TRANSIT SERVICE GUIDELINES 2018

TRANSIT SERVICE GUIDELINES 2018

TRANSIT SERVICE GUIDELINES 2018 June 2018 translink.ca

TRANSIT SERVICE GUIDELINES 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 2 1.1 What are the Transit Service Guidelines? 3 1.2 Using the Transit Service Guidelines 5 1.3 Understanding Service Types 7 2 TRANSIT SERVICE GUIDELINES 10 2.1 Overview 11 2.2 Layout and Organization 12 I Demand-oriented Service 14 D.1 Transit-supportive Land Use and Demand 16 U Useful Service 20 U.1 Passenger Load 21 U.2 Stop Spacing 24 U.3 Service Frequency 26 U.4 Span of Service 28 U.5 Punctuality and Regularity 30 U.6 Route Design 34 PE Productive and Efficient Service 38 PE.1 Boardings per Revenue Hour 40 PE.2 Capacity Utilization 42 PE.3 Passenger Turnover 44 PE.4 Cost per Boarded Passenger 46 3 REFERENCE INFORMATION 48 3.1 Vehicle Capacity Reference Table 49 3.2 Service Productivity Reference Tables 50 APPENDIX 54 A Glossary 55 B References 59 C Acknowledgements 60 D U PE

TRANSIT SERVICE GUIDELINES 2018
  • Introduction 1 TransLink is the transportation authority for the Vancouver metropolitan area. It has responsibility for planning, managing, and delivering an integrated regional transit network—including rapid transit, commuter rail, and bus services—to provide access and mobility for people across the region. In consultation with stakeholders and customers, TransLink determines where demand is greatest, what types of service are most appropriate, and how resources are prioritized. The Transit Service Guidelines provide a framework for achieving these objectives and delivering a transit network useful to the greatest number of people. 1. Introduction 1.1
  • What are the Transit Service Guidelines? 1.2 Using the Transit Service Guidelines 1.3 Understanding Service Types 2 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines
TRANSIT SERVICE GUIDELINES 2018
  • The Transit Service Guidelines bring clarity and consistency to the process of adjusting and improving transit services to meet changing customer needs. They are founded on the principles of being: » »
  • Accountable. Has clear expectations for performance, demand, service quality, and customer expectations. » »
  • Balanced. Considers customers first, along with the needs of local communities, while ensuring the efficient and appropriate use of resources. » »
  • Collaborative. Builds upon partnerships with the public, local government partners, and stakeholders to identify and address issues and opportunities proactively and collaboratively. The Transit Service Guidelines are designed to provide flexibility in response to customer needs and community expectations in an accountable, equitable, and efficient manner. They also communicate expectations for service delivery to partner agencies and local governments, as well as to TransLink’s customers and the public. The guidelines typically define minimum thresholds, which are often exceeded when applied to actual service. The guidelines apply to conventional transit services, which include bus, ferry (SeaBus), and rail (SkyTrain, Canada Line, and West Coast Express). Other services, such as Access Transit services, are not included. Key components of transit service—e.g., safety, accessibility, facility design, and fleet design—are covered in separate standards and guidelines documents developed by TransLink. 1.1 What are the Transit Service Guidelines? HOW ARE THE GUIDELINES USED? The guidelines are used to: » » determine where service should be provided » » design service characteristics » » determine appropriate service levels » » measure and establish minimum levels of service performance 3 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines
TRANSIT SERVICE GUIDELINES 2018

TransLink’s ability to provide services consistent with the Transit Service Guidelines is influenced by available resources (in particular, available funding for transit operations), and by the investment priorities set out in the Regional Transportation Strategy and 10-year investment plans. If resources become constrained, TransLink will meet these guidelines as closely as possible and will work to achieve consistency as resources permit. The guidelines can also help local governments make decisions about land use, which has a significant impact on the success of transit services. These and other guidelines, such as the Transit-Oriented Communities Design Guidelines, can assist local government partners to develop land use plans that support the type of transit they envision for their communities.

translink.ca/rts REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION STRATEGY Strategic Framework July 2013 For the purposes of the South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority Act, this document constitutes the long term strategy for the regional transportation system, prepared in 2013. REFERENCE: REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION STRATEGY The Regional Transportation Strategy (RTS) sets the vision, goals, principles, strategies, and key initiatives to help guide transportation decisions in the Vancouver metropolitan area over the next 30 years. It integrates TransLink’s strategies for investing in system expansion, managing travel demand, and coordinating land use and transportation.

The RTS also commits TransLink to advance performance-based transportation solutions that best serve the region and its citizens. The 2013 RTS identifies the Transit Service Guidelines as the tool used to “develop and communicate meaningful, manageable, and measurable transit service performance guidelines to clarify the conditions under which different levels of transit will be provided.” 4 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

TRANSIT SERVICE GUIDELINES 2018

1.2 Using the Transit Service Guidelines TransLink uses the Transit Service Guidelines to support decisionmaking related to adding, adjusting, or eliminating transit service. Application of the guidelines and resulting changes to transit service planning and delivery are supported by the Transit Service Performance Review, a regular monitoring program on the performance of individual transit lines and services. The TransLink publication Managing the Network Primer explains how TransLink makes transit service decisions to respond to service requests and evaluate potential new services. Changes may be considered to improve performance on routes that do not meet minimum performance guidelines.

These changes could include a variety of options, depending on the reason(s) for not meeting the guidelines, such as reconfiguring the route alignment to attract more passengers, adding more trips or using a larger vehicle to alleviate overcrowding, considering how to provide an appropriate level of service on unproductive segments, or more closely matching service levels to demand. Managing the Transit Network A Primer on Key Concepts translink.ca REFERENCE: MANAGING THE NETWORK PRIMER TransLink regularly monitors the transit network to see how people use the various services available to them.

Based on what is seen, adjustments are made to improve both the efficiency and usefulness of the network. This task is called managing the transit network. It involves overseeing the service planning process and developing policy guidelines and performance indicators for transit service in the interest of maximizing personal mobility. This primer deals mostly with the management of bus services in the region, but many of the concepts can be applied to other forms of transit as well. 5 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

TRANSIT SERVICE GUIDELINES 2018

Processes to Plan and Manage the Network The Transit Service Guidelines are applied during TransLink’s regular transit service performance reviews, transportation investment plans, and ongoing community-based area plans. TRANSIT SERVICE PERFORMANCE REVIEWS To help manage the transit network, TransLink regularly reviews and modifies its transit services to increase efficiency and effectiveness. Each year, TransLink analyzes all transit routes in the system and publishes the Transit Service Performance Review. This review helps identify trends and opportunities for improvement by looking at the performance of the transit system and its components.

TransLink tracks several performance indicators, including those contained in the Transit Service Guidelines. This analysis informs TransLink’s annual service change process to improve service across the region and to match service levels with demand. TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENT PLANS Every three years (or more frequently, as needed), TransLink creates a 10-Year Investment Plan, which outlines the key initiatives, capital investments, and transportation services to be delivered. The plan details projected revenues and program expenditures on transit services, as well as on capital, operating, financing, and administration expenses for transit, roads, bridges, and cycling facilities across the region.

The Transit Service Guidelines play a role in shaping expenditures for future transit services. AREA PLANS TransLink works with its municipal partners and consults with the public to develop geographicallyfocused, sub-regional, and community-based area plans. They provide a blueprint for aligning the local transit network with existing and expected land use and travel patterns. They also guide future investment in, and changes to, the regional transit network. To develop an area plan, the range of local issues, opportunities, needs, and constraints are balanced against the regional transit network priorities detailed in TransLink’s Regional Transportation Strategy.

Area plans work toward achieving the performance objectives articulated in the Transit Service Guidelines. 6 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

1.3 Understanding Service Types TransLink provides a range of transit service types designed to meet different purposes, markets, travel demand levels, and objectives. These service types are organized into seven categories: Rapid, All Day Frequent, Peak Frequent, Standard, Basic, Peak Only – Limited, and Special. All routes in TransLink’s network are categorized based on purpose, frequency, and hours of operation. Service types are defined independent of specifications for vehicle type (e.g., standard bus or articulated bus) and mode (e.g., bus, rail, or ferry). These characteristics are not defined because different vehicle types and transit modes could be used for different service types.

7 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

Transit Service Typology WHAT ARE “SPECIAL” SERVICES? Special services are planned and designed to leverage unique circumstances in the region. The three types of special services include: » » NightBus – basic overnight service provided after regular transit service has ended » » SeaBus – passenger ferry connecting Downtown Vancouver (Waterfront Station) with the North Shore (Lonsdale Quay Station) » » West Coast Express – commuter rail service operating between Mission and Downtown Vancouver SERVICE TYPE SERVICE CHARACTERISTICS Rapid 10 minutes or better frequency throughout the day, every day Evening service provided Exclusive, or predominantly exclusive, right-of-way like a bus-only lane or rail corridor; could be rail or bus All Day Frequent 15 minutes or better frequency throughout the day, every day Evening service provided Peak Frequent 15 minutes or better frequency in peak period and/ or in peak direction; less frequent at other times Standard 15 to 30 minutes’ frequency throughout the day, every day Evening service provided Basic 30 to 60 minutes’ frequency on weekdays; may or may not operate throughout the entire day or 7 days per week Peak Only – Limited Service offered only in peak periods and only on weekdays; service frequency may vary Special Special services that perform unique purposes; covers NightBus, SeaBus, and West Coast Express 8 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

FrequentTransit Frequent transit means customers can expect reliable, convenient, easy-to-use services that are frequent enough to eliminate the need to refer to a schedule. Three key transit network elements provide frequent transit and, though they are not service types listed in the Transit Service Guidelines, the terms are used publicly to describe lines or corridors with frequent service. FREQUENT TRANSIT NETWORK TransLink’s Frequent Transit Network (FTN) is a network of corridors where daily transit service runs at least every 15 minutes in both directions until 9:00 pm, every day. FTN service may be provided by one or more types of transit along the same corridor as long as the combined services provide 15-minute or better service.

SKYTRAIN The SkyTrain network provides fast, convenient service within an exclusive right-of-way with high levels of frequency and reliability throughout the day and evening. SkyTrain services act as the backbone of the transit network, connecting key destinations across the region. B-LINE TransLink’s B-Lines provide limited-stop bus services that run every 15 minutes or more often, throughout the day, every day of the week. To improve bus speed and reliability, streets with B-Line service may include enhanced service features, such as transit priority and customer amenities. B-Line service branding is currently being updated.

9 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

  • Transit Service Guidelines 2 The Transit Service Guidelines are intended to remain a flexible tool to plan and manage the transit system. This flexible approach—rather than a standards/policy-based approach—aligns with best practices for service guidelines. It also recognizes the role of the Regional Transportation Strategy and future Investment Plans in establishing priorities for transit resources. These guidelines are one tool available to inform service planning decisions. 2. Transit Service Guidelines 2.1
  • Overview 2.2 Layout and Organization D Demand-oriented Service D.1 Transit-supportive Land Use and Demand U Useful Service U.1 Passenger Load U.2 Stop Spacing U.3 Service Frequency U.4 Span of Service U.5 Punctuality and Regularity U.6 Route Design PE Productive and Efficient Service PE.1 Boardings per Revenue Hour PE.2 Capacity Utilization PE.3 Passenger Turnover PE.4 Cost per Boarded Passenger 10 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

The Transit Service Guidelines are organized around three key themes: Demand-oriented Service TransLink coordinates with municipal and regional partners to align the transit network with existing and planned growth and development to ensure services meet demand and grow ridership. Guidelines under this theme help TransLink provide access across the region, including connectivity to local and regional destinations, and opportunities for added service in growing areas. Useful Service To make transit a convenient, reliable, and comfortable choice for customers, the guidelines under this theme help to deliver service with reliable travel times, convenient points of connection, and appropriate time spans and frequencies.

Focusing on the customer, TransLink’s services should be useful to as many people as possible. Productive and Efficient Service To ensure delivery of productive and cost-effective transit services to the region, guidelines under this theme help TransLink balance agency and regional goals related to equity, efficiency, and effectiveness. 2.1 Overview OVERVIEW TO THE DESIGN GUIDELINES The guidelines within each theme outline service performance, quality thresholds, and targets that strike a balance between being aspirational and achievable. These guidelines were developed based on transit performance in the region, and are backed with best practices in developing service guidelines from other major metro regions.

Guideline values are subject to periodic updates, as the values are derived from actual performance of routes within each of the service types which change from time to time. 11 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

2.2 Layout and Organization 20 21 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines TransLink Transit Service Guidelines TransLink strives to make its services useful for as many people as possible. By making transit a reliable, convenient, and comfortable choice, TransLink provides more options for its customers, alongside high-quality transportation services to as many people as possible. Providing useful service relates to TransLink adapting services to meet the region’s travel and mobility needs in ways that maximize ridership, provide basic coverage, and/or support long-term ridership growth. While the design of service will not be the same in every part of the region, TransLink’s approach to providing service will be consistent.

TransLink has a variety of policy, planning, and design guideline documents that identify approaches to improving access to transit and accessibility, including the Transit-Oriented Communities Design Guidelines. There are many elements of a transit trip—on the website or looking at a map, at the stop or station, on the bus or train—that impact a person’s perception and experience of the quality of service. While it is important for TransLink to measure as many elements of the customer experience as possible, many of these factors fall outside of the realm of service planning and decision-making.

Such passenger amenities as good lighting, covered bicycle parking, and real-time bus arrival information are addressed in TransLink’s Transit Passenger Facility Design Guidelines. TIME PERIODS FOR SERVICE PLANNING Because service levels and demand vary throughout the day, many guidelines have different targets and thresholds for different time periods: Peak Weekday: 6:00 – 9:00 am and 3:00 – 6:00 pm Midday Weekday: 9:00 am – 3:00 pm Evenings (all days): 6:00 pm – 12:00 midnight Saturday: 8:00 am – 6:00 pm Sunday: 9:00 am – 6:00 pm U.1 Passenger Load What is it?

Passenger load is a measure of how full a transit vehicle is, on average, at its busiest point or peak on a route. Why does it matter? Passenger load helps TransLink determine how full or crowded our services become while in service. If a bus or train only ever has a low passenger load, it could mean either there is too much service on a route for current demand or a lower-capacity transit vehicle should be used. If a bus or train has a high passenger load, it could mean there is not enough service or a higher capacity transit vehicle is needed. A high passenger load can contribute to a negative riding experience, such as standing for an uncomfortable amount of time, struggling to get on or off the vehicle, or being passed up, which can lead to customers being late or missing an important connection.

How is it measured?

Passenger load is measured using the peak load factor. The peak load factor is the ratio of average passengers carried versus the capacity or space available on a vehicle, expressed as a percentage. A passenger load factor of 100% means the vehicle is at capacity. The peak load factor is calculated by dividing the average load on a transit vehicle at its busiest point by the number of spaces (seats plus standing space) provided on each trip. The capacity of TransLink’s various transit vehicles is provided in 3.1 Vehicle Capacity Reference Table. These capacities account for a reasonable amount of space for both seated and standing passengers.

Useful Service U REFERENCE: TRANSIT PASSENGER FACILITY DESIGN GUIDELINES Responsibility for delivering effective transit facilities is often shared between local jurisdictions, developers, and TransLink and its many project partners. With so many potential players involved in the delivery of transit passenger environments, the Transit Passenger Facility Design Guidelines serve as a principal reference for ensuring design consistency and excellence across all modes, projects, and environments. The Guidelines are intended for all parties involved in the planning, design, implementation, and operation of transit passenger facilities.

Useful Service Reference Sidebar: identifies other supporting guidelines or standards Section Title: presents the theme title with colourcoded label Section Introduction: provides an overview of the theme and important considerations Context Sidebar: offers useful context for the information provided in the section 12 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

U.2 Stop Spacing What is it? Stop spacing is the distance between stops along a route. Why does it matter? Stop spacing has an impact on the speed and reliability of a service, as well as on a customer’s ability to access a service. Too many stops make travel slow and transit less useful and convenient. Too few stops mean less opportunity to access a service, even if it travels close by. The need for fast and reliable transit service is balanced with providing convenient access to the system when considering where stops should be placed. How is it measured?

Stop spacing is measured by dividing the total distance of a given route by the total number of stops on the route minus 1.

This measure provides average stop spacing in metres. While the average stop spacing on a line should fall between the ranges provided in the guidelines, the actual distance between any two stops on a route can vary, depending on such factors as: » topography » road design » land use » location of sidewalks Useful Service Guideline: Stop Spacing Rapid Standard Basic Peak Only– Limited All Day Frequent Peak Frequent Notes: » B-Lines or routes operating on highways will have wider stop spacing. » For areas where existing land uses will not generate passenger trips—e.g., agricultural, heavy industrial, or low-density areas—exceptions to the stop spacing guidelines may be applied.

Special: stop spacing for these services is provided on a case by case basis. » Standard & Basic: stops in areas with high concentrations of seniors, people with disabilities, and other special needs may be spaced closer together to facilitate easier access to transit. 800m–1500m average 300m–800m average 300m–800m average 300m–800m average 250m–400m average 250m–400m average Useful Service 24 25 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines TransLink Transit Service Guidelines Description: explains what is it, why it matters, and how it is measured Guidelines: provides the guideline details for each service type Theme Tab: identifies the relevant theme related to the guideline Guideline Title: identifies the guideline 13 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

Transit and land use work hand-in-hand to support strong, sustainable communities. The design of the transit network should meet different levels of demand across the region to support an effective transit system that benefits the most people. Though TransLink provides service throughout the region, different types of land use and neighbourhood design support different levels of transit service. TransLink works together with the region’s municipalities and other key partner agencies towards the alignment of land use and transportation investments, and to proactively address new opportunities to increase demand, seek efficiencies, and align plans to meet shared goals.

TransLink’s Transit-Oriented Communities Design Guidelines provides context for this theme. The 6 Ds—destinations, distance, design, density, diversity, and demand management—are described in the guidelines as important to framing land use considerations. Guidelines in this section are not intended to be used as a formula for providing transit. Coordinating service with land use is, however, an ongoing and evolving effort between TransLink and local partners. The Vancouver metropolitan area is a diverse region, and local context is an integral part of the decision-making process. The guidelines help to strike a balance between providing a basic level of service across the region and providing faster and more frequent service in areas where demand is higher.

These guidelines are intended to be a resource in framing this discussion among TransLink, local government partners, other key partner agencies, developers, and the public about where different types of services may be most appropriate. TransLink applies different guidelines for appropriate types of service, based on the characteristics of the areas within walking distance of such service. These guidelines come into consideration when providing new service or changing existing service. Demand-oriented Service D Transit-Oriented Communities Design Guidelines Creating more livable places around transit in Metro Vancouver REFERENCE: TRANSIT-ORIENTED COMMUNITIES DESIGN GUIDELINES Transit-oriented communities are places that, by their design, allow people to drive less and to walk, cycle, and take transit more.

In practice, this means they concentrate higher-density, mixed-use, humanscale development around frequent transit stops and stations. Transitoriented communities also make it possible to operate efficient, cost-effective transit service. The Transit-Oriented Communities Design Guidelines provide a more detailed resource for municipalities and other stakeholders involved in community planning processes across the region to further the development of more transit-oriented communities in Metro Vancouver. 14 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

The 6 Ds ofTransit-Oriented Community Design The Transit-Oriented Communities Design Guidelines are organized around the 6 Ds, characteristics that describe the land use and built environment elements that influence demand for transit. DESTINATIONS Coordinate land use and transportation When land use and transportation are well coordinated, transit can provide fast, direct, and cost-effective access to more destinations for more people. Proximity to regional destinations provides an anchor for routes, and also influences transit ridership. DISTANCE Create a well-connected street network A well-connected street network shortens travel distances, making it possible for people to quickly and conveniently connect with transit en route to their destination.

DESIGN Create places for people Transit-oriented communities are carefully designed with the needs of people in mind. Multimodal streets and great public spaces enable people of all ages and abilities to access and enjoy a comfortable, safe, delightful, and inviting public realm. DENSITY Concentrate and intensify activities near frequent transit Transit-oriented communities concentrate most growth and development within a short walk of frequent transit stops and stations. A higher density of homes, jobs, and other activities creates a market for transit, allowing frequent service to operate efficiently.

DIVERSITY Encourage a mix of uses A vibrant mix of land uses helps to create complete, walkable neighbourhoods around transit stations and stops, and supports a transit system that is wellutilized throughout the day. DEMAND MANAGEMENT Discourage unnecessary driving Transit-oriented communities use transportation demand management strategies, such as parking management, to discourage unnecessary driving and to promote walking, cycling, and transit.

15 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

D.1 Transit-supportive Land Use and Demand What is it? The 6 Ds describe land use and built environment elements that influence demand for transit. Interactions among these six characteristics help to estimate potential demand for transit. Transit-supportive land use and demand guidelines indicate the characteristics of adjoining land uses that will allow transit to be productive and effective in meeting the needs of the community. Land use characteristics help shape demand for transit, which in turn shapes the level of service provided.

No single land use characteristic, or combination of characteristics, provides an accurate indicator of how transit service will perform in a given land use setting; rather, it is often the combination of all six indicators that determines which particular service type is the best match for an area. Passenger demand is the level of consumer demand for transit services in a community or area. It can be thought of as the output of these land use and built environment characteristics. Demographic factors also shape passenger responses to varying levels of transit service and must be accounted for in any decision process.

These distinctions explain why some routes with nearly identical land use characteristics can have widely differing performance, and why a simple formula cannot be applied to forecast ridership response to a particular type of service for a given set of land use characteristics. Why does it matter?

Land use guidelines provide one indication to assist TransLink in matching the right service to the potential level of demand for transit service in a given area. Different land use and built environment elements provide one indicator of the potential demand for transit. Passenger demand is a key outcome of these land use indicators, which drives many decisions made by TransLink about where and what kinds of transit service to provide. Once service is provided, changes in the level of demand or ridership provide the impetus for a change in service type. Demand-oriented Service 16 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

Land use characteristics alone will not always predict transit ridership response to a given level of service. When considering deploying transit service in new markets, additional factors are important in addition to land use, such as route and network connectivity, other mobility options, built environment characteristics, and demographics. How is it measured? There are many ways to measure and describe the 6 Ds. Some are easy to measure (e.g., the density of people living in an area), while others are more subjective and difficult to capture in a single measure. These guidelines use definitions of the 6 Ds identified in TransLink’s Transit Oriented Communities Design Guidelines: Destinations.

The number and type(s) of route anchors and major destinations along a corridor. Major destinations include rapid transit stations, post-secondary education institutions, regional shopping malls, and regional and municipal town centres. Distance. The number of intersections per hectare within walking distance of a transit corridor. Design. How people-friendly urban design is, such as sidewalks on both sides of the street, buildings oriented toward the street, and parking tucked behind buildings. Density. The number of people and jobs per hectare within walking distance of a transit corridor.

Diversity. The mix and variation of land uses along a corridor, such as the mix of residential, employment, and/or retail land uses. Demand Management. The number and types of demand management programs in place along a given route, such as paid parking and parking availability. Demand-oriented Service 17 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

Passenger demand is a key outcome of the 6 Ds. For this guideline, the potential for passenger demand is measured by weekday boardings, which are indexed by service revenue hour. Passenger demand is also used as an efficiency guideline (see PE.1 Boardings Per Revenue Hour). Because the 6 Ds are indicators of demand, the service types also relate to the level of demand experienced along a corridor. Land use characteristics and transit service characteristics build off of each other. A high-frequency service is unlikely to produce significant ridership in an area with characteristics that are not transit-supportive.

If both service and land use characteristics are in harmony, the ridership and productivity will likely follow from the appropriate level of service. WHAT INFLUENCES TRANSIT RIDERSHIP? The 6 Ds are one influence on how effective a service might be in meeting regional objectives. Equally as influential is the demographic make-up of potential riders. Transit ridership is influenced by such demographic characteristics as age, income level, employment type and level, auto-ownership, household size, housing tenure, and cultural identity. Similar to the physical characteristics of an area, no one or two combinations of these factors is an absolute indicator of a successful transit service.

But, taken together, physical and demographic characteristics can explain why transit ridership is more responsive to a given service type in one area over another. Demand-oriented Service 18 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

Guideline: Transit-Supportive Land Use SERVICE TYPE DESTINATIONS DISTANCE DESIGN DENSITY DIVERSITY DEMAND MGMT MIN AVG PASSENGER DEMAND/ REVENUE HOUR Rapid Rapid transit investments have been, and will continue to be, the result of specialized studies focused primarily on high-performing All Day Frequent routes. Investment decisions on these corridors will be reached regionally on a corridor-by-corridor basis. All Day Frequent High number of anchors along corridor, connection with Rapid stops and stations are key 0.6–0.9 intersections/ hectare Generally operates in highly walkable and bikeable environments 40–100 people and jobs/hectare (median) High level of land use mix, high levels of retail activity Moderate to high parking cost with low to moderate supply 50–60* Peak Frequent High number of anchors along corridor, connection with Rapid stops and stations are key 0.3–0.9 intersections/ hectare Moderately walkable and bikeable environments 35–80 people and job/hectare (median) Medium-high level of land use mix along corridors, often dominated by high employment not related to retail Low to moderate parking cost with moderate supply 35–40* Standard Medium number of anchors along corridor 0.5–0.9 intersections/ hectare Generally operates in moderately walkable and bikeable environments 30–70 people and jobs/hectare (median) Medium level of land use mix along corridor; often has a dominant land use form, such as housing or office/ industrial type employment Low to no parking cost, with moderate to high supply 27–32* Basic Low number of anchors along corridor 0.2–0.7 intersections/ hectare Generally operates in moderatelow walkable and bikeable environments 30–60 people and jobs/hectare (median) Lower level of land use diversity along corridor, often No parking cost, with high supply 15–20* Peak Only – Limited This specialized service type is directed to assist in accommodating peak loads in particular locations.

It generally supplements regular service, based more on exhibited passenger demand than on surrounding land use characteristics. As such, no land use criteria have been established for this service type. Special NightBus, SeaBus and West Coast Express are specialized services that have unique characteristics and transit planning contexts; therefore, no land use criteria have been established for this service type. *Weekday boardings per service revenue hour in peak and midday periods.

Demand-oriented Service 19 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

TransLink strives to make its services useful for as many people as possible. By making transit a reliable, convenient, and comfortable choice, TransLink provides more options for its customers, alongside high-quality transportation services to as many people as possible. Providing useful service relates to TransLink adapting services to meet the region’s travel and mobility needs in ways that maximize ridership, provide basic coverage, and/or support long-term ridership growth. While the design of service will not be the same in every part of the region, TransLink’s approach to providing service will be consistent.

TransLink has a variety of policy, planning, and design guideline documents that identify approaches to improving access to transit and accessibility, including the Transit-Oriented Communities Design Guidelines. There are many elements of a transit trip—on the website or looking at a map, at the stop or station, on the bus or train—that impact a person’s perception and experience of the quality of service. While it is important for TransLink to measure as many elements of the customer experience as possible, many of these factors fall outside of the realm of service planning and decision-making.

Such passenger amenities as good lighting, covered bicycle parking, and real-time bus arrival information are addressed in TransLink’s Transit Passenger Facility Design Guidelines. TIME PERIODS FOR SERVICE PLANNING Because service levels and demand vary throughout the day, many guidelines have different targets and thresholds for different time periods: Peak Weekday: 6:00 – 9:00 am and 3:00 – 6:00 pm Midday Weekday: 9:00 am – 3:00 pm Evenings (all days): 6:00 pm – 12:00 midnight Saturday: 8:00 am – 6:00 pm Sunday/Holiday: 9:00 am – 6:00 pm U Useful Service 20 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

U.1 Passenger Load What is it? Passenger load is a measure of how full a transit vehicle is, on average, at its busiest point or peak on a route. Why does it matter? Passenger load helps TransLink determine how full or crowded our services become while in service. If a bus or train only ever has a low passenger load, it could mean either there is too much service on a route for current demand or a lower-capacity transit vehicle should be used. If a bus or train has a high passenger load, it could mean there is not enough service or a higher capacity transit vehicle is needed. A high passenger load can contribute to a negative riding experience, such as standing for an uncomfortable amount of time, struggling to get on or off the vehicle, or being passed up, which can lead to customers being late or missing an important connection.

How is it measured?

Passenger load is measured using the peak load factor. The peak load factor is the ratio of average passengers carried versus the capacity or space available on a vehicle, expressed as a percentage. A passenger load factor of 100% means the vehicle is at capacity. The peak load factor is calculated by dividing the average load on a transit vehicle at its busiest point by the number of spaces (seats plus standing space) provided on each trip. The capacity of TransLink’s various transit vehicles is provided in 3.1 Vehicle Capacity Reference Table. These capacities account for a reasonable amount of space for both seated and standing passengers.

Useful Service REFERENCE: TRANSIT PASSENGER FACILITY DESIGN GUIDELINES Responsibility for delivering effective transit facilities is often shared between local jurisdictions, developers, and TransLink and its many project partners. With so many potential players involved in the delivery of transit passenger environments, the Transit Passenger Facility Design Guidelines serve as a principal reference for ensuring design consistency and excellence across all modes, projects, and environments. The Guidelines are intended for all parties involved in the planning, design, implementation, and operation of transit passenger facilities.

21 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

LOAD FACTOR (% OF CAPACITY UTILIZED) RAPID SERVICE TYPE ALL OTHER SERVICE TYPES 100% or higher » » All seats are full and all standing space is occupied. » » The vehicle is overcrowded, and accessing the doors may be difficult for many passengers. » » Standing passengers will need to step off the bus to let others exit. » » Pass-ups are likely at some stops. 84% to 99% » » All seats are full and most standing space is occupied. » » The vehicle is crowded, and accessing the doors may be difficult for some passengers. » » Standing passengers will need to shift position as other passengers board/exit.

67% to 83% » » All seats are occupied, and half of the passengers are standing.

Some passengers will have to move around for others to board or exit the train. » » All seats are occupied, and several passengers are standing. » » Some passengers may have to move around for others to board or exit the bus. 51% to 66% » » All seats are occupied, and about onethird of all passengers are standing. » » Boarding or exiting the train occurs without difficulty. » » Most seats are occupied, and a few passengers are standing. » » Boarding or exiting the bus occurs without difficulty. 34% to 50% » » All seats are occupied, and about onequarter of all passengers are standing. » » Boarding or exiting the train occurs without difficulty.

Most seats are occupied, and people need to sit next to each other if they want a seat. » » Passengers standing are doing so by choice, not necessity.

0% to 33% » » Seats may be available for some boarding passengers. » » A few passengers will choose to stand. » » Half of the seats (or less) are occupied, and no passengers are standing. » » Few passengers need to sit next to someone. » » Passengers have some freedom in where they can sit. Definition of Load Factors for Passenger Comfort Note: The load factor range may change as the number of seats on a vehicle changes. Descriptions of load factors for passenger comfort are adapted from the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual. Passenger load is a key indicator of a passenger’s level of comfort.

Passengers who have a choice between sitting or standing or, if required to stand, have enough space to move freely through the vehicle and will feel more comfortable during their journey. SERVICE Useful Service 22 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

Acceptable average peak load factors vary by service type and time of day. Most customers expect transit to be busier (with fewer seats available) during peak commute periods, and acceptable load factors are set higher during these periods. SERVICE TYPE PEAK WEEKDAY MIDDAY, SATURDAY, SUNDAY EVENING Rapid No more than 15% of trips. No more than 50% of trips. No more than 25% of trips. No more than 5% of trips. No more than 25% of trips. All Day Frequent* No more than 10% of trips. No more than 50% of trips. No more than 15% of trips. No more than 5% of trips. No more than 25% of trips. Peak Frequent No more than 10% of trips.

No more than 50% of trips. No more than 15% of trips. No more than 5% of trips. No more than 25% of trips. Standard No more than 10% of trips. No more than 50% of trips. No more than 5% of trips. No more than 25% of trips. No more than 5% of trips. No more than 10% of trips. Basic No more than 10% of trips. No more than 50% of trips. No more than 5% of trips. No more than 25% of trips. No more than 5% of trips. No more than 10% of trips. Peak Only – Limited No more than 10% of trips. No more than 50% of trips. No more than 15% of trips. No more than 5% of trips. No more than 25% of trips. NightBus In recognition of the different type of service that NightBus provides, TransLink has different expectations for crowding on NightBus which are addressed through a separate strategy.

SeaBus SeaBus, by regulation, has a fixed capacity that cannot be exceeded, and measures of its usability will vary from other service types. West Coast Express West Coast Express does not conform to load factor guidelines, but rather responds to passenger capacity levels. Guideline: Maximum Acceptable Average Passenger Load Factor *For services operated with vehicles designed for highway operation, the load factor guideline remains the same as the load factor guideline for the service type; these vehicles are designed to have a higher seated capacity and lower standing capacity. Load factor 100% or higher 84% to 99% 67% to 83% 51% to 66% Special Useful Service 23 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

U.2 Stop Spacing What is it? Stop spacing is the distance between stops along a route. Why does it matter? Stop spacing has an impact on the speed and reliability of a service, as well as on a customer’s ability to access a service. Too many stops make travel slow and transit less useful and convenient. Too few stops mean less opportunity to access a service, even if it travels close by. The need for fast and reliable transit service is balanced with providing convenient access to the system when considering where stops should be placed. How is it measured?

Stop spacing is measured by dividing the total distance of a given route by the total number of stops on the route minus 1.

This measure provides average stop spacing in metres. While the average stop spacing on a line should fall between the ranges provided in the guidelines, the actual distance between any two stops on a route can vary, depending on such factors as: » » topography » » road design » » land use » » location of sidewalks Useful Service 24 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

Guideline: Stop Spacing Rapid Standard Basic Peak Only– Limited All Day Frequent Peak Frequent Notes: » » B-Lines or routes operating on highways will have wider stop spacing. » » For areas where existing land uses will not generate passenger trips—e.g., agricultural, heavy industrial, or low-density areas—exceptions to the stop spacing guidelines may be applied. » » Special: stop spacing for these services is provided on a case by case basis. » » Standard & Basic: stops in areas with high concentrations of seniors, people with disabilities, and other special needs may be spaced closer together to facilitate easier access to transit.

800m–1500m average 300m–800m average 300m–800m average 300m–800m average 250m–400m average 250m–400m average Useful Service 25 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

U.3 Service Frequency What is it? Service frequency is how often a transit vehicle picks up passengers at a stop; for example, a bus might arrive every 10 minutes during peak commute periods, while a West Coast Express train might arrive every 30 minutes. Why does it matter? The higher the frequency and the more attractive and useful the service, the less coordination is required to time connections between routes. TransLink balances needs for frequency across the network and allocates resources to provide the most efficient service to the most riders. How is it measured?

Service frequency is measured by how often, on average, a trip occurs on a given transit line.

Guidelines include minimum and target frequencies that vary depending on type of service, time of day (e.g., peak, midday, evening, night), and direction of travel. Useful Service Overview of Service Frequency Minutes past the hour 00:15 00:30 00:45 00:60 10 min service 15 min service 30 min service 60 min service 26 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

SERVICE TYPE PEAK WEEKDAY MIDDAY WEEKDAY EVENING WEEKEND/HOLIDAY Rapid Every 10 minutes or better in both directions. Every 10 minutes or better in both directions. Every 15 minutes or better in both directions. Every 10 minutes or better in both directions. All Day Frequent Every 15 minutes or better in both directions. Every 15 minutes or better in both directions. Every 15 minutes or better in both directions, dropping to every 30 minutes or better in late evening. Every 15 minutes or better in both directions. Peak Frequent Every 15 minutes or better in peak direction. Every 30 minutes or better in non-peak direction.

Service frequency during other time periods will vary. Standard Every 15 to 30 minutes in both directions.

Every 15 to 30 minutes in both directions. Every 15 to 30 minutes in both directions, dropping to every 60 minutes or better in late evening. Every 15 to 30 minutes in both directions. Basic* Every 30 to 60 minutes in both directions. Every 30 to 60 minutes in both directions (if provided). Every 30 to 60 minutes in both directions (if provided). Every 30 to 60 minutes in both directions (if provided). Peak Only – Limited Every 15 to 30 minutes in the peak direction. No service provided. No service provided. No service provided. Special NightBus Every 15 to 60 minutes during late night period only, depending on demand.

SeaBus Every 15 minutes or better in both directions.

Every 15 minutes in both directions. Every 15 to 30 minutes in both directions. Every 15 to 30 minutes in both directions. West Coast Express Every 30 minutes. No service provided. No service provided. No service provided. Guideline: Service Frequency *Basic services are tailored based on community needs; they may not offer service for all day or time periods. Useful Service 27 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

U.4 Span of Service What is it? Span of service is the hours of operation for a specific transit service, from the time of departure of the first trip of the day at the first stop, to the time of arrival of the last trip of the day at the last stop.

Some services run only during weekday commute times, some services operate all day, and others run all day and late into the night. Why does it matter? Span of service, like frequency, is influenced by demand and travel patterns along a route. The more passenger demand is spread out over an entire day and into the evening, the longer the span of service. How is it measured?

Span of service is measured as the minimum time period service is provided. Minimum span of service guidelines define the earliest and latest times different types of service should operate. Higher ridership services will have longer spans of service, and lower ridership services will have shorter spans of service. Span of service guidelines vary depending on service type, current travel patterns—as indicated by ridership levels during different times of day—and expected travel demand patterns, such as service to new employment centres. Useful Service Minimum Span of Service for all services types KEY CONSIDERATIONS Span of service decisions consider several factors, including: » » performance of the earliest and latest trips on the route » » demographic or land use changes to an area served by the route » » service to connecting rapid transit stations to meet the first or last train All services Some services NightBus Peak Midday Peak Evening WEEKDAY Late night 6am 8am 10am 12am 2pm 4pm 6pm 8pm 10pm 12am 2am 4am 6am Weekday Saturday Sunday Note: West Coast Express service is a specialized commuter service and does not conform to these Span of Service coverage periods.

28 TransLink Transit Service Guidelines

TRANSIT SERVICE GUIDELINES 2018
Next part ... Cancel