DND photo

            A pair of CH-146 Griffon helicopters caught by the camera during a mountain exercise.

                                                     by Lieutenant-General Ken Pennie

                         ransforming Canada’s air force is about                  Background
                         building the right air force for the Canada
                         of the future and for the world of
                         tomorrow – an air force that can effectively
                         contribute to the security of Canada and
                                                                                  T    he air force has used strategic visioning as a tool since
                                                                                       the 1980s. Air Command’s future trends analysis Project
                                                                                  2010 – A Flight Plan for the Future, published in June 1985,
            of which Canadians can be proud. The air force is                     and the ambitious Project 2020 – A Flight Plan for Change
            at a critical time in its evolution, somewhat fragile                 are examples of this visioning. The latter was a long-term
            after having been incrementally reduced by half since                 futures study of the needs and capabilities for air power over
            the end of the Cold War. In fact, as we have halved                   the course of the next 25 years. It was divided into three
            our strength, we have only reduced our infrastructure                 phases to be completed over three years; the third phase
            by 20 percent, leaving a stretched force struggling                   would in essence have been a transformation document. The
            with a ‘sustainability gap.’ Yet, notwithstanding today’s             study was, however, superseded by the 1994 White Paper and
            stresses, there is a determination to address the tough               the consequent series of budget cuts that have led us to our
            choices that must be made to meet the challenges                      fragile state today. No similar strategic level guidance was
            of the future international security environment. The                 produced until the publication of Strategy 2020 in 1999
            air force is poised to move forward on its recently                   prompted the Directorate of Air Strategic Plans (DASP) to
            released vision: to transform itself into a 21st Century              produce a discussion paper entitled Vectors 2020: An Air
            aerospace force that is relevant in domestic and global               Force Strategic Assessment. Its purpose was to provide ‘a
            operations. That vision and the path towards the future               series of signposts about air operations in 2020 so as to assist
            are described in two documents entitled Strategic Vectors             us in developing the air force of the future.’1 Draft strategic
            and the Aerospace Capability Framework. This article                  papers followed in 2002 and 2003: Strategic Vectors, the
            explains this vision, examining some of the key concepts
            and assumptions that underlie it, as well as the vectors
            by which we hope to achieve that vision.                              Lieutenant-General Ken Pennie is Chief of the Air Staff.

            Winter 2004 – 2005          ●   Canadian Military Journal                                                                        39
DND photo TNC91-897-12

                         Two CC-130 Hercules at work in a low-level tactical environment.

                              strategic vision and transformation strategy, and the          restructuring or re-equipping of Canada’s military forces,
                              Aerospace Capability Framework, the strategic plan.            but instead will blend existing structures and systems
                              An historical overview entitled Canada’s Air Force – A Vital   with emerging ones to create significantly enhanced
                              National Security Institution will soon be published.          capabilities relevant to future missions, roles and tasks.’
                                                                                             This definition guides air force transformation. The
                                   Strategic visioning is not unique to Canada’s air         ultimate goal of our transformation, and that of our allies,
                              force. From the mid-1990s, the USAF has been                   is to create significantly enhanced capabilities that
                              committed to long-range visioning and planning, which          contribute effectively to the ‘joint fight.’4
                              were influenced by both transitions in leadership and
                              doubts raised by these processes regarding the USAF’s          Strategic Vision
                              definition of itself and its core activities. 2 The USAF’s
                              initial visioning processes defined the future in terms
                              of end states – some forty-two – to be achieved
                              within the time frame of the 2000-25 planning horizon.
                                                                                             T    he air force’s strategic path to transformation is laid
                                                                                                  out in two documents. Canada’s Air Force: A Vital
                                                                                             National Security Institution describes the air force
                              Since then, the USAF vision has changed, and continues         of today, an organization halved by post-Cold War
                              to evolve, but the process itself is well-enshrined.           budget cuts, but with double the personnel involved
                                                                                             in operations. Strategic Vectors outlines the vision of,
                                   At its root, strategic visioning is a means to an end,    and the strategy for, the long term transformation
                              and that end is to provide the best possible air force         of Canada’s air force in congruence with the vision
                              to the Canadian Forces (CF). To do this requires               articulated in the Department of National Defence’s
                              transformation. In 2004, is there any service in any           strategic framework document, Defence Strategy 2020.
                              country that does not claim it is transforming?                This document maps out a strategic framework for
                              Transformation has become au courant as the latest             the CF to guide defence planning for the years ahead.
                              paradigm to adapt armed forces to the post-Cold War            The aim is to provide Canada with modern, task-tailored
                              world. What does it mean? The Department of National           and globally deployable combat-capable forces that
                              Defence (DND) defines transformation as a ‘process             can respond quickly to crises at home and abroad,
                              of strategic re-orientation in response to anticipated         in joint or combined operations. This strategy
                              or tangible change to the security environment,                acknowledges that building operationally effective
                              designed to shape a nation’s armed forces to ensure            forces is a long-term activity, and states that the
                              their continued effectiveness and relevance.’ 3 The            development of military capabilities requires lead times
                              Department has set limits to this definition by stating        of up to two decades. 5 Strategic Vectors is built upon
                              that ‘transformation does not, however, seek the complete      this foundation.

                              40                                                             Canadian Military Journal        ●   Winter 2004 – 2005
     Strategic Vectors assesses the current security
environment, describes Canada’s current aerospace
capabilities, and articulates the guiding vision, mission
and attributes of the future aerospace force. The intent
is to transform the air force from a primarily static
platform-focused organization into an expeditionary,
network-enabled, capability-based and results focused
Aerospace Force. Its mission is the control and exploitation
of the aerospace environment wherever needed to
contribute to Canadian security and national objectives. The
Aerospace Capability Framework provides the first short to
medium-term blueprint to achieve that vision of a
future aerospace force. It will be updated on a regular
basis. The next iteration will follow the release of the
Defence Policy Review.

      What is an aerospace force? The term aerospace means
air and space, an extension of the ‘third dimension’ of
warfare brought on by technological advances. It is used to
define the environment that surrounds the Earth and extends
vertically into space from the Earth’s surface. The term                The attributes of the future aerospace force flow from
has been in doctrinal use for at least two decades, but we        that mission statement. This force will be built on the
use it deliberately to underscore the increasingly important      assumption that our mission comes first, but we recognize
role that space will play in future operations. It also           that people are our foundation and future. This notion of
emphasizes the indivisibility of air and space, considering       ‘service before self’ comes from our military ethos, described
them, as other writers have noted, as a ‘single region’ in that   in the Canadian Forces Leadership Institute’s publication
the space capabilities will primarily support air operations.6    Duty with Honour as the foundation upon which the
By using the term aerospace, we do not envisage or suggest        legitimacy, effectiveness and honour of the CF depend. 10
the weaponization of space, but rather the exploitation           The first mission theme is to be combat-capable for
of potential for improving communications, navigation,            future operations. The fundamental and most demanding role
surveillance and warning, environmental monitoring,               for the air force is to generate, apply and sustain aerospace
intelligence and reconnaissance activities. While there are       power in combat operations – domestically in defence
differences between the physical environments of space and        of the nation, or abroad alongside allies or coalition partners.
air, they will be treated as one dimension.7 The definition of    While aircraft and equipment acquired for combat can
aerospace power flows from this definition of an aerospace        generally be used to execute peacetime roles, aircraft and
force – it involves the full range of a nation’s aerospace        equipment acquired for purely peacetime roles often have
capability – military and civilian – in peace as well as war.8    little if any value in combat. Combat-capability, therefore,
While the definitions and theories of aerospace power             should form the basis of other capabilities. The second
are sensitive to technological change, and the wide range         mission theme is to be relevant for future operations through
of operations for which aerospace forces are used, almost         the acquisition of meaningful and sustainable forces capable
all theorists have noted that a definition of aerospace           of being employed across a spectrum of operations and
power ‘must include more than just machines.’9                    conflict. The third mission theme is to be responsive,
                                                                  building on the strengths of air forces, such as readiness and
The Mission                                                       speed. This speed confers an advantage since many targets
                                                                  will need to be attacked more quickly in future operations.

C    anada’s aerospace force of the future will be built
     on the characteristics that have allowed the air force
to effectively discharge its responsibilities for many decades.
                                                                  The fourth mission theme is to become expeditionary.
                                                                  This means having sustainable reach and power appropriate
                                                                  to national and global responsibilities.
That is, it will remain: A force based on excellence and
professionalism, equipped, trained and ready to prevail in            The fifth mission theme is to be interoperable and
combat, with the reach and power to contribute effectively to     networked to enable greater effectiveness in operations.
national and international security. While transforming our       To contribute effectively to the security of Canada and its
air force, we believe that our mission also                                        people requires that we continue to enhance
needs to be transformed to better reflect                                          our interoperability with our allies, sister
what we deliver to the CF and to the                “At its root, strategic        services and security partners. Continental
people of Canada. We believe that our               visioning is a means           security has been considered ‘indivisible’
new mission statement does so: To                                                  since the Ogdensburg Agreement of 1940.
                                                   to an end, and that end
control and exploit the aerospace                                                  In a post-9/11 environment, the need for a
environment for military purposes that              is to provide the best         robust security and defence posture is
contribute to Canadians’ security and               possible Air Force to          more apparent then ever. As a partner in
national objectives.                                                               the North American Aerospace Defence
                                                  the Canadian Forces.”

Winter 2004 – 2005        ●   Canadian Military Journal                                                                      41
Command (NORAD), our air force will remain interoperable                • Multi-Skilled and Well Educated People
                              with the United States Air Force (USAF). Domestically,
                                                                                                      • Expanded Strategic Partnerships
                              joint and inter-agency operations will become increasingly
                              necessary to ensure the security of Canada and its people.              • Improved Resource Stewardship
                              Abroad, we will need to be interoperable with our
                              NATO allies and coalition forces. Equipment, doctrine                        These eight guiding strategic vectors describe the
                              and planning must take into account interoperability                    areas in which the air force will focus its efforts to
                              requirements with the United States and those of other                  move towards its transformational goals. Vectors One
                              allied partners.                                                        through Three emphasize the acquisition of an aerospace
                                                                                                      force focused on a results-based operational capability,
                                   None of the preceding mission themes can be                        with combat capability as the basis for other capabilities,
                              prosecuted without our people. They are our foundation                  with expeditionary reach and power, responsiveness in
                              and future. The air force team comprises Regular and                    operations and the interoperability to work with our
                              Reserve personnel of the CF and the air force,                          allies, sister services and other security partners on this
                              and civilian members of DND. The air force family                       continent and abroad.
                              also includes spouses, families and other support agencies.
                              The core characteristics of the air force are: competent,                   Results-based operational capability means acquiring
                              effective and ethical leadership; professionalism at                    the capabilities needed to keep Canadians secure and
                              all levels; and the pursuit and achievement of operational              to protect national interests abroad. At home, this entails
                              excellence. Air force personnel must be morally,                        the defence of Canadians as well as Canada’s sovereignty
                              physically and intellectually fit for combat operations,                and national resources. We will emphasize results
                              disciplined and committed to the primacy of operations.                 through domestic missions that protect sovereignty, protect
                                                                                                      Canadians, protect Canadian resources and defend
                              Strategic Vectors                                                       Canada. Abroad, these results-based capabilities must
                                                                                                      enable the air force to protect, and, when necessary,

                              T    he general courses (vectors) that the air force will take,
                                   at a strategic level, to transform are:
                                                                                                      defend national interests.

                                                                                                           To achieve these results, we will continue to acquire
                              • Results-Focused Operational Capability                                and improve the aerospace surveillance capabilities
                                                                                                      needed to monitor, detect, and identify unauthorized
                              • Responsive Expeditionary Capability
                                                                                                      and unwanted activity in, and approaching, Canada’s
                              • Transparent Interoperability                                          airspace and maritime areas. We will also pursue the
                                                                                                      acquisition and improvement of active control capabilities
                              • Transforming Aerospace Capabilities
                                                                                                      agile enough to respond effectively to a broad range
                              • Transformation-Enabling Leadership                                    of potential and emerging threats, including cruise missiles.
DND photo TNC93-1081-1

                         A CC-150 Polaris cruising at altitude on a United Nations mission tasking.

                              42                                                                      Canadian Military Journal         ●   Winter 2004 – 2005
We will explore new relationships with                                                   Operational interoperability will be
our navy, aimed at adopting a more                     “Results-based               achieved through the pursuit of specific
holistic approach to aerospace and                 operational capability           measures to ensure that we acquire the
maritime surveillance and control. We                                               capabilities to operate effectively with
                                                      means acquiring
will engage with the army and navy on                                               the armed forces of the United States,
aerospace power capabilities that could           the capabilities needed           alliance and coalition partners, our army
meet their requirements more effectively             to keep Canadians              and navy, as well as other government
and efficiently. We will identify and                                               departments and agencies. We will
                                                   secure and to protect
apply lessons from the recent use of                                                improve interoperability with the US
aerospace power worldwide to guide the                national interests            military through participation in bi-national
acquisition of future precise targeting                     abroad.”                exercises and war games, personnel
and weapons systems, the objective of                                               exchange and training programs, cross
which is to help achieve decisive effects                                           border squadron deployments, and
while minimizing casualties and collateral damage.               Distributed Mission Operations (DMOs), in which simulators
Recent operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, for example,          and training devices are linked from different locations. In
suggest both the promise and level of expectations               addition, to achieve operational interoperability we must be
that accompany the technological strides and improvements        able to communicate securely and with some degree of
in aerospace intelligence gathering tools.11                     assurance, to share information and awareness by data link to
                                                                 avoid fratricide and, in the case of offensive platforms, to be
      We must keep pace with these developments to               capable of precisely delivering munitions from the air.
effectively contribute to coalition operations. We will          To enable this interoperability, the air force will acquire
also apply lessons that have confirmed the need to move          systems such as the Link 16 data link systems, used by many
to increasingly network-enabled and effects-based                allied air and naval forces to share data, enhance situational
operations, especially for time-sensitive targeting to           awareness and assist in the designation of targets and the
significantly improve our effectiveness in all our               delivery of weapons. We will also need to acquire combat
operations. Operations in Iraq demonstrated that the             identification systems that effectively distinguish between
increasing accuracy and lethality of precision weapons           friendly and adversary forces. In addition to improving
systems is dependent upon the full use of information            interoperability, these systems are necessary to contribute
processing technology for real-time intelligence. We will        effectively in network-enabled joint operations.
continue to contribute to the operations of other government
departments for such things as emergency and disaster                 Interoperability extends beyond the need to work
relief, environmental monitoring and humanitarian                with other environments and coalition partners. The demands
assistance. We will explore more effective ways of               of the new security environment and the National Security
conducting air mobility operations and domestic search and       Policy make it imperative that equipment, doctrine and
rescue, and the best means of acquiring these capabilities.      planning take into account requirements to work with other
                                                                 government departments and agencies, international
      Becoming expeditionary is one of the keys to               aid agencies and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).14
providing security to Canadians, both at home and                We will also explore new training opportunities with the
abroad. Expeditionary capabilities are relevant to the security  army and the navy, including synthetic environment training,
and assertion of sovereignty in a country the size of            to ensure our command, control, and communications
Canada, and are important for deployments abroad. 12 By          systems are interoperable, and to improve our ability to
expeditionary we mean being able to respond swiftly and          operate jointly.
effectively to challenges at home and abroad by being
globally deployable, supportable and sustainable. This is a           Vectors Four through Six focus on the acquisition and
concept that is evolving in most air forces as they transform    integration of transformational technologies, as well as the
to meet the needs of the new security environment. 13            education and development of forward- thinking leadership
Canada’s air force will create tactical self-sufficient units of and personnel who can exploit this technology in order to
aerospace capability, called Air Expeditionary Units (AEUs).     enhance the conduct of current operations and plan for the
These units will be designed with integral military air          future. The transformation of aerospace power capabilities
maintenance, command, control and support elements.              will require changes in concepts of operations, capabilities,
Our air force support capability will be re-designed so that it  training and doctrine. How do we intend to do this?
becomes aligned to this revised operational force structure.     A Canadian Forces Aerospace Warfare Centre (CFAWC) is
The air force will be able to operate and sustain forces from    being formed to explore future joint aerospace power
deployed locations within Canada and around the globe,           concepts and guide experimentation activities to contribute to
including unprepared locations. The air force will continue      transformation. This centre will become the focal point and
to require access to inter-theatre and intra-theatre lift,       ‘brain trust’ of aerospace operations excellence in areas such
as well as an air-to-air refuelling capability. Specifically,    as the rehearsal of synthetic missions, the identification and
two CC 150 Polaris aircraft are being reconfigured to restore    application of lessons learned from actual operations,
our strategic air-to-air refuelling capability. Studies are      the development of and experimentation with various
currently underway to determine how best to meet the future      concepts, and the development of tactics, countermeasures
airlift requirements for the CF.                                 and doctrine.

Winter 2004 – 2005        ●   Canadian Military Journal                                                                     43
force has designated an Aerospace
                                                                                                                        Doctrine       Authority    (ADA),
                                                                                                                        supported by an Aerospace
                                                                                                                        Doctrine Committee (ADC). To
                                                                                                                        facilitate doctrine development, the
                                                                                                                        air force will establish Capability
                                                                                                                        Advisory Groups (CAGs) to
                                                                                                                        replace the Community Advisory
                                                                                                                        Groups that currently provide
                                                                                                                        advice on the fighter, maritime
                                                                                                                        air,     tactical    aviation,   air
                                                                                                                        mobility, training, air reserve and
                                                                                                                        aerospace control ‘communities’
                                                                                                                        of the air force.

                                                                                                                               Preparing for the future is
DND photo BNC94-7799-50

                                                                                                                          an important responsibility of
                                                                                                                          the air force. Its leadership
                                                                                                                          has embraced this stewardship
                                                                                                                          responsibility and will increase
                                                                                                                          the level of effort with which it
                                                                                                                          is discharged. We are committed
                                                                                                                          to the long-term goals as
                          Groundcrew servicing a CF-18 Hornet.
                                                                                                                          described above and to ensuring
                                                                                                                          that the air force remains
                                    To transform capabilities, the air force will             capable of effectively contributing to the security of
                               continuously exploit new technology to realize significant     Canadians. To achieve this, we intend to enable leadership
                               capability enhancements. The Aerospace Capability              to take full advantage of new technologies: we will
                               Framework contains a list of science and technology            nurture competent, effective, and ethical leadership
                               priorities that will be updated on a regular basis. For        to effectively conduct operations now and to take us into
                               example, the Uninhabited Air Vehicle (UAV) is a                the future. As one recent study suggested:
                               technological area that is currently being assessed for
                               the contributions it can make to aerospace power                   The militaries that meet with the greatest success
                               capabilities. Recent experiments on the west and east              in future armed conflict will be those that can
                               coasts have demonstrated both operational advantages               undertake rapid organizational and conceptual
                               and practical limitations. Further analytical work is              adaptation. Successful state militaries must
                               being undertaken to build on the experience gained through         institutionalize procedures for what might be called
                               these experiments.                                                 ‘strategic entrepreneurship’ – the ability to rapidly
                                                                                                  identify and understand significant changes in
                                    To transform training, the air force will create a            the strategic environment and form appropriate
                               distributed synthetic environment for flying training              organizations and concepts.16
                               and the rehearsal of operational missions. This environment
                               will be used for experimentation, concept development,              To acquire the breadth and depth of knowledge
                               requirements definition, acquisition, and operational          required to develop and employ aerospace power
                               test and evaluation. The capability will not replace           effectively across a spectrum of activity and conflict,
                               first-hand spatial and temporal experiences, such as           air force leaders need to be provided with a range of
                               flying, but will complement existing capabilities so that      experiences and professional development over the course
                               overall effectiveness and efficiency are enhanced.             of their careers. The leaders who acquire this complete
                               The air force will also create, in conjunction with            understanding of aerospace power will become the
                               broader CF efforts, a distance and ‘e-learning’ environment    thinkers, leaders and visionaries that the Chief of
                               to facilitate the professional development of air force        the Defence Staff (CDS) has described as the foundation
                               personnel who are unable to attend centralized training and    that will give the CF future operational advantage.17
                               educational programmes.
                                                                                                   Leadership is only one part of the equation.
                                   The air force will also promulgate new aerospace           Transformation will rely heavily on well-educated,
                               doctrine to replace its earlier publication, Out of the Sun,   informed and ethical personnel at all rank levels, skilled
                               while continuing to promote aerospace power theory             in exploiting new aerospace capabilities. To discharge
                               and operational experience as the cornerstones. This new       their responsibilities effectively, air force personnel must
                               doctrine will contain transformational concepts on the         understand aerospace power in all its forms: what an air
                               generation and employment of aerospace power.15 To improve     force generally does and why it does it; the role of
                               production of, and control over, such doctrine, the air        Canada’s air force; how and why our air force has evolved as

                               44                                                             Canadian Military Journal         ●   Winter 2004 – 2005
                                                                                                                 it has done; and how                   Vectors Seven and Eight will guide the management
                                                                                    “Transformation              aerospace power can be            of expectations and resources, engaging Canadians through
                                                                                   will rely heavily on          used to best effect, now          better communication and effective resource stewardship.
                                                                                                                 and in the future. This           The air force does not exist in a vacuum. The Department’s
                                                                                                                 understanding will be             strategy identifies engaging Canadians as a critical activity
                                                                                 informed and ethical            achieved in part through          of the future CF. 18 The air force needs to publicize the
                                                                                    personnel at all             instruction,    but     the       wide range of activities it undertakes for Canadians. The
                                                                                                                 emphasis will be on the           documents described in this article are examples of how
                                                                                  rank levels, capable
                                                                                                                 in-depth     understanding        the air force intends to actively engage citizens, business
                                                                                   of exploiting new             gained through first-hand         leaders and politicians in understanding how the formation
                                                                                        aerospace                operational experience and        contributes to Canada’s security and objectives.
                                                                                                                 professional development.
                                                                                                                 To this end, the air force             An important component of this engagement is
                                                                                                                 will expose a greater             the recognition that the air force has been entrusted with
                                                                                 number of personnel to operations through its                     national resources and will continue to find increasingly
                                                                                 expeditionary focus and increase its emphasis on                  efficient ways to manage those resources. Transformation
                                                                                 an aerospace power education for all of its personnel.            takes time, and requires resources and trade-offs. The
                                                                                 This builds on the goals initiated over the last decade           costs and benefits of the investments need to be clearly
                                                                                 of having multi-skilled professionals in order to                 prioritized, explained and understood. To that end, we will
                                                                                 provide personnel flexibility in a contemporary,                  create and incorporate a results-based resource allocation
                                                                                 professional air force, where it makes sense. To facilitate       and strategic planning framework that will link defence
                                                                                 further efficiencies and synergy, air force professional          policy, defence tasks, and air force activity, outputs and
                                                                                 development and non-flying training units should                  outcomes. This framework will be introduced concomitant
                                                                                 be consolidated geographically, to the greatest extent            with a new performance management framework, of
                                                                                 possible.                                                         which performance measurement is a part.
D N D p h o t o I S 2 0 0 4 - 2 0 11 a b y S e r g e a n t F r a n k H u d e c

                                                                                 Canadian Forces Hercules pilot, Captain Emmanual Belanger, checks his approach prior to landing at Touissant L’Ouvertur Airport in
                                                                                 Port-au-Prince, Haïti in February 2004.

                                                                                 Winter 2004 – 2005        ●   Canadian Military Journal                                                                       45
Summary                                                                            security. The successful implementation of this strategic
                                                                                   intent will result in an aerospace force capable of
                                                                                   effectively contributing to homeland security, and one
T    he need to transform into a relevant 21st Century
     aerospace force is at the core of the air force
strategic vision. While clearly the present sustainability
                                                                                   that is transformed in its ability to apply capabilities
                                                                                   throughout the world in support of national objectives.
issue must be addressed before we can completely                                   This aerospace force will be a vital national security
transform – and we are working hard on this – there                                institution, instrument of national policy, and element
is also much that we can do with the resources that                                of national power, which – in conjunction with the
we currently have. In spite of the ‘sustainability gap’                            army and the navy – will be capable of contributing
challenge, we are actively pursuing a number of                                    effectively to the security of Canadians and the
initiatives that will ultimately result in a transformed                           protection of Canadian security interests, well into
air force. We will continue to be a force based on                                 the 21st Century.
excellence and professionalism, equipped, trained
and ready to prevail in combat, with the reach and
power to contribute effectively to national and international


1.   Vectors 2020: An Air Force Strategic             7.    For debate in the US on this issue, see Barzelay   12.   Thierry Gongora, “The Meaning of Expeditionary
     Assessment (Ottawa: Department of National             and Campbell, pp. 182-89.                                Operations from an Air Force Perspective,” Allan
     Defence, 2000), p. 1.                            8.    David MacIssac suggests this is the                      D. English, ed., Canadian Expeditionary Air
2.   A 2003 Brookings Institute study analyzes              logical, if rarely used, definition of air               Forces. (Winnipeg: Centre for Defence and
     the growth and evolution of the process                power. “Voices from the Central Blue:                    Security Studies, 2002), pp.21, 30.
     with the United States Air Force (USAF).               The Air Power Theorists,” in Peter                 13.   See, for example, Colonel John Dobbins,
     For further information see Michael Barzelay           Paret, ed., Makers of Modern Strategy                    “Airpower 101: An Expeditionary Air Base
     and Colin Campbell, Preparing for the Future:          (Princeton: Princeton University Press,                  Model,” Air and Space Power Journal, Fall 2004.
     Strategic Planning in the U.S. Air Force               1986), Note 6.                                     14.   Securing an Open Society: Canada’s National
     (Washington: The Brookings Institution, 2003).   9.    David Gates, Sky Wars: A History of                      Security Policy, April 2004.
3.   As approved by the Chief of the Defence                Military     Aerospace     Power       (London:    15.   Out of the Sun distinguishes between the national
     Staff and the Deputy Minister at the                   Reaction Books, 2003), pp.152-3, and                     policy level imperatives of strategic doctrine and
     Joint Capabilities Review Board 05/03,                 Phillip S. Meilinger, Airwar: Theory and                 operational level doctrine. Out of the Sun:
     14 April 2003.                                         Practice (London: Frank Cass, 2003), p.217.              Aerospace Doctrine for the Canadian Forces.
4.   United States Air Force, The Edge – Air Force    10.   Canadian       Defence     Academy-Canadian              (Winnipeg: Craig Kelman, 2000), pp. 2-5.
     Transformation (Washington: US Government              Forces Leadership Institute, Duty with             16.   Steven Metz, Armed Conflict in the 21st Century:
     Printing Office, 30 May 2003).                         Honour: The Profession of Arms in                        The Information Revolution and Postmodern
5.   Shaping the Future of Canadian Defence:                Canada (Ottawa: Department of National                   Warfare (Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Strategic Studies
     A Strategy for 2020. Ottawa: Department of             Defence, 2003), p. 26.                                   Institute, 2000), p.13.
     National Defence, 1999, pp. 1, 6.                11.   See Robert A. Pape, “The True Worth                17.   A Time for Transformation: Annual Report of the
6.   See, for example, LCol Brian Wheeler et al.,           of Air Power,” for a more critical view                  Chief of Staff 2002-2003, (Ottawa: Department of
     “Aerospace Doctrine,” in David Rudd, ed., Air          of the promise and expectations that                     National Defence, 2003), p.iii.
     Power at the Turn of the Millennium (Toronto:          accompany the growth of precision-effects          18.   Shaping the Future of Canadian Defence: A
     The Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies,           weaponry. Foreign Affairs, March/April 2004,             Strategy for 2020 (Ottawa: Department of
     1999), pp.141-45.                                      pp. 116-30.                                              National Defence, 1999), p.6.

46                                                                                Canadian Military Journal                     ●   Winter 2004 – 2005
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