DASHBOARD 2021 The Western Australian Alliance to End Homelessness Outcomes Measurement Framework: Centre for Social Impact

 
The Western Australian Alliance
to End Homelessness Outcomes
Measurement Framework:
DASHBOARD 2021
VERSION 3.0
July 2021 ​

Paul Flatau, Leanne Lester, Jenny Fairthorne, Kiara Minto, Katherine Mok, Zoe Callis ​
Centre for Social Impact The University of Western Australia​

                                                                                  Western Australian Alliance
                                                                                    to End Homelessness
Authors
Paul Flatau, Leanne Lester, Jenny Fairthorne, Kiara Minto, Katherine Mok, Zoe Callis
Authors of previous versions of the Dashboard include Catherine Bock, Jacob Baron, Ali Mollinger-Sahba, and Zoe Callis
Centre for Social Impact The University of Western Australia (CSI UWA)

Key words	            Homelessness; Ending Homelessness; Australia; Western Australia; Outcomes Framework;
                       Outcomes Measurement; Evaluation
Publisher              Centre for Social Impact, Business School, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
DOI                    https://doi.org/10.25916/mvjd-mt92
Format                 Printed; PDF online only
URL                    www.csi.edu.au/research/project/ending-homelessness-outcomes-framework-dashboard
Recommended citation 	Flatau, P., Lester, L., Fairthorne, J., Minto, K., Mok, K., and Callis, Z. (2021). The Western Australian
                       Alliance to End Homelessness Outcomes Measurement and Evaluation Framework: Dashboard.
                       Version 3.0 July 2021. Perth: The University of Western Australia, Centre for Social Impact.

Address for correspondence
Professor Paul Flatau
Director, Centre for Social Impact The University of Western Australia
The Business School
The University of Western Australia
35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA, 6009 Australia
paul.flatau@uwa.edu.au

The Western Australian Alliance to End Homelessness (WAAEH)

The WA Alliance to End Homelessness is comprised of a group of individuals and organisations that have come together
to end homelessness in Western Australia.

Project Funding: Lotterywest

Acknowledgement
The original development of the Outcomes Framework and the accompanying Data Dictionary, Dashboard and Homelessness
in Western Australia report was supported by a Lotterywest grant to Shelter WA. Version 2 of the Dashboard was financed by
the CSI UWA while version 3 was funded by Lotterywest.

Disclaimer
The opinions in this report reflect the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Western Australian
Alliance to End Homelessness or any of its organisations.
CONTENTS
Contents�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������i

Figures���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ii

Tables��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iii

1. Introduction�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������4

    1.1 Background��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������4

    1.2 The broader context����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������6

    1.3 The purpose of the Dashboard���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������6

2. The WAAEH 10-Year Strategy to End Homelessness Targets������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7

3. Responding to Homelessness in Western Australia������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������9

    3.1 Reducing the overall rate of homelessness���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������9

    3.2 Reducing Aboriginal homelessness�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18

    3.3 Reducing regional homelessness������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 23

    3.4 Reducing chronic homelessness������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 28

    3.5 Addressing the needs of those experiencing homelessness����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 30

4. Preventing Homelessness�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32

    4.1 Housing affordability���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32

    4.2 Housing Supply�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39

    4.3 Poverty and unemployment��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41

    4.4 Young people in custody and out-of-home care�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 43

    4.5 Physical and mental health ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45

    4.6 Alcohol and drug use��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 49

    4.7 Domestic violence ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������53

5. Future Developments in the Dashboard������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 54

6. References������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56

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FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Summary of WAAEH Outputs�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������5
Figure 3.1 The rate of homelessness among persons aged 15 years and over in Western Australia (Census)�������10
Figure 3.2 The rate of homelessness based on Specialist Homelessness Service clients in Western Australia
(SHSC)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������10
Figure 3.3 Number of clients accessing Specialist Homelessness Services in Western Australia who
were homeless on entry to support (SHSC)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11
Figure 3.4 Proportion of all Western Australian Specialist Homelessness Service clients who were
homeless on entry to support (SHSC)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12
Figure 3.5 Number of clients accessing Specialist Homelessness Services in Western Australia who
were at risk of homelessness on entry to support (SHSC)���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12
Figure 3.6 Proportion of all Western Australian Specialist Homelessness Service clients who were
at risk of homelessness on entry to support (SHSC)�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13
Figure 3.7 Rate of homelessness for persons aged 15 years and over experiencing various forms of
homelessness in Western Australia (Census)�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14
Figure 3.8 Housing tenure outcome for clients with closed support periods who were experiencing
homelessness at the start of support in Western Australia, 2019–20 (SHSC)���������������������������������������������������������������� 16
Figure 3.9 Housing tenure outcomes for clients with closed support periods who were at risk of
homelessness at the start of support in Western Australia, 2019–20 (SHSC)�����������������������������������������������������������������17
Figure 3.10 The overall rate of Aboriginal persons aged 15 years and over across all homeless categories
in Western Australia (Census)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 19
Figure 3.11 Rate of Aboriginal persons aged 15 years and over living in improvised dwellings, tents,
or sleeping out in Western Australia (Census)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 19
Figure 3.12 The proportion of those living in various forms of homelessness in Western Australia
aged 15 years and over that identify as Aboriginal (Census)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 20
Figure 3.13 Number of clients who are Aboriginal accessing Specialist Homelessness Services (WA) (SHSC)��� 22
Figure 3.14 Percentage of clients who are Aboriginal accessing Specialist Homelessness Services (WA) (SHSC) 23
Figure 3.15 The proportion of Specialist Homelessness Services clients that live in regional Western Australia
(SHSC)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24
Figure 3.16 The overall rate of persons aged 15 years and over across all homeless categories in regional
Western Australia (Census)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25
Figure 3.17 Structure of homelessness across Western Australia, by remoteness (Census)������������������������������������� 26
Figure 3.18 Number of homeless persons by statistical area level 4 (SA4) (Census)���������������������������������������������������27
Figure 3.19 Proportion of Vulnerability Index-Service Prioritisation Decision Assistance Tool
respondents that are chronically homeless (WA Advance to Zero)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29
Figure 3.20 The proportion of Western Australian Specialist Homelessness Services clients that end their support
periods with their immediate case management needs met/case management goals achieved (SHSC)������������� 31

ii | #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA
Figure 4.1 Proportion of Vulnerability Index-Service Prioritisation Decision Assistance Tool respondents
chronically homeless (WA Advance to Zero)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32
Figure 4.2 Proportion of low-income rental households spending more than 30 per cent of their
gross income on housing costs (rental stress) (%), by location, 2007–08 to 2017–18 (WA) (ABS)���������������������������33
Figure 4.3 Proportion of low income households remaining in housing stress from one year to the
next (%), by family type, 2001–04 to 2013–16 (Australia) (HILDA)�������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34
Figure 4.4 Housing affordability: housing costs as a proportion of household income, by tenure
and landlord type, 1994–1995 to 2017–18 (WA) (ABS)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������35
Figure 4.5 Home ownership: Households by tenure type (%), 1994–95 to 2017–18 (WA) (ABS)����������������������������� 36
Figure 4.6 Rental Market: Rental Affordability Index, WA, 2012 to 2020, Quarterly (SGS Economics
and Planning)������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������37
Figure 4.7 Number of social housing dwellings, all areas, at 30 June 2006 to 30 June 2019 (WA) (AIHW)�������� 39
Figure 4.8 Total number of applicants on waiting list (excluding applicants for transfer), by social
housing program, at 30 June 2014 to 2018 (Western Australia, AIHW)�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39
Figure 4.9 Waiting time to secure public housing accommodation, from 2012 to 2017 (WA)
(WA Housing Authority)���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������40
Figure 4.10 Western Australian poverty rates, 50% and 60% of median income (ACOSS/UNSW)����������������������� 41
Figure 4.11 Unemployment rate, youth and general population (WA) (ABS)���������������������������������������������������������������� 42
Figure 4.12 Youth detainees in custody by Aboriginal cultural identity (WA) (WA Corrective Services)����������� 43
Figure 4.13 Children in out-of-home care by Aboriginal cultural identity, number per 1,000 (WA) (AIHW)���� 44
Figure 4.14 People that report their health status as fair/poor (WA) (ABS)�������������������������������������������������������������������46
Figure 4.15 Proportion of persons with High/Very High psychological distress (WA) (ABS)�����������������������������������47
Figure 4.16 Age-standardised hospitalisation rates for a principal diagnosis of mental health
related condition, 2004–05 to 2016–17 by Aboriginal cultural identity (WA) (AIHW)�������������������������������������������� 48
Figure 4.17 Alcohol Consumption, people aged 14 years or older, 2007 to 2019 (WA) (AIHW)�������������������������������� 49
Figure 4.18 Alcohol lifetime risk status, people aged 14 years or older, 2007 to 2019 (WA) (AIHW)��������������������� 50
Figure 4.19 Illicit Drug use (WA) (AIHW)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51
Figure 4.20 Family violence offences, 2010–11 to 2019–20 (WA Police Force)�������������������������������������������������������������53
Figure 5.1 The multi-level, nested indicators of the WAAEH Framework����������������������������������������������������������������������55

TABLES
Table 2.1 The WAAEH Strategy Targets��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7
Table 3.1 Number of clients by housing situation for clients with closed support periods in
Western Australia 2019–20 (SHSC)��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������10

                                                                                                                                                   #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA | iii
1. INTRODUCTION
This report presents the 2021 update to the Western Australian Alliance to End Homelessness Outcomes
Measurement Framework: Dashboard (the Dashboard), which was first released in August 2019, and updated
in February 2020. The Dashboard is an evolving, accessible, and visual platform designed to present and
report on outcomes relevant to the key targets of the Western Australian Alliance to End Homelessness
(WAAEH). The Dashboard aims to answer the following question: Are we are ‘on track’ to end homelessness
in Western Australia?

1.1 Background
In July 2018, the WAAEH published the Strategy to End Homelessness (the Strategy). The Strategy articulates
a 10-year plan to end homelessness in Western Australia, invoking a whole-of-society response. The Strategy
comprises nine broad targets across the following areas: reducing and ending homelessness; preventing
homelessness through addressing ‘structural’ and ‘individual’ drivers of homelessness; improving policy
and practice within the service sector; and, improving measurement, accountability, collaboration, and
governance mechanisms. Those targets relating to reducing, ending and preventing homelessness, which have
been operationalised and for which data exists, form the backbone of the present version of the Dashboard.
The Dashboard sits alongside both the Strategy and The Western Australian Alliance to End Homelessness
Outcomes Measurement and Evaluation Framework (the Framework). The WAAEH, via Shelter WA, received
funding from Lotterywest to develop the Framework to measure and monitor progress towards ending
homelessness. The Centre for Social Impact at The University of Western Australia (CSI UWA), a founding
member of the WAAEH, undertook the task of developing the Framework.
The Framework applies a complexity science approach to theorising systems of social change. This
manifests itself in (a) the focus on a web of domains beyond simply the core homelessness targets; and,
(b) the multi-level structure of the Framework—causal factors are identified across micro (individuals),
meso (organisational, program and service indicators) and macro (population-level) levels of society. The
complexity approach provides the rich platform to build the evidence base required to undertake effective
practice and policymaking.
The Framework is organised into seven domains, which are broad, conceptual ‘buckets’ into which one or
more outcomes can fit. The seven domains that form the backbone of the Framework are: (1) The State of
Homelessness; (2) Structural Factors; (3) Individual Factors; (4) Representation, Voice and Advocacy; (5)
Resources; (6) Collaborative Efficacy; and (7) The Social Services Sector. Each domain is then divided into
outcomes (such as Outcome 1.1 ‘Homelessness is decreased’) and further into specific indicators (e.g. Indicator
1.1.1 ‘Rates of overall homelessness’) and then into precise measures (e.g. 1.1.1.1 ‘The overall rate of persons aged
15 years and over across all homeless categories in Western Australia’).
A comprehensive Framework needs to account for and assess the state of homelessness itself (e.g., the
overall rate of homelessness, rates of rough sleeping or rates of chronic homelessness), the drivers into and
exit out of homelessness and the efficacy of the homelessness service system response. At this juncture, we
have focused on the state of homelessness itself and the drivers of homelessness. We hope to address the
measurement of other components of the Framework, namely, policy and practice within the service sector;
and, improving measurement, accountability, and governance mechanisms, soon.
The Framework is accompanied by two documents; the Dashboard (Western Australian Alliance to End
Homelessness Outcomes Measurement Framework: Dashboard) and the Data Dictionary (Western Australian
Alliance to End Homelessness Outcomes Measurement and Evaluation Framework: Data Dictionary).

4 | #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA
Where we currently have data available, the Dashboard presents key measures related to the nine targets.
The Dashboard, while still in early stages of development, has been expanded significantly since the first
version of the prototype published in 2019. As compared with Version 1 of the Dashboard, the nine targets
have been categorised into two overarching ending homelessness targets: (1) responding to homelessness
targets, and (2) preventing homelessness targets. Responding to homelessness targets, detailed in section 3,
examine the trends of the individuals experiencing homelessness and those accessing homelessness services
to monitor the prevalence and response to homelessness in Western Australia. Preventing homelessness
targets, in section 4, presents data on key drivers of homelessness (which relate to Target 4), indicating trends
across housing, health, economic, labour market and social measures, with explanatory notes about the
implication of this data for homelessness outcomes in Western Australia.
The second related document the Data Dictionary, which operationalises the Framework by detailing the
rationale, methodologies, targets and data for each measure of the Framework. The Data Dictionary is a
comprehensive measurement tool and will be updated as the homelessness landscape in Western Australia
evolves alongside policy, practice, and research.
The Dashboard provides trends in key targets and brief comment on these trends. The Ending Homelessness
in Western Australia 2021 Report (the Report) provides further commentary on these trends as well as
providing a review of the initiatives, programs, and policies in Western Australia. The 2021 Report will be
released in August 2021. Figure 1.1 summarises the interrelationships between the Strategy, the Framework,
the Data Dictionary, the Dashboard, and the Report.

FIGURE 1.1 Summary of WAAEH Outputs

                                                                                      WAAEH Outcomes
                                                                                  Measurement Framework:
                                                                                       Data Dictionary
                                                                                    (the Data Dictionary)

                                               WAAEH Outcomes
        WAAEH Strategy to
                                               Measurement and
        End Homelessness
                                             Evaluation Framework
          (the Strategy)
                                                (the Framework)

                                                                                     WAAEH Outcomes
                                                                                  Measurement Framework:
                                                                                         Dashboard
                                                                                      (the Dashboard)

                  Ending homelessness                                                   The Ending
                  in Western Australia                                            Homelessness in Western
                 An update on initiatives,                                         Australia 2021 Report
                 programs and evidence                                                 (the Report)

                                                                                      #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA | 5
1.2 The broader context
The Strategy and Framework are not operating in a vacuum. There are common threads between this project
and other community and government initiatives.
The Western Australian Government’s Our Priorities: Sharing Prosperity (2019a) report highlights key goals
of the Western Australian Government across a range of sectors—including the economy, environment,
education, community safety, Aboriginal wellbeing, and regional prosperity—which overlap with many of
the population-level outcomes adopted in the Framework. The Our Priorities: Sharing Prosperity whole-of-
government targets program was deferred indefinitely when the WA Government focused attention on the
COVID-19 pandemic.
In addition, the WA Outcomes Measurement Framework presents a whole-of-sector approach to community
outcomes in an interconnected, hierarchical wheel; this is in keeping with the approach of the WAAEH
Framework which emphasises the interrelated nature of the drivers of homelessness and homelessness
responses. Similarly, the WA Government’s Budget papers apply an Outcomes Framework to expenditures
and policy directions that, in practical terms, will also contribute to achieving the WAAEH targets (Western
Australian Government, 2020).
Most importantly, since the publication of the WAAEH Strategy to End Homelessness and the publication
of Version 1 of the Framework and Dashboard, the Western Australian Government has released All Paths
Lead to a Home: Western Australia’s 10-Year Strategy on Homelessness 2020–2030 (Western Australian
Government, 2019b).
The WA Government Homelessness Strategy is largely consistent with the WAAEH’s own homelessness
strategy and includes a commitment to ending rough sleeping and chronic homelessness. All Paths Lead to a
Home also includes a commitment to developing an Outcomes Measurement Framework “to make sure the
Strategy is achieving its intended goals and to enable progress to be measured against outcomes”. It notes
that “integration points will also be established with the Western Australian Alliance to End Homelessness
Outcomes Measurement Framework and Evaluation Framework developed by the Centre for Social Impact at
the University of Western Australia” (Western Australian Government, 2019b, p.12). As the WA Government
further implements its Strategy and develops its Outcomes Measurement Framework, we will further develop
the Dashboard measures.

1.3 The purpose of the Dashboard
The Dashboard is a powerful tool for visualising and analysing diverse evidence relevant to the WAAEH
Strategy. The purpose of the Dashboard is to communicate findings to the WAAEH and its affiliates, to policy
makers, to the homelessness sector, and to the broader community with an interest in ending homelessness
in a way that is clear, timely and useful. The Dashboard functions as a reference point to see where current
efforts are producing results and where there is need for renewed focus for future initiatives. For the broader
Western Australian community, the Dashboard will help to generate interest and deepen understanding of
the state of homelessness in Western Australia.
The 2021 Dashboard will be accompanied by a developmental evaluation report The Western Australian
Alliance to End Homelessness: Ending Homelessness in Western Australia Report (The Report), which brings
together key findings from the Dashboard, detailed analysis of the WA Advance to Zero homelessness data
and an examination of programs and initiatives in Western Australia to understand where we are at in the
journey to end homelessness in Western Australia by 2028.
Together with the complementary publications the Framework, Data Dictionary, and the Report,
the Dashboard provides the information needed to inform effective, adaptive action towards ending
homelessness in Western Australia.

6 | #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA
2. THE WAAEH 10-YEAR STRATEGY TO END
    HOMELESSNESS TARGETS
The WAAEH Strategy to End Homelessness articulated nine targets to be achieved in the 10-year timeframe.
The Dashboard is organised around these nine WAAEH Strategy targets and examines trends in targets in two
main fields (see Table 2.1 below):
–	Responding to homelessness; and,
–	Preventing homelessness.
Section 3 covers the Responding to Homelessness Targets while section 4 covers the Preventing Homelessness
Targets. There are several targets for which we don’t yet have reliable data. We hope to include these targets in
future editions of the Dashboard.

TABLE 2.1 The WAAEH Strategy Targets

                                  Ending Homelessness in Western Australia by 2028
                    Responding to Homelessness Targets                     Preventing Homelessness Targets
 Target 1: Western Australia will have ended all forms of chronic        Target 4: The underlying causes that
 homelessness including chronic rough sleeping.                          result in people becoming homeless
 Target 2: No individual or family in Western Australia will sleep       have been met head-on, resulting in
 rough or stay in supported accommodation for longer than five           a reduction by more than half in the
 nights before moving into an affordable, safe, decent, permanent        inflow of people and families into
 home with the support required to sustain it.                           homelessness in any one year.

 Target 3: The Western Australian rate of homelessness (including        Target 8: A strong, collaborative and
 couch surfing and insecure tenure) will have been halved from its       adaptive network of services and
 2016 level.                                                             responses across the community
                                                                         services, health, mental health,
 Target 5: The current very large gap between the rate of Aboriginal     justice, and education sectors
 homelessness and non-Aboriginal homelessness in Western                 will exist working collectively to
 Australia will be eliminated so that the rate of Aboriginal             address the underlying causes of
 homelessness is no higher than the rate of non-Aboriginal               homelessness and meeting the needs
 homelessness.                                                           of those who become homeless.
 Target 6: Those experiencing homelessness and those exiting             Target 9: Measurement,
 homelessness with physical health, mental health, and alcohol and       accountability and governance
 other drug use dependence needs will have their needs addressed.        mechanisms that are robust,
 This will result in a halving of mortality rates among those who        transparent and open to external
 have experienced homelessness and a halving in public hospital          review will be operating, providing
 costs one year on for those exiting homelessness.                       an on-going means for assessing
 Target 7: Those experiencing homelessness and those exiting             progress in meeting the goals of
 homelessness will be supported to strengthen their economic,            Ending Homelessness in Western
 social, family and community connections leading to stronger            Australia in 10 years.
 well-being and quality of life outcomes. Employment among those
 experiencing homelessness will be significantly increased. Over
 half of those exiting homelessness will be employed within three
 years of moving into housing. Well-being and quality of life will
 equal those of the general population in the same timeframe.

Source: WAAEH Strategy to End Homelessness (2018).

                                                                                      #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA | 7
Where data is available and publicly accessible for a key measure, we have constructed a figure or table
illustrating the current trend in the data and included a brief explanatory note about the implication
for homelessness.
For the measures relating to the core Domain 1 of the The State of Homelessness in Western Australian
Alliance to End Homelessness Outcomes Measurement Framework and Evaluation Framework, we have also
indicated a projected trend line that is theoretically required to be achieved in order to meet the 2028 target.
Future data will be added to the graph, and the distance from these points to the trendline could provide a
visual indication of whether we are making consistent progress towards the target.
The trendline is indicative only, and fluctuations on and off the trendline are to be expected. Examples of data
points have been added at future data release time points (e.g. the 2021 Census) for illustrative purposes only.
Although these example data points have been arranged in a trend towards the 10-year target, they are not
intended to serve as milestones.
Measures relating to the drivers of homelessness (WAAEH Outcomes Measurement and Evaluation
Framework Domains 2 and 3) and thus relate to the prevention of homelessness do not have an associated
target, but we presented the recent trends in the data.
It is important to note that the Dashboard does not contain the comprehensive set of measures relating
to the nine Strategy targets. Rather, the Dashboard visualises key measures for which data is available
that can provide a broad overview of the domains and communicate trends across the complex system of
homelessness. For a comprehensive list and operationalisation of measures, refer to the WAAEH Outcomes
Measurement and Evaluation Framework (the Framework) and the WAAEH Outcomes Measurement and
Evaluation Framework: Data Dictionary (the Data Dictionary).
Throughout the Dashboard the term Aboriginal is used in recognition of the fact that Aboriginal people are
the original inhabitants of Western Australia. Data retrieved from national sources may have originally used
the terms ‘Indigenous’ or ‘Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander’ people. However, the statistics referred
to relate to Western Australia and not Australia more generally and the term is that which is preferred in
Western Australia by Aboriginal people.

8 | #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA
3. RESPONDING TO HOMELESSNESS IN
   WESTERN AUSTRALIA
3.1 Reducing the overall rate of homelessness

   The Western Australian rate of homelessness (including couch surfing and insecure tenure) will have
   been halved from its 2016 level

   TARGET 3

There are two key sources of data on rates of homelessness in Western Australia: The Australian Bureau of
Statistics Census Data (ABS, 2016) and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Specialist Homelessness
Services Collection (SHSC); (AIHW, 2020a). The data from the two sources differs due to different definitions
of homelessness utilised. For specific information and limitation of data sources, refer to the Framework.
In the Census, ‘homelessness’ refers not only to rough sleeping, which is often the most visible form of
homelessness in society, but also to a variety of unstable housing situations, such as couch surfing (staying
temporarily with other households), living in boarding houses, being housed in supported accommodation
and living in ‘severely crowded’ dwellings (ABS, 2016).
In the SHSC, the rate of homelessness is determined by calculating the number of clients of specialist
homelessness services who are homeless on entry into specialist homelessness service support at the
beginning of their first support period for the year, and then dividing this number by the total Western
Australia population. Homelessness, as defined by the SHSC, includes having no shelter or residing in an
improvised/inadequate dwelling, staying in short-term temporary accommodation, or being without tenure
while housed (AIHW, 2020a). The SHSC definition of homelessness does not include a component for severely
overcrowded dwellings which is included in the Census definition.
The focus of Domain 1: The State of Homelessness of the Framework is to halve the 2016 rate of homelessness
in Western Australia by 2028. This target has been broken down into a set of measures within the domain,
encompassing the overall rate of homelessness, homelessness in various categories, the rates of Aboriginal
homelessness and the economic barriers that prevent a sustained exit from homelessness. Some key
measures and associated graphs are represented below.
Figures 3.1 and 3.2 demonstrate the overall state of homelessness in Western Australia using two data sources:
the ABS Census of Population and Housing and the SHSC. Figure 3.1 depicts the persons per 10,000 identified
as homeless, across all homeless operational groups in the 2016 Census. In 2016, 36.4 per 10,000 Western
Australians were homeless according to the Census. To achieve the target of halving the rate of homelessness
by 2028, this rate will need to decrease to 18.2 persons per 10,000. Example future data as well as a trendline
and confidence intervals are displayed to demonstrate the trajectory needed to achieve this target.
Figure 3.2, similarly, depicts the persons per 10,000 identified as homeless in the SHSC from 2015/16 onwards.
In 2016/17, 34.3 Western Australians per 10,000 were homeless. As described in the Framework (p. 24), the
SHSC only collects information from those individuals that access services, which, together with the different
definitions of homelessness adopted helps to explain why this number is lower than the Census figure of 36.4
persons per 10,000. In 2017/18 and 2018/19 the rate decreased slightly to 32.5 and 32.6 respectively, before
increasing to 34.8 in 2019/20, above the trajectory for the target of 17.2 persons per 10,000 by 2028.

                                                                                     #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA | 9
2018/19 the rate decreased slightly to 32.5 and 32.6 respectively, before increasing to 34.8 in
                              2019/20, above the trajectory for the target of 17.2 persons per 10,000 by 2028.
                                                                                     why this number is lower than the Census figure of 36.4 pe
           why this number is lower than the Census figure of 36.4                 persons
                                                                               2018/19       per 10,000.
                                                                                        the rate            In 2017/18
                                                                                                               slightlyand
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            number
           2018/19
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                                                            17.2persons
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                                                                                            2028.
                                                                     Figure 3.1 The rate of homelessness among persons aged 15 ye
             Figure 3.1 The rate of homelessness among persons aged    15 years and over in Western Australia
                                                                     (Census)
Figure       FIGURE
 Figure3.13.1The
              Therate
                  rate
             (Census) 3.1
                     50   The rate of homelessness
                      ofofhomelessness
                           homelessness among      among
                                         amongpersons
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                                                                                                                                                                                         50
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                                                                     40                                                           36.4
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                                                                          41.0
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                              41.0                                                                                                                                                       40                                                        36.4
                                                                     40                                                           36.4
                           4040                                          30                                        36.4
                                                                                                                    36.4
                                                       per 10,000

                                                                                                                                                                                         30
                                                                     30                                                                                                                                                                                18.2
                           3030                                          20

                                                                                                                                                              Persons, per 10,000
                                                 per 10,000

                                                                                                                                                                                         20
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                                                                     20                                                                                                                                                                18.2
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                           2020                                          10
                                                                                                                                                                                         10
                                        Persons,

                                                                     10
                           1010                                          0
                                                                          2011                                                    2016          2021 0                                                                                  2026
                                                                         0                                                                            2011                                                                                         2016                     2021
                            00                                            2011                                        2016                 Year 2021                                                                                    2026
                              2011
                             2011                                                                            2016Census data + 2028 Target
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                                                                                                                                                            2026
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                                          2049.0         Interval
                                                  – Census Interval
                                                           of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness.
                                                                                          Source: ABS 2049.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Estimating h
              Source: ABS 2049.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness.
              https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2049.0
             Source    : ABS 2049.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Estimating
              https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2049.0                                   why this number is lower than the Census figure of 36.4
                                                                                                 homelessness.
                                                                                          https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2049.0
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                                                                                     homelessness. 2018/19 the rate decreased slightly to 32.5 and 32.6 respe
  https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2049.0
https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2049.0                                                 2019/20, above the trajectory for the target of 17.2 person
           FIGURE
           Figure 3.23.2TheTherate
                               rateofofhomelessness
                                        homelessnessbased  basedon onSpecialist
                                                                      Specialist     Homelessness
                                                                                   Homelessness
                                                                                 Figure   3.2 The rate  Service
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                                                                                                                  clients
                                                                                                          of homelessness      Western
                                                                                                                                based on Specialist Home
           Figure  3.2
           Australia
           Australia    The
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                        (SHSC)     of homelessness       based  on  Specialist    Homelessness
                                                                                 Australia Figure
                                                                                             (SHSC)  Service
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                                                                                                                      homelessness  among persons aged 15
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 Australia(SHSC)
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                                                                                 2019/20, above the trajectory for the target of 17.2 persons
                                                                                                                                          50 per 10,000 by 2028.
                                                              50
                                                              50                                           50
                  5050                  Figure 3.1 The rate of homelessness among persons aged 15 years and over in Western Australia
                                        (Census)                                                             41.0
                                                                                               40                                    34.836.4
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                                                        10                                                     0
                                 0                                                                              2015 2016    0     2017 2015/16,
                                                                                                                                           2018 2019       2020    20212018/19,
                                                                                                                                                                          2022 2019/2
                                                                                                                                                                                  2023
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                                                                                                                                                     20282016 2017/18,
                                                                                                                                                             2029                    20
                         2015 2016
                        2015   20162015 2017
                                      2017  2016 2018
                                               2018   2017 2019
                                                         2019  2018 2020
                                                                  2020   20192021
                                                                           2021   20202022
                                                                                    2022   20212023
                                                                                             2023  2022 2024
                                                                                                     2024  20232025
                                                                                                              2025  20242026
                                                                                                                       2026  2025 202720262028202720292028 data
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                                              2015/16,2017
                                                2015/16,       2018
                                                         02016/17,
                                                            2016/17,
                                                              2015/16,  2019
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                                                                       2017/18,  2020
                                                                                2018/19,
                                                                          2016/17,2018/19,2021
                                                                                           2019/20
                                                                                    2017/18,      2022
                                                                                             2019/20SHS
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                                                                                                  Year    2023
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                                                Examplefuture
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                                                                        Interval
                                                                                       Source: AIHW Specialist Homelessness Services Collection, 2019-20
            Source: AIHW Specialist Homelessness                                   2019-20
                                                                                       https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-h
  Source:AIHW
Source:   AIHW    Specialist
                Specialist
            Source:          Homelessness
                           Homelessness
                    AIHW Specialist           Services
                                             Services
                                    Homelessness          Collection,
                                                       Collection,
                                                 Services                2019-20
                                                                       2019-20                    Source: ABS 2049.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Estimatin
            https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-annual-
                                                          Collection, 2019–20
             Source:  AIHW   Specialist  Homelessness      Services     Collection,    report/contents/summary
                                                                                    2019-20
https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-annual-
  https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-annual-  https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2049.0
                                Source: ABS 2049.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness.
            report/contents/summary
            https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-annual-report/contents/summary
             https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-annual-
report/contents/summary
  report/contents/summary       https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2049.0
                              report/contents/summary
                                                                                    Figures 3.3 and 3.4 plot raw numbers of homeless and at-ri
          Figures 3.3 andFigure   3.4 plot
                                        3.2
                                             raw
                                            The
                                                   numbers
                                                rate of
                                                               of homeless
                                                        homelessness based  on
                                                                                 andthe
                                                                                      at-risk
                                                                                Specialist
                                                                                                ofofhomelessness
                                                                                              Figure
                                                                                          share      all3.2clients
                                                                                           Homelessness      The rate
                                                                                                           Service  whoofclients
                                                                                                                   clients are
                                                                                                                           in
                                                                                                                                  as wellbased
                                                                                                                          homelessness
                                                                                                                               homeless
                                                                                                                              Western
                                                                                                                                          as    on Specialist
                                                                                                                                           (as opposed   to atHor
 Figures3.3
Figures  3.3
          the and
            andshare  3.4plot
                    3.4  ofplot  raw
                             allraw    numbers
                                     numbers
                                  clients   who
                                 Australia (SHSC)
                                                  of
                                                  areof homeless
                                                      homeless
                                                        homeless    and
                                                                  and
                                                                   (as    at-risk
                                                                        at-risk
                                                                        opposed    ofof  homelessness
                                                                                      homelessness
                                                                                     to  at risk  of          clients
                                                                                                            clients
                                                                                                     homelessness)
                                                                                              Australia     (SHSC)     as
                                                                                                                      as    well
                                                                                                                         well  asas
                                                                                                                            accessing  SHS   in
the
 theshare  Figures
     shareof           3.3 and
            ofallallclients
                     clients who
                               who 3.4 plot
                                     are
                                      are    raw numbers
                                          homeless
                                            homeless    (as    of homeless
                                                         (asopposed
                                                             opposed             andofof
                                                                       totoatatrisk
                                                                                 risk  at-risk  of homelessness
                                                                                        homelessness)
                                                                                           homelessness)      accessing
                                                                                                                accessing clients
                                                                                                                             SHS
                                                                                                                              SHSinas
                                                                                                                                    inwell as
           the share of all clients   50
                                            who are homeless (as opposed to at risk of#ENDHOMELESSNESSWA|
                                                                                                      homelessness) accessing SHS in          7
                                                                                                    50
                                                                                        #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA|
                                                                                          #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA|                      77
                              10 | #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA                                                                                                                                                               #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA| 7
                                                                                                         40                                     34.8
                                                                                                                   33.4    34.3                                                                                     40
                                                                                                                                  32.5   32.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              33.4   34.3                     34.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            32.5      32.6
                                                                                                         30
                                                                                  ,000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    30
                                                                                                                                                                                          0
Figures 3.3 and 3.4 plot raw numbers of homeless and at-risk of homelessness clients as well as the share
of all clients who are homeless (as opposed to at risk of homelessness) accessing SHS in Western Australia
from mid-2017 to March 2021. The raw numbers for both groups show a drop in clients accessing SHS in April
2020,
Western coinciding  withfrom
             Australia    the outbreak
                                mid-2017 of the  COVID-19
                                             to March        pandemic
                                                         2021.  The raw and likely attributed
                                                                          numbers     for bothtogroups
                                                                                                  nation-wide
                                                                                                            showlockdown
                                                                                                                   a drop
in clientswhich
measures     accessing    SHSinin
                    resulted       April
                                many      2020, cutting
                                       services   coinciding
                                                           backwith   theservice
                                                                 director  outbreak    of the
                                                                                  delivery  forCOVID-19
                                                                                                a period. Bypandemic
                                                                                                               December
and likely
2020,         attributed
        the numbers         to nation-wide
                       of both                  lockdown
                               client groups increase         measures which
                                                         to approximately        resultedlevels
                                                                            pre-pandemic     in manyand services
                                                                                                          there is a cutting
back directr
further         service
          increase         delivery
                    in March          foryet
                              2021. Not   a period.
                                              seen in By
                                                      theseDecember
                                                             figures are2020,  the numbers
                                                                         the impacts            ofofboth
                                                                                       of the end          client
                                                                                                      various      groups
                                                                                                               pandemic
increaseintoearly
supports       approximately
                     2021, such aspre-pandemic
                                   eviction and rentallevels   and there
                                                          increase        is a further
                                                                    moratoriums,         increasesupplements
                                                                                   and financial     in March 2021.(e.g., Not
yet seen inand
JobKeeper      these   figures are supplement).
                 the coronavirus    the impactsThe   of the  end of
                                                        increase  in various   pandemic
                                                                     the monthly  series insupports     in early
                                                                                             recent months     may2021,
                                                                                                                     reflect
such
the    as eviction
    provision         and rental
                of additional      increase
                               funds           moratoriums,
                                      to services                and financial
                                                   from government               supplements
                                                                       which enabled               (e.g.,previously
                                                                                        them to meet       JobKeeper      and
                                                                                                                      unmet
the  coronavirus      supplement).     The   increase   in  the monthly
needs and the recent rapid tightening in the Perth housing market.         series in recent    months      may   reflect
the provision of additional funds to services from government which enabled them to meet
previously
The monthly unmet     needs
              series also showand the
                               that    recent
                                     among  malerapid  tightening
                                                  clients, a higherin the Perth
                                                                    proportion arehousing market.
                                                                                   homeless compared to female
clients, while the opposite trend is seen in clients at risk of homelessness.
The monthly series also show that among male clients, a higher proportion are homeless
compared to female clients, while the opposite trend is seen in clients at risk of homelessness.
FIGURE 3.3 Number of clients accessing Specialist Homelessness Services in Western Australia who
Figure 3.3 Number of clients accessing Specialist Homelessness Services in Western Australia who
were
were homeless
     homeless on
              on entry
                 entry to
                        to support
                           support (SHSC)

  3500
                                                                                                                            3,099
  3000
                                                              2,700              2,639                        2,673
                                                                                            2,610
                        2,480                   2,504                   2,478
                                   2,354                                                         2,387
  2500 2,251

  2000                                                                                                                      1,857
                                                              1,544              1,495      1,505             1,537
                        1,438                   1,415                   1,399                    1,351
  1500 1255                        1,346

  1000                                                                                                                      1,242
                                                1,089         1,156     1,079 1,144         1,1051,036        1,136
          996         938          1,008
   500

      0
   Ja 7

   Ja 8

   Ja 9

   Ja 0
   N 7

   M 18

   N 8

   M 19

   N 9

   M 20

   N 0

   M 21
    Ju 8

    Ju 9

    Ju 0
   Se 7

   Se 8

   Se 9

   Se 0
   M 18

   M 19

   M 20

           1
       l-1

       l-1

       l-1

       l-2
        -1

        -1

        -1

        -2
          1

          1

          1

          2
        -1

        -1

        -2

        -2
        -

        -

        -
      p-

      n-

      p-

      n-

      p-

      n-

      p-

      n-
     ov

     ov

     ov

     ov
     ay

     ay

     ay
     ar

     ar

     ar

     ar
    Ju

                                                   Female             Male          Total

Source: AIHW 2021 Specialist Homelessness Services: monthly data, Cat. No. HOU 321.
https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-monthly-data/contents/monthly-data
Source: AIHW 2021 Specialist Homelessness Services: monthly data, Cat. No. HOU 321.
https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-monthly-
data/contents/monthly-data

                                                                                                      #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA | 11
FIGURE 3.4 Proportion of all Western Australian Specialist Homelessness Service clients who were
  Figure 3.4
homeless   onProportion of all Western
              entry to support   (SHSC) Australian Specialist Homelessness Service (SHS) clients who
  were  homeless  on entry  to support
   Figure 3.4 Proportion of all Western Australian Specialist Homelessness Service (SHS) clients who
   were homeless on entry to support
    60%
     60%                                                                                            53%
                                                                                                             50%             50%
    50% 45%               47%          47%                    46%                  47%          53%
                                                    45%                  44%                                50%             50%
                                                                                                44%                          43%
     50% 45%               47%
                          41%          47%                    46%                  47%                       42%
                                       40%          45%       39%                  40%
                                                    39%                 44%                     44%
    40% 38%                                                             38%                                 42%             43%
                          41%          40%                                         40%
                                                    39%       39%                                                            40%
     40% 38%              37%
                                                                        38%                         38%      38%
                                       36%                    35%                  36%
    30% 34%                                         35%                  34%                                                40%
                          37%                                                                   38%         38%
                                       36%                    35%                  36%
     30% 34%                                        35%                 34%
    20%

     20%
    10%

     10%
     0%
     M 18

     M 19

     M 20

             1
     Ja 7

     Ja 8

     Ja 9

     Ja 0
     N 7

     M 18

     N 8

     M 19

     N 9

     M 20

     N 0

     M 21
      Ju 8

      Ju 9

      Ju 0
     Se 7

     Se 8

     Se 9

     Se 0

          -2
         l-1

         l-1

         l-1

         l-2
          -1

          -1

          -1

          -2
           1

           1

           1

           2
          -1

          -1

          -2
      0%
          -

          -

          -
        p-

        n-

        p-

        n-

        p-

        n-

        p-

        n-
       ar

       ar

       ar

       ar
       ov

       ov

       ov

       ov
       ay

       ay

       ay
      Ju

      M 18

      M 19

      M 20

              1
      Ja 7

      Ja 8

      Ja 9

      Ja 0
      No 7

      M 18

      No 8

      M 19

      No 9

      M 20

      No 0

      M 21
       Ju 8

       Ju 9

       Ju 0
      Se 7

      Se 8

      Se 9

      Se 0

           -2
          l-1

          l-1

          l-1

          l-2
            1

            1

            1

            2
            1

            1

            1

            2
           -1

           -1

           -2
                                                   Female             Male          Total
           -

           -

           -
         v-

         v-

         v-

         v-
         p-

         n-

         p-

         n-

         p-

         n-

         p-

         n-
        ar

        ar

        ar

        ar
        ay

        ay

        ay
       Ju

  Source: AIHW 2021 Specialist Homelessness Services: monthly data, Cat. No. HOU 321.
                                                     Female
Source: AIHW 2021 Specialist Homelessness Services: monthly             Male
                                                            data, Cat. No. HOU 321.  Total
   https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-monthly-
https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-monthly-data/contents/monthly-data
  data/contents/monthly-data
   Source: AIHW 2021 Specialist Homelessness Services: monthly data, Cat. No. HOU 321.
   https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-monthly-
  Figure   3.5 Number of clients accessing Specialist Homelessness Services in Western Australia who
   data/contents/monthly-data
  Figure
FIGURE     3.4 Proportion of all Western Australian Specialist Homelessness Service (SHS) clients who
  were at3.5  Number
           risk         of clients accessing
                of homelessness    on entry toSpecialist
                                               support Homelessness Services in Western Australia who
  were
were    homeless    on entry to support
  Figure 3.5 Number of clients accessing Specialist(SHSC)
     at  risk of homelessness     on entry to support  Homelessness Services in Western Australia who
   4500
  were
   60%   at risk of homelessness   on entry to support
                                                              3,777     3,766                                               3,841
    4000                                                                                         53%
     4500                                                                       3,531                        3,494           50%
                                                 3,394                                      3,353            50%
    3500 3267
    50%                  47%
                         3,160         47%
                                    3,148                     46%                  47%                                      3,841
     400045%                                        45%       3,777     3,766             2,962
                                                                        44%                44%                               43%
    3000                                                                      3,531                         3,494
                                                                                                             42%             2,700
                         41%           40%       3,394        2,607              40% 3,353
          3267
     350038%                                        39%       39%       2,544                                2,444
    40%                   3,160     3,148        2,379                  38% 2,423    2,3122,962
    2500 2247            2,210      2,151                                                 2,096
     3000                                                                                                                    40%
                                                                                                                            2,700
                          37%                                 2,607     2,544              38%               38%
    2000                              36%                                        36%
                                                                              2,423                         2,444
                                                 2,379
                                                    35%       35%                    2,312
    30%   2247
     250034%              2,210     2,151                               34%
    1500                                                                1,222             2,096
                                                              1,170           1,108                                         1,141
                                                                                     1,041                   1,050
     20001020           961          997         1,015
                                                                                            866
    1000
    20%
     1500                                                     1,170     1,222                                               1,141
     500 1020                                    1,015                          1,108       1,041           1,050
                        961          997
                                                                                                    866
     1000
    10%0
      500
     N 7

     M 18

     N 8

     M 19

     N 9

     M 20

     N 0

     M 21
     Se 7

     Se 8

     Se 9

     Se 0
     M 18

     M 19

     M 20

             1
     Ja 7

     Ja 8

     Ja 9

     Ja 0
      Ju 8

      Ju 9

      Ju 0
         l-1

         l-1

         l-1

         l-2
            1

            1

            1

            2

          -2
          -1

          -1

          -1

          -2
          -1

          -1

          -2
          -

          -

          -
        p-

        n-

        p-

        n-

        p-

        n-

        p-

        n-
       ar

       ar

       ar

       ar
       ov

       ov

       ov

       ov
       ay

       ay

       ay
      Ju

     0%0
                                                    Female            Male          Total
     M -1188

     M 1199

     Ma 200

                   1
                17

      JJaa 88

      JJaa 99

      JJa 200
                17

     M 188

     NNoo 88

     M 1199

     NNo 199

     Ma 200

     NNo -200

     Ma 211
             --118

       JJuu 99

       JJu 00
            l--117

      SSee 88

      SSee 99

      SSe 200
     NNoo 7
      SSeep 7

               -221
      JJaan 7

       JJuu 8
            ll--11

            ll--11
           vv--1

           vv--1

              --11
           p--1

           n--1

           pp--1

             --11

               -22
               -2
                1

                1

               -2

                2

               -2
               -2
                1

               -2
         aarr-

              --
           nn--

           pp--

           ull-
          arr-

          arr-
           nn-

          epp-

         ann-
          ovv-
          ayy-
         aarr

          ovv
       JJuul

        aayy

        aayy

  Source: AIHW 2021 Specialist Homelessness Services: monthly data, Cat. No. HOU 321.
     M

     M

     M

     M
     M

     M

     M

  https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-monthly-
  data/contents/monthly-data              Female
                                            Female        Male
                                                          Male           Total
                                                                        Total
  Source:
   Source:AIHW
           AIHW2021
                2021Specialist
                     SpecialistHomelessness
                               Homelessness Services: monthly data, Cat. No.
                                                                         No. HOU
                                                                             HOU321.
                                                                                 321.
Source: AIHW 2021 Specialist Homelessness Services: monthly data, Cat. No. HOU 321.
   https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-monthly-
    https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-monthly-
https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-monthly-data/contents/monthly-data
  data/contents/monthly-data
   data/contents/monthly-data
                                                                                         #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA| 9
  Figure 3.5 Number of clients accessing Specialist Homelessness Services in Western Australia who
12were
   | #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA
        at risk of homelessness on entry to support

    4500
                                                                                         #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA| 9
                                                                                                                            3,841
FIGURE 3.6 Proportion of all Western Australian Specialist Homelessness Service clients who were at
  Figure
risk     3.6 Proportiononofentry
     of homelessness        all Western Australian
                                 to support (SHSC) Specialist Homelessness Service (SHS) clients who
  were at risk of homelessness on entry to support

   70%
           60%                                                           62%
                                                    60%       60%                   59%          60%          60%
                         57%           58%                                                                                  57%
   60%

                                                                         57%
   50% 55%                             53%          54%       55%                   55%          54%          55%
                                                                                                                            53%
                         52%
                                                                         50%
                                                              47%                   47%
   40% 46%               43%           44%          46%                                          44%
                                                                                                              46%           46%

   30%

   20%

   10%

     0%
     M 18

     M 19

     M 20

             1
     Ja 7

     Ja 8

     Ja 9

     Ja 0
     N 7

     M 18

     N 8

     M 19

     N 9

     M 20

     N 0

     M 21
      Ju 8

      Ju 9

      Ju 0
     Se 7

     Se 8

     Se 9

     Se 0

          -2
         l-1

         l-1

         l-1

         l-2
          -1

          -1

          -1

          -2
           1

           1

           1

           2
          -1

          -1

          -2
          -

          -

          -
        p-

        n-

        p-

        n-

        p-

        n-

        p-

        n-
       ar

       ar

       ar

       ar
       ov

       ov

       ov

       ov
       ay

       ay

       ay
      Ju

                                                   Female            Male            Total

  Source:
Source:    AIHW
        AIHW      2021 Specialist
             2021 Specialist        Homelessness
                             Homelessness             Services:
                                          Services: monthly       monthly
                                                            data, Cat.       data,
                                                                       No. HOU 321. Cat. No. HOU 321.
  https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-monthly-
https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/homelessness-services/specialist-homelessness-services-monthly-data/contents/monthly-data
 data/contents/monthly-data

Figure 3.7 presents evidence from the Census on the rate of persons aged 15 years and over experiencing
  Figureforms
various   3.7 presents  evidenceinfrom
               of homelessness           theAustralia.
                                   Western    Census on Tothe rate of
                                                           achieve  thepersons   aged 15the
                                                                        goal of halving   years and over
                                                                                            Western  Australian
  experiencing
rate             various
     of homelessness  fromforms   oflevel,
                           its 2016  homelessness
                                           steps mustin
                                                      beWestern    Australia.
                                                         put in place to combatToallachieve
                                                                                     forms ofthe goal of halving
                                                                                              homelessness.
  the Western
When   analysingAustralian   ratethe
                  homelessness,   of homelessness     from
                                     Census categorises     its 2016 level,
                                                          differentiates     stepsfive
                                                                         between     must  be put
                                                                                        forms     in place to
                                                                                              homelessness:
 combat all forms of homelessness. When analysing homelessness, the Census categorises
 differentiates
–	Living        between
          in improvised   five forms
                        dwellings, tents,homelessness:
                                          or sleeping out (Figure 3.7, Panel A)
–	Living
      • in  supported
          Living      accommodation
                 in improvised      (Figure
                               dwellings,   3.7, Panel
                                          tents,       B)
                                                  or sleeping out (Figure 3.7, Panel A)
      • Living
–	Staying temporarily with other
                 in supported     households (Figure
                               accommodation         3.7, Panel
                                                 (Figure        C)
                                                           3.7, Panel B)
      • in
–	Living Staying temporarily
            boarding            with3.7,
                     houses (Figure   other
                                         Panelhouseholds
                                               D)        (Figure 3.7, Panel C)
      • in
–	Living Living in boarding
            severely         houses (Figure
                     crowded dwellings (Figure3.7,
                                               3.7, Panel D)
                                                    Panel E)
      • in
–	Living Living
            other in severelylodgings
                  temporary   crowded   dwellings
                                      (Not shown) (Figure 3.7, Panel E)
       •    Living in other temporary lodgings (Not shown)

                                                                                                     #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA | 13

                                                                                       #ENDHOMELESSNESSWA| 10
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