Case Studies in Construction Materials - Eden Innovations
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Case Studies in Construction Materials xxx (2018) xxx–xxx Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Case Studies in Construction Materials journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cscm Case study Carbon nano-tube as water reducer in CDOT Class E 12 hr concrete mix Malay Mayank Patel, Caroline M. Clevenger*, Moatassem Abdallah Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Campus Box 113, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, Colorado, 80217, United States A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T Article history: To address maintenance and durability issues for concrete pavement, the City and County Received 31 May 2018 of Denver explored the use of carbon nano-tube admixtures. This research documents the Received in revised form 2 October 2018 hardened and fresh properties of two mix designs that use carbon nano-tube admixture as Accepted 5 October 2018 a water reducer. The authors performed compressive strength, slump and air-entrainment tests. Results indicate that the 3 gallon-per-yard (GPY) (14.85 l/m3) mix provides both the Keywords: highest slump and the highest compressive strength, while meeting the air-entrainment Carbon nano-tubes speciﬁcations for Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) Class E 12 h Concrete Mix. Admixture Concrete mix design While additional testing is recommended to evaluate long-term maintenance impacts, Concrete pavement initial results are promising and suggest that adoption of a 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix may be a viable alternative for CDOT. The contribution of this research is to document preliminary laboratory and in-situ testing of carbon nano-tube admixtures in concrete pavement mix design. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). 1. Introduction The Street Maintenance Department of City and County of Denver faces numerous maintenance issues involving large cracks in their concrete pavement due primarily to 1) heavy load from running vehicles, 2) the use of de-icing salts like magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and 3) possible additional effect of freeze-thaw cycles. In fall of 2016, as a potential maintenance improvement, the City and County of Denver decided to test the use of carbon nano-tube admixture known as “EdenCrete” as a partial water replacement in their standard mix design because its ability to reduce the permeability of concrete. The selected location for the concrete testing using various mix proportions was East Speer Boulevard near intersection of 6th Avenue and Lincoln Street as shown in Fig. 1. Various tests were conducted to assess the performance and workability of the “EdenCrete” admixture to inform the decision of whether or not to use this admixture for future concrete pavement construction; and if so, what proportion of admixture is the best. Carbon nano-tubes are sub microscopic cylinders of carbon that are roughly 1550 nm in diameter and longer than 20 mm in length . Carbon nano-tubes are very light with a mass density of 1.6 g/cm3, and have unusual thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. They are also very strong and can provide 100–300 more tensile strength than various steel types and are up to 30 times stronger than kevlar. When used in concrete, Carbon nano-tubes create enhanced bonds between cement paste and aggregate, which results in greater compressive strength and pull-out capacity for the concrete since the aggregate may break or fail before the concrete itself . Carbon nano-tube admixture has been tested and * Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org (M.M. Patel), email@example.com (C.M. Clevenger), firstname.lastname@example.org (M. Abdallah). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2018.e00207 2214-5095/© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
2 M.M. Patel et al. / Case Studies in Construction Materials xxx (2018) e00207 Fig. 1. Site location and condition of concrete pavement to be replaced by City and County of Denver Maintenance Department. approved for use by the Georgia Department of Transportation for construction and maintenance projects in Class 24-Hour accelerated strength concrete mix applications and Class B concrete applications . Concrete mix design speciﬁed as CDOT Class E 12 h (referred as “reference mix” for this research), is currently used for paving streets in Denver, Colorado by the City and County of Denver. This research documents and analyses the impact of partially replacing water by liquid-state carbon nano-tube admixture on the City’s reference mix design. Speciﬁcally, this research studies the effect of carbon nano-tube admixture on the hardened properties of concrete by performing compressive strength test and checks the fresh properties of the concrete by performing slump and air-entrainment tests. While cheaper water reducing admixture alternatives may be available, the City and County of Denver was primarily interested in testing carbon nano-tube as an admixture to help to reduce road-way maintenance due to its lower permeability, reduced shrinkage and increased resistance to freeze-thaw. Two different proportions were tested against reference mix. 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) mix describes a mix with 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) of carbon nano-tube admixture replacing 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) of water in reference mix, and the 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix describes a mix with 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) of carbon nano- tube admixture replacing 3 GYP (14.85 l/m3) of water from reference mix. 2. Literature review Signiﬁcant research exists regarding the replacement of various components of concrete mix design . Speciﬁcally, all major components including cement, coarse aggregate, ﬁne aggregate and water replacements have been studied. The following is summary of the relevant research on concrete component replacement by suitable materials. Such studies generally focus on evaluating the impact of concrete replacement on the mix’s compressive strength, workability or both. They less frequently address issues related to placement, durability, and maintenance of speciﬁc concrete mix designs. The most highly replaced component of a concrete mix is cement, since it is the most expensive component of conventional concrete as well as the one with the largest negative environmental impact. Studies to date have focused on the use of different materials as a cement replacement. The most successful partial replacement of cement is ﬂy ash and is widely acceptable as major component of green concrete and in variety of concrete structures [5–13]. Attempts have also been made to partially replace cement with stone waste  and the outcomes suggests that despite the reductions in compressive strength, cost savings are possible up to 20% replacement of cement. A similar trend had been noted for replacement of cement by ground waste brick  and for marble dust and crushed brick . The experiment on marble powder and silica fume as partial replacement for cement mortar shows positive result for increase in compressive strength . Country speciﬁc studies have also led to interesting results . Finally, detailed study of replacement of cement by ceramic powder has been performed with emphasis on cost analysis . Aggregate usage is higher than cement in terms of quantity and volume in concrete. Many researchers have focused on partially replacing ﬁne and coarse aggregates with locally produced industrial wastes. For example, a study on rubber, Jarosite and sandstone aggregates  was carried out to utilize locally produced wastes into concrete industry. Partial replacement of ﬁne and coarse aggregates with e-plastic waste  and waste glass  produced interesting results for compressive strength and workability of concrete mix. 30% replacement of sand by quarry dust shows increase in compressive strength and workability of concrete mix . Coarse aggregate can be partially replaced by crushed ceramic
M.M. Patel et al. / Case Studies in Construction Materials xxx (2018) e00207 3 tile which is waste product in ceramic industry possessing very similar physical and non-reactive chemical properties like coarse aggregate . Water is one of the main components in concrete mix and potable water is needed in abundant quantity for the hydration process. Studies have been performed to use the slurry water to replace fresh water in concrete mixes. Results suggest that the use of slurry water yields higher slump with only a minor reduction in compressive strength compared to a signiﬁcant reduction in use of fresh water . As sea water is available in enormous quantity, researchers have carried out experiments to replace fresh water by sea water and found that concrete produced and cured using sea water shows higher compressive strength than fresh water. However, accelerated corrosion of steel members is a drawback . Finally, magnetized water with partial replacement of cement by copper slag shows 4–18% of increase in compressive strength and up to 50% increase in workability . Potential replacement materials from existing literature are summarized in Table 1 according to the concrete component they replace. Although signiﬁcant research has been performed to date on replacement of concrete components, little to no research exists studying carbon nano-tube mixture as a replacement for water. This research is intended to address this gap by studying the compressive strength and workability of carbon nano-tube mixture to demonstrate that it is a viable alternative with possible maintenance and durability beneﬁts. The practice of using of carbon nano-tubes as an admixture has been explored by the concrete industry since 2011 . Initial studies focus on the mechanical properties of carbon nano-tube to insure compatibility with concrete ingredients. Previously, tests were conducted in the laboratory on concrete or mortar samples having carbon nano-tubes in small quantities and researchers found increases in ﬂexural strength [28–30]. Recent studies and experiments for carbon nano- tubes also show increases in abrasion resistance, ﬂexural strength, tensile strength and compressive strength whereas reduction in permeability and shrinkage, when using carbon nano-tube as an admixture . 3. Research methodology Mix design used for this test is CDOT Class E 12 h mix, which has 4500 PSI (31.03 MPa) as a target mean strength. Mountain cement Type I/II is used in this mix design, which is ordinary Portland cement with moderate sulphate resistance. Table 2 shows the details of this mix design. Total quantity of water for this mix design is 263 lbs (119.3 kg) which is equivalent to 31.5 gallons (119.2 l) of water. For the 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) mix, 2 gallons of water is replaced from this mix design using carbon nano-tube admixture which constitutes approximately 6.35% of total water content in the concrete. For 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix, 3 gallons (11.4 l) of water is replaced from this mix design using carbon nano-tube admixture which constitutes approximately 9.52% of total water content in the concrete. While the precise composition of Edencrete’s carbon nano-tube admixture is proprietary, the company provides the following technical data sheet . Slump tests, air entrainment tests were performed in the ﬁeld, while compressive strength tests were performed on the samples after 7 and 28 days of curing period. Fig. 2 is the ﬂow-chart of the research process. Table 1 Summary from literature review. Concrete Component Studied Replacement Materials Cement Fly Ash [5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13] Ceramic Powder or Ceramic Waste [19,24] Marble Powder or Marble Dust  Grounded Waste Brick  Iranian Industrial Waste  Silica Fumes  Copper Slag  Grounded Stone Waste  Coarse Aggregate Rubber  Jarosite  E-plastic Waste  Waste Glass  Fine Aggregate Sandstone  Ceramic Waste [19,24] Quarry Dust [14,23] Marble Dust  Waste Glass Powder  Water Slurry Water  Magnetized water 
4 M.M. Patel et al. / Case Studies in Construction Materials xxx (2018) e00207 Table 2 Mix design of CDOT Class E 12 h mix (reference mix). Material Source Description ASTM Spec. Gravity Oz/cwt Weight (lb) Course Aggregate Aggregate Industries Aggregate Industries C-33 2.64 1690 Morrison 57/67 Sand Aggregate Industries Aggregate Industries C-33 2.62 1225 Platte Valley Sand Cement Mountain Cement Mountain Cement Type I/II C150 3.15 600 Air Entrainer BASF MB-AE 90 C 260 1.00 0.40 0.2 Type C BASF Pozzolith NC534 C 494 1.00 30.00 14.7 Water Reducer BASF MASTER GLENIUM 7920 ASTM C 1.08 2.2 Class F Fly Ash Boral Boral Class F Craig 2.225 150 Water C-94 1.00 263 Total 3945 Speciﬁed F’c: 4500 PSI Speciﬁed Slump: 3.00 To 6.00 In. Designed Unit Weight: 144.0 lbs./cu.ft. Speciﬁed Air: 4.00 To 8.00 % Designed W/C + P Ratio: 0.35 Designed Air: 5.0 % Designed Volume: 27.45 cu.ft. The samples for reference mix, 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) mix and 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix were taken from construction site at 6th Ave and Lincoln Street in Denver, Colorado on 11th and 12th of September 2017. Cylinder molds having 400 diameter and 800 height were used to collect the samples. ASTM C-39 Standards were used to test for the compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens. After allowing 24 h of setting time on site, samples were transported to Civil Engineering Laboratory at University of Colorado, Denver. Concrete cylinders were taken out from molds and placed in a water tank in a fully submerged position, and maintained for 28 days of curing period. Water temperature was maintained around standard room temperature, which was 73.4-degree Fahrenheit (23-degree Celsius). A calibrated universal loading machine was used to obtain the compressive strength of specimen cylinders in “lbs” unit. Cylindrical concrete specimens had 400 (10.16 cm) diameter r = 200 (5.08 cm) and 800 (20.32 cm) height. Thus, obtained results in lbs unit were converted into PSI (pound per square inch) by loadprin2 lbs. ASTM C-143 procedures were followed to meet the standards and performed in the ﬁeld for the slump test. ASTM C-173 procedures were followed to meet the standards and performed in the ﬁeld to test air-entrainment. 4. Results and discussion Table 3 is a summary of the results obtained from the slump, air entrainment, and compressive strength tests as well as the weight of each concrete specimen tested after 7 day and 28 day curing periods. Fig. 2. Steps of water reducing mix design study.
M.M. Patel et al. / Case Studies in Construction Materials xxx (2018) e00207 5 Table 3 Results for CDOT Class E 12 h Mix with carbon nano-tube replacements. Water Replacement (GPY) Slump Air Curing Compressive Strength Average Compressive Strength Weight (lbs) (inches) Entrainment Period (PSI) (PSI) (days) Reference 6.25 5% 7 6264 6100 8.49 0 (159 mm) (43.18 MPa) (42.06 MPa) (3.85 kg) (0 %) 5901 8.42 (40.69 MPa) (3.82 kg) 28 6320 6400 8.6 (43.57 MPa) (44.13 MPa) (3.9 kg) 6426 8.55 (44.31 MPa) (3.87 kg) 6374 8.5 (43.95 MPa) (3.86 kg) 2 7.75 6% 7 7369 7300 8.52 (9.9 l/m3) (197 mm) (50.81 MPa) (50.33 MPa) (3.86 kg) (6.35 %) 7224 8.59 (49.81 MPa) (3.86 kg) 28 7157 7150 8.6 (49.35 MPa) (49.30 MPa) (3.90 kg) 7244 8.6 (49.95 MPa) (3.90 kg) 7068 8.6 (48.73 MPa) (3.90 kg) 3 9.5 5.5% 7 6356 6650 8.44 (14.85 l/m3) (241 mm) (43.82 MPa) (45.85 MPa) (3.83 kg) (9.52 %) 6886 8.5 (47.48 MPa) (3.86 kg) 28 8280 8150 8.6 (57.09 MPa) (56.19 MPa) (3.90 kg) 8274 8.6 (57.05 MPa) (3.90 kg) 7898 8.65 (54.45 MPa) (3.92 kg) Results as summarized in Table 3 show that entrainment and compressive strength for both the 2 GYP (9.9 l/m3) and 3 GYP (14.85 l/m3) mix designs meet or exceed mix design speciﬁcations for CDOT Class E 12 h mix (Table 2). Slump test results for both 2 GYP (9.9 l/m3) and 3 GYP (14.85 l/m3) mix designs are outside (greater than) the 3–6 in.(7.62–15.24 cm.) tolerance speciﬁed. However, this is not problematic and these results are further discussed below. The average compressive strength for CDOT Class E 12 h Mix for reference mix, 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) mix and 3 GPY (14.85 l/ m3) mix samples after both 7 and 28 days of curing is shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 3 shows that 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) mix has a 19.9% higher compressive strength than reference mix, whereas 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix has a 8.9% higher compressive strength than reference mix after 7 days of curing. Fig. 3 also shows that the 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) mix has a 12.3% higher compressive strength than reference mix, whereas 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix has a 27.9% higher compressive strength than reference mix after 28 days of curing. Furthermore, after 7 days of curing 2 GPY mix gives 10.2% more compressive strength than 3 GPY mix (14.85 l/m3) and 19.9% than reference mix. But, 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix yields 13.9% more compressive strength after 28 days of curing than 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) mix and 27.9% more than reference mix. It is important to note, however, that the 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix shows a slight decrease in strength after 7 days compared to the 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) mix. Fig. 3. Compressive strengths using carbon nano-tube replacements.
6 M.M. Patel et al. / Case Studies in Construction Materials xxx (2018) e00207 Fig. 4. (28 day) Compressive strength versus Slump. As previously noted, additional ﬁeld tests were performed to test the slump of the various mix designs in order to test workability. Fig. 4 compares slump to 28-day compressive strength. A higher slump value generally indicates higher workability or ﬂow of the mix, but is typically associated with a reduction in compressive strength. However, as shown in Fig. 4, in the case of water reducer mixes using 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) and 3 GPY Fig. 5. Field observations of test mixes: Reference mix after ﬁve years (left), sample mixes after six months, and one winter (right).
M.M. Patel et al. / Case Studies in Construction Materials xxx (2018) e00207 7 (14.85 l/m3) carbon nano-tube admixture replacements, both the slump and the compressive strength after 28 days of curing are higher than for the reference mix. Such results suggest that using that air –entrainment, slump and are valuable because they suggest that using carbon nano-tube as water replacements may have cascading beneﬁts. Namely, increased compressive strength, workability and durability. Furthermore, the 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix appears to be a superior product in terms of workability during placement and long-term strength to the 2 GYP (9.9 l/m3) mix. While results for higher ratio carbon nano-tube (i.e., 4 GYP or 5 GYP mixes) is unknown, one hypothesis includes that higher percentages of carbon nano- tube admixtures in the mix design may continue to retard the curing process (decreasing short-term (7 day) compressive strengths, and increasing workability), while producing higher long-term (28 day) compressive strengths. Potential reasons for such trends may be that nano-tubes work on the nanoscopic level and are non-reactive materials. Finally, carbon nano- tubes are light but strong, potentially decreasing the concrete load. However, since water is required for hydration, further testing is recommended to assess what ratio of carbon nano-tube admixture as replacement is the threshold for increased strength, while maintaining workability. As a ﬁnal preliminary test, the authors performed a visual inspection of the sample mixes in-situ in the ﬁeld (Fig. 5). While it is too early to fully document the durability performance of both mixes, according to visual inspection of the construction test-site after one (relatively mild) winter season, no noticeable difference exists between the 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) and 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix samples, and both installations appear to be in good condition. The authors hypothesize that due to the tested (i.e. increased workability and compressive strength) and reported (i.e. reduced permeability and shrinkage) properties of carbon nano-tube concrete mix designs, such mixes will be more resistant to freeze-thaw cycles as well as to regular wear-and-tear of roadway pavement. As such, such mix designs will likely increase the concrete’s overall in-situ durability and reduce the need for maintenance and repair when placed in Denver, Colorado and similar climates. 5. Conclusions and future work While it is too early to fully document the impact of carbon nano-tube admixture on concrete mixes’ durability and in-situ road-way maintenance, based on slump, air-entrainment and compressive strength testing, it is shown that carbon nano- tube is a viable admixture, which meets existing design standards. Furthermore, based on a comparison of test results for 2 GPY (9.9 l/m3) and 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix designs, it is recommended for the City and County of Denver to select 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix to address issues of cracking in concrete pavement. 3 GPY (14.85 l/m3) mix gives higher slump and higher compressive strength, which is opposite to usual trends, and, potentially a distinct advantage. Increasing workability may result in reductions in construction time and compaction efforts. It may also help to smooth and quickly ﬁnish the pavement. Similarly, increased compressive strength may also help to minimize maintenance. 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