Waste Assessment for Waste Management and Minimisation Plan Review - Prepared for Ashburton District Council

 
Waste Assessment for Waste Management and Minimisation Plan Review - Prepared for Ashburton District Council
Waste Assessment for
    Waste Management and
    Minimisation Plan Review
    Prepared for Ashburton District Council

   14/07/2015
Prepared for:
Craig Goodwin
Ashburton District Council

Prepared by:
Waste Assessment for Waste Management and Minimisation Plan Review - Prepared for Ashburton District Council
David Lindsay
Duncan Wilson
Bruce Middleton (Waste Not Consulting Ltd)

Approved by:
Duncan Wilson
(Project Director)

Contact Details
Eunomia Research & Consulting Ltd
PO Box 78 313
Grey Lynn
Auckland 1245 New
Zealand
Tel: +64 9 376 1909
Fax: +64 9 360 5187
Web: www.eunomia-consulting.co.nz

Waste Not Consulting Ltd
PO Box 78 372
Grey Lynn
Auckland 1245 New
Zealand
Tel: +64 9 360 5188
Fax: +64 9 360 5187
Web: www.wastenot.co.nz

Ashburton District Council Waste Assessment 2015
                                                                      ii
     Contents
     1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 3
  1.1 Structure of this Document ......................................................................................................... 3
  1.2 Purpose of this Waste Assessment ............................................................................................. 3
Waste Assessment for Waste Management and Minimisation Plan Review - Prepared for Ashburton District Council
1.3 Legislative Context ....................................................................................................................... 4
1.4 Scope............................................................................................................................................. 4
      1.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 4
      1.4.2 Period of Waste Assessment ......................................................................................... 5
      1.4.3 Consideration of Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Wastes ................................................... 5
      1.4.4 Public Health Issues ....................................................................................................... 6
1.5 Local Planning Context ................................................................................................................. 7
      1.5.1 Long Term Plan............................................................................................................... 7
      1.5.2 Solid Waste Activity Management Plan ........................................................................ 7
      1.5.3 Canterbury Regional Council Plans ............................................................................... 8
1.6 Key Relationships ....................................................................................................................... 10
1.7 Available Documentation ...........................................................................................................10
  2.0 Ashburton District ...................................................................................................................11
2.1 Key Statistics .............................................................................................................................. 11
      2.1.1 Demographics...............................................................................................................11
2.2 Economy ......................................................................................................................................12
2.3 Implications of Economic and Demographic Trends ............................................................... 15
  3.0 Overview of Waste Management in the District ...................................................................15
3.1 Council.........................................................................................................................................16
3.2 Private Sector.............................................................................................................................. 17
3.3 Community ..................................................................................................................................17
  4.0 Waste Infrastructure ...............................................................................................................17
4.2 Resource Recovery Parks ..........................................................................................................21
4.3 Recycling and Reprocessing Facilities ...................................................................................... 25
  5.0 Waste Services ....................................................................................................................... 27
5.1 Council Waste Services ..............................................................................................................27
      5.1.1 Council-contracted Collection Services ......................................................................27
      5.1.2 Other Council Services .................................................................................................28
      5.1.3 Solid Waste Bylaw ........................................................................................................29
      5.1.4 Waste Education and Minimisation Programmes...................................................... 30
      5.1.5 Funding for Council Services ....................................................................................... 31
      5.1.6 Assessment of Council Services ..................................................................................33
5.2 Non-Council Services..................................................................................................................35
  6.0 Waste Data and Flows ............................................................................................................36
6.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................36
      6.1.1 Definitions .....................................................................................................................36
      6.1.2 ‘Council-controlled’ and ‘Commercially-controlled’ Waste Flows ............................. 37
      6.1.3 Waste Generation Sources in Ashburton District ...................................................... 38
6.2 Overall Waste Flows from Ashburton District ...........................................................................38
      6.2.1 Council Control of Overall Waste Stream....................................................................39
6.3 Landfilled Waste ......................................................................................................................... 39
      6.3.1 Composition of Landfilled Waste ................................................................................39
      6.3.2 Kerbside Refuse ...........................................................................................................42
6.4 Cleanfilled Waste ........................................................................................................................ 45
6.5 Organic Waste............................................................................................................................. 45
6.6 Recycled Waste .......................................................................................................................... 46
6.7 Rural Waste.................................................................................................................................46
Waste Assessment for Waste Management and Minimisation Plan Review - Prepared for Ashburton District Council
6.8 Waste Analysis Summary and Key Points................................................................................. 48
  6.9 Future Data Requirements ........................................................................................................ 49
    7.0 Performance Measurement ................................................................................................... 50
  7.1 Current Performance Measurement ......................................................................................... 50
        7.1.3 Per Capita Kerbside Recycling .................................................................................... 53
        7.1.4 Kerbside Refuse as a Proportion of Waste to Landfill............................................... 54
  7.2 Recommend Options for Demand and Performance Measurement for Inclusion in the
  WMMP ................................................................................................................................................ 55
    8.0 Future Demand and Gap Analysis ......................................................................................... 56
  8.1 Future Demand........................................................................................................................... 56
        8.1.1 Population ..................................................................................................................... 56
        8.1.2 Economic Activity ......................................................................................................... 57
        8.1.3 Changes in Lifestyle and Consumption ...................................................................... 58
        8.1.4 Changes in Waste Management Approaches ............................................................ 59
        8.1.5 Summary of Demand Factors ..................................................................................... 60
        8.1.6 Projections of Future Demand .................................................................................... 60
  8.2 Future Demand – Gap Analysis ................................................................................................. 60
        8.2.1 Waste Streams ............................................................................................................. 61
        8.2.2 Hazardous Wastes ....................................................................................................... 61
    9.0 Statement of Options ............................................................................................................. 64
  9.1 Regulation ................................................................................................................................... 64
  9.2 Measuring and Monitoring ......................................................................................................... 65
  9.3 Communication and Education ................................................................................................. 66
  9.4 Kerbside Services ....................................................................................................................... 67
  9.5 Transfer Station and Drop-Off Options...................................................................................... 72
  9.6 Leadership and Collaboration ................................................................................................... 74
  9.7 Service Delivery Models ............................................................................................................. 74
  9.8 Summary Table of Potential Options......................................................................................... 76
    10.0 Statement of Council’s Intended Role ................................................................................ 78
  10.1 Statutory Obligations ............................................................................................................... 78
  10.2 Overall Strategic Direction and Role ....................................................................................... 79
    11.0 Statement of Proposals ....................................................................................................... 81
  11.1 Statement of Extent ................................................................................................................. 81
       11.1.1 Protection of Public Health........................................................................................ 81
       11.1.2 Effective and Efficient Waste Management and Minimisation .............................. 81

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Ashburton District Council Waste Assessment 2015
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Waste Assessment for Waste Management and Minimisation Plan Review - Prepared for Ashburton District Council
1.0 Introduction
This Waste Assessment has been prepared for the Ashburton District Council (ADC) in
accordance with the requirements of the Waste Minimisation Act 2008 (WMA). This
document provides background information and data to support Ashburton District
Council’s waste management and minimisation planning process.

 1.1 Structure of this Document
This document in arranged into a number of sections designed to help construct a
picture of waste management in the District.
Introduction
The introduction covers a number of topics that set the scene this includes clarifying
the purpose of this Waste Assessment, its scope, legislative context, and key
documents that have informed the assessment.
Ashburton District Council
This section presents a brief overview of key aspects of the district’s geography,
economy, and demographics that influence the quantities and types of waste
generated and potential opportunities.
Waste Infrastructure, Services, Data and Performance Measurement
These sections examine how waste is currently managed, where waste comes from,
how much there is and what it is made up of and where it goes.
Gap Analysis and Future Demand
This section provides an analysis of what is likely to influence demand for waste and
recovery services in the district and identifies key gaps in current and future service
provision.
Statement of Options & Councils Proposed Role
These sections develop options available for meeting the future demand and Council’s
proposed role in ensuring future demand is met.
Statement of Proposals
The statements of proposal set out what actions are proposed to be taken forward.
Ashburton’s proposals are identical to the actions put forward in the WMMP so the
Waste Assessment simply references the WMMP for this section.
Appendices
This covers the statement from the medical officer of health as well as additional
detail related to legislation.

 1.2 Purpose of this Waste Assessment
This waste assessment is intended to provide an initial step to the development of a
waste management and minimisation plan (WMMP), and sets out the information

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Waste Assessment for Waste Management and Minimisation Plan Review - Prepared for Ashburton District Council
necessary to identify the key issues and priority actions that will be included in the
draft WMMP.
Section 51 of the WMA outlines the requirements of a waste assessment, which must
include:
   1. a description of the collection, recycling, recovery, treatment, and disposal
      services provided within the territorial authority’s district
   2. a forecast of future demands
   3. a statement of options
   4. a statement of the territorial authority’s intended role in meeting demands
   5. a statement of the territorial authority’s proposals for meeting the forecast
      demands
   6. a statement about the extent to which the proposals will protect public health,
      and promote effective and efficient waste management and minimisation

 1.3 Legislative Context
The principal solid waste legislation in New Zealand is the Waste Minimisation Act
2008. The stated purpose of the WMA is to:
    “encourage waste minimisation and a decrease in waste disposal in order to
      (a) protect the environment from harm; and
      (b) provide environmental, social, economic, and cultural benefits.
To further its aims, the WMA requires territorial authorities to promote effective and
efficient waste management and minimisation within their district. To achieve this, all
territorial authorities (TAs) are required by the legislation to adopt a WMMP.
The WMA requires every TA to complete a formal review of its existing waste
management plan every six years. The review must be consistent with WMA sections
50 and 51. Section 50 of the WMA also requires all TAs to prepare a ‘Waste
Assessment’ prior to reviewing its existing plan. This document has been prepared in
fulfilment of that requirement. The Council’s existing Waste Assessment was written in
September 2011 and the WMMP was adopted on 15th December 2011.
Further detail on key waste related legislation is contained in Appendix A.2.0.

 1.4 Scope
1.4.1 General
As well as fulfilling the statutory requirements of the WMA, this waste assessment will
build a foundation that will enable ADC to develop its WMMP in an informed and
effective manner. In preparing this document, reference has been made to the

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Waste Assessment for Waste Management and Minimisation Plan Review - Prepared for Ashburton District Council
Ministry for the Environment’s ‘Waste Management and Minimisation Planning:
Guidance for Territorial Authorities’1.
A key issue for this waste assessment will be forming a clear picture of waste flows
and management options in the District. The WMA requires that a waste assessment
must contain:
    “A description of the collection, recycling, recovery, treatment, and disposal
    services provided within the territorial authority’s district (whether by the territorial
    authority or otherwise)”.
This means that the waste assessment must take into consideration all waste and
recycling services carried out by private waste operators as well as its own services.
While the Council has reliable data on the waste flows that it controls, data on those
services provided by private industry is limited. Reliable, regular data on waste flows
is important if Council chooses to include waste reduction targets in the WMMP.
Without data, any targets cannot be measured.
The NZ Waste Strategy 2010 also makes clear that territorial authorities have a
statutory authority (under the WMA) to promote effective and efficient waste
management and minimisation in their district. This applies to all waste and materials
flows in the district, not just those controlled by Council.

1.4.2 Period of Waste Assessment
The WMA requires WMMPs to be reviewed at least every six years, but it is naturally
prudent to take a longer term view. The horizon for the WMMP is not fixed but is
assumed to be centred around a 10 year timeframe in line with the Council’s Long
Term Plan (LTP). For some assets and services it is necessary to consider a longer
timeframe and so this is taken into account where appropriate.

1.4.3 Consideration of Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Wastes
In line with Council’s previous waste management strategies, this assessment is
focused on solid waste.
The guidance provided by the Ministry for the Environment on preparing Waste
Management and Minimisation Plans states that:
    “Councils need to determine the scope of their WMMP in terms of which wastes
    and diverted materials are to be considered within the plan”.
The guidance goes on to suggest that liquid or gaseous wastes which are directly
managed by the Council, or are disposed of to landfill, should be seriously considered
for inclusion in a WMMP.
Other wastes that could potentially be within the scope of the WMMP include gas from
landfills; ADC owns closed landfill sites (Ashburton, Methven, Rakaia, Hinds and
Mayfield landfills2) but the sites are relatively small and no gas capture is undertaken.

1 Ministry for the Environment (2009), Waste Management and Minimisation Planning: Guidance for
Territorial Authorities. Wellington.
2 Resource consents have been obtained for all of these and all are subject to ongoing monitoring and

aftercare in accordance with consent conditions and Post Closure Management Plans

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Waste Assessment for Waste Management and Minimisation Plan Review - Prepared for Ashburton District Council
ADC’s strategy for the management of biosolids from waste water treatment
processes is included in the Utilities Asset Management Plan. The Trade Waste Bylaw
deals with discharge of liquid waste from commercial sources where that discharge is
to Council’s wastewater network.
Therefore, apart from some liquid hazardous wastes which are managed through solid
waste facilities, this waste assessment and the subsequent WMMP will focus primarily
on solid waste.

1.4.4 Public Health Issues
Protecting public health is one of the original reasons for local authority involvement in
waste management. The NZ waste strategy (2010) contains the twin high level goals
of “Reducing the harmful effects of waste”, and “Improving the efficiency of resource
use”. In terms of addressing waste management in a strategic context, protection of
public health can be considered one of the components entailed in ‘reducing harm’.
Protection of public health is currently addressed by a number of different pieces of
legislation. Discussion of the implications of the legislation is contained in Appendix
A.2.0.

1.4.4.1 Key Waste Management Public Health Issues
Key issues that are likely to be of concern in terms of public health include the
following:
    Management of putrescible wastes
    Management of nappy and sanitary wastes
    Potential for dog/seagull/vermin strike
    Timely collection of material
    Management of spillage
    Litter and illegal dumping
    Medical waste from households and healthcare operators
    Storage of wastes
    Management of hazardous wastes (including asbestos, e-waste, etc.)
    Private on-site management of wastes (i.e. burning, burying)
    Closed landfill management including air and water discharges, odours and
     vermin
    Health and safety considerations in collection and handling

1.4.4.2 Management of Public Health Issues
From a strategic perspective the above issues are likely to apply to a greater or lesser
extent to virtually all options under consideration. For example illegal dumping tends
to take place ubiquitously, irrespective of whatever waste collection and transfer

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Waste Assessment for Waste Management and Minimisation Plan Review - Prepared for Ashburton District Council
station systems are in place. Some systems may exacerbate the problem (infrequent
collection, user charges, inconveniently located facilities etc.), but by the same token
the issues can be managed through methods such as enforcement, education,
providing convenient facilities etc.
In most cases public health issues will be able to be addressed through setting
appropriate performance standards for waste service contracts and ensuring
performance is monitored and reported on, and that there are appropriate structures
within the contracts for addressing issues that arise. There is expected to be added
emphasis on workplace health and safety under the new Health and Safety at Work
Act currently before Parliament. This could impact on the choice of collection
methodologies and working practices and design at waste facilities for example.
In addition, public health impacts will be able to be managed through consideration of
potential effects of planning decisions especially for vulnerable groups. That is,
potential issues will be identified prior to implementation so they can be mitigated for.

 1.5 Local Planning Context
The Waste Assessment and resulting WMMP take place within a local planning context
whereby the actions and objectives identified in the Waste Assessment and WMMP
reflect, intersect with and are expressed through other planning documents. Key
planning documents and waste related goals and objectives are noted in this section.

1.5.1 Long Term Plan
The 2015-25 Long Term Plan (LTP) Part 4: Rubbish and Recycling takes its strategic
direction largely from the previous WMMP. The Levels of Service are identified as
follows:
    Protect the community and environment from the effects of harmful waste and
     promote waste minimisation
    Rubbish and recycling collection services meet customers’ needs

1.5.2 Solid Waste Activity Management Plan
The objective of the Solid Waste Activity Management Plan (January 2015) is to
explain the Council’s strategic and management approach for solid waste disposal.
The Activity Management Plan covers:
    A description of the activity, including the rationale for Council involvement and
     any significant negative effects of the activity.
    The strategic environment (Council’s vision and goals and future demand
     drivers) for the activity, the key asset management policies and strategies
     adopted within this environment and the main risk issues identified for the
     activity.
    A statement of the intended levels of service and performance targets.
Information on the scope of assets involved in delivering services, and statements on:

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Waste Assessment for Waste Management and Minimisation Plan Review - Prepared for Ashburton District Council
 The estimated cost for achieving and maintaining the target levels of service.
     How Council will assess and manage the implications of demand and service
      levels and standards, the estimated costs of the provision of additional asset
      capacity and how these costs will be met.
     How the maintenance, renewal and replacement of assets will be undertaken,
      and how they will be funded.
     How expenses will be met and the estimated revenue levels and other source
      of funds.
The Activity Management Plan should be referred to for additional detail on waste
related assets held by the Council and noted in this Waste Assessment.

1.5.3 Canterbury Regional Council Plans
The Canterbury Regional Policy Statement (CRPS) became operative on 15 January
2013. The CRPS provides an overview of the resource management issues in the
Canterbury region, and the objectives, policies and methods to achieve integrated
management of natural and physical resources. Regional and District Plans cannot be
inconsistent with the CRPS.
Chapter 19, Waste Minimisation and Management, contains objectives and policies
for waste management in the region and methods to achieve them.
Objective 19.2.1 – Minimise the generation of waste
Adverse effects on the environment are avoided by minimising the generation of
waste.
Objective 19.2.2 – Minimise adverse effects of waste
Adverse effects on the environment caused by residual waste and its management are
avoided, remedied or mitigated.
Policy 19.3.1 – Waste management hierarchy
To apply the principles of the 5Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Recover, Residual waste
management) hierarchy to the management of all waste streams.
This policy implements the following objectives: Objective 19.2.1, Objective 19.2.2
Methods:
The Canterbury Regional Council:
Will: (1) Set out objectives and policies, and may include methods in regional plans to
manage the disposal of residual waste through the control of disposal processes and
practices. (2) Set out objectives and policies, and may include methods in regional
plans that will require consideration of the adverse waste effects with regard to
discharges to land, air and water and in any land-use over which a regional plan has
control.3

3Both the Canterbury Land & Water Regional Plan and the Canterbury Air Regional Plan address some
of the adverse waste effects. Further detail can be found in appendix A.2.7.

    Ashburton District Council Waste Assessment 2015
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Should: (3) Advocate the implementation of the 5Rs principles throughout the
Canterbury region. (4) Support product stewardship programmes aimed at the
reduction of waste. (5) Advocate for and encourage the reuse of materials, particularly
in industry.
Territorial authorities:
Should: (6) Set out objectives and policies, and may include methods in district plans
specifically seeking to reduce the potential waste generated as a result of the use of
land. (7) Take into account the 5Rs hierarchy when considering waste management
options and plans (including, but not limited to district plans) for their districts.
Local authorities:
Will: (8) Engage with Ngāi Tahu as tāngata whenua and use iwi management plans to
assist in informing them of Ngāi Tahu values associated with the management of
waste, and of methods to avoid conflict with particular values in the application of the
5Rs principles.
Policy 19.3.2 – Reduce waste at the source
Promote a change in behaviour that will result in the reduction of waste at the source.
This policy implements the following objectives: Objective 19.2.1, Objective 19.2.2
Methods:
The Canterbury Regional Council:
Should: (1) Develop public education initiatives throughout Canterbury that endorse
the 5Rs, with particular focus on reduction of waste through consumer choice. (2)
Advocate for stronger national guidance and incentive for reducing waste, particularly
at the manufacture/ production/import stage.
Policy 19.3.3 – Integrated management of waste
Promote an integrated approach to waste management in the region.
This policy implements the following objective: Objective 19.2.2 Methods:
The Canterbury Regional Council:
Should: (1) Support territorial authorities to maintain an integrated approach to
management of waste in the region. (2) Advocate, to, and cooperate and coordinate,
with territorial authorities, central government, Ngāi Tahu and industry, to achieve an
integrated approach to the management of waste.
Policy 19.3.4 – Establish community waste transfer facilities
Enable the establishment and use of appropriate community facilities and services
such as waste-transfer facilities and recycling centres throughout the region.
This policy implements the following objective: Objective 19.2.2 Methods:
The Canterbury Regional Council:
Should: (1) Encourage the use of community waste-transfer facilities and recycling
centres through education and, where appropriate, enforcement action. (2) Support

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Government and industry-led product stewardship programmes Territorial
authorities:
Will: (3) Set out objectives and policies, and may include methods in district plans to
enable the establishment of waste transfer facilities in appropriate locations. Should:
(4) Encourage and promote the use of community waste transfer facilities.
 1.6 Key Relationships
ADC’s responsibility for waste management activity in the district includes setting
policy, defining service standards and ensuring the required outcomes are achieved
as efficiently as possible. In providing the rubbish and recycling services the Council
works with a number of key business partners including Transwaste Canterbury and
other contractors, consultants, specialist service providers and community sector
organisations.
The Ministry of Health has statutory responsibility for public health issues in New
Zealand including health related aspects of waste management services. Council is
required to consult with the Medical Officer of Health over the content of the Waste
Assessment.
Environment Canterbury has an environmental regulatory and monitoring role under
the Resource Management Act that includes the management of resource consents
issued for the discharge of contaminates (e.g. odours, leachate, dust, etc.).
The Canterbury Waste Sub-committee was established in 1996 to develop a
management framework for solid waste, including waste minimisation and options for
regional disposal. In 2006 the sub-committee was replaced by the Canterbury Waste
Joint Committee which comprises all territorial authorities located in Canterbury
(except Waitaki) plus Environment Canterbury. Advancing regional waste minimisation
is the aim of the committee, and actions initiated by the committee are over and
above what each authority achieves on its own. All member councils contribute
funding towards regional projects.
In respect of waste management, the MfE is responsible for coordinating and
providing guidance on implementation of the Waste Minimisation Act 2008 including
product stewardship, application of the waste disposal levy, funding from the waste
minimisation fund and guiding and monitoring local authorities in terms of meeting
their responsibilities under the Waste Minimisation Act 2008.

 1.7 Available Documentation
The following documents have provided useful background information and are
referenced throughout this waste assessment:
    Council Solid Waste Activity Management Plan 2015
    Council Draft 10 Year Plan 2015-25
    Council Draft Annual Report 2013/14
    Council Waste Management and Minimisation Plan 2011
    Council Waste Assessment 2011

    Ashburton District Council Waste Assessment 2015
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 Ashburton SWAP Audit Report 2012 and 2015

2.0 Ashburton District
This section presents a brief overview of key aspects of the district’s geography,
economy, and demographics that influence the quantities and types of waste
generated and potential opportunities.

    2.1 Key Statistics
Table 1: Key Statistics for Ashburton

Population                                                                          31,041
Population trends         Population growth averaged 1.5% per annum over last ten years.
                                                           Peak of 2.4% growth in 2011.
Size                                                                6,187 square kilometres
Dwellings                      12,396 occupied dwellings and 1,248 unoccupied dwellings
Mean annual                                          $45,410 (national average $51,550)6
earnings
Home ownership                                                      58.1% (54.5% nationally)
Post-school                                          30.2% of population (39.9% nationally)
Qualifications
Data from: Census 2013 and Census 2006
http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2006CensusHomePage/QuickStats/AboutAPlace/SnapShot.aspx?ty
pe=ta&ParentID=1000013&tab=Income&id=2000063,

2.1.1 Demographics
Ashburton (Kapuka), as the District’s principal settlement, accounts for almost 60% of
the population or 19,340 persons by 2016.5 The only other settlements having a
predominantly residential, rather than semi-rural character are Methven and Rakaia
(approximately 1,810 and 1,260 residents respectively).
Statistics New Zealand estimate that the population of Ashburton District could rise to
37,700 by 2031 based on their “High” projection.4 The Ashburton District Council long
term projection indicates that the population will be 36,000 in 2031.5
In 2013 the average household size was 2.5 persons per household. According to the
Ashburton District Plan (2006) the average household size is expected to continue to
decrease to between 2.1 and 2.2 persons per household by 2021. One-person

4http://ecan.govt.nz/about-
us/population/projections/Pages/populationprojections.aspx#subnationalpop
5   Solid Waste Activity Management Plan 2015

                                                11
households are projected to rise and to represent an increasing proportion of all
households.
Over the next 12-15 years, under the high growth scenario the median age (half are
younger, and half older, than this age) of residents of the District is expected to
increase from 40.7 years (in 2013) to 44 years in 2026.7 For New Zealand as a
whole, the median age is 35.9 years.
The relatively old population is confirmed by the fact that 18 percent of people in
Ashburton District are aged 65 years and over, compared with 13.8 percent of the
total New Zealand population.6 By 2031 it is projected that 26.1 percent of the
population of Ashburton will be over 65 years old.
Figure 1: Proportion of population by five-year age group Ashburton District7

    2.2 Economy
GDP in Ashburton increased by 3.3% in the year to December 2014 compared to the
previous 12 months.11 Over the period 2003-2013 GDP in Ashburton grew by an
average of 4% per annum.
Agriculture underpins Ashburton district’s local economy. The district accounts for
over 43% of all arable farm production in New Zealand.8 The agricultural sector is
complemented by a significant food processing sector.

6   Infometrics Ashburton Annual Economic Profile 2013
7   http://ecan.govt.nz/about-us/population/structure/pages/default.aspx
8http://www.ashburtondc.govt.nz/our-district/business-and-economy/Pages/district-
economicprofile.aspx

      Ashburton District Council Waste Assessment 2015
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Figure 2: Gross Domestic Product annual average % change11

Agriculture, fishing and forestry was the largest industry sector in Ashburton in 2011
accounting for 28.5% of total GDP, followed by manufacturing (15.6%) and
construction (6.5%).6
Agriculture, fishing and forestry was also the largest employer in Ashburton in 2013
accounting for 24.9% of total employment, followed by manufacturing (16.9%) and
wholesale and retail trade (13.7%).6 Figure 3 shows the relatively important role of the
primary and secondary sectors in the Ashburton economy.
Figure 3: Employment by broad sector (2013)6

Over the past 5 years (April 2008 – April 2013) the total area of dairy farms in the
district increased by 62%.8 The number of dairy cows in Ashburton has doubled
between 2007 and 2014 according to data from the Livestock Improvement
Corporation.9
Figure 4: Number of dairy cows in Ashburton District

9   http://www.lic.co.nz/lic_Publications.cfm

                                                13
Ashburton Dairy (total cows)
 400000

 350000

 300000

 250000

 200000

 150000

 100000

     50000

         0
             2006   2007     2008   2009   2010   2011   2012   2013   2014

Ashburton is the retail and commercial hub of the district, while Methven and Rakaia
both have retail and commercial businesses servicing the local urban and rural
communities. Annual retail spending in Ashburton was $386 million in the year to
September 2009.6 Since then the level of spending has remained similar; with the
latest data showing retail spending in Ashburton of $100 million in the quarter to
December 2014.11
Ashburton district has 7 hotels, 14 motels, 12 backpackers and 5 holiday parks.10 The
District's main tourism attractions are the Mount Hutt ski field in winter and the scenic
attractions of the foothills and high country areas throughout the year. Visitor numbers
in 2014 equated to 215,689 guest nights in Ashburton district.11 The 10year average
is 204,954 guest nights (2004-2014).
The construction sector has been strong in recent years although indications are that
activity levels are returning to normal. There were nearly 250 consents issued for new
dwellings in 2012, which is well above the 10-year average of about 200. Figure 5:
Residential consents in Ashburton District (quarterly number)11

10   Commercial Accommodation Monitor: April 2015 – Canterbury
11   Quarterly economic monitor – Ashburton December 2014, Infometrics

        Ashburton District Council Waste Assessment 2015
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Non-residential construction has also experienced a boom in 2013-14 the total value
of consents peaking at $75 million in the year to December 2013.
Figure 6: Non-residential consents in Ashburton District ($m annual running total)11

 2.3 Implications of Economic and Demographic Trends
The steady growth in population and economic activity in the District is likely to lead to
increased waste generation. Household waste generation is linked to retail spending
and population; both of these metrics are growing although the impact is not expected
to be dramatic. The aging population and lower number of people living in each
household are long term trends which are common in many parts of New Zealand.
These trends are likely to result in lower waste being generated per household –
although higher waste generation per capita, as smaller households typically generate
more waste per capita than larger households.
The rapid increase in dairy farming and intensification are likely to result in increased
economic activity and also waste generation. It is not known how long the trend for
dairy herd increases can be sustained, and recent declines in international commodity
prices may restrict this growth – at least in the immediate future.
The construction sector is relatively waste intensive. Therefore the high level of activity
in the construction sector for both residential and non-residential buildings is likely to
have led to increased amounts of waste being generated. The most recent data
indicates that the level of construction activity has returned back to the level of the
10-year average. Projections for the amount of construction in the future are not
available.
Other sectors of the economy such as tourism are not anticipated to grow significantly
and will have a limited impact on waste generation rates.

3.0 Overview of Waste Management in the District
Under the current Waste Management Plan (adopted in 2011) ADC has a vision of
working towards zero waste.

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There are no landfills that accept municipal solid waste in Ashburton district. All waste
from the district (with the exception of cleanfill and biosolids) is aggregated at the
Council-owned Ashburton Resource Recovery Park and bulk-hauled to the Kate
Valley regional landfill, in Hurunui District. With the exception of special wastes, only
waste from transfer stations is permitted to be disposed of at the landfill.
Ashburton District Council operates two Resource Recovery Parks (RRPs) in the District
that are open to the public – in Ashburton and Rakaia. The RRPs accept and process
a wide range of recyclable goods and consolidate residual refuse for transfer to
landfill. A greenwaste and inorganic material drop-off facility is also provided in
Methven.
There are 10 Satellite Drop-Off Sites that service a number of the smaller rural villages
around the district. These sites receive household recyclables which are then
transported into the Ashburton Resource Recovery Park. This network was highlighted
for expansion in the current WMMP and this has been planned for within the current
Activity Management Plan (2015).
Ashburton District is, to a relatively high degree, a self-contained waste catchment.
That is, a high proportion of the waste that is generated within the district is disposed
of within the district (at Ashburton RRP) and only a small amount of the waste
disposed of within the district is generated outside of the district.
Waste services in the district are provided by a mix of private sector, community and
council service providers.

 3.1 Council
Ashburton District Council provides a kerbside refuse collection service to properties in
Ashburton, Methven, Rakaia, Hinds, Mayfield, and Mt Somers. As of 1 July 2015 the
village of Chertsey has been included in the serviced area. Serviced properties
represent approximately 65% of residential properties in the district. The refuse
collection is a user-pays service, and only pre-paid official bags are collected. Council
contracts the collection service to Mainly Waste Ltd (formerly Prestons). Pre-paid bags
may also be disposed of at the Ashburton and Rakaia Resource Recovery Parks free of
charge.
Council also provides a kerbside recycling collection in the same areas serviced by the
refuse collection. Each property is provided with one 45-litre green crate for recyclable
materials. Additional crates can also be purchased and there is no limit to the number
of crates that a residential property can own.
The Council intend to introduce a revised kerbside collection service in July 2017. The
proposed system is as follows:
      Rubbish collected weekly (80 litre wheelie bin)
      Recycling collected fortnightly (240 litre wheelie bin for paper, plastics, cans
       and 45 litre crate for glass)
      Ashburton central business district - twice weekly collection of rubbish and
       weekly collection of recycling

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                                               16
   Rubbish bags available for purchase. These will not be collected at the
       kerbside but can be deposited at a resource recovery park free of charge As
       well as the kerbside collection services the Council provides the following:
      Litter and illegal dumping collection
      Operation of the Ashburton and Rakaia Resource Recovery Parks
      Operation of the greenwaste and inorganic material drop-off facility in Methven
      Rural recycling drop-off
      Management of the district’s closed landfills
      Communication, advocacy, education and enforcement
      Waste management planning and reporting

 3.2 Private Sector
Services provided by the private sector include the following:
    Weekly collections of household waste (user pays wheeled bins)
    Skip bin collection services
    Garden waste collections
    Collections of commercial and industrial waste
    Collections of C&D waste
    Commercial recycling collections
    Disposable nappy collection
    Medical waste collections

 3.3 Community
Services provided by the community sector include the following:
    Resale and repair of furniture, clothes, bikes etc.
    Sorting of recyclables at Rakaia
    Farm waste collection service offered by Wastebusters
    Education and promotion of waste minimisation
Further detail on the services provided is presented in the following sections.

4.0 Waste Infrastructure
This section provides a summary of key strategic waste facilities that currently service
households and businesses in Ashburton District.
Figure 7: Map of key waste and recovery facilities in district

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4.1.1 Landfill Disposal Facilities

The District’s residual waste is disposed of in the Kate Valley Landfill in the Waipara
area of Hurunui District. The landfill facility is scheduled to close in 2040. The landfill
facility and transportation of waste to the facility is operated by Transwaste Canterbury
Ltd.

The Ashburton District Council is a shareholder (3%) in Transwaste Canterbury Ltd, a
joint venture company with four other Canterbury Councils (47% shareholding), and
Canterbury Waste Services Ltd (50% shareholding). Canterbury Waste Services is
100% owned by Waste Management NZ Ltd.
Gate fees at the landfill cost the Council $1,086,923 with an additional $457,491
spent on transportation in 2014. Under the operating agreement the Council gets
back what's called a ‘transportation equalisation payment’ each year. That amounted
to a $144,000 refund for the Council in 2014 ($127,000 in 2013). ADC's dividend
was $320,000 in 2014 ($207,000 in 2013).

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The other landfill in the region, Redruth Landfill in Timaru, does not accept waste from
Ashburton.

4.1.2 Closed Landfills

Ashburton, Methven, Rakaia, Hinds and Mayfield landfills are closed. Resource
consents have been obtained for all of these and all are subject to ongoing monitoring
and aftercare in accordance with consent conditions and Post Closure Management
Plans.

4.1.3 Cleanfills
The Ashburton District Plan12 defines cleanfill:
       “includes any natural material which is free of: combustible, putrescible,
       degradable or leachable components or materials likely to create leachate by
       means of biological breakdown; hazardous substances or any products or
       materials derived from hazardous waste treatment, stabilisation or disposal
       practices; contaminated soil or other contaminated materials; medical or
       veterinary waste; asbestos or radioactive substances. It includes (but is not limited
       to) clay, rock, concrete and bricks”

This definition is very similar to, but not exactly the same as, the Ministry for the
Environment’s Cleanfill Guidelines which also exclude liquid waste.13 The District
Plan has defined various Permitted Activities including:
           Deposition of clean fill, not including deposition of any demolition material;
           limited to:
                 • the Rural A and B zones, and
              • a maximum of 200m³ on any one site per annum.
For some types of waste, cleanfills are competing directly with landfills. However,
cleanfills are much less costly than landfills to establish and require much lower levels
of engineering investment to prevent discharges into the environment. Cleanfills also
have much lower compliance costs than landfills. Because of these differing cost
structures, cleanfills charge markedly less for disposal than landfills. In
Christchurch charges for depositing cleanfill materials currently average approximately
$7 per tonne.14
Currently the MfE is working with WasteMINZ to develop new ‘Technical Guidelines for
Disposal to Land’. These guidelines will set out new standards for disposal of waste to
land and if ECan implement the new guidelines then there will be significant changes
to the operation of cleanfill sites in the region, including tighter controls.

12   OPERATIVE DISTRICT PLAN August 2014
13   Ministry for the Environment (2002) ‘A Guide to the Management of Cleanfill’s.
14Twelfth Knight Consulting (2014), “Quarry Rehabilitation: Background Report prepared for
Christchurch City Council District Plan Review”

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The currently consented fill sites in the District are listed in Table 2.
Table 2: Cleanfill facilities
    Name/Operator             Consent Number                         Location
Ashburton District Council       CRC000005              Cochranes Road, ASHBURTON
(Leased to Ashburton
Contracting Limited)
Fulton Hogan Limited                                    Corner Company & Glassworks Road,
(Canterbury)                     CRC961605              ASHBURTON
Fulton Hogan Limited
(Canterbury)                     CRC980264              Frasers Road, ASHBURTON
Fulton Hogan Limited                                    Winslow Westerfield Road,
(Canterbury)                     CRC981919              ASHBURTON
Stuart Tarbotton
Contractors Limited              CRC040535              Frasers Road, TINWALD
Ashburton District Council       CRC060545 &
                                  CRC054067             Vaughans Road, METHVEN
Fulton Hogan Limited                                    Corner Maronan Road & Lills Road,
(Canterbury)                     CRC083452              TINWALD
Ashburton District Council
(Leased to Greg Donaldson                               Corner Winslow Road & Lovetts Road,
Contracting Limited)             CRC080595              ASHBURTON
Greg Donaldson                                          Corner Winchmore Dromore Road &
Contracting Limited             CRC080615.1             Methven Highway, ASHBURTON
Ashburton District Council
(Leased to Rooney              Designated in the        Rapid 934 Thompsons Track,
Earthmoving Limited)           ADC District Plan        HATFIELD
Ashburton District Council     Designated in the        Rapid 660 Winchmore Lauriston Road,
                               ADC District Plan        WINCHMORE
Ashburton District Council     Designated in the
                               ADC District Plan        Rapid 634 Maronan Road, TINWALD
Ashburton District Council     Designated in the        Rapid 2860 Thompsons Track,
                               ADC District Plan        BRAEMAR
Ashburton District Council
(Leased to Rooney              Designated in the        Rapid 2001 Mitcham Road,
Earthmoving Limited)           ADC District Plan        SOMERTON
Ashburton District Council     Designated in the        Corner Wakanui Township & Buttericks
                               ADC District Plan        Road, WAKANUI
Ashburton District Council     Designated in the        Rapid 1942 Ashburton Staveley Road,

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ADC District Plan   ASHBURTON FORKS

Ashburton District Council   Designated in the
                             ADC District Plan    Rapid 1037 Rakaia Highway, SH1,
                               CRC136567          DROMORE

Ashburton District Council   Designated in the    Corner Grahams & Tanseys Road,
                             ADC District Plan    WATERTON

The consent conditions for each of these sites are different. For example the range of
materials which can be disposed of at each site is different, of the ECan consented
sites only six of the sites are required to keep a record of material deposited at the
site.
All of the Ashburton District owned sites designated as cleanfills under the District
Plan are managed under the Ashburton District Council Cleanfill Management Policy. It
is a re requirement of the policy that each load is recorded including:
    The date
    The vehicle ID
    Operating company
    Drivers name
    Type of material
    Source of material
    Quantity (cubic metres)
All of the Council designated sites are Council controlled sites. These sites only take
materials from Council roading or utilities infrastructure projects. They are not open for
public use.

4.1.4 Assessment of Residual Waste Disposal Infrastructure
The Kate Valley Landfill is a modern facility and provides a long term waste disposal
option for ADC. The Council is committed to the regional landfill as providing the best
means of providing a state of the art landfill facility for solid waste disposal.
There are 9 sites in the district which are consented by ECan to dispose of solid waste
to land. These sites are all located near Ashburton town, apart from the Council’s site
near Methven.

 4.2 Resource Recovery Parks
Council owned Resource Recovery Parks (RRPs) are located in Ashburton and Rakaia.
The Ashburton RRP is operated under contract to Council. At the Rakaia RRP
recyclable resources, except glass, are processed and managed by the Rakaia
Community Association volunteers and general operation of the facility is carried out

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under contract to Council. Under current contracts all resources deposited at the
Ashburton RRP become the property of the operator. At the Rakaia RRP, the
resources except glass become the property of the Rakaia Community Association.
Activities at the Ashburton RRP comprise:
           Drop-off for all re-usable items and recyclable resources
           Re-use retail outlet for all collected reusable items (excludes electrical
            goods)
           Sorting, baling and sale of recyclable resources collected from the
            kerbside collection, drop-off facilities, or dropped off at the RRP
           Collection of electronic waste including computers, monitors, keyboards,
            printers and televisions
           Green waste drop-off
           Green waste composting (including green waste from Methven), and sale
            of product
           Drop-off, sorting and sale of construction and demolition waste, including
            concrete/brick crushing for aggregate, composting of clean plasterboard,
            steel recovery for recycling and sale of re-usable items
           Collection of waste oil
           Education services and school programme
           Residual waste collection and transfer to Kate Valley Landfill
           Domestic hazardous waste drop-off for small amounts of household
            hazardous waste.
The contractor is incentivised to recover resources from the residual waste and is paid
monthly for tonnages recovered from the residual waste stream.
Activities at the Rakaia RRP comprise:
           Drop-off for re-usable items and recyclable resources
           Sorting, baling and sale of recyclable resources collected from the
             kerbside collection, or dropped off at the RRP  Green waste drop-off,
             composting and sale of product  Refuse drop-off for transfer to
             Ashburton RRP.
Table 3 shows the opening hours for the RRPs.
Table 3: Resource recovery parks opening hours
                     Ashburton                Rakaia
   Monday         8.00am - 5.00pm         10.00am - 12.00pm
   Tuesday        8.00am - 5.00pm               CLOSED

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Wednesday          8.00am - 5.00pm           3.30pm - 5.30pm
   Thursday         8.00am - 5.00pm                 CLOSED
    Friday          8.00am - 5.00pm           2.00pm - 4.00pm
   Saturday         9.00am - 5.00pm           9.00am – 3.00pm
   Sunday         1.00pm - 5.00pm            CLOSED
The materials accepted, and associated charges, are shown in Table 4.
Table 4: Charges
Material                 Ashburton                 Methven            Rakaia
Minimum charge (up       $8.20                                        $8.20
to 80kg)
Green waste              $95.10 per tonne          $25.60 per m3      $25.60 per m3
Residual waste           $221.75 per tonne                            $83.50 per m3
Inorganic waste                                    $55.20 per m3
E-waste – CRT            $10.00                                       $10.00
monitors
E-waste – flat screen $6.00                                           $6.00
monitors
E-waste – televisions $15.00                                          $15.00
Car body - each          $59.30                                       $59.30
Clean and sorted         $136.00                                      $136.00
concrete waste and
demolition waste -
per tonne
Tyres - each             $5.10                                        $5.10
Council provides self-serve rural recycling drop-off facility sites in the district.
These are located at:
           Willowby - Longbeach Road (beside the school)
           Mt Somers - Hoods Road (behind Mt Somers Tavern)
           Mayfield - Arundel Rakaia Gorge Road (beside Mayfield Tavern)
           Staveley – Boyds Road (behind the Hall)
           Hinds – James Street (behind Hinds Tavern)
           Rangitata Huts - Wrens Road

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 Haketere Huts - River Road  Pendarves - Chertsey Kyle Road  South
                 Rakaia Huts.
In Ashburton there is also the Wastebusters Recycling Centre and Reuse Shop.
Wastebusters operates as an independent self-funded trust and was established in
1994 with the goal of diverting waste from the landfill.
The recycling centre activities include:
              Drop-off for all re-usable items and recyclable resources
              Re-use retail outlet for all collected reusable items
              Sorting, baling and sale of recyclable resources collected from
               commercial collections or dropped off at the recycling centre
              Green waste drop-off
              Collection of waste oil
              Base for education services in schools
              Residual waste collection and transfer to ARRP.

4.2.1 Assessment of Resource Recovery Park Infrastructure and Operation
The Council owned RRPs are relatively large sites which have good infrastructure for
collecting and separating waste brought to the sites. The Wastebusters site results in
duplication of infrastructure. Whilst this is good for competition it is not particularly
efficient.
The rural recycling drop-off sites are provided for rural residents and visitors. The
coverage is currently limited however the number of sites is planned to expand over
the coming years.
A summary of the valuation of ADC’s solid waste assets is presented in Table 5.
Table 5: Replacement value of assets (July 2014 valuation)15
                                                               Annual
                                               ODRC         Depreciation
                ASSET TYPE
                                            1 July 2014      1 July 2014

 Rakaia Resource Recovery Park                $412,740           $20,714
 Ashburton Resource Recovery Park            $1,600,488          $65,282
 Methven Recycling drop-off area              $118,693            $4,051
 Mayfield Recycling drop-off area                $2,031             $459
 Hinds Recycling drop-off area                     $846             $212
 Recycling                                      $40,335           $1,864
 Ashburton and Tinwald Litter Bins              $47,788          $18,305
 Mayfield Litter Bins                            $1,637             $218
 Methven Litter Bins                            $14,654           $5,429
 Rakaia Litter Bins                              $7,472           $1,992

15   Draft 2015 Solid Waste Activity Management Plan

      Ashburton District Council Waste Assessment 2015
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