Daikin Altherma Flex type Application Guide - Version 1.00

 
Application guide Daikin Altherma Flex Type for commercial applications edition 1.00
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   Daikin Altherma Flex type

               Application Guide
                                  Version 1.00

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Application guide Daikin Altherma Flex Type for commercial applications edition 1.00
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Table of Contents

0        INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 3
1        HYDRAULICS ........................................................................................................ 4
1.1      Hydraulic components of the indoor units. ................................................................ 4
1.2      Hydraulic layout of the system ................................................................................. 6
1.2.1    No use of secondary pump(s).................................................................................... 6
1.2.2    Use of a secondary pump .......................................................................................... 7
1.3      Minimum watervolume in the system. ...................................................................... 8
1.4      Sizing of the collectors and decoupling bottle ........................................................... 9
1.4.1    Sizing of the collector ............................................................................................... 9
1.4.2    Function of the de-coupling bottle .......................................................................... 10
1.4.3    Sizing of the de-coupling bottle .............................................................................. 11
1.4.4    Example of collector and de-coupling bottle sizing. ................................................ 12
1.4.5    Secondary flow versus primary flow ....................................................................... 13
1.5      Dirt seperator.......................................................................................................... 13
2        WIRING................................................................................................................. 15
2.1      One remote control per indoor unit ......................................................................... 15
2.2      Group control ......................................................................................................... 15
3        THERMOSTAT CONTROL .................................................................................. 17
3.1      Heating only units .................................................................................................. 17
3.2      Reversible units (Heating and cooling) ................................................................... 19
4        DOMESTIC HOT WATER HEATING .................................................................. 22
4.1      Basic sizing of the required re-heat capacity and storage volume ............................ 22
4.1.1    Calculation of the required re-heat capacity: ........................................................... 22
4.1.2    Calculation of the required storage volume considering no re-heat during tapping .. 23
4.1.3    Calculation of the required storage volume considering reheat during tapping ........ 24
4.1.4    Boundary conditions ............................................................................................... 24
4.2      Using the excell calculation sheet to calculate storage volume and reheat capacity 25
4.3      Requirements for 3th party tank. ............................................................................. 26
4.4      Some examples of sizing ........................................................................................ 27
4.5      DHW heating in combination with room heating & cooling. ................................... 29
4.6      Dedicated DHW heating with 3th party tank. .......................................................... 30
5        BI-VALENT APPLICATION ................................................................................ 34
5.1      Reasons to use a bi-valent system ........................................................................... 34
5.2      Hydraulic layout ..................................................................................................... 35
5.2.1    Boiler located in secondary circuit .......................................................................... 35
5.2.2    Boiler located in the primary circuit........................................................................ 37

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Application guide Daikin Altherma Flex Type for commercial applications edition 1.00
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0 INTRODUCTION
   This application guide gives guidelines for both system sizing and system design, of
   applications with several HT-Altherma units put in parallel used for central
   heating ,cooling and/or hot water heating.
   The guideline applies to the outdoor models EMRQ8/10/12/14/16AAY1 combined with
   indoor          units         EKHVMRD50/80AAV1,              EKHVMYD50/80AAV1,
   EKHBRD011/014/016ACV1 and EKHBRD011/014/016ACY1.

   The guideline does not cover specific installation or operation instructions. For this
   information, please refer to the corresponding installation and operation manuals.

   It is the intention that the guideline will be updated and extended by experience gathered
   on installations all over Europe. For this reasons, please mail all your suggestions, remarks
   or questions to heating_aept@daikineurope.com

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1 HYDRAULICS

1.1 Hydraulic components of the indoor units.
     Hydraulic components ( and refrigerant components) inside the indoor unit can be found
     in schematic below. Refer also to the installation manual.

     Heating only units: (EKHBRD* / EKHVMR*)

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     Heating and cooling units: (EKHVMY*)

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1.2 Hydraulic layout of the system
1.2.1 No use of secondary pump(s)

      When the static height of the heat emission system is low, the units can be connected in parallel and
      connected directly to the heat emission system. Every unit must be foreseen of a none return valve.

                                 None return
                                 valves                                                          Pressure
                                                                                                 differential
                                                                                                 vale

      For pumps operating in parallel the pump curve of the pumps operating together can be drawn by
      summing the flow at same ESP. It means, the ESP of the pumps operating together is not increased
      compared to 1 pump operating! For this reason, make sure that the pumps can overcome the static height!

      See below example.

       The example shows
            1 pump connected to the heating system results in a flow of 35 l/min, ESP=60kPa
            3 pumps in parallel connected to the same system will only result in a flow of about 42l/min (at
               ESP=90Pa) and not 35x3 = 105 l/min !

                                                                                 Resistance curve heating system

                                                                                           3 pumps in parallel

                                                                   1 pump

      As to make sure all units get same flow, use collectors for connection or put them in Tichelman.

        ATTENTION POINTS:

                Make sure to mount a none return valve on every unit
                Make sure that static height of pumps is enough
                Make sure to connect the units to a collector or put them in Tichelman.

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1.2.2 Use of a secondary pump

      In most cases, the resistance of the system will be too high. A secondary pump(s) has to be used together
      with a decoupling bottle, because the flow through the units must not be influenced by the secondary
      pump(s).

                          Primary circuit                                 Secondary circuit
                                         None return
                                         valves

  collectors or
  Tichelman layout               De-coupling
                                 bottle

                              None return
                              valves

      ATTENTION POINTS:
             Make sure to mount a none return valve on every unit
             Make sure to use a decoupling bottle
             Make sure to connect the units to a collector or put them in Tichelman.

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1.3 Minimum watervolume in the system.
     As to guarantee good system operation, it is required to have 15l water volume per installed indoor unit.
     Only the watervolume that can not be shut off by valves or stopped pumps, is taken into account!

     Example 1: Units in below configuration work independent from the secondary pump.
                 If secondary pump is stopped, and units still operate, water will only flow through the
                 decoupling bottle.
                         

                                                              Considered volume

     Example 2: Units in below configuration are put ‘ON’ with external contact only when secondary pump is
                 in operation. First radiator group always get flow since no thermostatic valves installed.

                         

                                                                                                  Considered volume

   When using the de-coupling bottle as a storage vessel, please take into account the
   construction guidelines of the de-coupling bottle as explained in §1.4.3

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1.4   Sizing of the collectors and decoupling bottle
1.4.1 Sizing of the collector

      When the units are connected to a common collector, it must be made sure that all units get the same
      water-flow, independent from their position on the collector.
      For this reason, the watercollector is sized such, that the speed in the collector is below 0.9m/s.

      Calculate the required collector diameter from the volume flow. The volume flow has to be calculated
      from the design capacity.:

      Step 1 : Calculation of the volume flow:

                                   Q
                         V = -------------
                                ρ.Cw.∆T

      V [m³/s]              = Volume flow of the system at design capacity (1)
      Q [kW]                = Design capacity
      ρ [kg/m³]             = Density of water = 1000kg/m³
      Cw [kJ/Kg.K]          = Specific heat capacity of water = 4,186 kJ/kg.K
      ∆T                    = ∆T of the system at design condions (2)

      (1) As to guarantee the transfer of the heat from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit, the primary
        circuit flow should be a little higher than the secondary flow.
      (2) The units have variable speed pumps, adapting their speed as to achieve ∆T as set on the unit control.
        (see installation manual: Start up and configuration)

      Step 2: Calculation of minimum required internal diameter:

                                    4.V
                         Di =    ---------
                                     v.π

      Di [m]                = Minimum required internal diameter of collector
      V [m³/s]              = Volume flow of the system at design capacity
      v [m/s]               = water speed (0,9m/s)

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1.4.2 Function of the de-coupling bottle

       The decoupling bottle guarantees independent operation of the pumps of the primary side and secondary
       side. In the de-coupling bottle, the water-speed is low which makes it a very suitable place to purge air
       and deposit dirt.
                                                                 Air Purge

                     PRIMARY SIDE                                 SECONDARY SIDE

                                                                             Valve to remove
                                                                             collected dirt

       The flow in the de-coupling bottle will change depending on the flow/load of the
       primary/secondary circuit as shown below.

    Primary flow=secondary flow                              No load (No secondary flow)

                              Primary flow >secondary flow                                 Primary flow < secondary flow)

                                                       In this case the temperature to the secondary will be
                                                       lower than the temperature coming from the primary. For
                                                       reasons of energy saving, this should be avoided. For this
                                                       reason it is advised to use a variable speed pump on the
                                                       secondary side.

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1.4.3 Sizing of the de-coupling bottle

         The de-coupling bottle must have a very low hydraulic resistance.
         For this reason, the diameter D of the de-coupling bottle is sized such, that the speed in the bottle is
         below 0.1m/s.
         Moreover, the bottle is preferably constructed as shown below.
                                                                D

                                                                         D
                         From heatpumps
                                                                         D
                                                                                           To secondary circuit

                                                                          >D
                                                                          >
                             To heatpumps
                                                                          D
                                                                                           From secondary circuit
                                                                          D

D to be calculated as explained in 1.4.1 Sizing of the collector. (waterspeed v=0.1m/s)
The bottle is mounted vertically, with the hot side to the top.

As to avoid short circuit of the primary and secondary circuit, it should be taken care that D is also not sized too
big. If the decoupling bottle is sized bigger, as to serve also as a buffer vessel, inlet and outlet pipes must be
constructed as shown in below figures, as to avoid short circuits from primary and secondary side.

                                                     Pipes run in the vessel                  Pipes run through the
                                                     and are cut diagonally                   buffer with appropriate
                                                     as shown.                                holes.

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      1.4.4 Example of collector and de-coupling bottle sizing.
            .
            8x(EMRQ16+3xEKHBRD016) units installed.

Requirements secondary circuit:                                  Volume f low 4,46 l/s
- Capacity           : 280 kW                                    Water speed =< 0,1m/s
- Supply/return water : 70°C/55°C
                                                                            4x(4,46/1000)
                  Calculation of                                 Di >=     --------------------------- >= 0,24m >= 24cm
                  secondary flow                                               0,1x3,14
==> Flow = 280/(4,186.(70-55))
        = 4,46 l/s
        = 267 l/min
                  Calculation of
                  primary f low                                  Volume f low 4,46 l/s
                                                                 Water speed =< 0,9m/s
==> Primary f low >= 267 l/min
   (∆T setting pump =< 15°C)
                                                                            4x(4,46/1000)
                                                                 Di >=     --------------------------- >= 0,08m >= 8cm
                                                                               0,9x3,14

                                                                Volume f low 1,11 l/s
                                                                Water speed =< 0,9m/s

                                                                            4x(1,11/1000)
                                                                 Di >=     --------------------------- >= 0,04m >= 4cm
                                                                               0,9x3,14

                                                                    Integrated circulators,
                                                                    working on fixed DT=
Application guide Daikin Altherma Flex Type for commercial applications edition 1.00
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1.4.5 Secondary flow versus primary flow

     It is very important that the primary flow (flow of the heat-pumps) is bigger than the secondary flow to the
     system. This will avoid back-mixing of the return water, and thus sending water at lower temperature to the
     heating system than the leaving water of the heat-pumps.

     See below example:
     Assume the secondary flow at design condition is 61l/min, design temperature supply 50°C/ return 43°C.
     The radiators are designed to dissipate 30kW heating at those conditions.

     CASE 1: Units are configured to operate with ∆T=5°C. (=86l/min at 30kW), and setpoint = 50°C
               This will result in following flows and temperatures in the system.

                                  86 l/min 50°C                61 l/min 50°C

                                                             25 l/min                           30 kW

                                  86 l/min 45°C
                                                               61 l/min 43°C

     CASE 2: Units are configured to operate with ∆T=10°C. (=lower flow), and setpoint = 50°C
               This will result in following operation.
               The heat-pumps will reduce their flow until they reach DT=10°C. (as their setpoint = 50°C,
               this means 50-10=40°C).
               The system will find a balance as shown below.

                                   35 l/min 50°C                61 l/min 45,6°C

                                                               26 l/min                          24 kW

                                   35 l/min 40°C
                                                                61 l/min 40°C
                 Since the flow of the heatpumps is lower than the secondary flow, return water of the
                 secondary loop is returned through the decoupling bottle to the supply of the secondary loop.
                 This reduces the supply temperature, and thus the heating capacity dissipated by the radiators !

       ATTENTION POINTS:
               Make sure to design the flow of the primary heat-pump loop bigger than the design flow of
                the secondary loop.
                (The lower the ∆T setting of the heat-pumps, the bigger the flow will be. Refer to installation
                manual)

1.5 Dirt seperator

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      In old installations, it is highly recommended to:
           - Flush the system before putting the heatpumps into place.
           - install a dirt separator with magnet, as to avoid blockage of the mesh filters, pumps and or heat-
                exchangers in the heatpumps.
      The dirt separator separates off these impurities, which are mainly made up of particles of sand and rust,
      collecting them in a large collection chamber, from which they can be removed even while the system is
      in operation. The magnet boosts the separation of magnetic dirt (magnetite).
      The separator is to put on the common return pipe of the (old) secondary system.

         ATTENTION POINTS:
                 Make sure to flush old systems
                 Make sure to put a magnetic filter in old systems with iron piping.

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2 WIRING
   For the electrical wiring work and system overview of field wiring please refer to the appropriate installation
   manuals. The schematics below only explain communication wiring.

2.1 One remote control per indoor unit
           •   F1/F2 communication wiring between outdoor & indoors.
           •   P1/P2 wiring between indoor and its remote controller. (every unit is standard delivered with 1
               remote controller)

2.2 Group control

          The remote controller can be connected to control 1 group of indoor units. This implements that all
          indoor units have same configuration and same settings. Thus; it is e.g. not possible to connect 1
          indoor unit without tank and 1 indoor with tank to the same controller.
          For the same reason, it is also not allowed to connect heating only units with reversible units to the
          same remote control!

          1 remote controller can be connected to indoor units connected to other outdoors, as long as the
          settings are the same.
          1 remote controller can be connected to maximum 16 indoor units.

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   Note:
   Group control has the advantage that settings for several indoor units with same configuration, have to be
   entered at only 1 remote controller.
   However, the dis-advantage is that the remote controller will only show the values (leaving water
   temperature, entering water temperature, DHW temperature – if DHW sensor is installed - ) of unit ‘0’.
   (the connected indoors get automatically an address of 0 to 15)

   The only way to determine the units addresses is running their pumps by entering the field settings as
   described below.
   Field setting 14-04
       Value 10 = Unit 0
       Value 11 = unit 1
       …
       Value 25 = unit 15
   All units will be put thermostat OFF and the pump of the corresponding unit will run at 4000 rpm (during 10
   minutes, after that the field setting is reset). The appropriate unit can be identified by listening to the pump
   noise.

   If one or more units have A6 error (malfunction of pump), 14-04 should be set to the value of 2 and this will
   operate the pumps of all the indoor units not having the A6 error.

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3 THERMOSTAT CONTROL
3.1 Heating only units
The thermostat control of the hydro-box is determined by setting following parameters.

       6-01 :Optional thermostat installed.
               Defines whether an external thermostat (external voltage free contact) is installed.
               6-01=0  No optional thermostat installed. (Default value)
               6-01=1  Optional thermostat installed

               Demand PCB EKRP1AHTA (optional) must be installed to connect the external thermostat.

       8-00 : Remote temperature control:
               Defines whether the remote controller is used as room thermostat.
               8-00=0  Remote controller is NOT used as room thermostat.
               8-00=1  Remote controller is used as room thermostat (Default value)

                (Note: 8-00 automatically jumps to 0 when 6-01 is put to 1)

The table on the next page gives an overview, depending on the setting of above parameters, on
    - Compressor ON/OFF
    - Circulation pump ON/OFF

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6-01 = 0 AND 8-00 = 0            (No external thermostat installed and remote controller not used as room thermostat)

6-01 = 1 AND 8-00 = 0            ( external thermostat installed and remote controller not used as room thermostat)

6-01 = 0 AND 8-00 = 1 (Default setting) (No external thermostat installed and remote controller used as room thermostat)

LWT = Leaving water temperature / RWT = Return water temperature / RT = Room temperature
SP = Setpoint for leaving water temperature or room temperature

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3.2 Reversible units (Heating and cooling)
The thermostat control of the hydro-box is determined by setting following parameters.

       6-01 :Optional thermostat installed.
               Defines whether an external thermostat (external voltage free contact) is installed.
               6-01=0  No optional thermostat installed. (Default value)
               6-01=1  Optional thermostat installed (one contact for cooling/one contact for heating)
               6-01=2  Optional thermostat installed(one contact for ON-OFF/ one contact for cool/heat
               changeover)

               Demand PCB EKRP1AHTA (optional) must be installed to connect the external thermostat.

       8-00 : Remote temperature control:
               Defines whether the remote controller is used as room thermostat.
               8-00=0  Remote controller is NOT used as room thermostat.
               8-00=1  Remote controller is used as room thermostat (Default value)

                (Note: 8-00 automatically jumps to 0 when 6-01 is put to 1or2)

The table on the next page gives an overview, depending on the setting of above parameters, on
    - Compressor ON/OFF
    - Circulation pump ON/OFF

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6-01 = 0 AND 8-00 = 0   (No external thermostat installed and remote controller not used as room thermostat)

6-01 = 1 AND 8-00 = 0   ( external thermostat installed and remote controller not used as room thermostat)

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8-00 = 0 AND 6-01 = 2

8-00 = 1 AND 6-01 = 0 (default setting)

LWT = Leaving water temperature / RWT = Return water temperature / RT = Room temperature
SP = Setpoint for leaving water temperature or room temperature

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4 DOMESTIC HOT WATER HEATING
4.1 Basic sizing of the required re-heat capacity and storage volume
     The 2 most important parameters for basic sizing are:
          The peak tap. Determined by the maximum volume of DHW that will be tapped at a certain
             temperature in a certain period.
          The required re-heat time (time between 2 tappings)

     A system will always be a balance between a certain storage volume to overcome the peak tap, and a
     certain capacity to re-heat the tapped volume. The bigger the storage volume, the smaller the re-heat
     capacity can be and vice versa.

4.1.1 Calculation of the required re-heat capacity:
       The required re-heat capacity can easily be calculated as follows:

                  Re-heat capacity = Tapped_energy / reheat_time

                 Re-heat capacity = Vtap.Cw.(Ttap-Tcold)/reheat_time

                    Re-heat capacity                = Required reheat capacity                                           [kW]
                    Vtap                            = Tapped volume                                                      [l]
                    Cw                              = Specific heat capacity water                                       [kj/kg.K]
                    Ttap                            = Tapping temperature                                                [°C]
                    Tcold                           = Inlet temperature cold water                                       [°C]
                    Re-heat time                    = Time between start of reheating and next tap                       [s]

     Ex: 5200l of DHW will be tapped at 43°C in 1 hour. The required re-heat time is 8 hours. The entering
     water temperature is assumed to be 10°C
      Required re-heat capacity= 5200l.4,186 kJ/kg.K.(43-10)°C/(8*3600s) = 25 kW

     Note 1: The above doesn’t take into account heat losses of the tank. Heat losses of the tank should be added to the required re-heat
             capacity. When a recirculating loop is used, heat losses can be big.

     Note 2: The re-heat time is the time between the start of the re-heat and the start of the next tapping. The start of the re-heat will
             depend on the setting of the re-heat minimum temperature (see installation manual). A high setting will result in a quick start
             of re-heating during the tapping, a low setting will result in a start of the re-heating at a later stage of the tapping.
             To calculate on the safe side, re-heat time can be considered as being the time between the end of the tapping and the start of
             the next tapping. This may however lead to oversizing, especially when the tapping period is long compared to the time
             between 2 tappings.

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4.1.2 Calculation of the required storage volume considering no re-heat during
      tapping
     The tapped energy in above example has to be delivered in 1 hour time. If no storage would be foreseen, it
     would mean that a re-heat power of 5200l.4.186kJ/kg.K.(43-10)°C/3600s = 200 kW must be foreseen to
     overcome the peak tap (instant heater).
     As an alternative, energy can be stored to overcome the peak tap.
     To overcome the peak tap: The stored energy >= tapped energy

     The stored energy can be calculated as follows:
              Stored_energy = Vtank.Cw.(Ttank,start-Tcold)                                        [kJ]

                    Vtank                           = tank volume                                 [l]
                    Cw                              = Specific heat capacity water                [kj/kg.K]
                    Ttank,start                     = Tank temperature at start tapping           [°C]
                    Tcold                           = Temperature cold water                      [°C]

         The above assumes that the complete tank volume can be tapped at tank temperature. It means that from
         e.g. a 500l tank at 60°C, 500l water at 60°C can be tapped.
         This is of course not true, since the cold water entering the tank will mix with the hot water, and in
         reality, e.g. only 450l can be tapped at 60°C. This is quantified by the efficiency of the tank.(η).
         Tank efficiency = hot water that can be tapped at tank temperature from a tank/ tank volume.
         In the above example, the tank efficiency = 450/500 = 90%

                                      Stored_energy =η Vtank.Cw.(Ttank,start-Tcold)

     The tapped energy can be calculated as follows:
             Tapped energy = Vtap.Cw.(Ttap-Tcold)                                                 [kJ]

                    Vtap                            = Tapped volume                                        [l]
                    Cw                              = Specific heat capacity water                [kj/kg.K]
                    Ttap                            = Tapping temperature                         [°C]
                    Tcold                           = Temperature cold water                      [°C]

     From the above:
                             η Vtank. Cw.(Ttank,start-Tcold) >= Vtap.Cw.(Ttap-Tcold)

                                                 Vtap.(Ttap-Tcold)
                             Vtank >=          ----------------------------
                                               η . (Ttank,start-Tcold)

     In the above example it means, if the set-point of the tank temp. = 60°C and tank efficiency=0.96, the
     volume of the tank must be: Vtank >=5200/0.96*(43-10)/(60-10) = 3575l

     Note: Typical values for tanks efficiencies are 0.8 to 0.97.
           However, for storage tanks of the run through type (as ROTEX) the efficiency is a lot lower, since the tank temperature must be
           higher than the tapping temperature as to be able to transfer heat through the heatexchanger. The efficiency of this type of tanks
           ranges from 0.4 to 0.6.
           The efficiency reduces with the increase on the tapping flow.

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4.1.3 Calculation of the required storage volume considering reheat during
      tapping

     The previous assumes that no re-heating takes place during the tapping.
     In reality, re-heating already takes place during tapping. Depending on the setpoint of re-heat minimum
     temperature – refer to installation manual – the re-heating will start at a certain point during the tapping.
     Calculating the tank considering that no reheat takes place during the tapping is on the safe side, but will
     lead to over-dimensioning of the tank.(especially with long tapping periods and if big re-heat capacity is
     available).

     If the re-heat minimum temperature is set very close to the reheat maximum temperature of the tank, it can
     be assumed that re-heating will start quite fast after tapping and will thus last a big part of the entire tap-
     time.

                         Stored energy >= tapped energy – reheat energy
                        η.Vtank.Cw.(Ttank-Tcold) >= Vtap.Cw.(Ttap-Tcold) – re-heat capacity . time

                                     Vtap.Cw.(Ttap-Tcold) – reheat_power . time
                        Vtank >= ---------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       η Cw.(Ttank-Tcold)

                   At the limit, it can be considered that the re-heat starts immediately after tapping time in
                   above formula = tapping time

     In the above example it means:
                       If the considered re-heat capacity = 25kW (minimum required to reheat tank by next
                       tapping, refer to 4.1.1. Calculation of the required re-heat capacity)
                        Vtank >=(5200*4.186*(43-10)-25*3600)/(0,96.4,186.(60-10))>=3127 l
                       This assumes that re-heating starts immediately after the tapping.

                         3127l < Vtank < 3575 l, depending on the setting of the minimum reheat temperature.

4.1.4 Boundary conditions

      Beside the required re-heat capacity and the required storage volume, 2 boundary conditions are to be met.
         1. The tapflow per tank shall not exceed the maximum allowed tap-flow of the tank.
              Too big tap-flow of the tank will destroy the stratification of the tank and thus reduce the
              efficiency, and can also lead to excessive pressure losses.

                The tankflow can easily be calculated as:

                                                    (Ttap – Tcold)
                                    Tank Flow = -------------------- . Tap Flow
                                                   (Ttank – Tcold)

                In the example, tank flow = (43°C-10°C)/(60°C-10°C).5200l/60min = 57.2l/min

          2.   The tank must be able to dissipate the reheat capacity received from the heatpump. For this reason,
               it is very important for 3th party tanks that the capacity of the heating coil in the tank is sufficient.
               Refer to 4.3 Requirements for 3th party tank.

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4.2 Using the excell calculation sheet to calculate storage volume and
    reheat capacity
       Solution with Daikin tank
       The excel calculation sheet allows you to enter the parameters as described above (see yellow cells) and
       shows solutions with both EKHTS260 and EKHWP500 tanks.
       The solution columns show:

   Qrh              : Re-heat capacity. This is heat-pump capacity used to re-heat the tank. The solution with the
                       smallest possible re-heat capacity is shown first.
      Vtank         : Required storage volume
      Qtity         : Nr of EKHTS260 / EKHWP500 tanks required to cover the volume.
      Power/tank : Re-heat capacity per tank. This is limited to 16kW/tank for EKHTS260 and 14kW/tank
                       for EKHWP500
      Flow/tank     :Allowed flow per tank. This is limited to 12l/min/tank for EKHTS260 and 16l/min/tank for
                       EKHWP500
      Re-heat time : Time after which the tank is reheated after tapping has stopped.

      When entering the example of 5200l, the sheet shows a required tank volume of 3266l with a capacity of
      25kW. This is in between the values calculated, since the sheet takes into account the start of the reheating by
      means of the entered minimum reheat temperature. Entering a value of 60°C will give 3127l, since then it is
      assumed reheat starts immediately after start tapping.

      The sheet also shows that the storage volume is reduced if bigger reheat capacity is chosen. If the reheat
      capacity is e.g. increased to 90 kW, the storage volume can be reduced to 2318l, taking into account a
      minimum reheat temperature of 43°C.

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            Solution with 3th party tank
            The example above results because of the big tappingvolume in a big tank volume. It might not be feasible
            to realize the project with Daikin tanks.
            For this reason, the sheet allows also to enter the volume of 3th party tank, the number of tanks used and
            the efficiency of the tanks.
            It shows the minimum required reheat capacity to be used with the tanks, the reheat capacity per tank and
            from this the required tank heat exchanger capacity, - refer also to 4.3 Requirements for 3th party tank.- the
            flow per tank and the reheat time.

            If for the example above, 2x1500l tanks would be used, with an efficiency of 0.96, the required re-heat
            capacity is 45 kW
                                                             REQUIRED RE-HEAT POWER FOR A GIVEN TANK

Tank Volume of 3th party tank                       1500 l   Qrh     Vtank Qtity Power/tank   Flow/tank Re-heat time      Possible tap at 43°C without reheat
Nr. of tanks                                           2        44,9 3000 l    2        22 kW 28,6 l/min      4,4 hrs                    4364 l
Efficiency                                          0,96                                                            This is:
                                                                                                                                     heatexchanger capacity
                                                                                                                     =    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Adviced HEX capacity                    (in let temp. HEX+outlet temp. Hex)/2-Tank_temperature
                                                                                  >2,25 kW/°C
                                                                                 >2,19 m²/tank                      Example:
                   Etap             718317,6 199,5326667
                                                                                                                        Manufacturer specifies:
                   Etank             602784        167,44                                                               30kW at inlet/outlet = 80°C/60°C
                   Ereheat =    32,09266667                                                                             and tank temperature = 20°C.                          => It means heat exchanger
                                                                                                                                                                              capacity = 30/(70-20)=0,6kW/°C

4.3 Requirements for 3th party tank.
         It is adviced to use a Daikin supplied DHW tank (EKHTS*, EKHWP*), since these tanks are optimized for
         operation in conjunction with the Daikin heat-pump.

         In case a 3th party tank is used, the capacity of the heating coil is of the utmost importance.

         The heat exchanger capacity of the tank per °C [kW/°C] > = connected capacity to the tank [kW]/10

         The heat exchanger capacity of the tank per °C can be calculated from manufacturers data as follows::

                                                                  heatexchanger capacity
         heat exchanger capacity of the tank per °C = -----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       (inlet temp. HEX+outlet temp. Hex)/2-Tank_temperature

         Example:
         Manufacturer specifies:
                    30kW at inlet/outlet = 80°C/60°Cand tank temperature = 20°C.
                     Heat exchanger capacity of the tank per °C = 30/((80+60)/2-20) = 0.6 kW/°C
                     It means only 6kW heat output per tank should be connected!

         If the capacity of the coil is not known, as a rule of thumb the coil surface can be used. The coil surface of the
         heat exchanger should be at least 0.098m²/kW connected capacity.

         e.g.: Tank heated with 30kW heatpump output connected to it, should have a coil with a heating capacity of
                 30/10 = 3kW/°C (it means 3*((80+60)/2-20) = 150 kW at conditions Tin/Tout = 80°C/60°C and tank
                 temperature = 20°C.
                 If capacity is not known, it should be checked that the surface of the tank coil =30*0.098 = 2.94m² .

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4.4 Some examples of sizing
   -   Example 1: Big peak tap with short re-heat time.

       A Jacuzzi bath needs to be filled in 10 minutes. 500l water at 43°C.
       Required re-heat time of the tank: 1 hour.
       Assumed cold water temperature=10°C, tank temperature setpoint = 60°C, tank efficiency=0.96
       (EKHTS260)

       Solution with Daikin tanks:
          Required re-heat capacity: = 500l.4,186 kJ/kg.K.(43-10)°C/3600s
                                           = 19,2 kW
          Vtank (no reheat during tap) = 500l.(43-10)°C/(0.96.(60°C-10°C))
                                             = 343,7 l
                                                      (500l.4,186kJ/kg.K.(43-10)°C-19.2kW.600s)
          Vtank (reheat after start tap) =   -----------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                (0.96.4,186.(60-10))°C
                                             = 286 l

                                         286l1,68 kW/°C
                                                                                                                                                 >1,64 m²/tank                                      Example:
                                    Etap                    69069 19,18583333
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Manufacturer specifies:
                                    Etank                   94185      26,1625                                                                                                                          30kW at inlet/outlet = 80°C/60°C
                                    Ereheat =        -6,976666667                                                                                                                                       and tank temperature = 20°C.                           => It means heat exchanger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               capacity = 30/(70-20)=0,6kW/°C

           This document is for information only and does not constitute an offer binding upon Daikin. Daikin has compiled the content of this document to the best of its knowledge. No express or implied warranty is given for the completeness, accuracy, reliability or fitness for
           particular purpose of its content. Specifications are subject to change without prior notice. Daikin explicitly rejects any liability for any direct or indirect damage, in the broadest sense, arising from or related to the use and/or interpretation of this document.

       The program takes into account that re-heat starts already during the tapping (high minimum reheat
       temperature). This results in slightly lower required reheat capacity.
       17 kW will reheat the tank by the next tapping. Required coil size of the tank > 1.64m²

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        -          Example 2: Big tap volume with longer reheat time.

                  A hotel with 50 beds expects a maximum tap of 50x50=2500l at 43°C between 6:00 and 8:00 and another
                  tap between 18:00 and 20:00.
                           Tap time = 2 hours, reheat time = 10 hours (8:00 to 18:00)
                           Assumed tank temperature setting is 60°C, cold water temperature 10°C.

                  Solution:
                      - Re-heat capacity = 2500l.4,186kJ/kg.K.(43-10)°C/(10hrs.3600s)=9.6 kW

                             -             Vtank (no reheat during tapping) = 2500l.(43-10)°C/(0,96.(60-10)°C)
                                                                            =1718l

                                                                          2500l.4,186.(43-10)°C-9.6kW.2h.3600s
                             -             Vtank (reheat during tapping) = -------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 (0,96.4,186kJ/kg°C.(60-10)°C)
                                                                         = 1375l

                                       Reheat capacity = 9.6 kW, 1375l2,40 m²/tank                                      Example:
                          Etap                  345345 95,92916667
                                                                                                                                                                                               Manufacturer specifies:
                          Etank                 188370       52,325                                                                                                                            30kW at inlet/outlet = 80°C/60°C
                          Ereheat =        43,60416667                                                                                                                                         and tank temperature = 20°C.                           => It means heat exchanger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      capacity = 30/(70-20)=0,6kW/°C

 This document is for information only and does not constitute an offer binding upon Daikin. Daikin has compiled the content of this document to the best of its knowledge. No express or implied warranty is given for the completeness, accuracy, reliability or fitness for

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4.5    DHW heating in combination with room heating & cooling.
      Depending on the system sizing, 1 indoor unit can be connected per tank, or 1 or more indoor units can be
      connected to several tanks.

      The below example shows a system that provides DHW, room heating and room cooling with:
          • EMRQ14+(3xEKHVMY80 +1xEKHBRD16 ))
              = 33.4 kW at Ta=-7°C. (distributed according to the indoor capacity index: 21.1kW by
              3xEKHVMYD80, 12.2kW by 1xEKHBRD16).
              The 21.1kW of the reversible units connected to the 5 tanks will be sufficient for the tapping as
              shown in example 2 of the DHW sizing (2500l tapping at 43°C in 2 hours. Reheat time will be
              around 3 hours). During cooling, heat will be recovered for the DHW heating.
          • EMRQ14+3xEKHBRD16 .
              = 35 kW at Ta=-7°C for room heating.

          •    As to limit the tap flow per tank, tanks are connected in parallel to the DHW supply.
          •    Since only 1 DHW sensor can be connected to 1 indoor unit, tanks are connected according to the
               Tichelmann principle as to distribute the load equally and this for the DHW connection, the reheat
               connection and the recirculation connection! The last 2 tanks in above example have no sensor,
               but temperatures will be the same in all the tanks because equal load distribution.

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4.6 Dedicated DHW heating with 3th party tank.
     In dedicated DHW applications, very often big volumes of DHW have to heated. In this case several
     indoor units can be connected in parallel to 1 or more (field supplied) tanks as shown in the figure below.

     The standard DHW control of the heat-pump is designed for residential applications, where the amount of
     DHW to be produced is rather small. It means that the leaving water of the heat-pump in standard domestic
     hot water mode to heat the tanks is relatively low since it is selected for operation with Daikin tanks, and
     optimized for efficiency.
     This can result in capacity shortage when used for commercial applications.

     For that reason, when using Altherma for dedicated DHW heating, it is strongly advised to use the ‘DHW
     only’ settings as explained below, to avoid capacity problems.

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           THE BELOW SETTINGS ONLY APPLY TO EKHBRD*AC MODELS !

      Parameter settings to be set to put the heat-pump to ‘DHW only’ mode:
          • [5-04] = 1
          • [7-01] = 1

      The heat-pump can operate up to an ambient of 35°C according to 1 of the configurations below:

CONFIGURATION A                         CONFIGURATION B                       CONFIGURATION C
THERMOSTAT CONTROL
    By Daikin thermistor                       By external thermostat                       Continuous
• Every unit must be                    • Every unit must have the optional   •    No Daikin sensor or field supplied
  connected with separate                 demand PCB EKRP1AHTA                     thermostat required.
  Daikin DHW thermistor in                installed. Voltage free contact
  the tank.                               (from field supplied tank
  (To be order as spare part if           thermostat) must be connected to
  field supplied tank is used:            start operation of the heat-pump
  125002145. Length=12m)
                                        • Parameter settings:
 • Parameter settings:                     [6-00]=0                          Parameter settings:
      [6-00] = 1                          [6-01]=1                           [6-00]=0
      [6-01] = 0                                                              [6-01]=0
TEMPERATURE SETTINGS
Setting of the DHW parameters           No setting of the DHW parameters      No setting of the DHW parameters
on the heat-pump controller(s).-        on the controller.                    Setting of the Leaving Water
refer to operation manual               Setting of the Leaving Water          temperature and ON/OFF differential
EKHBRD units: “Domestic water           temperature and ON/OFF                on the heat-pump controller.
heating operation”.                     differential on the heat-pump
The leaving water of the heat-          controller.                           SPlwc-[A-02]=H/P Thermo ON
pump to heat the tank is                                                      SPlwc+[F-00]=H/P Thermot OFF
determined by setting of [F-03].        SPlwc-[A-02]=H/P Thermo ON
Target Leaving water will be:           SPlwc+[F-00]=H/P Thermo OFF           SPlwc = leaving water setpoint.
SPdhw + [F-03]                                                                See note below on leaving water
(SPdhw = setpoint of the domestic hot   SPlwc = leaving water setpoint.       setpoint.
water).                                 See note below on leaving water
See note below on [F-03]!               setpoint.

AVAILABLE CONTROL FUNCTIONS
• DHW functions as described • Leaving water temperature                      • Leaving water temperature control
  in installation manual.      control functions as described in                functions as described in installation
  (reheat, storage, schedule   installation manual. (Leaving                    manual. (Leaving water temperature
  timer for DHW)               water temperature setting,                       setting, ON/OFF, schedule timer for
• Leaving water temperature    ON/OFF, schedule timer for                       leaving water)
  or room temperature control  leaving water)
  NOT available.

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        Note on F-03 (CONFIGURATION A)
           Parameter [F-03] (5°C to 25°C, default = 10°C) will determine the temperature difference between
           the temperature of the water sent to the tank and the tank temperature.
           The lower this value, the better the SCOP will be (tank is heated with lower temperature), but the
           lower the heat capacity rejected to the tank will be.
           Especially, if the tank coil size is rather small, this can cause capacity problems. For this reason,
           use a tank coil size as advised in 5.3 Requirements for 3th party tank.

        Note on SPlwc (CONFIGURATION B and C)
           The setpoint of the leaving water (SPlwc) must of course be higher than the setpoint of the tank.
           The lower this value, the better the SCOP will be (tank is heated with lower temperature), but the
           lower the heat capacity rejected to the tank will be.
           Especially, if the tank coil size is rather small, this can cause capacity problems. For this reason,
           use a tank coil size as advised in 5.3 Requirements for 3th party tank.

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The below figures show a setup according configuration A and B.

                Configuration A:                                      Configuration B:
      control with Daikin DHW thermistor                       Control with external thermostat

  General:                                                General:
  The units are configured for DHW operation and all      The units are configured for heating operation, and
  have 1 DHW sensor attached.                             are put ON/OFF by an external voltage free contact.
  The sensors can be located at several heights in the    In any case, leaving water set-points must be set
  tank. In this way, at small load (only bottom of tank   above the set-point for domestic hot water
  becomes colder) only 1 unit starts up. If load          temperature.
  increases, more units will start up.
  Required additional Daikin options:                     Required additional Daikin options:
  1 x DHW sensor per tank.                                1 x optional demand PCB EKRP1AHTA per unit.
  (To be ordered as spare part: 125002145.
  Length=12m)

  Required parameter settings:                            Required parameter settings:
  5-04   =1     Activate DHW mode                         5-04   =1     Activate DHW mode
  7-01   =1     Activate DHW mode                         7-01   =1     Activate DHW mode
  6-00   =1     DHW tank installed                        6-00   =0     No DHW tank installed
  F-03   =      Temp diff Leaving water with tank         6-01   =1     External thermostat installed
                 temperature(5to25°C)
                                                          Above settings will:
                                                           • Disable DHW heating functions
  Above settings will:                                     • Enable space heating functions
   • Disable room heating functions                           (ON/OFF, Schedule timer, Setpoint for Leaving
      (this is the difference with ‘normal’ DHW mode)         water).
   • Keep enabled all original DHW functions.              • Fix the pump speed during operation. (Refer to
      ( Storage / reheat and disinfection.)                   installation manual of EKHBRD for available
      Refer to the installation manual of EKHBRD for          ESP)
      appropriate settings.                                • Make sure, unlike normal space heating mode,
   • Fix the pump speed during operation. (Refer to           that unit can operate in heating up to 35°C
      installation manual of EKHBRD for available             ambient.
      ESP)                                                 • Control the Leaving water temperature of the
   • Make sure that, as for normal DHW mode, unit             heat-pump as set on the remote controller.
      can operate in heating up to 35°C ambient.              The differential for the leaving water setpoint
   • Control the Leaving water temperature of the             can be set with parameters A-02 (default value
      heat-pump in function of the actual tank                10°C) and
      temperature and the target tank temperature.            F-00 (default value 5°C)
                                                              LWT > SP+F-00  Unit thermostat OFF
                                                              LWT < SP-A-02  Unit thermostat ON

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5 BI-VALENT APPLICATION
5.1 Reasons to use a bi-valent system
      From economic point of view, it can be very interesting to design a system as bi-valent.
      It can cut the initial investment cost drastically, by sizing the heat-pump to a bivalent temperature instead of
      the design temperature. Moreover, since running hours at the lowest temperatures on yearly base are few,
      and COP of the heatpump at lowest temperatures is reduced, it will have no or even a positive impact on
      the running cost.
      This is clearly illustrated by the below example.

DESIGN CONDITIONS
   • Replacement of fuel boiler (75kW load at -6°C)
   • Average heat load : 104.000 kWh/Year
   • Fuel consumption : 15.000 to 20.000l/Year - Fuel Price : 0,82 €/l = 0.087€/kWh  12000€/year
   • Average Electricity price : 0.12€/kWh

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5.2 Hydraulic layout
       Make sure that the return water to the heat-pump indoor units can never exceed 80°C. For this reason
       never put the set-point on the boiler above 80°C and install an aquastat valve in the return water flow of
       the heat-pump unit.

5.2.1 Boiler located in secondary circuit

5.2.1.1 Boiler with integrated pump

    Schematic diagram.

      Operation.

   •   The boiler has to be of the modulating type. If not, the balancing bottle at the boiler should be replaced by
       a storage volume as to avoid excessive cycling of the boiler.
   •   Below the bi-valent point, the boiler is released by an ambient thermostat
       or/and
       by the backup heater contact of 1 of the heat-pump units. The heat-pump unit to which the boiler is
       connected should have a set-point of 2°C lower than the other heat-pumps. This will make sure the boiler
       is only released when the load can’t be met by the heat-pump units.
   •   The boiler its (weather) dependent set-point should be about 2°C lower than the (weather) dependent set-
       point of the heat-pump units as to avoid the heat pumps loading down due to the boiler operation.

                                              Page35
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         Wiring diagram.

                                                                                Th1, Th2 : Thermostats
                                                                                P1,P2 : Secondary circuit circulation pumps
                                                                                K1..3A : Auxiliary contacts
                                                                                BS      : Boiler Safety
                                                                                MO      : Manual operation of boiler

   In the above example, the control will work as follows:

     When Th1 closes:
         -    Circulation pump P1 starts and H/P-1 and H/P2 are put ON through their demand PCB EKRP1AHTA (option).
     When Th2 closes:
         -    Circulation pump P2 starts and H/P-2 and H/P3 are put ON through their demand PCB EKRP1AHTA (option).

         Only 3 H/P running when both Th1 and Th2 are closed. It is assumed that the load can be covered by 2 heatpumps if only 1 of the 2
            secondary pumps is running.

     Boiler operation is released when:
          -     The manual operation contact is closed
          -     One of the heat-pumps is in alarm. (voltage free contact on EKRP1HBA closes)
          -     There is capacity shortage.
                Capacity shortage is detected by the backup heater contact of H/P-2, as described below
                          Heater contact step 1 (A3P – 14/15) will CLOSE when:all conditions below are met
                                Compressor of H/P 2 has been in operation for more than 20 minutes
                                Compressor of H/P 2 runs just below or at its full frequency
                                Leaving water of H/P2 < SP – Cst.∆T/10*2 (1)
                                     Cst = about 5 to 2 depending on model (small model= 5 / big model= 2
                                     ∆T = temperature difference target by pump as set by param A-02
                          (1)
                                If the leaving water of the H/P is far below its setpoint, i.e. LW < SP – Cst.∆T/5*2; heater contact step 2 will
                                close, without closing step 1 first. See below
                          Heater contact step 2 (A3P – 14/16) will CLOSE when all conditions below are met:
                                Heater step 1 has been closed for more than10 minutes
                                Leaving water of H/P2 < SP – Cst.∆T/10*2-1
                                Return water temperature SP – Cst.∆T/10
                              Return water temperature> SP – .∆T/2-1

                         Heater contact step 1 (A3P – 14/15) will OPEN when 1 of the conditions below is met:
                              Leaving water of H/P2 > SP + 2

NOTE : The backup heater contacts will open when there is request for DHW preparation. For this reason, the
       heat-pump unit to which the backup heater contact is connected, is preferably not used for the preparation
       of DHW.

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5.2.1.2 Boiler without integrated pump
      Schematic diagram.

      Operation.

   •   As boiler with integrated pump, but when boiler is released, also the 3 way valve is energized as to send
       the water of the secondary loop through the boiler.

5.2.2 Boiler located in the primary circuit

       When the boiler is put in parallel with the indoor units in the primary circuit, it must be made sure that the
       units are connected to a low loss collector and decoupling bottle. Otherwise this will cause breakdown
       because of too low flow in the heat-pumps.

       In any case, the pressure drop in the primary circuit at maximum flow (all pumps of H/P and boiler
       running) must be below 7mH20, as to make sure heatpumps have enough flow during operation. .

                                               Page37
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