2017-2021 Arizona-Sonora Environmental Strategic Plan - PROJECTS FOR BUILDING THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE ECONOMY - ADEQ

 
2017-2021 Arizona-Sonora Environmental Strategic Plan - PROJECTS FOR BUILDING THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE ECONOMY - ADEQ
Arizona-Sonora
    Environmental Strategic Plan
                 2017-2021
PROJECTS FOR BUILDING THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE ECONOMY
         IN THE ARIZONA-SONORA BORDER REGION
2017-2021 Arizona-Sonora Environmental Strategic Plan - PROJECTS FOR BUILDING THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE ECONOMY - ADEQ
2   ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021

                                                            TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                 List of Figures

                                                                 Letter from Agency Directors

                                                            06   Executive Summary

                                                            08   Environmental Context of the Arizona-Sonora Region

                                                            10   Strategic Plans of Arizona and Sonora Agencies and Potential Synergies

                                                            12   The Arizona-Sonora Environmental Strategic Plan Process

                                                            13   Implementing the Arizona-Sonora Environmental Strategic Plan

                                                            15   Economic Competitiveness and the Environment in the Arizona-Sonora Border Region

                                                            21   Strategic Environmental Projects 2017-2021

                                                            21   Overview of Strategic Arizona-Sonora Environmental Projects

                                                            22   Water Projects

                                                            26   Air Projects

                                                            29   Waste Management Projects

                                                            32   Wildlife Projects

                                                            33   Additional Projects for Future Consideration

                                                            33   Water Projects/Prioritization

                                                            36   Air Projects/Prioritization

                                                            37   Waste Management Projects/Prioritization

                                                            38   Wildlife Projects/Prioritization
2017-2021 Arizona-Sonora Environmental Strategic Plan - PROJECTS FOR BUILDING THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE ECONOMY - ADEQ
ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                                   5

                                                                          LETTER FROM AGENCY DIRECTORS

LIST OF FIGURES
08     Figure 1: The U.S.-Mexico Border Zone

09     Figure 2: Border environmental concerns identified by CEDES/ADEQ

                                                                          Dear Colleagues, Friends and Neighbors,
 10    Figure 4: CEDES Strategic Areas Overview, 2016-2021
                                                                            We present to you this first Arizona-Sonora Environmental Strategic Plan for 2017-2021. In June
                                                                          2016, the Environment and Water Committee of the Arizona-Mexico Commission/Comisión So-
 11    Figure 5: ADEQ Strategic Plan Overview
                                                                          nora-Arizona agreed to produce this plan in order to enhance synergies and maximize the effec-
                                                                          tive use of resources. This plan is the latest effort in a long history of cross-border collaboration
 12    Figure 6: Overview of Strategic Plan Development Process, 2016     involving bilateral, federal, state and local agencies, as well as the private sector and non-gov-
                                                                          ernmental organizations in Arizona and Sonora.
 12    Figure 7: Strategic Plan Working Groups                             In addition to the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality and the State of Sonora Ecology
                                                                          and Sustainable Development Commission, supporters and collaborators included the Arizona
 13    Figure 8: Overview of Strategic Plan Activities, 2017              Game and Fish Department, State of Sonora Water Commission, Arizona Department of Water
                                                                          Resources, Border Environment Cooperation Commission, North American Development Bank,
                                                                          and the North American Research Partnership.
 14    Figure 9: Example of an AMC/CSA Action Plan and Progress Report
                                                                            We look forward to working with additional partners from the non-governmental, academic, and
                                                                          private sectors as we move toward implementation of the plan to help us ensure progress.
 14    Figure 10: Project Monitoring Tool
                                                                          Sincerely,
 15    Figure 11: Arizona-Sonora Megaregion Dominant Industry Sectors

 16    Table 1: Arizona-Sonora Border Counties/Municipios
       — 20 Most Concentrated Industries (2013)

                                                                           Misael Cabrera, P.E.                         Ing. Luis Carlos Romo
                                                                           Director of the Arizona Department           Executive Commissioner, State of
                                                                           of Environmental Quality                     Sonora Ecology and Sustainable
                                                                                                                        Development Commission
6                                    ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                  ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                                                  7

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                                                           sources, and collaborating organizations.                     the implementation of these projects during the
                                                                                                              The 15 strategic projects selected address a                2017-2021 period and will be made public.
  Arizona and Sonora share a number of environ-                                                             range of issues within the areas of water, air,                 A Memorandum of Understanding was de-
mental challenges both along and across their                                                               waste management and wildlife. Fourteen ad-                   veloped and subsequently presented at the
362-mile shared border. Water, air, solid waste,                                                            ditional projects were selected by the agencies               Comisión Sonora-Arizona/Arizona-Mexico
and wildlife issues do not end at political bound-                                                          as meriting consideration as time and resources               Commission meeting in Hermosillo on Decem-
aries, meaning the two states’ environmental,               The objective of theArizona-Sonora              allow and are also included as part of the plan               ber 1-2, 2016. The memorandum will serve as a
water, and wildlife agencies must work together                Environmental Strategic Plan                 itself.                                                       formal framework for collaboration between the
as well as with their federal and bilateral agency           is to have one guiding plan for the                                                                          two state governments and for implementation
                                                                                                              A monitoring tool is also included with this
counterparts to achieve lasting solutions in the                                                                                                                          of the strategic plan.
                                                            Arizona-Sonora border region that               plan. The tool will be used to track progress on
region. The development of the Arizona-Sonora
Environmental Strategic Plan emerged from a                the various organizations supporting
long history of cross-border collaboration involv-         binational collaboration can utilize to          STRATEGIC ARIZONA-SONORA
ing bilateral, federal, state and local agencies as
well as the private sector and non-governmental
                                                             enhance synergies and maximize                 ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS, 2017-2021
                                                                 the effective use of resources.
organizations in Arizona and Sonora.                                                                               ADEQ/CEA                                                          WATER
                                                                                                                  Prioritization
  In June 2016, in order to enhance synergies                                                                            1            Stormwater Control in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational Infrastructure
and maximize the effective use of resources, the                                                                                      and Public Health
Environment and Water Committee of the Arizo-                                                                           2             Infrastructure for Metals and E. coli Attenuation in the San Pedro River
na-Mexico Commission/Comisión Sonora Arizo-           Arizona Department of Water Resources. Bilateral
na agreed to produce the Arizona-Sonora Envi-         organizations such as the North American Devel-                   3             Implementation of Green Infrastructure in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational
                                                                                                                                      Stormwater Quality
ronmental Strategic Plan for 2017-2021.               opment Bank and federal agencies such as Mex-
                                                                                                                        4             Industrial Pretreatment Support in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational
  The Arizona Department of Environmental             ico’s Secretariat for the Environment and Natural                               Water Quality

Quality and the Commission for Ecology and            Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection            ADEQ/CEDES                                                             AIR
                                                      Agency were also consulted during the process.             Prioritization
Sustainable Development for the State of Sonora
                                                                                                                        1             Installation and Operation of Air Quality Equipment in Sonora Border Communities
were named as the lead agencies, and the Border         In addition, it was envisioned that the plan                                  Phase 1. Rehabilitation of current equipment. Phase 2. Acquisition of new equipment.
Environmental Cooperation Commission sup-             would incorporate elements of the economy and                     2             Ozone Monitoring Pilot Project in San Luis Río Colorado
ported the coordination of the project. Additional    community as these were priority areas for the
state agencies collaborated on specific topics,       two states’ new administrations. To this end, the                 3             Expansion of Air Quality Smartphone Application to Yuma

including Sonora’s State Water Commission,            North American Research Partnership (NARP), an
                                                                                                                 ADEQ/CEDES                                               WASTE MANAGEMENT
the Arizona Game and Fish Department and the          independent, non-profit research organization,             Prioritization
                                                      was asked to provide research on economic com-                    1             Identification and Cleanup Prioritization of Waste-impacted Sites in Combination with a
                                                      petitiveness and the environment (in addition to                                Solid Waste Management Education Campaign
                                                      organizing, editing and producing the plan itself).               2             Comprehensive Electronic Waste and Discarded Domestic Appliances Management
                                                                                                                                      Program
                                                        This plan was developed through a series of                     3             Development of a Comprehensive Master Plan for the Management of Solid Waste, including:
                                                      conference calls, workshops and individual                                      (a) Research of urban solid waste infrastructure lag and landfill locations.
                                                                                                                                      (b) Provision of municipal solid waste collection, transport, and disposal equipment.
                                                      consultations. Two multi-agency workshops                                       (c) Establishment of at least one solid waste recycling plant project.
                                                      were held in Tucson (September 13-14) and
                                                      Hermosillo (November 1) to discuss: a) the
                                                                                                                  AZGFD/CEA                                                        WILDLIFE
                                                                                                                  Prioritization
                                                      development and selection of key projects, b)                      1            Population Study of the Sonoran Pronghorn in Arizona and Sonora
                                                      criteria for considering these projects and c)
                                                      their prioritization.                                             2             Monitoring of the Black-tailed Prairie Dog Population in Arizona and Sonora

                                                        The plan features sections regarding back-                      3             Improvements to the Mexican Grey Wolf Captive Breeding Program
                                                      ground on Arizona-Sonora environmental is-
                                                      sues and collaboration, economic competitive-                     4             Identification of Priority Areas for Jaguar Conservation in Southern Sonora

                                                      ness and the environment, strategic projects,
                                                                                                                        5             Bighorn Population Study in Sonora
                                                      additional projects, potential project funding
8                                      ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                     ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                                                                 9

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT                                                                                            ADEQ oversees air
                                                                                                                 quality, waste man-
                                                                                                                                           Figure 2: Border Environmental Concerns/CEDES

OF THE ARIZONA-SONORA REGION                                                                                     agement, water quality          BORDER ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
                           Figure 1: U.S. - Mexico Border Zone
                                                                                                                 regulations, and regu-
                                                                                                                 latory programs. CEDES
                                                                                                                                                 IDENTIFIED BY CEDES
Environmental
Challenges and                                                                                                   addresses air quality                                              CONCERNS
Opportunities                                                                                                    and waste management
                                                                                                                                             Updating waste management infrastructure
for the Two States                                                                                               programs, while CEA is
                                                                                                                 the authority in Sonora     Strengthening the management of waste requiring special handling
  The development of                                                                                             responsible for issues
the Arizona-Sonora                                                                                               related to water quantity   Identifying and cleaning up contaminated sites and clandestine dumping sites
Environmental Stra-                                                                                              and quality.
tegic Plan emerged                                                                                                                                Strengthening air quality monitoring systems, outreach and prevention
from a long history of                                                                                             General areas of con-
cross-border collabo-                                                                                            cern to both ADEQ and            Studying and recovering priority species

ration involving bilat-                                                                                          CEDES are outlined in
eral, federal, state and                                                                                         Figures 2 and 3 at right.
                                                                                                                                                Figure 3: Border Environmental Concerns/ADEQ
local agencies as well                                                                                             Finding appropriate
as the private sector                                                                                            funding is one of the           BORDER ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
and non-governmental                                                                                             key challenges for ad-
organizations in Arizona                                                                                         dressing environmental          IDENTIFIED BY ADEQ
and Sonora.                                                                                                      needs. A variety of fund-                                       SHORT-TERM CONCERNS
                                                                                                                 ing mechanisms exist for
  Defining the border
                                                                                                                 border environmental             Stormwater management/control in binational watersheds
region is of primary       national boundary; the        ters into Mexico.           both along and across       projects in addition to
importance in the man-     binational Border 2020                                    their 362-mile shared                                        Metals discharge in Ambos Nogales wastewater
                                                            For Sonora and                                       federal, state and local
agement of the border      program continues to                                      border. Water, air, waste
                                                         Arizona, this encom-                                    resources. Governmen-            Solid waste cleanup along riverbanks and washes of binational rivers
region and its natural     utilize this definition.                                  management, and wild-
                                                         passes 56 municipios                                    tal programs at all levels
resources. The 1983 La                                                               life issues do not end      represent one of the             Unkown concentrations and transport of ozone in Ambos San Luis
Paz Agreement be-             Throughout the             (analogous to U.S.
                           Arizona-Sonora En-            counties) in the state of   at political boundaries,    main sources of financ-
tween the United States                                                              meaning the two states      ing in regards to attend-        Proper management of electronic waste
and Mexico established     vironmental Strategic         Sonora and four Arizona
                           Plan process, the two         counties. Differences in    must work together as       ing the priorities set by
a border zone that ex-                                                               well as with their feder-   state governments.
tended 100 kilometers      states followed an            population in the border
north and 100 kilome-      updated definition of         zone are notable: while     al and bilateral agency       There are alternatives        BORDER ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
                           the U.S.-Mexico bor-          approximately 18% of        counterparts to achieve
ters south of the inter-
                           der currently utilized        Arizona’s population        lasting solutions in the
                                                                                                                 from commercial and
                                                                                                                 development banks that
                                                                                                                                                 IDENTIFIED BY ADEQ
                           by the North American         lives in the four border    region.                     provide financing op-                                    MEDIUM/LONG-TERM CONCERNS
    Arizona and Sonora     Development Bank and          counties of Yuma, Pima,       Agencies leading          portunities under com-
                                                                                                                                                  Fix the International Outfall Interceptor (IOI)
    share a number of      the Border Environment        Santa Cruz and Coch-        state environmen-           petitive conditions. One
    environmental          Cooperation Com-              ise, 53% of Sonora’s        tal policy include the      of these banks that has          Repair Nogales Wash
    challenges both        mission and which has         population lives in the     Arizona Department of       worked for more than 20          Calculate emissions reduction as a result of shorter wait times at ports of entry; calculate emis-
    along and across       been adopted by nu-           municipios included in      Environmental Quality       years in the U.S.-Mex-           sions reduction as result of port infrastructure improvements; and to pormote economic growth
    their 362-mile         merous border environ-        the border zone, which      (ADEQ), the Commis-         ico border region is the         Banking solar power generation by warehouses for use during peak hours
    shared border.         ment stakeholders. This       includes the state cap-     sion for Ecology and        North American Devel-
    Water, air, waste      definition also extends       ital, Hermosillo. (See      Sustainable Develop-        opment Bank, which                Solar power for refrigerated inspection bays atl and ports of entry (POEs)
    management, and        100 kilometers north          Figure 1 above).            ment of the State of        has a loan program for            Santa Cruz County and Cochise County, as well as NGOs and EPA requests for information on
    wildlife issues do     of the boundary but                                       Sonora (CEDES), and         border infrastructure             mining activities with potential binational environmental impacts; requests for watershed bound-
                                                           Arizona and Sonora                                                                      aries and drainage patterns in response to spills, emergency response
    not end at political   extends the southern                                      the Sonora State Wa-        projects which meet
                                                         share a number of en-
    boundaries.            boundary 300 kilome-                                      ter Commission (CEA).       basic criteria.                  Identify potential sources for vector-borne diseases, e.g. Nogales Wash
                                                         vironmental challenges
10                                    ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                 ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                                 11

STRATEGIC PLANS OF ARIZONA AND SONORA AGENCIES                                                              STRATEGIC PLANS OF ARIZONA AND SONORA AGENCIES
AND POTENTIAL SYNERGIES                                                                                     AND POTENTIAL SYNERGIES
                           Figure 4: CEDES Strategic Areas Overview, 2016-2021                              over the next 100        Figure 5: ADEQ Strategic Plan Overview
  The respective
                                                                                                            years. It also ad-
goals and objectives
                                                                                                            dresses the needs of                                              ADEQ Misson and
of the agencies par-
ticipating in the Arizo-                                                                                    multiple water users                                              Goal-driven
                                                                                                            throughout the state.
na-Sonora Environ-                                                                                                                                                            Strategic Plan
mental Strategic Plan                                                                                         The Wildlife 20/20                                              The plan supports priorities
process differ in their                                                                                     Strategic Plan of the
                                                                                                                                                                              outlined for the state by Arizona
scope and language                                                                                          Arizona Game and
                                                                                                                                                                              Governor Doug Ducey
but also show signif-                                                                                       Fish Department
icant overlap in the                                                                                        (AZGFD) has objec-
types of projects and                                                                                       tives that focus pri-                                             These include:
activities they pro-                                                                                        marily on wildlife and
mote. These areas of                                                                                        species preservation                                              •   21st Century Economy
common cause were                                                                                           through habitat con-                                              •   Protecting Our Communities
identified and em-                                                                                          servation, including                                              •   Healthy Citizens
phasized throughout                                                                                         specific objectives                                               •   Educational Excellence
the development of                                                                                          for watershed-based                                               •   Fiscal Responsibility
the strategic plan in                                  sion’s (CONAGUA)                                     management and
order to maximize the      as the promotion of                                   Management System.         public lands steward-
                                                       Objectives and Na-                                                            and provide key guid-        Border 2020 and             The Arizona-Sonora
binational impact of       environmental justice                                 ADEQ’s air, water, and     ship.
                                                       tional Strategies are                                                         ance for the types and       also contains several     Environmental Stra-
planned projects.          and citizen participa-                                waste goals corre-
                                                       numerous and range                                     At the binational      locations for border         objectives specific to    tegic Plan was pre-
                           tion, as well as more                                 spond to the strategic
  The following is a                                   from objectives relat-                               level, the U.S. Envi-    environment projects.        binational infrastruc-    sented as a concept
                           specific ones such as                                 plan’s air, water, and
brief overview of each                                 ed to the evaluation                                 ronmental Protec-          Goals 4 and 5,             ture and asset man-       at the annual meeting
                           the implementation                                    waste management
agency’s publical-                                     of the effects of cli-                               tion Agency’s (EPA)      dealing with joint           agement.                  of the AMC/CSA En-
                           of a of a state cli-                                  working groups, and
ly-available goals at                                  mate change on the                                   U.S.-Mexico Border       preparedness for en-           Finally, the Arizo-     vironment and Water
                           mate change mitiga-                                   the plan supports
the time of the stra-                                  hydrologic cycle to                                  2020 Program, in         vironmental response         na-Mexico Commis-         Committee on June
                           tion action plan and                                  Governor Doug Du-
tegic plan’s develop-                                  specific strategies for                              collaboration with       and compliance and           sion (AMC) and the        23, 2016. The idea
                           developing landfill,                                  cey’s priorities for the
ment.                                                  promoting integrated                                 Mexico’s Secretariat     environmental stew-          Comisión Sonora-Ar-       was for the plan to be
                           water treatment, and                                  state (see Figure 5
                                                       and sustainable water                                for the Environment      ardship, relate to a         izona (CSA) have col-     formalized with both
  With respect to the      recycling programs.                                   pg. 11). In 2014, the
                                                       management.                                          and Natural Resourc-     number of additional         laborated for over five   governments under
participating agen-        Sonora’s State Water                                  Arizona Department
                                                                                                            es (SEMARNAT),           binational programs          decades in the region.    the auspices of the
cies from the state of     Commission (CEA)              The FY2017 Strate-      of Water Resources
                                                                                                            has objectives for       and initiatives such         The two commissions       AMC and the CSA.
Sonora, the Commis-        has five Quality Ob-        gic Plan of the Ari-      (ADWR) developed
sion for Ecology and       jectives which in-          zona Department of        Arizona’s Next Centu-      its Arizona-Sonora       as the Toxic Release         have emphasized             The development
Sustainable Devel-         clude, for example,         Environmental Quality     ry: A Strategic Vision     Regional Workgroup       Inventory (TRI), the         working sessions,         of a Memorandum
opment for the State       “Motivate high effi-        (ADEQ) sets specific,     for Water Supply           that are specific both   Joint Contingency            data sharing, and         of Understanding
of Sonora (CEDES)          ciency among [water]        numerical objectives      Sustainability, which      in their timeframes      Plan, and the National       collaboration. Joint      was also discussed,
has four top-level         users” and “Develop         for pollution reduc-      provides a compre-         and their numerical      Program for Envi-            committees of the two     primarily as a way of
areas on its Strategic     a water culture that        tion, percentage of       hensive water supply       goals. The air pol-      ronmental Auditing.          commissions develop       formalizing the plan
Agenda 2016-2021           promotes responsible        facilities in compli-     strategy for Arizona       lution, safe drinking    The Strategic Plan           action items, which       with both state gov-
(see Figure 4 above)       use and conserva-           ance, compliance          and creates a frame-       water, and waste         of the International         tend to follow the        ernments and also to
as well as 10 strategic    tion.” At the Mexican       time frames, etc., and    work for addressing        management objec-        Boundary and Water           timeline of Arizona       monitor the develop-
objectives that cover      federal level, the Na-      stresses the agency’s     potential water im-        tives complement the     Commission (IBWC)            and Sonora plenaries,     ment of the strategic
general subjects such      tional Water Commis-        adoption of its Lean      balances in the state      Arizona and Sonora       includes objectives          typically held twice      projects outlined in
                                                                                                            state agencies’ goals    similar to those of          per year.                 the plan.
12                                    ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                 ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                                                     13

THE ARIZONA -SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL                                                                                           IMPLEMENTING THE ARIZONA-SONORA
STRATEGIC PLAN PROCESS                                                                                                      ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN
                                                       Figure 6: Overview of Strategic Plan Dev. Process, 2016                                                                       Figure 8: Overview of Strategic Plan Activities, 2017
  The highly collaborative development of this                                                                                 The Arizona-Sonora Environmental Strategic
environmental strategic plan emerged from a                                      SEPTEMBER                                  Plan is comprised of 15 strategic projects and 14                         JANUARY-FEBRUARY
long history of multi-agency, multi-organization        Sept. 13-15, First working session held in Tucson, AZ               additional projects that can be initiated as time and     Primary state agencies coordinate on workplans and prioritize
cross-border collaboration involving bilateral,                                                                             resources allow. The plan will be carried out by par-     projects for 2017 implementation
federal, state, and local agencies as well as the       Session 1 tasks completed by participants                           ticipating agencies between 2017 and 2021.                Coordinate with EPA and BECC on Border 2020 RFP priorities

private sector and non-governmental organiza-                                                                                 A central component of the Strategic Plan pro-          Leads, outputs,timelines, project management and progress
                                                        Compilation of information by contractor, NARP
tions in Arizona and Sonora.                                                                                                cess is the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)             reporting tools identified

  In June 2016, the Environment and Water Com-                                                                              presented at the CSA/AMC Summit in Hermosillo
                                                                                   OCTOBER                                                                                                                 MARCH-APRIL
mittee of the Arizona-Mexico Commission (AMC)/                                                                              on December 2, 2016. The MOU lays out the frame-
Comisión Sonora Arizona (CSA) agreed to pro-            Oct. 17, draft of project prioritization sent to participants for   work for implementation of the strategic plan in          Engage additional partners and stakeholders to implement
                                                        review                                                                                                                        projects
duce an Arizona-Sonora Environmental Strategic                                                                              terms of projects, goals, objectives and targeted
                                                        Week of Oct. 17, virtual meetings of topic working groups for                                                                 Identify other potential sources of support for current and
Plan, with a key objective being the maximization       input on draft document                                             outcomes. It also underscores the importance of the       future projects
of limited resources. The Arizona Department of         Oct. 26, delivery of draft report to participants                   15 strategic projects, the 14 additional projects and         Meeting of the Arizona-Sonora Border 2020
Environmental Quality and the Commission for                                                                                allows for the possibility of additional projects and           Regional Workgroup and Task Forces
Ecology and Sustainable Development for the             Agencies draft MOU for submittal to AMC/CSA                         binational collaboration to be added to the plan with
                                                                                                                                                                                                              MAY-JUNE
State of Sonora were named as the lead agencies,                                                                            the agreement of the respective state agencies.
and the Border Environmental Cooperation Com-                                    NOVEMBER                                     In addition, the MOU serves as the beginning of         AMC Summer Summit
mission and the North American Development              Nov.1, working session for final comments on draft from             the operational phase of the Strategic Plan. Spe-         EPA releases Border 2020 RFP
Bank were enlisted to help fund the effort.             agencies                                                            cifically, it lays the groundwork for project imple-
  In addition, the North American Research              2nd week of Nov., final version completed for translation and       mentation and follow-up by providing for the use of       Mid-year progress reports for each project implemented
                                                        printing
Partnership (NARP), an independent, non-profit                                                                              a monitoring and implementation tool to evaluate
                                                        Finalize MOUs based on AMC/CSA edits from review
research organization, was asked to organize, edit                                                                          progress on each project.                                                      JULY-AUGUST
and produce the plan itself. NARP’s interdisciplin-                                                                           Project implementation is a key component of the
                                                                                  DECEMBER                                                                                            EPA and BECC select Border 2020 RFP grantees
ary team of analysts have undertaken a signifi-                                                                             strategic plan process. At the Hermosillo meeting
cant amount of work over the years in interrelated      Dec. 1-2, CSA/AMC Summit in Hermosillo - Environment &
                                                                                                                            on November 1, 2016, members of the four working          Planning begins for projects to be implemented in 2018
                                                        Water Committee present plan, execute MOU via Governors
fields such as the the environment and cross-bor-                                                                           groups began working on detailed project imple-
der competitiveness (specifically cross-border                                                                              mentation plans that cover the entire project cycle,                     SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER
                                                       Figure 7: Strategic Plan Working Groups
trucking and renewable energy).                                                                                             from the project conceptualization phase to ap-           Leads for projects begin compiling information for progress
  Figure 6 at right gives an overview of the strate-                       WORKING GROUPS                                   proaching potential funders to initiating operations      reports, including setbacks experienced and actions taken to
                                                                                                                                                                                      get back on course
gic plan development process from its conceptu-                                                                             in the field. Figure 8 below outlines general Stra-
                                                                   Water| Waste Management | Air | Wildlife                 tegic Plan milestones for 2017. AMC/CSA plenary
alization in June 2016 to its publication and formal                                                                                                                                      Meeting of the Arizona-Sonora Border 2020
presentation in Hermosillo on December 1-2,                                                                                 and interplenary sessions will serve as a time to               Regional Workgroup and Task Forces
2016.                                                                                                                       discuss updates on individual projects and the
                                                                                                                            overall development of activities proposed under                        NOVEMBER-DECEMBER
  This plan was developed through a series of            The 29 projects selected include 15 strategic
                                                                                                                            the plan. Action plans will be developed at these
conference calls, workshops and individual con-        projects that the two states’ relevant agencies will                                                                           CSA Fall Summit
                                                                                                                            sessions. In addition, Figure 9 shows an example
sultations. Two multi-agency workshops were            implement and collaborate on during the 2017-
                                                                                                                            of the AMC/CSA Action Plans that will be used to          End-of-year progress report and outline of projects to be
held in Tucson (September 13-14) and Hermosillo        2021 period. Fourteen additional projects were                                                                                 implemented in 2018
                                                                                                                            update the Commissions on the status of the plan
(November 1) to discuss a) the development and         selected for implementation as time and resourc-
                                                                                                                            and its various projects. Finally, Figure 10 shows the   specific projects tasks, percentage completion for
selection of key projects, b) criteria for consider-   es allow. The projects represent a range of issues
                                                                                                                            monitoring tool example. Such a tool will feature        tasks and specific projects, deadlines and dates for
ing these projects and c) prioritization. This last    within the areas of water, air, waste management
                                                                                                                            the specific degree of detail that teams will develop    follow-up. It is important to note that monitoring
aspect was refined during numerous consulta-           and wildlife (see Figure 7 above). In some cases,
                                                                                                                            for the individual projects, including major project     timelines will be agreed upon between the relevant
tions with subject matter experts from participat-     two or even more projects were combined into
                                                                                                                            goals, specific objectives, officials responsible for    Arizona and Sonora agencies.
ing agencies.                                          one strategic project.
14                                           ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                 ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                                          15

Figure 9: Example of an AMC/CSA Action Plan and Progress Report
                                                                                                                   ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
                                                                                                                   IN THE ARIZONA-SONORA BORDER REGION
                                                                                                                                                                   Figure 11:Arizona-Sonora Megaregion Dominant Industry Sectors
                                                                                                                   OVERVIEW
                                                                                                                     The genesis of this strategic plan coincided               SOURCE: Arizona Commerce Authority
                                                                                                                   with the beginnings of two new administra-            •     Aerospace
                                                                                                                   tions in Arizona and Sonora, both of which have       •     Automotive
                                               COMMITTEE: (Name)                                                                                                         •     Mining
                                                                                                                   sought to place economic development front            •     Health Technology and Medical Devices
                                                      DATE                                                         and center. The Great Recession affected the          •     Advanced Manufacturing
                                                                                                                                                                         •     High Technology
                                                                                                                   state of Arizona in a direct and sustained manner,    •     Biotech/Bioscience
                                                                                                                   and immigration politics during the height of this    •     Renewable Energy

                                              ACTION PLAN #1: (Title)                                              phenomenon did not advance the state’s eco-           •     Optics/Photonics
                                                                                                                                                                         •     Agriculture
                                                                                                                   nomic case as having a business-friendly cli-         •     Information Technology
DESCRIPTION OF THE OBJECTIVE:                                                                                      mate. Sonora has sought to take greatest advan-
                                                                                                                   tage of its proximity to the United States while          SOURCE: State of Sonora Secretariat of the Economy
IMPACT FOR ARIZONA-SONORA REGION (EXPECTED BENEFIT):                                                               building on its strengths in mining, agriculture,     •     Aerospace
TARGET COMPLETION DATE:                                                                                            and aerospace. While an exhaustive study of ties      •     Automotive
                                                                                                                   between the environment and the economy in            •     Mining
                                                                                                                                                                         •     Electronics
ACTION ITEMS:                                                                                                      the Arizona-Sonora border region is beyond the
                                                                                                                   scope of this strategic plan, we can outline the
A)   TITLE:                                                                                                                                                             other regions for industries such as automotive,
                                                                                                                   states’ economic strengths, look more closely at
                                                                                                                                                                        biosciences, electronics and other high-tech
     DESCRIPTION:                                                                                                  which industries are currently concentrated and
                                                                                                                                                                        industries, to name a few. The state of Sonora’s
                                                                                                                   dynamic in the border region, and briefly discuss
                                                                                                                                                                        State Development Plan, 2016-2021 specifically
                                                                                                                   industries that are affecting the environment but
     DUE DATE:                                                                                                                                                          focuses on competitiveness as a key attribute:
                                                                                                                   also ask about business opportunities for firms
                                                                                                                                                                        “Efficiency necessarily leads to promoting an
     RESPONSIBLE PARTIES:                                                                                          that treat environmental threats. And finally, we
                                                                                                                                                                        economy based on dynamism and competitive-
     Arizona:                                                                                                      try to answer the question, what do the environ-
                                                                                                                                                                        ness, which itself is derived from a platform of
     Sonora:                                                                                                       mental projects in this plan have to do with local
                                                                                                                                                                        productivity based on innovation, science and
                                                                                                                   and statewide economic development efforts?
     ACTIONS TAKEN:                                                                                                                                                     technology” (Plan Estatal de Desarrollo, 6). The
                                                                                                                   KEY INDUSTRIES AT THE STATE LEVEL                    document also focuses on the key challenge
                                                                                                                     Both Arizona and Sonora seek to expand their       to “strengthen the economy so that it is more
                                                                                                                   economies beyond the traditional primary sec-        sustainable and competitive via knowledge and
     STATUS:                     New/Open              In Progress       Implemented/To Be Continued   Discarded   tors of mining and agriculture that have left such   innovation, at the same time incentivizing the
                                                                                                                   significant historical, cultural, and economic       formation of clusters in agriculture and indus-
     CORE AREA:                  Competitiveness       Sustainability    Security    Quality of Life                                                                    try.” Likewise, the Arizona Commerce Authority’s
                                                                                                                   footprints on the two states’ history and present.
                                                                                                                   The two states are in constant competition with      five-year plan emphasizes the need to grow in
     FUNDING SOURCES:            Federal               State             Local       Private
                                                                                                                                                                        high value-added, export-oriented sectors. Tar-
                                                                                                                                                                        get industries include aerospace and defense,
Figure 10: Project Monitoring Tool Example                                                                                                                              semiconductors, optics/photonics, bioscienc-
                                                                                                                            “Efficiency necessarily leads to
 Name of Project                                                                                                          promoting an economy based on dy-             es and, significantly, renewable energy. Both
                                                                                                                          namism and competitiveness, which             states, then, have a strong focus on economic
		    Project Goals     Specific Objectives       Responsible Official    Deadline        Follow-up Date                                                                development that is in concert with the protec-
                                                                                                                          itself is derived from a platform of
                                                                                                                          productivity based on innovation,             tion of the environment. Figure 11 above lists
                                                                                                                          science and technology.”                      some of the most significant industries in each
                                                                                                                                                                        state and shows the potential for economic com-
                                                                                                                          (Plan Estatal de Desarrollo, 6)               plementarity (as well as competition).
16                                        ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                     ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                                   17

ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND THE ENVIRONMENT                                                                                        ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
IN THE ARIZONA-SONORA BORDER REGION                                                                                                 IN THE ARIZONA-SONORA BORDER REGION
FOCUS ON                                                                  Table 1: Arizona-Sonora Border Counties and Municipios
                                                                                         - 20 Most Concentrated Industries (2013)     In terms of employment, aerospace by far is the     excellent candidate for cluster-based economic
THE BORDER                                                                                                                          most significant employer of the top LQ industries    development. The performance of technical and
                                                     20 MOST CONCENTRATED INDUSTRIES
REGION                                                                                                                              in the Arizona-Sonora region, with almost 18,000      trade schools indicates the importance of work-
                                                                                                                                    employees distributed on both sides of the bor-       force development efforts in the region. The rel-
   The Arizona-Sonora                    Description                                              Employees           LQ
                                                                                                                                    der. The development of these two industries in       atively competitive position of fruit and vegetable
border region econ-         Metal Ore Mining (2122)                                                 5,933            14.14
                                                                                                                                    neighboring states is an interesting story of high-   preserving in the region is worth noting as compe-
omy was one of five         Audo & Video Equipment Manufacturing (3343)                             3,050            13.63
                                                                                                                                    ly concentrated, closely located yet unrelated        tition between North American trade corridors is
regions analyzed in         Aerospace Product & Parts Manufacturing (3325)                          17,813          10.86           industries. While Arizona’s aerospace industry is     increasing.
the 2015 report Com-        Hardware Manufacturing (3325)                                           1,493            9.46           mostly defense-related, the industry in Sonora is       While many of these industries are still small,
petitive Border Com-
                            Other Furniture-related Product Manufacturing (3379)                    1,663            9.03           commercial in nature. Semiconductors, medical         their competitiveness index combined with steep
munities: Mapping and
                            Rooming & Boarding Houses (7213)                                         762             8.58           equipment and business support services are also      employment growth curves make them industries
Developing U.S.-Mex-
                                                                                                                                    significant employers and all have over 10,000        that megaregions and other economic develop-
ico Transborder Indus-      Semiconductor/Other Elec. Component Man. (3359)                         12,724           8.10
                                                                                                                                    employees.                                            ment stakeholders will want to watch closely in the
tries, produced by the      Other Electrical Equip./Component Man. (3359)                           5,403            7.68
North American Re-          Medical Equipment & Supplies Man. (3391)                                11,863           7.62           DYNAMISM                                              coming months and years.
search Partnership and      Seafood Product Preparation/Packaging (3117)                            1,219            7.05             The second step for our analysis was to de-         ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF CONCENTRAT-
the Mexico Institute of     RV Parks and Recreational Camps (7212)                                   751             4.59           termine which industries were the most dynamic        ED AND DYNAMIC INDUSTRIES
the Woodrow Wilson                                                                                                                  in Arizona-Sonora border region. By employing
                            Fishing (1141)		                                                        2,627            4.13                                                                    In order to design a more accurate action plan
International Cen-                                                                                                                  a shift-share analysis (which looks at national,
                            Technical & Trade Schools (6115)                                        1,767            3.52                                                                 for environmental protection, it is crucial to iden-
ter for Scholars. The                                                                                                               industry and local growth effects on particular
                            Other Support Activities for Transportation (4889)                       236             3.31                                                                 tify the current state of affairs and determine the
2015 report looked at                                                                                                               industries) of the region’s employment data from      industries that have a more direct effect on the
industries in the Ari-      Business Support Services (5614)                                        11,823           3.19
                                                                                                                                    2009 and 2013, we get an interesting and different    environment in the region. Many of the same in-
zona-Sonora border          Gambling Industries (7132)                                              2,469            3.12           picture of the region’s potential areas of economic   dustries that are most concentrated and dynamic
region, in this case        Support Activities for Crop Production (1151)                            710             2.66           opportunity. Aerospace and semiconductors—to          in the Arizona-Sonora border region are those that
defined as the coun-        Other Investment Pools & Funds (5259)                                    60              2.59           take two key examples—do not appear in the top        have a significant impact on the environment. In
ties and municipios                                                                                                                 20 in terms of their dynamism. Instead we see
                            Retail Trade of Used Goods/Used Merchandise (4664,4533)                 2,216            2.45                                                                 this section we consider industries that represent
directly adjacent to the                                                                                                            industries such as apparel manufacturing, in-
                            Apparel Accessories/Other Apparel Man. (3159)                            126             2.42                                                                 a high potential risk to the environment as well as
international boundary.                                                                                                             vestment pools, and boiler manufacturing, tanks       industries that have been developed to minimize
Specifically the report     Source: Wilson, Lee and Bezares-Calderon (2015)
                                                                                                                                    and shipping containers (in that order) assuming      the environmental costs.
looked at data on three                                                                                                             significance as particularly dynamic industries.
variables that are key     discuss their relevance                   industries a) in both           niture manufacturing,                                                                NEGATIVE EXTERNALITIES OF INDUSTRIAL
                                                                                                                                      The Seafood Product Preparation and Packaging       AGGLOMERATION
in carrying out bina-      to the border environ-                    Arizona and Sonoran             rooming, semicon-
                                                                                                                                    industry experienced particularly dramatic em-
tional cluster-based       ment.                                     border counties and             ductors, electrical                                                                    The benefits of industrial agglomeration (busi-
                                                                                                                                    ployment growth during 2009-2013, adding 1,035
economic development       CONCENTRATION                             municipios and b) as            equipment, medical                                                                   nesses taking advantage of proximity to one
                                                                                                                                    jobs for a percentage increase in employment of
in the region: industry                                              one binational region.          equipment and sea-                                                                   another) can be significant as they represent
                              As a first step in                                                                                    562.5%. Medical devices added more than 5000
concentration, indus-                                                As seen in Table 1              food product prepara-                                                                important sources of employment and economic
                           determining key indus-                                                                                   jobs between 2009 and 2013 in addition to being
try dynamism and how                                                 above, metal ore min-           tion round out the top                                                               development. However, it has been documented
                           tries for a binational                                                                                   a top industry by location quotient, making it an
“binational” similar                                                 ing, audio and video            10. We also see strong                                                               that industrial agglomeration can have negative
industries on both         cluster-based eco-                        equipment manufac-              evidence of traditional                                                              impacts on the environment (Sun and Yuan, 2015;
sides of the border are.   nomic development                         turing, and aerospace           primary sector eco-                     Many of the same industries that are         Grazi, 2016).
In this section, which     strategy, we used a                       product and parts               nomic activity in the                 most concentrated and dynamic in                 The activities linked to the deterioration of the
relies on the analysis     standard measure—lo-                      manufacturing all have          region including mining               the Arizona-Sonora border region are           environment include the manufacturing sector
in the report, we will     cation quotient (LQ)                      a location quotient             as well as tourism (RV                those that have a significant impact           as well as agriculture, forestry, mining, fishing,
look at two of these       —to pinpoint the top                      of over 10. Hardware            parks, rooming houses,                on the environment.                            transportation and storage, and electricity and gas
variables and briefly      20 most concentrated                      manufacturing, fur-             fishing).
18                                    ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                     ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                                                19

ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND THE ENVIRONMENT                                                                    ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
IN THE ARIZONA-SONORA BORDER REGION                                                                             IN THE ARIZONA-SONORA BORDER REGION
supply, industries which are considered the most                                                                  Waste management activities are classified           zona and Sonora economies. The challenge facing
important generators of pollution in the U.S. (EPA,       Waste management is a critically important            under NAICS code 562-Waste Management and              the two states is how to manage the environmental
2015). Within the manufacturing sector, certain        issue on both sides of the border, and numer-            Remediation Services. In the Arizona-Sonora bor-       issues that arise with industrial agglomeration and
industries generate more emissions and have a          ous stakeholders have worked on a variety of             der region, these industries do not exhibit a high     the hoped-for development of transborder indus-
bigger environmental footprint than others.            issues within this area (waste tire management,          location quotient (LQ). Nevertheless, their pres-      try clusters. If the states are able to accomplish
   In Table 1 on page 16, we see the industries that   illegal dump sites, and hazardous materials              ence increased between 2009 and 2013, with an          this, the robustness of the environment could act
are more concentrated in the Arizona-Sonora bor-       management, among others) in recent years,               increase of employment of 48% seen in the waste        to reinforce regional competitiveness, with new
der region and which have exhibited more intense       most notably within the binational Border 2020           collection industry.                                   high value added industries locating in the region
growth between 2009 and 2013. While an exhaus-         framework and its antecedents.                           Food Banks                                             precisely because of the environment and the high
tive analysis of these industries and their environ-                                                                                                                   quality of life that workers increasingly demand.
                                                       ENVIRONMENT-RELATED INDUSTRIES                              Food banks may help to reduce the amount of
mental impact is beyond the scope of this strategic                                                             food waste that is generated in the region. Al-        REFERENCES
plan, there is clearly some correlation between the      Yet opportunities exist for industries to address
                                                                                                                though most of the employment related to food          • Arizona Department of Environmental Quality. Retrieved
region’s most concentrated and dynamic indus-          the effects of industrial agglomeration in the bor-                                                               on October 23, 2016 from http://legacy.azdeq.gov/obep/
                                                       der region. Below we consider several.                   banks is concentrated in Arizona, and particularly
tries and impacts or at least potential impacts to                                                                                                                       water.html
                                                                                                                in Pima County, Sonora has seen some develop-          • Rojas-Bracho et al. (2010), “Los Residuos Electrónicos en
the environment.                                       Waste Management                                         ment of this sector. However, it remains to be seen      México y en el Mundo”, SEMARNAT.
  As an example, the mining industry has been             Waste management is a critically important            if these food banks will continue developing: be-      • CONAGUA (2011), Inventario Nacional de Plantas Muni-
long known for its environmental effects. Some         issue on both sides of the border, and numerous          tween 2009 and 2013, they saw a 19.5% decrease           cipales de Potabilización y de Tratamiento de Aguas Resi-
                                                                                                                                                                         duales en Operación, SEMARNAT.
of the impacts of this industry are the emission of    stakeholders have worked on a variety of issues          in employment.                                         • Electronic Waste State Resource Locator, 2016. Retrieved
pollutants, such as PM10 and PM5, water pollu-         within this area (waste tire management, illegal         Water Sewage and Water Treatment                         from http://www.envcap.org/statetools/ewaste/ew2.
tion, in addition to disturbance of ecosystems. In     dump sites, and hazardous materials manage-                                                                       cfm?st=AZ
Arizona, the border county that generates more         ment, among others) in recent years, most notably          Water, Sewage and Irrigation Systems have            • Grazi, F. et al. (2016), A Simple Model of Agglomeration
PM10 and PM5 as a result of mining activity is Pima    within the binational Border 2020 framework and          an LQ larger than 1.7 in the Arizona-Sonora bor-         Economies with Environmental Externalities, AFD Research
                                                                                                                der region and presented an increase of 45.18%           Papers, 2016(18), January.
County (EPA, 2015). Sonora is the state in Mexico      its antecedents.                                                                                                • INEGI, Directorio Estadístico Nacional de Unidades
with the largest participation in the mining indus-                                                             in terms of employment from 2009-2013. This              Económicas. Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://
                                                         In Mexico, there exists legislation at the national    sector mostly represents management of sew-
try, generating 1.28% of the state GDP (Ministry of    level that regulates the disposal of solid waste and
                                                                                                                                                                         www.beta.inegi.org.mx/app/mapa/denue/default.aspx
Economy, 2014).                                                                                                 age systems by government. However, there are          • *Proposal HB2614: Large Electronics Recycling Program.
                                                       hazardous waste. However, as the management is           growth opportunities in the water treatment sector.      Retrieved from http://www.azleg.gov//FormatDocument.
  The fishing industry also appears within the most    carried out at the state level, available resources                                                               asp?inDoc=/legtext/49leg/2r/bills/hb2614p.htm&Ses-
important industries in the Arizona-Sonora border      continue to present challenges to implementation.        Environmental Consulting Services                        sion_ID=93
region. However, overfishing and harmful fishing                                                                                                                       • Shapiro, J. And Walker, R. (2016), Why is Pollution from
                                                       In addition, there is no specific regulation either at      Even though this sector does not exhibit high
                                                                                                                                                                         U.S. Manufacturing Declining? The Roles of Environmental
problems are becoming major issues for the Gulf of     the federal or the state level regarding electronic      levels of concentration, this industry has some          Regulation, Productivity and Trade, Working Paper, Sep-
California, threatening species such as the vaquita.   waste, which represents an important source of           presence in Arizona, particularly in Yuma County,        tember 2016.
  Numerous manufacturing-based industries also         pollution (Rojas-Bracho et al., 2010).                   where it generates fewer than 300 jobs (2014).         • Sun, P and Yuan, Y (2015). Industrial Agglomeration and
have strong presence among the most concentrat-          In the United States, while regulations on waste       This lack of firms in the border region may be off-      Environmental Degradation: Empirical Evidence in Chinese
ed industries in the Arizona-Sonora border region.     management are established at the federal level          set by firms oriented to this sector that are estab-     Cities, Pacific Economic Review, 20(4), 544-568.

These industries depend mostly on electricity and      by the Environmental Protection Agency, legis-           lished mainly in the larger cities on both sides of    • U.S. Census 2014- County Business Patterns. http://fact-
natural gas for their operations. Finding viable       lation on electronic waste is handled at the state       the border but which also serve the border region        finder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/product-
                                                                                                                as well.                                                 view.xhtml?pid=BP_2014_00A1&prodType=table
opportunities for more efficient energy production     level. In Arizona, there is currently no legislation
                                                                                                                                                                       • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2014), Emission
may be an alternative to reduce the environmen-        on e-waste management, even if there are some              In summary, the border region presents unique          Inventories. Dataset on pollutant emissions by sector of
tal footprint of these energy-intensive industries.    efforts to promote recycling of electronic com-          challenges associated with its economic develop-         activity. Retrieved on October 22, 2016 from https://www.
Transportation-related industries that have grown      ponents as well as legislation on lead-acid bat-         ment model, the different regulatory frameworks,         epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2014-nei-data
in tandem with manufacturing on the Mexican side       teries to avoid their mixing with solid waste (see       different governance, and the industrial agglom-
of the border are both energy-intensive and major      Electronic Waste State Resource Locator, 2016;           eration they present. Yet the border region is a mi-
producers of emissions.                                Proposal HB2614: Large Electronics Recycling             crocosm of both the past and the future of the Ari-
                                                       Program, 2010; ADEQ, 2016).
20   ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021   ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                                                   21

                                                             STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS 2017-2021
                                                             OVERVIEW
                                                                The 15 strategic projects that appear in this section were developed and selected as high-priority
                                                             projects by the relevant Arizona and Sonora agencies. The projects address a range of issues within
                                                             the areas of water, air, waste management and wildlife. They will be implemented between 2017 and
                                                             2021 and are presented in order of their priority within their specific areas. Following the list of prior-
                                                             itized projects by area, there is a more detailed description of the background relevant to each one of
                                                             them, as well as their identified environmental, social, economic and health impacts in the binational
                                                             context. A section detailing 14 additional projects for future consideration then follows.

                                                             STRATEGIC ARIZONA-SONORA
                                                             ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS, 2017-2021
                                                                    ADEQ/CEA                                                           WATER
                                                                   Prioritization
                                                                          1             Stormwater Control in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational Infrastructure
                                                                                        and Public Health
                                                                         2              Infrastructure for Metals and E. coli Attenuation in the San Pedro River

                                                                         3              Implementation of Green Infrastructure in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational
                                                                                        Stormwater Quality
                                                                         4              Industrial Pretreatment Support in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational
                                                                                        Water Quality
                                                                  ADEQ/CEDES                                                              AIR
                                                                  Prioritization
                                                                         1              Installation and Operation of Air Quality Equipment in Sonora Border Communities
                                                                                        Phase 1. Rehabilitation of current equipment. Phase 2. Acquisition of new equipment.
                                                                         2              Ozone Monitoring Pilot Project in San Luis Río Colorado

                                                                         3              Expansion of Air Quality Smartphone Application to Yuma

                                                                  ADEQ/CEDES                                                WASTE MANAGEMENT
                                                                  Prioritization
                                                                         1              Identification and Cleanup Prioritization of Waste-impacted Sites in Combination with a
                                                                                        Solid Waste Management Education Campaign
                                                                         2              Comprehensive Electronic Waste and Discarded Domestic Appliances Management
                                                                                        Program
                                                                         3              Development of a Comprehensive Master Plan for the Management of Solid Waste, including:
                                                                                        (a) Research of urban solid waste infrastructure lag and landfill locations.
                                                                                        (b) Provision of municipal solid waste collection, transport, and disposal equipment.
                                                                                        (c) Establishment of at least one solid waste recycling plant project.
                                                                  AZGDF/CEDES                                                        WILDLIFE
                                                                   Prioritization
                                                                          1             Population Study of the Sonoran Pronghorn in Arizona and Sonora

                                                                         2              Monitoring of the Black-tailed Prairie Dog Population in Arizona and Sonora

                                                                         3              Improvements to the Mexican Grey Wolf Captive Breeding Program

                                                                         4              Identification of Priority Areas for Jaguar Conservation in Southern Sonora

                                                                         5              Bighorn Population Study in Sonora
22                                              ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                      ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                                                                      23

STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS 2017-2021                                                                                                 STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS 2017-2021
WATER PROJECTS                                                                                                                             WATER PROJECTS
       ADEQ/CEA                                                                                                                                    ADEQ/CEA                                                            PROJECT NAME
                                                                          PROJECT NAME
      Prioritization                                                                                                                              Prioritization
             1                   Stormwater Control in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational Infrastructure                                   1                    Stormwater Control in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational Infrastructure
                                 and Public Health                                                                                                                            and Public Health
             2                   Infrastructure for Metals and E. coli Attenuation in the San Pedro River                                                2                    Infrastructure for Metals and E. coli Attenuation in the San Pedro River

             3                   Implementation of Green Infrastructure in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational                              3                    Implementation of Green Infrastructure in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational
                                 Stormwater Quality                                                                                                                           Stormwater Quality

             4                   Industrial Pretreatment Support in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational                                     4                    Industrial Pretreatment Support in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational
                                 Water Quality                                                                                                                                Water Quality

                                                                                                                   PRIORITY 1              INFRASTRUCTURE FOR METALS & E. COLI ATTENUATION IN THE SAN PEDRO RIVER                                                   PRIORITY 2
                 STORMWATER CONTROL IN NOGALES, SONORA
 BACKGROUND                                                                                                                                BACKGROUND
 While green infrastructure and other sustainable solutions are important for stormwater control, formal flood control mechanisms          The Upper San Pedro watershed spans the Sonora-Arizona border and includes at its southernmost expanse the community of Cananea,
 are needed to protect municipalities from flooding associated with extreme rainfall events, particularly during the summer monsoon.       Sonora, located at a distance of approximately 25 miles from the U.S. border. Monitoring of San Pedro River water quality in the border
 Stormwater gabions and other such structures help control and direct stormwater flows–especially those of high volume and/or intense      community of Charleston, Arizona has revealed chronic impairment for E. coli and dissolved copper relative to U.S. surface water quali-
 duration–away from critical infrastructure and into areas where they can diffuse naturally or pose no threat to life or property.         ty standards and resulted in the river being classified as “High” priority. Research by the University of Sonora has linked historical mining
                                                                                                                                           activities in Cananea to contaminated sediments along the length of the San Pedro River in Sonora. In addition, raw sewage discharges may
 In Ambos Nogales, flooding threatens not just private property but also crucial binational infrastructure. Gabions have previously been   contribute to downstream exceedance of bacterial standards in both countries. Respective contaminants may be mobilized along the length
 constructed in the area as per U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. International Boundary and Water Commission recommenda-          of the river during high flow events.
 tions, in conjunction with CONAGUA and supported by Border 2020. Maintenance and operation considerations pose challenges to their
 sustainability.                                                                                                                           This project is designed to protect the San Pedro River from metal and E. coli contamination by implementing stormwater detention features
                                                                                                                                           to mitigate contaminated sediment remobilization and lessen the effects of cross-border sewage flows. Features such as those installed
 This project aims to support maintenance of existing gabions; promote new stormwater gabions as appropriate, and evaluate other for-      on the San Bernadino Ranch east of Agua Prieta in Sonora can help control the migration of contaminated sediments. Strategies will be
 mal flood-control alternatives. The goal is to protect the residents of Ambos Nogales and secure its municipal assets by strengthening    investigated and implemented as appropriate through coordination with CONAGUA and CEA and with technical support provided by ADEQ
 the region’s stormwater management infrastructure while reducing the risk of stormwater-induced sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs).          as appropriate.

 KEY COMMUNITIES                                                                                                                           KEY COMMUNITIES
 Ambos Nogales (primary); other communities as needed                                                                                      Sierra Vista; San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area; Cananea

 PROJECT IMPACTS                                                                                                                           PROJECT IMPACTS

 ENVIRONMENTAL                     HEALTH                              SOCIAL                               ECONOMIC                       ENVIRONMENTAL                      HEALTH                               SOCIAL                                ECONOMIC
 • Binational infrastruc-          •  Reduced public expo-             • Engage public on                   • Lowered operation and        • Mitigates contamination          • Reduces risk of public’s           • Publically recognized               • Environmental study may
   ture protection                    sure to SSOs                       matters related to                   maintenance costs for          of the San Pedro River             direct contact with contam-          problem                               be necessary
 • Reduced SSOs                    •  Protection of surface              public health and water              municipalities               • Addresses issue in wa-             inated waters leading to           • NGO engagement is
                                      water and ground-                  resource management                • Protection of wastewater       terbody recognized under           gastrointestinal diseases,           already occurring in the
                                      water resources from                                                    infrastructure invest-         the Clean Water Act as             other health effects                 border region
                                      contamination                                                           ments                          impaired with E. coli

 TECHNICAL ADVANCES                                                                                                                         TECHNICAL ADVANCES
 Gabions have already been constructed in Nogales, Sonora in accordance with recommendations prepared by Army Corps of Engi-                Examples exist; technical details available from: http://cuencalosojos.org/ and http://borderlandsrestoration.org/.
 neers and U.S. International Boundary and Water Commission (via support from CONAGUA and Border 2020). These have had short
 term positive effect, but operation and maintenance remains a challenge to sustainability.
24                                                ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                        ARIZONA-SONORA ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIC PLAN 2017-2021                                                                                        25

STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS 2017-2021                                                                                                     STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS 2017-2021
WATER PROJECTS                                                                                                                                 WATER PROJECTS
         ADEQ/CEA                                                           PROJECT NAME                                                               ADEQ/CEA                                                             PROJECT NAME
        Prioritization                                                                                                                                Prioritization
               1                   Stormwater Control in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational Infrastructure                                     1                     Stormwater Control in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational Infrastructure
                                   and Public Health                                                                                                                               and Public Health
               2                   Infrastructure for Metals and E. coli Attenuation in the San Pedro River                                                  2                     Infrastructure for Metals and E. coli Attenuation in the San Pedro River

               3                   Implementation of Green Infrastructure in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational                                3                     Implementation of Green Infrastructure in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational
                                   Stormwater Quality                                                                                                                              Stormwater Quality
               4                   Industrial Pretreatment Support in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational                                       4                     Industrial Pretreatment Support in Nogales, Sonora for the Protection of Binational
                                   Water Quality                                                                                                                                   Water Quality
       IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE IN NOGALES, SONORA                                                         PRIORITY 3                         INDUSTRIAL PRETREATMENT SUPPORT IN NOGALES, SONORA                                                           PRIORITY 4

 BACKGROUND                                                                                                                                    BACKGROUND
 Flooding can have severe negative effects on the communities of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona. Uncontrolled stormwater flow            Over the last two years, heavy metals in Ambos Nogales wastewater have chronically exceeded the allowable headwork loadings for the
 damages businesses, private residences, and municipal assets, creating public health issues and threatening key binational infrastructure.    Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant (NIWTP). The NIWTP is located in Rio Rico, Arizona, but Nogales, Sonora contributes
 Urban development contributes to impervious and denuded terrain, which decreases stormwater infiltration and compounds the risk of            the majority of wastewater treated at the plant. The NIWTP discharges treated wastewater to the Santa Cruz River in Arizona. Historical
 downstream flooding. Green infrastructure offsets this problem by improving infiltration and putting stormwater to beneficial use for the     exceedances for metals in wastewater have been linked to industrial discharges from metal plating operations in Nogales, Sonora. At times,
 creation and sustainability of green spaces. The “City of Green Creeks: Sustainable Flood Management Alternatives for Nogales, Sonora”        metals pass through the NIWTP to the river. Water quality and wildlife monitoring suggest environmental impacts linked to respective
 report, created by Arizona State University, proposed a number of green infrastructure projects at specific sites in Nogales, Sonora. This    discharges.
 project will support implementation of green infrastructure strategies and projects outlined in that report.
                                                                                                                                               The Nogales, Sonora Potable Water and Wastewater Utility (OOMAPAS-NS) reports it is complying with Mexican Federal requirements for
 KEY COMMUNITIES                                                                                                                               monitoring and enforcement of industrial discharges. However, it recognizes that respective activities may not be sufficient to address the
 Ambos Nogales (primary); other communities following                                                                                          needs of the NIWTP for protection of the Santa Cruz River. Both OOMAPAS-NS and the regulated community have expressed a willingness
                                                                                                                                               to partner on a solution.
 PROJECT IMPACTS
                                                                                                                                               Given the binational nature of receiving infrastructure, federal coordination and support is needed. This project aims to leverage federal
 ENVIRONMENTAL                     HEALTH                               SOCIAL                                ECONOMIC                         resources to strengthen institutional pretreatment processes in Nogales, Sonora so that contaminant loadings can be mitigated at their
 • Binational infrastructure       • Reduced public exposure to         • Community engagement                • Technical exchange cre-        source. Respective processes include wastewater monitoring in the binational conveyance for source characterization, information ex-
   protection                        SSOs                                 and stewardship                       ates potential for new busi-   change with the regulated community, and support of Mexico’s Industrial Wastewater Discharge Limits (NOM-002) where needed.
 • Reduced SSOs                    • Protection of surface water        • Creation of recreational              nesses and development
 • Protection of investment          and groundwater resources            areas and local ownership           • Flood mitigation aids mu-      KEY COMMUNITIES
   in the International Outfall      from contamination                   of the same                           nicipality                     Ambos Nogales
   Interceptor (IOI)               • Green space benefit to pub-        • Training opportunities that         • Property protection
 • Green Space creation              lic health                           can be translated into new          • Property value augmen-         PROJECT IMPACTS
 • Microhabitats                   • Water supply security                jobs                                  tation
 • Surface water quality           • Improvement in air quality at      • Improvement in urban                • Recreational benefits          ENVIRONMENTAL                       HEALTH                               SOCIAL                                ECONOMIC
 • Regional water resource           pumping sites                        aesthetic                           • Cost savings for               • Reduction in pass-through         • Reduces public exposure to         • Engages public on matters           • Improved pretreatment
   development                                                          • Raises consciousness of               businesses                       of heavy metals to the              SSOs                                 related to public health and          represents an opportunity
 • Reduced flooding risk                                                  reuse and water resource            • Lowered cost of infrastruc-      Santa Cruz River                  • Protection of downstream             water resource manage-                for new business ventures
 • CO² reduction                                                          management                            ture investment, operation,    • Lowers risks related to sur-        potable water resources              ment                                • Significant cost savings
                                                                                                                and maintenance                  face water and groundwa-            (both surface and ground)          • Improves communication                through avoidance of plant
                                                                                                                                                 ter quality posed by metals                                              and response with regu-               upsets and increased O&M
                                                                                                                                                 and SSOs                                                                 lated community to help               costs
 TECHNICAL ADVANCES                                                                                                                                                                                                       mitigate respective issues          • Reduction of biosolid dis-
 (a) Is currently being successfully implemented by Watershed Management Group at one (Nogales, Sonora) site through a Border                                                                                                                                   posal costs (utilization vs.
 2020 grant, but needs to be multiplied throughout the city for maximum impact; see City of Green Creeks report for other potential                                                                                                                             disposal)
 sites and ideas:
 http://server.cocef.org/Final_Reports_B2012/20044/20044_Final_Report_EN.pdf
 (b) Feasibility study may be necessary; similar work has been done both in U.S. and Mexico; ADEQ has already performed some
 project evaluation and conceptual work.

                                                                                                                                               TECHNICAL ADVANCES
                                                                                                                                               In Nogales, historical binational support through Border 2020 has been demonstrated to be effective, although results require
                                                                                                                                               continued investments. Effects may be measured by metal loadings monitoring by IBWC at the border with Mexico as per permit
                                                                                                                                               requirements; municipality views as federal issue, and oversight is limited to local (Mexican Federal) requirements due to a lack of
                                                                                                                                               sustained binational support.
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