the resourc-
    problem refers to the significant differences in                          es to assist the really poor families. In spite of all
    opportunities between women and men. Hence,                             these successes, special concerns are raised by
    the report highlights the modest participation of                       the pronounced inertia of rural poverty: in big cit-
    women in the decision-making process, especially                        ies absolute poverty has decreased by more than
    at the higher levels, as well as fewer economic op-                     two times from 2008 to 2012(from 10.9% to 4.3%),
    portunities for women compared to men. The per-                         while in villages the decrease was slower (from
    petuation of these development problems could                           34.6% to 22.8%). The gap between rural and ur-
    magnify emigration trends in the near future,                           ban living standards increased: in 2006, 75.7% of
    which in spite of short-term advantages, actually                       the population living in poverty were in villages,
    carries long-term risk: a brain drain from both a                       while in 2012 this percentage increased to 79.1%.
    qualitative and quantitative point of view.                             The main causes of rural poverty include: the vul-

8   The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova
nerability of the agricultural sector, the lack of al-   between rural and urban areas; lower access to
ternative occupations in other economic sectors,         education for children with disabilities and Roma
and emigration. All these have created a vicious         children, including to preschool education. On the
cycle of poverty, in which the vast majority of          basis of all these drawbacks, the main priorities re-
Moldovan villages are still trapped. This was also       fer to the efficient use of technical-material basis
affected by the transition to means tested allow-         and financial resources allocated to the educa-
ances. If state resources were fully allocated based     tional system, re-evaluation and re-design of the
on the principle of means testing, they would be         staffing policies in education, and improving the
almost be enough to completely eradicate the             quality of training. Moldovan Government policy
poverty. Nevertheless, besides fiscal poverty, rural      on educational reform aims to tackle both the
populations also faces other forms of poverty, re-       quality and access to education as indispensable
lated to limited access to a number of basic servic-     elements in addressing poverty in a sustainable
es and products (water and sewerage, health and          way. Respectively, provision of quality preschool,
education services), as a result of insufficient in-       primary, and secondary education for all the chil-
frastructure. The Government acknowledges eco-           dren is a key strategic objective.
nomic growth is a vital component in maintaining
                                                         MDG 3. Promote gender equality and empower
and strengthening long-term progress in allevi-
                                                         women. Gender disparities are not evident in pre-
ating all forms of poverty, as is model of growth
                                                         school and compulsory education, but neverthe-
which is more environmentally sustainable, and
                                                         less, they start appearing as people start entering
socially and geographically more equitable. Both
                                                         the labour market and participating in economic
national and sector strategies developed over the
                                                         and political life. Among elected mayors, the
last years have targeted this goal.
                                                         share of women is still very small and stagnant,
MDG 2. Achieve universal access to general com-          increasing only marginally from 18.15% in 2007
pulsory education.                                       to 18.51% in 2011; at the rayon counsellors’ level
                                                         the increase is from 16.48% in 2007 to 18.39% in
The reduction in fiscal poverty reflected in the           2011. At the same time, the increase in the num-
MDG 1 correlates with the increased access to            bers of women on the MP candidates’ list has not
education, but discrepancies between the rural           influenced the proportion of women among MPs,
and urban areas, as well as the problems with rela-      it stayed at 19.8% in November 2010 and 2011.
tion to social exclusion still persist. Although the     Thus, in spite of some progress, reaching the ul-
target set for 2015 in relation to preschool educa-      timate target is still uncertain in terms of promot-
tion coverage was met in 2011, many rural chil-          ing women to key positions. The lack of affirma-
dren continue to face marginalisation, and about         tive action (quotas) legislation, the persistence of
30% of them do not go to kindergartens. It is un-        gender stereotypes – all these significantly reduce
likely to reduce fundamental disparities in access       opportunities for women’s participation in the de-
to preschool education between urban and rural           cision-making process. The reform of legislation to
areas, and by income groups. At the same time,           institute quotas, has promoted further progress
residential disparities in access to education play      towards reaching the MDG targets, and helped to
a significant role in shaping the differences be-          create preconditions for more solid political em-
tween poverty rates in rural and urban areas. The        powerment of women. Implementation of some
developments for compulsory education are also           gender education programs for youth, as well as
mixed. While a number of surveys reveal that the         in the general and university education system
target set for 2015 for gross school enrolment had       could facilitate the transformation of women’s and
already been reached, people are still not satisfied      men’s gender roles in the society and in the fam-
with the quality of formal education, and this is        ily. But, besides gender differences in terms of par-
reinforced by the results of the final exams from         ticipation in the decision-making process, women
2013 school session. The main causes are associ-         are also at a disadvantage on the labour market.
ated with the precarious legacy of educational           Although provisions for ensuring equal payments
materials and school staff – which is an acute            for equal work are stipulated in law, gender dis-
problem in villages, which far from attracting           crepancies are registered in women’s and men’s
teachers, discourages them from staying, particu-        salaries. At the same time, the employment rate is
larly younger teachers. This situation risks endan-      constantly lower in comparison with men’s rates,
gering enrolment in general secondary education.         and this fact reveals the existence of some major
The following can be noted among the other key           barriers to the integration of women on the labour
constraints: significant demographic differences           market. Thus, ensuring basic conditions for wom-

                                                             The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova   9
en’s political empowerment (through affirmative                           individualised recovery could be more efficiently
     actions and training programs) and economic em-                         provided on a regional basis to increase access for
     powerment (through training and entrepreneur-                           vulnerable populations, and this would reduce
     ship programs) is one of the relevant priorities for                    these children’s disability. Further joint efforts to-
     the post-2015 period.                                                   gether with international development partners
                                                                             are major preconditions to ensure sustainability
     MDG 4. Reduce child mortality. The final targets                         and increase the prospects for successes.
     set for 2015 for infant mortality and the under-5
     mortality rate have already been reached, this was                      MDG 5. Improve maternal health. The high level
     one of the areas in which the greatest progress                         of access to perinatal health has been maintained
     has been made. Nevertheless, social exclusion                           over the last few years. The same thing character-
     has also influenced and marked this area as well.                        ises access to medical services and this has con-
     Hence, there are marked inequities in cases of                          tributed to maintaining a high rate of medically
     child mortality, which disadvantages poor chil-                         assisted deliveries. At the same time, inequalities
     dren, and especially Roma children. This fact again                     are still apparent in terms of access to and qual-
     reveals discrepancies between rich and the poor,                        ity of services – inequalities between rural and
     as well as drawbacks in relation to social equity.                      urban populations, insured and uninsured in the
     Moreover, sometimes cases of child neglect are                          population, general population and marginalised
     still identified, and in some cases may not receive                      groups (Roma women, persons with disabilities,
     the assistance they need. Another challenge is                          migrants). The maternal mortality rate has regis-
     vaccinating children against measles by 2015,                           tered a sinuous development with a slight wors-
     which is in some doubt, as in recent years the                          ening trend, reflecting a number of structural fac-
     number of children who have been vaccinated                             tors in the health and social-economic sector. It is
     decreased for different reasons. The problem is                          obvious that the low number of mortality cases
     especially acute in rural areas and, mainly, among                      is caused by significant and unpredictable varia-
     the Roma children, due to low levels of knowledge                       tions, whenever reported per 100000 live births.
     about the benefits of vaccination. The Ministry of                       It is very important to mention that effective tools
     Health acknowledges these issues and actively                           were implemented over the last years to identify
     promotes, maternal and child health, and is im-                         the underlying causes and to develop cost-effi-
     plementing a series of reforms in this area. Free                       cient measures to address the situation. In this
     and comprehensive health care coverage and free                         context, concerns are raised related to focus on
     medicines, in conjunction with the introduction                         indirect factors (unrelated to pregnancy) of ma-
     of compulsory health insurance, all served as cru-                      ternal mortality, inducing drawbacks in the ante-
     cial elements in combating infant and maternal                          natal surveillance and gaps in the quality of the
     death. There are specific national health policies                       provided health services. Although a regionalised
     and programs which focus on mother and child                            and perinatal services’ referral system has been
     health. The development of a regionalised peri-                         implemented, the professionalism and efficiency
     natal assistance system, strengthening paediatric                       of many interventions, especially in emergen-
     emergency health care and the regional reanima-                         cies, could benefit from considerable improve-
     tion and intensive therapy departments, as well                         ments. The implementation of modern teaching
     as an increase in the level of knowledge through                        methods based on simulation of emergency situ-
     continuous medical training all represent some                          ations in the multidisciplinary teams of special-
     examples of the major efforts which have already                         ists in the maternity hospital is crucial. The level
     had visible impact. The implementation of Inte-                         of knowledge among women and training about
     grated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)                           the needs and importance of early medical sur-
     and the system of individual evaluation of the                          veillance in case of pregnancy represents a very
     neonatal mortality cases allows for the collection                      important factor, which can reduce the incidence
     of some relevant data for developing effective in-                       of complications and deaths. The improvement
     terventions. Although efforts were undertaken to                         of access for vulnerable groups and the increas-
     implement a mechanism for inter-sector collabo-                         ing quality of family planning services provided
     ration in the medical-social area, the lack of social                   to these groups are also essential in achieving the
     assurance is one of the major factors driving child                     targets set in the MDG 5. These firm actions un-
     mortality cases. Neurodevelopmental surveillance                        dertaken by the authorities and the commitments
     services for children from the high risk groups                         assumed to continue investing in this area provide
     (especially the extremely premature new-borns)                          some optimism for future developments, without
     for neurological disorders, early intervention and                      any major risks. At the same time, the Government

10   The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova
acknowledges that it is impossible to ensure that       The country mechanism for coordinating national
absolutely all deliveries are assisted by medical       programs (the National Coordination Council) has
personnel, and that the maternal mortality rate         both qualitative and comprehensive data to sup-
decreases to zero, because there are causes be-         port the development of efficient policies based
yond the control of the authorities’.                   on epidemiological evidence.

MDG 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and oth-           MDG 7. Ensure a sustainable environment. The
er diseases. None of the targets set for 2010 was       country has made some progress towards reach-
achieved, and it is not possible to reach them by       ing the indicators of the MDG 7, but additional ef-
2015. The fight against socially-conditioned infec-      forts are needed in all areas. Hence, although the
tious diseases – a major health priority – has not      final target related to state protected natural areas
produced any major results, and the near future         (4.65%) was achieved in 2006, nevertheless insuf-
will bring new challenges, because of the finan-         ficient resources are being allocated to develop
cial constraints caused by the revision of financing     management systems, ensure the maintenance
mechanisms and countries’ eligibility conditions        for such areas, and with respect to their protec-
to the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and       tion. The number of forested areas has increased
Malaria (GFATM). Although it is still concentrated      only by 0.2% and the intermediary target (12.1%
in the key groups – injectable drug users, com-         of the country area) was not reached. The share
mercial sex workers, and men having sex with            of the population with access to improved sew-
other men - the HIV/AIDS infection has shown a          erage has increased from 43.3% in 2006 to 56.6%
clear trend towards infection of their partners. The    in 2012 and this has exceeded the intermediary
mode of transmission has changed, in the main           target (50.3%), but the majority of these systems
it is now sexual. The infection has feminised and       are in poor condition. The share of the popula-
has shown a tendency to spread in the rural areas.      tion with permanent access to improved water
The Transnistrian region and the largest cities are     sources has increased, but the intermediary target
leading in HIV prevalence, although the GFATM           was not met. Many water supply systems are not
resources for prevention and treatment measures         functional. The data suggest that it will be difficult
are provided throughout the country. In this re-        to achieve the final targets set by 2015 for all the
spect, the Government collects relevant data for        indicators, except for the state protected natu-
the MDG 6 from the both sides of the River Nistru,      ral areas and the population’s permanent access
including Transnistria, to monitor progress of UN-      to improved water supply. Gaps are qualitatively
GASS across the country. Over the few last years        apparent for all these indicators. In the context of
trends have stabilized for TB-associated mortal-        the MDG 7, the most vulnerable inhabitants are
ity, reflecting a decrease of 29% by 2012 in com-        those who live in from rural communities, who
parison to 2007, a decrease of the DOTS (Directly       have no sanitary infrastructures and no access to
Observed Therapy) treatment drop-outs to 8.5%           improved systems of water and sewerage supply.
and an increase of the success rate up to 62.2% as      The main risks related to these failures are the fol-
compared with the previous years, when the fig-          lowing: environment pollution, the worsening
ures did not exceed of 58%. The success of treat-       health status of the population, land degradation,
ment depends partly on clinical factors, but also       and reduction of agricultural crops’ harvests and
on economic factors and patients’ level of knowl-       farmers’ incomes. The main opportunities to serve
edge about TB and its treatment. TB continues to        as catalysers for achieving the MDG 7 would be:
affect mainly socially vulnerable groups – unem-         better cooperation among the entities working
ployed people, persons with disabilities, home-         in the area of sustainable development, promo-
less people, and persons suffering from alcohol-         tion of deep and active participation of the entire
ism. The main problems identified in fighting HIV         population in environmental protection, foster-
and TB include the rigidity and unattractiveness        ing a green economy, and use of EU experience
of the services provided to patients, service provi-    to streamline environment requirements in eco-
sion which is limited to the big cities, the system’s   nomic development activity.
incapacity to tackle the multifaceted needs of the
sick people, including stigmatization and discrimi-     MDG 8. Create a global partnership for develop-
nation. However, the existence of a consolidated        ment. Moldova has made satisfactory progress, al-
and participatory response of the stakeholders          though not all the relevant indicators have shown
from the civil society, authorities, specialists, and   positive trends. The Republic of Moldova has made
development partners, is a source of optimism.          good progress in building an information society

                                                            The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova   11
(Target 6). Hence, in 2012 the penetration of mo-                       efforts should be intensified and more resources
     bile phones has achieved 114.6%, as compared                            should be granted. These include, health, includ-
     to 37.8% in 2006, while the final target was set at                      ing maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS and TB,
     the level of 75.6%. The penetration rate registered                     and objectives that refer to ensuring environmen-
     for PCs in 2012 was 65% higher than the level                           tal sustainability. There is much to be done for
     achieved in 2006, for the Internet – a level 75%,                       women’s economic and political empowerment.
     with real chances to achieve the targets set for                        Nevertheless, the rural-urban inequality is the
     2015. There is prudent management and control                           red thread which is mainstreamed through all the
     of external debt (Target 3). The unemployment rate                      eight Goals for which Moldova has established
     among youth aged 15-24 years old remains to be a                        development objectives and which represent a
     problem (13.8%), but the reaching the final target                       general challenge for the development policies to
     (10.0%) is possible if the efforts for improving the                     be set for what remains of the MDG period, and for
     investment climate are made. A negative trend was                       the post-2015 period.
     registered for Target 1 “Further develop a transpar-
     ent, predictable and non-discriminatory trade and                       A prospective view on the post-2015 Develop-
     financial system based on rules through promoting                        ment Agenda: people’s expectations for the
     exports and attracting investments”, as it declined                     country’s long-term development, identified
     due to external economic shocks and the internal                        within the national post-2015 consultation cam-
     problems encountered by the business environ-                           paign “The Future Moldova Wants” (supported
     ment. The Government is dedicated to allocate                           by UN Moldova ), refer to the following areas: 1)
     more resources to attract strategic investors in the                    economic development (education, jobs, sustain-
     economic sectors with a potential to generate jobs                      able economic growth), 2) social development (a
     and extend the networks of local suppliers, and for                     more inclusive, tolerant and solidary society) and
     harnessing fully the new opportunities provided                         3) environment and health. The good governance
     by the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area                           and human rights were identified by the consulta-
     which will be established as part of the Association                    tion participants as a central priority, which, in a
     Agreement signed with the European Union.                               way, unify those three specific areas. At the same
                                                                             time, the decrease in rural-urban discrepancies,
     MDG: a finalised agenda or not yet? The Repub-                           which are manifested by inequality of incomes
     lic of Moldova has successfully reached several                         and opportunities, by educational performance
     of the objectives set at the beginning of the new                       gaps, as well as gaps in attitudes and values, has
     millennium: absolute and extreme poverty has                            become be the fifth major development priority.
     decreased, access to preschool education has                            People’s expectations are reflected in the official
     improved, and success was achieved in women’s                           long-term development vision expressed in the
     political representation at the local public admin-                     National Development Strategy “Moldova 2020:
     istration level. The health condition of infants and                    seven solutions for economic growth and poverty
     under-5 children has improved significantly. Sev-                        reduction”. The seven identified solutions are: 1)
     eral recent surveys suggest that the situation has                      education relevant for a career (focusing on voca-
     also improved in relation to enrolment in com-                          tional and technical education); 2) roads in good
     pulsory education of the Republic of Moldova.                           condition, anywhere; 3) cheap and affordable fi-
     On the other hand, it cannot be ascertained that                        nancing; 4) business with clear rules of the game;
     development efforts have achieved the set goals                          5) an equitable and sustainable pension system;
     and brought benefits to all people, as a number                          6) safely delivered and efficiently used energy; 7)
     of critical drawbacks still remain, for which policy                    responsible and incorruptible justice system.

12   The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova
MDGs AND TRANSCENDING DEVELOPMENT
      CHALLENGES AT A GLANCE

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24   The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova
INTRODUCTION
In 2000, together with other 189 countries, Moldo-                                                    The Report follows a simple and reader-friendly
va signed the Millennium Declaration adopted at                                                       structure, which aims to promote MDGs and to
the Millennium Summit from New York. Hence, it                                                        inform the wider national and international audi-
committed to contribute to the accomplishment                                                         ence. The first chapter of the Report takes an over-
of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG).                                                          view of the most important internal and global
Those eight goals, revised and adjusted to the na-                                                    factors influencing the national development
tional development priorities, are the following:                                                     policies and processes.
          Eradicate poverty and hunger;                                                               Eight chapters follow per each MDG, highlighting
          Achieve universal access to general                                                         the main trends over the recent period of time, as-
          compulsory education;                                                                       sessing the quality of the achieved progress, and
          Promote gender equality and empowering
                                                                                                      identifying the main constraints and opportuni-
          women;                                                                                      ties that could serve to “speed up” the MDGs.

          Reduce child mortality;                                                                     The tenth chapter refers to the “unfinished agen-
                                                                                                      da”, offering a brief feasibility study on MDGs’ and
          Improve maternal health;
                                                                                                      what they will have achieved by 2015, identify-
          Combat HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis;                                                           ing systemic causes which need to be addressed
          Ensure environmental sustainability;                                                        to maintain the same pace of development. This
                                                                                                      chapter seeks to highlight a way to escape the
          Develop a global partnership for development.                                               vicious cycle of under development and how to
The first National Report on progress towards                                                          avoid multidimensional poverty traps, by looking
reaching the MDGs was developed in 2004. Three                                                        at the interrelationship between the MDGs.
years later, in 2007, after a progress analysis and                                                   The last chapter of the Report tries to answer the
organizing a number of consultation sessions                                                          following question “what will follow after 2015?”,
with civil society and country’s development part-                                                    elucidating the main results of the post-2015 na-
ners, many of the objectives were revised. The                                                        tional consultations “The Future Moldova Wants”,
second National Report related to MDG progress                                                        carried out with the support of the United Nations
was developed in 2010. This document is the third                                                     Development Programme in Moldova, and it seeks
National Report used by the Government of the                                                         to corroborate these results with the Moldovan
Republic of Moldova to assess honestly and objec-                                                     Government’s vision for the country’s long-term
tively the progress made in fulfilling the Millenni-                                                   development.
um Development Goals from 2010-2013, to iden-
tify the problems encountered by the country, and                                                     Due to the lack of statistical data and comparabil-
to outline the eventual solutions and available op-                                                   ity problems regarding the data on social and eco-
tions to accelerate the positive evolutions and to                                                    nomic life in the Transnistrian region, the authors
reverse the negative ones. At the same time, the                                                      have mainly sought to analyse developments in
third National Report also aims to provide a view                                                     the Republic of Moldova regions from the right
beyond the 2015 timeline, so as to identify the pri-                                                  side of the River Nistru, except for the MDG 6,
orities that will remain on the national develop-                                                     where the data reflects the situation on both sides
ment agenda.                                                                                          of the River Nistru1.

  1
    The monitoring of the developments occurred in the Transnistrian region for the given MDG is motivated by the existence of comparable data, due to the cooperation between the
  institutions from Chisinau and Tiraspol, as well as due to the externalities induced by HIV/AIDS and TB on the population on the both sides of the River Nistru. At the same time, it should be
  pointed out that the dynamics of the indicators monitored within the MDG 6 cannot be used for assessing the performance in relation to the MDGs’ fulfilment in the Transnistrian region.

                                                                                                             The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova                  25
NATIONAL CONTEXT:
               GLOBAL TURBULENCE AND
                INTERNAL CHALLENGES
     Political framework                                                     Government, European Integration: FREEDOM,
                                                                             DEMOCRACY, WELLBEING 2013-2014 targets three
     European integration is the strategic path that                         essential goals: ensuring the irreversibility of the
     the Moldovan Government has chosen as the                               European integration process, creating new well-
     most compatible with its desire for long-term                           paid jobs, and preventing and combating corrup-
     economic growth, and its social, and democratic                         tion.
     development priorities. Thus, Moldova seeks to
     ensure a higher level of living standards for all                       A long-term development vision is expressed
     the citizens, through modernization of infrastruc-                      in the National Development Strategy “Moldova
     ture, improving public services, and increasing                         2020: seven solutions for economic growth and
     economic opportunities in urban and rural areas.                        poverty reduction”2, which served as basis for the
     Deeper European integration and the harmoni-                            Government Activity Program and a series of sec-
     sation of key aspects of national legislation with                      tor strategies. The seven solutions identified in
     European standards have already yielded visible                         “Moldova 2020” actually represent horizontal in-
     results. Thus, new economic branches emerged as                         tervention priorities, which it is hoped will benefit
     a result of investments made by European compa-                         all the sectors of the economy equally, all social
     nies who are now present in the Moldovan econ-                          groups, and every person. These solutions include:
     omy. The Government also adopted fundamental                            1) education relevant for a career (focusing on vo-
     human rights legislation, to ensure the non-dis-                        cational and technical education); 2) roads in good
     crimination, tolerance, and mutual respect prin-                        condition, anywhere; 3) cheap and affordable fi-
     ciples.                                                                 nancing; 4) business with clear rules of the game;
                                                                             5) an equitable and sustainable pension system;
     The unsettled Transnistrian conflict is an essen-                        6) safely delivered and efficiently used energy; 7)
     tial factor hindering the development on the right                      responsible and incorruptible justice system.
     and the left sides of the River Nistru. The conflict
     impedes human and economic contacts, magni-                             The low level of revenues has also resulted in a
     fies country risks and external financings costs, re-                     limited flow of public resources for public expen-
     duces Moldova’s attractiveness as a destination for                     diture to implement development policies and
     investment and as a place to live place for people                      projects. This weakness is magnified by the ex-
     from other countries, and creates a background                          tended informal economy with untaxed incomes
     of permanent stress, which impedes the ability of                       and consumption. According to some estimates,
     the authorities to focusing on long-term develop-                       the share of the informal economy accounts for
     ment agenda. At the same time, the Transnistrian                        about 45% of the official one (Schneider, Buehn
     region represents a high risk zone in relation to                       and Montenegro, 2010), creating a high degree of
     the development goals and targets referring to                          dependency on external support.
     HIV / AIDS, which is the only target measured in
     this report.                                                            Social and demographic factors
     Governance                                                              After a decade of negative natural population
                                                                             growth, in 2011-2012 the Republic of Moldova
     In comparison with 2000, when the MDGs were                             registered zero natural population growth, as a
     adopted as a guide to policy, the current gover-                        product of an increased birth rate and decreased
     nance agenda encompasses a wider and more                               death rate. The disaggregated indicator reflects a
     comprehensive vision of development. Hence,                             worsening situation in the rural areas in compari-
     the Activity Program of the Republic of Moldova                         son with urban areas: in 2008-2012, the average

         2
             Approved by Law No. 166 dated July 11, 2012.

26   The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova
birth rate in urban areas accounted for 9.96 per                                                  2012 they were lower by 33%. This inequality also
1000 population and the death rate – for 8.84 per                                                 reflects visible differences registered in the quality
1000 population; while in the rural areas, during                                                 of life: in urban areas, income exceeds the calcu-
the same period of time, a higher birth rate (12.02                                               lated minimum subsistence level by 15%, while
per 1000 population) was accompanied by a high-                                                   in villages – the average income is 13% under the
er death rate (13.54 per 1000 population). The dif-                                               average subsistence level.
ference in attitudes towards health, lifestyle and
food, as well as the unequal access to health care                                                A key factor explaining the increasing gap in em-
services are the main causes of an increasing rural-                                              ployment opportunities is the level of develop-
urban gap.                                                                                        ment of the private sector. Moldovan villages are
                                                                                                  highly dependent on agriculture (employing half
The alarming demographic situation in the rural                                                   of the rural population); the main alternative to
areas is even worse when emigration is taken                                                      employment in the agricultural sector is employ-
into account
     account, which represents a real population                                                  ment in the public sector (21%). But the agricul-
drain for villages. Data from the National Bureau                                                 tural sector is extremely feeble: in 2000-2012, the
of Statistics suggest that about 7% of urban stable                                               gross value added (GVA) generated by the agri-
population aged 15 years old and over has left                                                    cultural sector increased on average only by 2.6%
abroad for work in 2012, while for rural area – this                                              annually, while the GVA generated by the non-ag-
indicator was double that, at 14%.                                                                ricultural economic sector increased by 5%3. In the
                                                                                                  same period of time, the volatility of agricultural
The intense migration of labour represents a key                                                  production was ten times higher than that for the
constraint for regions’ and local community’ de-                                                  non-agricultural production4.
velopment. Although, in short term, emigration
contributes to poverty reduction, over the longer
term, it erodes – human capital – which could be
                                                                                                  Global factors
used for the sustainability development of Moldo-                                                 Climate change is a key factor reducing the im-
van communities and regions, and of the country                                                   pact of Government’s anti-poverty policies, espe-
as a whole (UN Moldova, 2013). Emigration has                                                     cially in rural areas. Increasingly frequent periods
caused a significant depopulation of many rural                                                    of drought are a consequence of global warming
communities, generating innovative policy chal-                                                   and may generate problems related to accessibil-
lenges for the Republic of Moldova.                                                               ity of food products and forage for animals, as the
                                                                                                  drought in 2007 demonstrated. About 90% of the
Economic situation                                                                                country’s territory and 80% of the rural popula-
                                                                                                  tion dependent on agriculture were affected by
During 2010-2012, economic growth in Moldova                                                      poor harvests. Much of the rural population lost
was rather rapid with an annual average GDP                                                       their savings and income and the total losses ac-
growth rate of 4.6%. However, growth was vola-                                                    counted to 1 billion USD, according to the official
tile and jobless, reflecting the wider vulnerability                                               estimates (UNDP Moldova, 2009, p. 85). Along-
of the economy to external and climate shocks.                                                    side the decrease in remittances, the drought was
Official statistical data showed that the percent-                                                  the major cause for poverty in 2007 (MEc, 2009).
age of the population employed in the Moldovan                                                    In 2012 the country witnessed a severe drought
economy in 2012 was 25% lower than the number                                                     again, accompanied by a dramatic decrease in ag-
registered in 2000. Again a large rural-urban gap                                                 ricultural productivity. And again, the small and
is apparent: in this period, the share of urban em-                                               medium producers represented the group that
ployed population decreased by 4%, while the ru-                                                  has suffered the most as a result of this drought
ral employed population decreased by 37%, with                                                    (MAFI, August 2012, p.24).
no signs of recovery sign.
                                                                                                  The global economic crisis from 2009 revealed
This rural-urban inequality in employment op-                                                     the extreme vulnerability of the country and the
portunities is reflected in sharp income inequality                                                fragile nature of an economy based on emigration.
throughout the country. If during 2006-2007, the                                                  As an immediate effect, the crisis resulted in a de-
average incomes of the rural population were 25%                                                  crease in exports, remittances, and foreign direct
lower than those for urban population, in 2011-                                                   investments. If exports and remittances recovered

  3
    In this report, the non-agricultural economic sector was defined as the amount of all the economic activities identified in the National Classifier of Economic Activities with the codes
  from C (mining industry) to K (real estate transactions, rent activities, and services provided to enterprises) and does not include public administration and services (codes L-O).
  4
      Measured as a standard average deviation for the GVA increase rates.

                                                                                                          The Third Report on Millennium Development Goals. Republic of Moldova              27
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