Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships - WHITE PAPER SEPTEMBER 2021

Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships - WHITE PAPER SEPTEMBER 2021
Empowered Data Societies:
A Human-Centric Approach
to Data Relationships
Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships - WHITE PAPER SEPTEMBER 2021
Images: Getty Images

Foreword                                                                                  3

Introduction                                                                              4

Executive summary                                                                         5

1 Understanding the trust gap in the data ecosystem                                       6

     1.1 What is trust?                                                                   6

     1.2 Building trust in data relationships                                             7

     1.3 Policy implications                                                             11

2 Empowering people                                                                      12

     2.1 The journey towards data empowerment                                            12

     2.2 Intersecting journeys                                                           14

     2.3 Putting it all together                                                         17

     2.4 Policy implications                                                             19

3 Designing proactive services to be human-centric                                       20

     3.1 The role of government in proactive services                                    20

     3.2 Case studies                                                                    21

     3.3 Considerations for proactive service provision                                  23

     3.4 Policy implications                                                             24

4 Data in Helsinki: an experiment                                                        25

     4.1 Building the blueprint for a human-centric approach to                         25
          data relationships

Conclusion                                                                               28

Annex A: Data classifications in Helsinki’s data strategy                                29

Contributors                                                                             30

Endnotes                                                                                 32

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conclusions expressed herein are a result
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                                             Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships   2
Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships - WHITE PAPER SEPTEMBER 2021
September 2021   Empowered Data Societies:
                 A Human-Centric Approach
                 to Data Relationships

                                             Sheila Warren
                                             Deputy Head, Centre
                                             for the Fourth Industrial                                 Jan Vapaavuori
                                             Revolution; Member of                                     Urban Activist, former
                                             the Executive Committee,                                  Mayor of Helsinki
                                             World Economic Forum

                 The world is awash with data; 25 quintillion bytes are    Finland and the City of Helsinki have made a strong
                 generated every day. When data becomes insight,           commitment to ensuring that the interests of their
                 it has the potential to drive unparalleled progress,      citizens are not only reflected but respected and
                 transform business and society, and improve the           prioritized in data policy. Helsinki enjoys a high level
                 state of the world. Fourth Industrial Revolution          of citizen trust as evidenced by the enthusiastic
                 technologies demand data as the foundational              uptake of city services and corresponding
                 resource for solving systemic challenges, from            satisfaction levels. Voted the world’s second
                 pandemic response to climate change.                      smartest city in 2020,1 Helsinki has blazed a trail
                                                                           in using data to improve the quality of life for its
                 Yet despite an abundance of both supply and               citizens and has pioneered new frontiers in service
                 demand, the evolution from data to insight still          delivery and accessibility.2 From privacy protection
                 presents many challenges. On the one hand, data           to the development of innovative new solutions like
                 often remains siloed and unavailable to those             pro-active services, Helsinki remains focused on its
                 who would use it to benefit people, societies, and        citizens and how to make their data relationships as
                 the planet. On the other, the type of governance          human-centric as possible.
                 needed to assure proper oversight, transparency,
                 and accountability by those using data is still being     The big challenges in the world cannot be solved
                 understood. Many efforts have made data more              by government, business or civil society alone.
                 available, but they are predominantly organization-       Public-private cooperation is essential for shaping
                 centric – focused on the company, government or           our future. This report is the product of a year-
                 entity responsible for the data’s capture, while the      long effort by the World Economic Forum and the
                 interests of those generating data or most impacted       Government of Finland to develop a human-centric
                 by the resulting insights may go overlooked.              approach to data and to deploy aspects of this
                                                                           framework within Helsinki.
                 As the data universe expands, it becomes
                 exponentially more complex, requiring systemic            With the release of this paper, we embark on the
                 solutions that integrate political, economic,             next phase of a shared vision to create societies
                 social, environmental, technological, and, most           empowered by data. We invite you to join us as
                 importantly, human aspects. This paper seeks not          we chart a course towards a world where data is
                 simply to make data open and available but to             used in responsible and innovative ways to create
                 do so in a way that focuses on the values, needs          progress while serving people and the planet.
                 and expectations of individuals, communities and
                 societies, proposing a human-centric approach.

                                                      Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships    3
Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships - WHITE PAPER SEPTEMBER 2021
        What does it mean to live in, or to create, an             minimize undesirable behaviour through regulation?
        empowered data society? Data powers Fourth                 Instead, what if policy solutions began with the
        Industrial Revolution technologies, but any                human beings who generate and are affected
        agreement around who should use it, for what               by data? What if the goal were to empower
        purpose, and how its benefits are to be shared             people to benefit from the data about themselves
        remains elusive. Data is unlike an industrial product,     and to set the agenda for how they want it –
        which is consumed with use, or intellectual                and themselves – treated in today’s “datafied”
        property, which loses its value once shared. Rather,       societies? Here, “either/or” can become “and”.
        the value of data often increases with availability
        and repeated analysis. Individual contributions            Empowered data societies are ones where the use
        may have little value while their aggregate can            of data is governed in a human-centric way, i.e. in
        be priceless. A single data point alone can either         a way that centres around the values, needs, and
        be meaningless or the key for detecting a critical         expectations of people, groups, and communities.
        anomaly, and it is often impossible to know                When this human-centric approach to data is the
        which is true at the moment it is first collected.         norm, people are understood as being aware and
                                                                   active agents in the data ecosystem that is society,
        Policy solutions that attempt to govern data use           where they form data relationships entailing risk,
        generally assume that they must choose between             vulnerability, and trust. Human-centricity entails
        two routes: either capitalizing on the promise             treating data collection, analysis, and interpretation
        of innovation or protecting fundamental rights,            as sources of opportunities – insights that can
        such as privacy. This apparent choice is rooted            become meaningful actions with positive outcomes
        in a paradigm that starts with the organization.           for society while maintaining the utmost respect for
        How to improve company performance? How to                 the people who are part of it.

BOX 1   On the importance of human-centricity and data

        Key elements for adopting a human-centric                 3. Ecosystems approach: interoperability
        approach to data governance, as taken from                   on multiple levels of technology, policy and
        On the Importance of Human-centricity and Data,              valuation models
        a policy primer released for the launch of the
        Empowered Data Societies collaboration:                   4. Pluralism: cross-cultural and global
        1. Human as the logical point of integration:                applicability as well as multiple autonomous,
           accountability to individual people as                    interoperable frameworks
           stakeholders in the use of the data they are
           involved in generating                                 5. Proportionality and equity: appropriate levels
                                                                     of responsibility and freedom on the one hand,
        2. Empowerment with data: a shift from data
           protection to a more holistic view of people as           and risks and opportunities on the other
           active beings with the will and the capacity to
           improve their lives with data                          Source: World Economic Forum 20213

BOX 2   Data society: Helsinki

        The city of Helsinki, Finland, stands out among           message. No more forms to fill out, as the city
        many others for the high level of trust that citizens     will take the initiative to contact the families. The
        show through their active engagement with city            service sends the notifications via SMS and will later
        services. Helsinki’s use of data to create and            expand to a handy mobile application as well.”5
        improve services, particularly those related to
        inclusion and accessibility, won it the title of the      Such services make it easier for families to
        world’s second smartest city in 2020.4                    enrol their children in educational facilities while
                                                                  also removing a considerable amount of the
        One recent Helsinki pilot, now in production city-        bureaucratic burden from service providers and
        wide, developed a service via which “Helsinki offers      service requestors. Pilot schemes allow for a
        parents of children who will be starting pre-primary      greater understanding of how both technical and
        education a spot at an early childhood education          social aspects of a new service will function before
        facility that they can accept with a simple text          moving on to larger-scale implementation.

                                              Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships     4
Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships - WHITE PAPER SEPTEMBER 2021
Executive summary

This white paper is intended to provide different          Section 3 applies the discussion of trusted
insights for governments, businesses, academics,           relationships and targeted interventions to the
and civil society actors. For public sector                innovative practice of proactive services: where
employees and elected officials – from mayors              service delivery is automatically triggered with the
and ministers to data scientists and service               help of data and without the need for a manual
developers – it offers ideas, insights, suggestions,       request. This section provides case studies and
and recommendations for the further development            offers preliminary guidance on factors to be taken
and practical deployment of human-centric data             into account when considering such implementation.
policy. It also offers valuable considerations for
business, research, and civil society organizations        Section 4 concludes by sharing Helsinki’s
that work closely with the public sector. The paper        practical experience in building out a human-
is separated into four main sections, each of which        centric “blueprint” for experimenting with the
builds on the previous concepts.                           implementation of previously discussed concepts.

Section 1 begins with a high-level examination of          Together, these four sections trace a path from the
the trust relationships that are formed in connection      theoretical to the practical aspects of integrating
with data. It then explores why the health of such         human-centricity into the work of public sector
relationships is a critical prerequisite to flourishing    organizations. As a whole, the paper shows that
human-centric data ecosystems and suggests how             human-centricity is not a “nice-to-have” or “deluxe”
they can be created and nurtured.                          approach to data; rather, it is the foundation for
                                                           building any empowered data society. The paper
Section 2 continues the journey by proposing               shares frameworks, insights, and best practices
a series of novel methodologies for better                 so policy-makers around the world can adapt and
understanding the flow of data and identifying key         build systems that use data in responsible and
junctures where opportunities arise for human-             innovative ways to create healthy ecosystems that
centric intervention aimed at empowering people.           are centred around people right from the start.

                                      Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships   5
Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships - WHITE PAPER SEPTEMBER 2021
1   Understanding the trust
    gap in the data ecosystem
    Expectations that data subjects and data
    collectors have of one another determine
    the level of engagement.

    Trust is important in any relationship, and data           complexity and practicality require a degree of trust
    relationships, where data is generated and                 on both sides for interactions to run smoothly.
    captured, are no different. The expectations
    that data subjects and data collectors have of             This section applies the psychological concepts of
    one another, and whether these are respected,              trust and trustworthiness to data relationships and
    determine the level of engagement and therefore            examines how trust can enhance data availability
    the amount of data available. Although technical           for innovation, as well as best practices that
    and regulatory solutions can set a baseline that           allow trust to form.
    reduces the need to rely on trust entirely, overall

1.1 What is trust?

    Trust is “the willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the
    actions of another party based on the expectation that the other
    [party] will perform a particular action important to the trustor,
    irrespective of the ability to monitor or control that other party.”6

    On an individual level, trust allows intimacy.             To establish trust, parties must establish common
    On a societal level, trust enhances social                 ground. As parties interact, they build knowledge
    capital, facilitates cooperation, and fosters an           about one another and must believe that any trust
    atmosphere that takes into consideration the               is reciprocal.12 Trust also requires solidarity, or the
    needs of others. The level of trust in a relationship      commonality of goals; we trust those who appear to
    or an environment affects whether individuals              share our objectives and move towards them.
    deploy their resources (cognitive, physical,
    emotional, or economic) in the service of self-            The most intimate area of trust is related to “face
    protection or towards greater ends,7 from a                work”: ways in which people control how they present
    willingness to get involved in their communities           themselves to the world through language, social
    to driving higher rates of economic growth.8               behaviours, and actions.13 Trust is built when people
                                                               are allowed to “maintain face”, meaning they can
    A distinction can be made between moral                    choose what to make public and keep private. “Face
    trust, which is a durable, optimistic view that            threat” occurs when, intentionally or unintentionally,
    others have good intentions, and strategic trust,          this control is compromised. Given its importance,
    which is specific to short-term exchanges.                 exposure of data that creates “face threat” can be
    Trustworthiness is based on past and present               one of the worst violations of vulnerability and trust.
    performance, claims (whether they are aligned
    with one another and with future promises), and            Trust is demonstrated by taking the risk of making
    the overall consistency of behaviour.9 Expectations        oneself vulnerable to people, organizations, or
    play a critical role in building trust, as they drive      circumstances that one cannot control. Actors who
    the calculations of risk involved and the level of         have access to sensitive data, then, are high-risk
    vulnerability at stake for each party. Paradoxically,      partners in the dance of trust. If they allow the
    even when expectations are negative, adherence             sense of control to be maintained, trust will improve.
    to them may be judged as more important                    If, intentionally or not, they tamper with that control
    than benevolence,10 while circumstances of                 or create “face threat”, the loss of trust will be more
    risk create greater opportunities for trust.11             devastating than any comparable breach.

                                          Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships   6
Because of the importance of trust, a human-              empowerment – a sense of control and agency –
                      centric approach to data relationships emphasizes         is critical for data relationships to grow and serve all
                      the need for people and communities to be                 parties, be they individuals, groups or communities,
                      empowered agents regarding their data. This               or organizations.

         TA B L E 1   Building blocks of trust

                      Trust grows strongest:

                      When behavioural
                                                   E.g. Users of free online services who understand ad-supported business
                      consistency meets
                                                   models may not feel betrayed when data associated with their use is sold.

                                                   E.g. When investing a lot of money in something with no track record,
                      In environments
                                                   getting a high return creates greater trust than investing only a little, or
                      of high risk.
                                                   investing in a sure bet.

                      In solidarity and
                                                   E.g. Organizations regularly remind their constituents of shared goals and
                                                   their alignment with stakeholder interests.
                      of purpose.

                      When allowing
                                                   E.g. Online advertising that unexpectedly reveals sensitive information based
                      parties to
                                                   on previously searched terms can create a very deep breach of trust.
                      “maintain face”.

              1.2 Building trust in data relationships

                      Building trust for better data availability

                      By taking a human-centric approach to the data            statements.16 Such short-term strategic trust is
                      relationships created between data rights holders,        often misplaced, as the person trusting (the data
                      controllers and processors, these relationships           subject) assumes that the data handling entity (the
                      can be made more trustworthy, enabling fruitful           data collector) will, in the case of wrongdoing or
                      collaboration on all sides.                               harm, be held accountable. In reality, this is highly
                                                                                dependent on the local legislation, enforcement
                      Generally, when data is made available or shared          mechanisms, and the ability to bring claims.
                      within an ecosystem, its potential to generate
                      valuable insights is multiplied. Data is not a            The complexity of data ecosystems and ecosystems
                      commodity in the sense that it is “consumed” and          and their constituent relationships makes it
                      eliminated by use; it can be used concurrently,           impractical to manually monitor every aspect.
                      repeatedly, and in multiplicity. Many datasets can        Attempting to do so imposes prohibitively high
                      be described as “anti-rival”,14 meaning they are          “administrative” costs on both sides: decision-making
                      cheaper to share than transfer (the latter involves       for the data subject and compliance for the data
                      the additional step of erasing the original), the cost    collector. Few relationships (non-personal data or
                      of copying is negligible, and an increased number of      where disclosure is required by law being exceptions)
    Data is not a     users increases their value.15                            follow a set path, so more durable, “moral” trust
                                                                                is required. Such trust can be fostered through
commodity in
                      However, the benefits of data collection and analysis     increased transparency by sharing value statements,
the sense where
                      are often not equally distributed, and people are         expected results, or having accountability measures
it is “consumed”      becoming increasingly aware of how valuable               in place at the time of collection. Availability of self-
and eliminated        their data can be for organizations, as well as the       administered controls and general awareness of
by use; it can be     associated risks to privacy and loss of control.          relevant policies can also help. However, abundant
used concurrently,    Still, convenience tends to outweigh caution,             information has diminishing returns, as “information
repeatedly, and in    with “trust” granted in exchange for immediate            overload” sets in, and trust is again granted out of
multiplicity.         access, like accepting unread “notice and consent”        convenience instead of deliberate decision-making.17

                                                           Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships     7
[People] can’t be expected to read the lengthy terms and
                               conditions or evaluate all the risks every time [they] use a [data]
                               service. That’s like asking each of us to assess whether the
                               water we drink is safe every time we take a sip.18

                               Appropriate legal mechanisms can reduce the               All legislation in this domain affects trust within data
                               need to evaluate each data relationship separately,       relationships, especially by enforcing transparency
                               building the foundation for trusted interactions by       and accountability. Frameworks that reflect both
                               setting (and abiding by) expectations. In Europe, this    regional priorities and cultural expectations around
                               has taken the form of the General Data Protection         trust can enable more data to become available by
                               Regulation (GDPR), which other regions have used as       correctly balancing the need to promote innovation
                               a blueprint, including Brazil’s General Personal Data     with considerations for individual vulnerability,
                               Protection Law (LGDP), California’s Consumer Privacy      and triangulation between individual, public, and
                               Act (CCPA), and several African nations’ legislative      private interests. Approaches that favour any one
                               initiatives. Alternatives, such as the Asia-Pacific       side of this equation too heavily will lack legitimacy
                               Economic Cooperation (APEC) Privacy Framework             and may reduce trust, as discussed in the World
                               have embraced more market-focused legislation (as         Economic Forum’s Authorized Public Purpose
                               opposed to the rights-based approach of the GDPR)         Access case study from Japan.21
                               on the commercial benefits of data,19 and some areas
                               have yet to adopt a comprehensive framework.20

           FIGURE 1            Balancing multistakeholder interests to build trust

       (a) Individual bias

                                                                                    Individual rights

     (b) Data-holder bias


   (c) Public interest bias                                                               adequate


                                                                Interests of                                         Public
                                                                data holders                                        interest

Source: APPA (Authorized Public Purpose Access) report, 2019.

                                                                    Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships    8
Building trust through data minimization

        More sharing is not the end goal, rather it is necessary to
        strengthen controls or limitations on sharing in order to build trust.
        Lisa LeVasseur, Me2B Alliance

        An alternative perspective to the focus on                     disproportional to the value received. For
        regulation is that building trust is better achieved           example, when subscribing to a newsletter, a
        by practices that limit overall data collection.               request for gender and date of birth are valuable
        This can promote commonality of purpose by                     to the data collector and may help tailor services
        tempering current business models that rely on                 but can pose disproportionately high risks to
        the data collection imperative,22 which leaves                 the data subject if this information is breached
        internet users unwittingly adrift in an invisible              or used for irresponsible analysis (for example,
        “parallel dataverse”,23 and resigned to the                    gender data used in biased algorithms).27
        fact that their online lives are not private.24
                                                                   Therefore, beyond legal regulations that set
        The relationship between an individual and a               fundamental requirements and expectations, trust
        connected product or service can be seen as                can be further reinforced through judicious data
        a two-way dialogue where trust is unfortunately            minimization. Although “more is better” may be true
        already at a deficit25 and trending downward.26            for the collecting entity, a human-centric approach
        Several dynamics and industry norms exacerbate             requires acknowledgement that this may not
        this, including:                                           always serve the best interests of the human data
                                                                   subject. One method to achieve such judicious data
        –   Unknown third-party participation – internet           minimization is by moving away from a default of
            users have a limited understanding of the              “data entitlement” by treating identifiable, sensitive
            constellation of third party “strangers” who           data as a “highly toxic asset”,28 and the data
            collect their data.                                    relationships forged while creating user accounts
                                                                   that store such data as a “forced marriage”. These
        –   Information-to-value quid pro quo – the amount         should be treated with the utmost caution and
            and type of data requested is unilaterally             undertaken only when absolutely necessary, always
            decided by the collecting organization and             favouring practices that promote aggregation and
            can expose the data subject to risks that are          anonymization instead.

BOX 3   The role of civil society

        Trusted civil society organizations can provide           2. Validate shared data. This can be particularly
        a key link to a diverse range of stakeholders,               helpful when there may not be a high level of
        including those who may not be traditionally                 trust between the government and certain
        represented by government or business.                       community groups. Engaging civil society to
        Engaging these community members in the data                 interrogate the data and ask “Is this correct?
        infrastructure of local and regional governments             Does it reflect all parts of the community?”,
        is key to creating equitable access and a shared             can be a key trust-building activity.
        basis for civic engagement. Civil society has an
        opportunity to engage in three key areas:                 3. Enhance shared data. Civil society holds
                                                                     unique knowledge about the unmet needs
        1. Provide a link to published data. Civil society           of community members as well as the lived
           organizations can support local community                 experience of their constituents. They can be
           members in understanding, accessing, and                  enabled and supported to organize and share
           interrogating published data. This activity can           their data to provide a more complete picture
           happen in community anchor institutions such              of communities.
           as libraries, and local civil society organizations
           can provide relevance for their specific               Combined, these key areas can build trust,
           constituency. In this role, organizations can          increase a sense of common purpose,
           focus on working with community members to             and ensure that all community members
           develop and share insights and opportunities           see themselves represented in the data
           based on the shared data.                              which supports civic engagement.

                                              Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships   9
Building new data relationships with trust

   Human-                       Any considerations for implementing a human-              digitally mature settings. Furthermore, in developing
centric, robust                 centric approach to data relationships depends,           countries with low-quality and low-intensity data
data governance                 in large part, on overall digital maturity. As the        infrastructure, gaps in government statistics and
frameworks must                 World Bank’s 2021 World Development Report                public registries make data generated by the private
                                on data for better policies notes, “lower-income          sector increasingly important, for example, that of
be the tangible
                                countries are too often disadvantaged, lacking …          telecom operators, considering the high penetration
expression of                   the infrastructure and skills to capture data and         of mobile phones. For the World Bank, this involves
a country’s                     turn [it] into value; the institutional and regulatory    “creating trust in the integrity of the data system,
social contract                 frameworks to create trust in data systems; and the       while ensuring that the benefits of data are equally
around data.                    scale and agency to participate equitably in global       shared. Such a framework must be the tangible
                                data markets and their governance”.29                     expression of a country’s social contract around
                                                                                          data”.30 In order to be human-centric, robust data
                                A human-centric focus, however, is even more              governance frameworks must first include data
                                necessary in such contexts to ensure that data is         infrastructure policies; rules and regulations on the
                                inclusive and representative, that it reflects local      responsible use of data by government agencies;
                                realities (across and within countries) and has           economic policies to foster and regulate the new
                                a sufficient degree of granularity to capture any         data economy; and data governance institutions to
                                extremes, which may be more pronounced in less            oversee and enforce the application of data policies.

            FIGURE 2            Value, trust, and equity

                                                                         The full value of data
                                                                          materializes: when
                                                                        systems enable the use
                                                                         and reuse of data for
                                                                           different purposes

                                                                               The social
                                                         Trust                                               Equity
                                               A trust environment is                             All share equitably in the
                                               created: when rights                                benefits of data: when
                                                  and interests all                                    investments and
                                               stakeholders have in                                  regulations create a
                                                data is safeguarded                                    level playing field

Source: World Bank, World
Development Report 2021:
Data for Better Lives, 202131

                                                                     Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships   10
BOX 4   Inclusion is necessary for trust to be possible

        Making everyone count in the data-driven digital          often lack any legally recognized identity, not to
        age is especially critical for developing countries       mention a digital identity. Those unbanked in the
        and emerging economies. Globally, just over half of       formal sector also run the risk of being missed or
        households (55%) have an internet connection.32           under-represented in data generated by the private
        In the developed world, 87% are connected,                sector. This is the case, for example, for urban
        compared with 47% in developing nations, and              dwellers in large city slums. Those who are not
        just 19% in the least developed countries. In             adequately reflected run the risk of being further
        sub-Saharan Africa, one gigabit of data – enough          marginalized as public policy choices increasingly
        to stream a standard definition film for one hour –
                                                                  make use of artificial intelligence and automated
        costs nearly 40% of the average monthly wage.
                                                                  tools which rely on data.
        Digital divides lead to digital exclusion, especially
                                                                  Data is often employed to make cities more
        for vulnerable groups not generating a sufficient
                                                                  efficient, or less corrupt, but whether they become
        data footprint to be reflected in data-driven
        policies. Welfare programmes and emergency                more inclusive is still an open question. While
        transfers during the pandemic have shown how              compelling cases that demonstrate the success of
        critical inclusive and representative data is to          data-driven interventions for increasing inclusion
        targeting social assistance programmes in times           and equity are still forthcoming, this remains a goal
        of emergency. This is especially true of countries        of paramount importance. One critical condition for
        with a high degree of economic informality, and           increasing inclusivity in the context of data use by
        for migrant and internally displaced populations,         the public sector is, therefore, the establishment of
        especially in conflict zones. Vulnerable populations      robust accountability mechanisms.33,34

 1.3 Policy implications

        Building trust in data relationships can be supported          Further, given the complexity of the data
        through policy in the following ways:                          legislation landscape, it is vital to provide
                                                                       greater guidance such as toolkits, standard
        –   To build trust and promote engagement,                     agreements, and rulebooks to simplify data
            governments must create human-centric                      sharing processes and share best practices.
            foundations through legislation that                       This will increase the confidence of all actors in
            is consistent and upholds reasonable                       the data ecosystem. The passage of legislation
            expectations. Data rights holders should have              must be supported by a comprehensive
            the opportunity to review details regarding the            multistakeholder feedback process to assure
            purpose of data collection and intended uses               that implementation effects on various groups
            from the collecting entity. In addition, redress           are considered, especially those with a smaller
            and appeals mechanisms should be accessible                or more fragmented data footprint, such as
            to allow for the correction and control of any             SMEs or underrepresented minorities.
            undesired or unintended data exposure,
            and there should be clear transparency and             –   Where the digital divide is substantial,
            auditability controls regarding the relevant laws          governance arrangements that ensure
            governing data collection.                                 data is inclusive, representative, reflects
                                                                       local realities, and has a sufficient degree
        –   Regulatory sandboxes can provide                           of granularity to capture inequalities and
            environments where existing and new legal                  exclusions are required. Building trust in data
            mechanisms can be tested to determine                      is often better achieved at the local level of
            the appropriate amount of regulatory                       municipalities, especially in cities, and robust
            oversight required prior to scaling up.                    accountability mechanisms are essential.

                                              Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships   11
2     Empowering people
                     A human-centric approach requires
                     a holistic understanding of the data
                     journey from multiple perspectives.

                     In addition to fostering trust within the data              data collector. It also explores additional elements,
                     ecosystem, a human-centric approach requires                including regulatory requirements and technical
                     a holistic understanding of the data journey from           restrictions. By observing how these intersect and
                     multiple perspectives. This section introduces and          affect one another, we can identify critical junctures
                     combines three methods of representing data                 (“tussle points”) where targeted policy interventions
                     flows, as experienced by the data subject and the           can empower users and have the most impact.

               2.1 The journey towards data empowerment

                     History shows that incredible progress is made              As this multidimensional system takes shape, we
                     when society masters the ability to control, manage         utilize the concept of “tussle zones” to identify
                     and govern flow. Whether it is the flow of water,           points of tension or conflict which can only
                     oil, electricity, blood, aircraft or shipping, trust is     be discerned when the system is considered
                     granted to the everyday management of these                 holistically. The human-centric approach is
                     flows because the techniques and standards for              premised on the imperative to empower people
                     governing them have evolved over time.                      with data, therefore we focus on tussle zones as
                                                                                 opportunities where trust mechanisms can be
                     Data ecosystems are inherently complex and                  reinforced.
                     dynamic. They are shaped by discrete and diverse
                     forces – people, policies, and perspectives – that          Understanding these critical moments enables us
                     are interdependent, constantly in motion and often          to design policy levers that promote agency of,
                     unpredictable. A systems thinking approach allows           and engagement from, the person, empowering
                     us to map these forces and identify “tussle zones”,         Aino to improve her life because of data availability
                     or places where there is pent-up energy for change          and processing. As opposed to an organization-
                     in the system.                                              centric approach, which is focused on optimizing
                                                                                 processes, the human-centric approach prioritizes
                     In this section, we begin by using a variety of             Aino’s interests, whether by actively giving her
                     mapping methodologies to make sense of a                    ways to express preferences or, more passively, by
                     particular system and explore how a specific                creating an environment in which she feels that her
                     person, Aino, engages with a government                     counterparts are trustworthy.
                     unemployment service. While all these different
                     mappings (customer journey, data flow, legal                Aino’s experience starts with the “front stage
                     and policy landscape) bring insights that are               journey” as she engages with a public sector
                     independent of each other, they are more than the           service and the concurrent “backstage journey”
                     sum of their parts when considered together.                of the data generated by and about her in the
                                                                                 course of the engagement and service provision.
   While different   By layering elements of human-centred design, such          From there, relevant legislation and public and
                     as persona canvases,35 journey mapping,36 data flow         private policies are overlaid on these journeys.
                     mapping (as described in the OBASHI methodology,37          Their progress and intersections offer a holistic
bring insights       which covers ownership, business processes,                 view of the forces at play in the ecosystem.
individually, they   applications, systems, hardware and infrastructure),        The clarity gained from ecosystem mapping
are more than the    and the identification of relevant legal and policy         is used to identify the tussle zones, where
sum of their parts   overlays (such as GDPR or the terms and conditions          strategic action can enable empowerment.
when considered      of a service provider), we can identify opportunities for   These opportunities can translate into new
together.            data-collecting entities to empower data providers.         policies, thereby scaling their possible impact.

                                                            Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships   12
Meet Aino                                                        literate and has relative proficiency in interacting
                                                                                                      with services that collect user data. Her challenges
                                     Throughout this section, a character named
                                     Aino will illustrate the journey towards data                    and opportunities reflect those of citizens who have
                                     empowerment. Aino is by no means universal,                      the means and capabilities to use digital technology
                                     however, personas created using a canvas                         to request city services, utilize them in digital form,
                                     as outlined in Figure 3 can provide a general                    and provide feedback. Although true in Aino’s home
                                     representation of the average person to help ground              of Helsinki, this cannot be assumed for all settings
                                     ideas and showcase the practical consequences                    and special consideration must be made where
                                     of proposed policies. In this case, Aino is digitally            human-centricity in digital inclusion is the first step.

             FIGURE 3                Persona canvas

              Age:                      LIKES                           THINKS                    FEELS                                    LOW           HIGH
              Education:                                                                                                     usage

              Profession:                                                                                                    Mobile
      AINO                                                                                                                   device
              Place of work:                                                                                                 skills

              Location:                 DREAMS & WISHES                 WELLBEING                 SOCIALISES
                                                                                                                             Affinity to
                                                                                                                             new tech


    EMPLOYMENT                                                      A                         B                        C                             D


                                                       Step name:                Step name:               Step name:                    Step name:

                               Time frame

                               Fears and pain points

                               Wishes and dreams

Source: MyData Global, Canvas based on MyData Design personas canvas, 2020. Design: Kirmo Kivelä.

                     BOX 5           Categories of data

                                     Data categorization requires different criteria                  more pressing when the organization has ambitions
                                     in different contexts. While no single way of                    beyond the merely adequate performance of
                                     categorizing is absolute, one common starting                    mandatory duties and seeks to improve the
                                     point is based on who controls, processes,                       provision of proactive and personalized services.
                                     or holds rights over data. This can be a useful
                                     categorization schema because stakeholders –                     From here, the public sector typically goes one
                                     the “who” – have different rules to play by, and                 level deeper on data categorization, deploying
                                     different challenges when it comes to data use.                  both content-based classifications – for example,
                                                                                                      whether the data is personal or not – and usage-
                                     Consider the public sector as a stakeholder type                 based classifications – for example, whether the
                                     in this categorization. It operates with a mandate               data is processed in a procured cloud environment
                                     to serve society and the common good and is                      or a self-produced physical environment.
                                     therefore held to a high standard for creating and
                                     maintaining trust, acting openly and transparently,              These additional categorization schemes help
                                     and showing overall moral integrity regarding data               the public sector determine who has the right to
                                     and technology use.                                              access the data and who ought to be included in
                                                                                                      the policies and processes relevant to that data.
                                     The public sector requires data to fulfil its basic
                                     functions: providing statutory services, data-driven             (For more detailed descriptions of both types of
Source: Original content             decision-making, and optimizing public resources                 data classification, inspired by Helsinki’s data
inspired by the Helsinki             and spending. This need for data becomes even                    strategy, please refer to Annex A.)
Data Strategy

                                                                                  Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships      13
2.2 Intersecting journeys

                                 It is important to understand that the huge untapped
                                 potential in data can only be successfully utilized if we
                                 are able to create a system where individuals can feel in
                                 charge of their data. This is the central question in making
                                 sure we can use data in the future to solve society’s
                                 biggest problems or create new economic value.
                                 Jan Vapaavuori, Urban Activist, former Mayor of Helsinki

                                 Front stage journey: Aino’s experience

                                 Designing a human-centred approach starts with                    Mapping Aino’s experience as she engages with
                                 a method called “user journey”, explored using a                  public sector services yields a few key insights.
                                 simple visual map of an individual’s experiences                  First, Aino’s journey towards employment begins
                                 as they engage with a product or service, from                    with her manually seeking assistance in response
                                 beginning to end. This method helps to identify key               to a need. Second, Aino must interact with three
                                 moments of the customer experience which, in                      different government service programmes,
                                 turn, become opportunities for design interrogation,              providing each with varying levels of personal
                                 differentiation, and innovation.                                  information and, likely, redundancy.

            FIGURE 4             Customer journey mapping

                                                                                             10                 11
                                                     6                     9             A plan for           Aino is
                                  5               Aino is              Aino is            Aino's            directed to
                               Aino is          contacted               given          subsequent          a specialized
                              directed          by the city         information        interactions           service                14            15
      1                      to the city       employment           of the kinds           with             (education,            Aino's        Aino is
    Aino                      employ-          services and          of services       employment            coaching,            specialist   invited to
  becomes                       ment            assigned a            available         services is        rehabilitation,        contacts     a 3-month
 unemployed                   services           specialist             to her           drawn up            healtcare)              her       interview

      2                 3                  4                 7                8                   12                  13                            16
   Aino               Aino              Aino               Aino              Aino                Aino           Aino requests                   Aino finds
 searches          discovers         registers         participates       provides            completes         a meeting with                 employment
 online for         that she         as a job-            in an          additional             tasks            her specialist
  what to             must         seeker and          onboarding       information           described           through an
     do          register as a       provides            meeting           on her               in her            online self-
                  job-seeker           basic             with her       background             employ‐          service portal
                    with the       information          specialist           and              ment plan
                    national        about her                             situation
                  unemploy‐          situation
                  ment office


Source: Visualization based on group discussions and input from the City of Helsinki, 2021. Design: Kirmo Kivelä.

                                                                            Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships         14
Backstage journey: data about Aino

                               The user journey reflects what is happening on                  technical systems used to support the flow of data
                               the surface, as the individual sees it. However, to             required for Aino’s front-stage journey. Figure 5
                               develop a holistic understanding of the system, it is           demonstrates aspects of Aino’s engagement
                               necessary to look “backstage”.                                  with employment services.

                               By illuminating the forces behind the scenes                    Aino is, of course, just one of the millions of people
                               – stakeholders, processes, and tools – policy-                  who provide and consume vast amounts of data.
                               makers and service providers can identify real                  Each person has their own personal data flow and
                               points of leverage, where modest actions have the               interacts with the digital world in many ways. Some
                               potential for significant impact. To understand the             might be more liberal with data sharing, others
                               backstage journey of Aino’s data in parallel with               more cautious. A major challenge for governments
                               her front-stage experience, we made use of the                  and data collectors is to help the people they serve
                               OBASHI methodology for mapping data flows.38                    become, and feel, in control of their data flows.
                               With this methodology, we examined the socio-

           FIGURE 5            Data flow mapping

        Aino           National employment services                         Aino                        City employment services           Aino

                                                               Receive         Register with            Process         Develop         Complete
    Register as          Process           Provide           direction to        the city             registration    employment         tasks in
   a job-seeker           Aino's          directions        register with      employment                                plan          employment
                       registration        for Aino            the city          services                                                  plan

       National                                              National
                                                                                   City employment                                 City employment
     employment                                            employment
                                                                                   services website                                services website
   services website                                      services website

      iPadOS                                                  iPadOS                 iPadOS                                             iPadOS

       iPad                                                     iPad                  iPad                                                iPad

        WiFi                                                    WiFi                  WiFi                                                WiFi
                        Internet          Internet                                                     Internet         Internet
       router                                                  router                router                                              router

Source: Figure based on Cloughley and Wallis, OBASHI methodology data flow mapping, 2011. Design: Kirmo Kivelä.

                                                                        Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships      15
Legal and policy overlays

                                 Several levels of legal mechanisms and policy                    issued by Finland’s Office of the Data Protection
                                 instruments mediate the data relationships between               Ombudsman.40 Some types of data are further
                                 parties with different interests. These levels include:          governed by Finland’s Act on the Secondary Use of
                                                                                                  Social and Health Data.41
                                 1. Binding laws and regulations, such as
                                    regional and national legislation                             The second level, non-binding government and
                                                                                                  corporate policies, can include best practices
                                 2. Non-binding government and corporate                          such as those which corporate data collectors
                                    policies, such as terms of service                            implement to assure data security, notice and
                                                                                                  consent statements, or acceptance of cookies.
                                 3. Non-mediated space                                            To use her various digital devices and apps, Aino
                                                                                                  has signed many terms and conditions and legal
                                 Such interfaces can be superimposed onto persona                 requirements that are defined by such policies.
                                 and data journeys to identify where
                                 tussle points may occur.                                         In each instance, the laws and regulations create
                                                                                                  obligations and opportunities for entities to interact
                                 The first of these levels, binding laws and                      with the data flowing between them and their
                                 regulations, can include the EU GDPR, which                      networked interfaces. Whatever is left uncovered by
                                 identifies the functions and responsibilities of data            elements that fall into the first and second levels is
                                 controllers and data processors. Within Finland,                 non-mediated space. This means there is no legal,
                                 where Aino lives, related legal measures include the             policy or governance instrument that acts as an
                                 Finnish Data Protection Act (Data Protection Act                 interstitial mediator between forces in a system.
                                 of Finland 2019)39 and regulations and decisions

            FIGURE 6             Policy and regulatory landscape mapping

     4    Non-mediated

                                                                            Corporate            City of Helsinki           Helsinki City data
               3     Non-binding government
                     and corporate policy overlay
                                                                            terms and
                                                                                                  internal data
                                                                                                protection policy
                                                                                                                           protection officer's

                                                                            Finnish Act on the            Finnish            Issuances of

                       2     Binding laws and regulations:
                             national legislation overlay
                                                                            Secondary Use of
                                                                            Social and Health
                                                                                                         Act (2018)
                                                                                                                              the national
                                                                                                                            data protection
                                                                               Data (2019)

                             1    Binding laws and regulations:
                                  EU regulation overlay
                                                                                           GDPR             eIDAS

Source: This figure is an original landscape developed by the authors for the paper

                                                                             Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships   16
“Tussle points”

    “Tussle” is a concept coined by David D. Clark             paper, the second tussle space identified – that
    and colleagues in a 2005 paper entitled “Tussle            of trust – is particularly relevant. Regarding these
    in cyberspace: defining tomorrow’s internet”.42            tussle spaces, Clark and colleagues suggest that
    In the abstract of the paper, the authors write:           “mechanisms that regulate interaction on the basis
    “This paper explores one important reality                 of mutual trust should be a fundamental part of the
    that surrounds the internet today: different               internet of tomorrow.”
    stakeholders that are part of the internet milieu
    have interests that may be adverse to each other,          The idea of “tussle” is adapted here to refer to the
    and these parties each vie to favour their particular      goal of understanding people holistically in order
    interests. We call this process ‘the tussle’”.43           to empower them. In systems thinking, it is often
                                                               observed that where tension or conflict (or tussle)
    Further, Clark and his colleagues posit that the           exists, there is also energy and potential for motion
    internet’s two primary tussle spaces involve               and change.44 If and when systems designers and
    economics – where actors pay others to allow the           policy-makers can pinpoint where tussle occurs in
    passing of data traffic – and trust – where providers      their systems, they will simultaneously recognize a
    trust each other in such traffic exchanges. In the         source of potential for empowerment.
    context of the work described in section 1 of this

    Some examples of contention are very current. Music lovers
    of a certain bent want to exchange recordings with each other,
    but the rights holders want to stop them. People want to talk in
    private, and the government wants to tap their conversations.
    Conservative governments and corporations put their users
    behind firewalls, and the users’ route and tunnel around them.
    ISPs give their users a single IP address, and users attach a
    network of computers using address translation. Some examples
    are so obvious that they are almost overlooked. For the internet
    to provide universal interconnection, ISPs must interconnect, but
    ISPs are sometimes fierce competitors. It is not at all clear what
    interests are being served, to whose advantage, to what degree,
    when ISPs negotiate terms of connection.45
    David C Clark, Tussle in cyberspace: defining tomorrow’s internet

2.3 Putting it all together

    The complexity of requirements in play at any              Historically, public-private data sharing has only
    moment during the data’s journey can be difficult          considered two key stakeholders: government
    to comprehend, especially for Aino as she goes             and business. However, more often than not,
    about her life. To find opportunities that steer data      the data being shared is generated by a distinct
    utilisation in a human-centric direction, we must          third stakeholder: the individual. The absence of
    consider the tussle points where front-stage,              consideration for this key stakeholder can create
    backstage, and legal journeys intersect.                   distrust, fear, and lack of participation in the data
                                                               ecosystem, which is why it is critical to include their
    In Figure 5, the front- and backstage journeys             journey and identify their role in the tussle.
    are superimposed with legal requirements which
    provide clarity on what is experienced, enforced,          Data relationships are continuous processes
    or expected and illustrates potential tussle points.       that occur in iterative, non-linear and multilateral
    The legal requirements forming the legal and               ways, so understanding an individual’s journey
    policy overlay are shown by the numbers 1 to               is just a small part of the overall picture. Different
    11, and the persona journey points are indicated           stakeholders’ interests may be in tension
    with the numerals 1 to 16. Potential tussle                throughout the system, but mappings allow for a
    points emerge at the clusters of simultaneous              graphic representation that is more manageable to
    rights and obligations; non-mediated space is              work with and a practical way to begin designing
    present where these do not explicitly exist.               human-centric interventions.

                                          Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships   17
FIGURE 7               Tussle points

                                                                                                                                                                      ( 11       13     14         15 )


                                             National employment services11                              Aino                          City employment services

                                 Aino          National employment services                             Aino                         City employment services                      Aino

               BUSINESS PROCESS
                                                   10        1      10          1        Receive               Register with        10 Process
                                                                                                                                         9 1           9 1 10
                                                                                                                                                         Develop                Complete
                    Register as                Process            Provide              direction to               the city          registration       employment                tasks in

                                                                                                                                                                                                          BUSINESS PROCESS
                   a job-seeker                 Aino's           directions           register with             employment                                plan                 employment
                         Register as         registration
                                                 Process          forProvide
                                                                      Aino               the city
                                                                                          Receive                services
                                                                                                               Register with         Process         Develop                       plan
                        a job-seeker              Aino's          directions            direction to              the city         registration    employment              tasks in
                                               registration        for Aino            register with            employment                            plan               employment
                        2         3      4                                                the city               services                 6                                  plan
               APPLICATION                                              5                                                                          7       8   9 10
                       National                                                         National
                                                                                                                 City employment                                        City employment
                     employment                                                       employment
                              1 10
                        2 3website                                                                          2    services
                                                                                                                  3 9 1website
                                                                                                                           10                                           services website
                   services                                                         services website

                            National                                                   National                    City                                                     City
                  employment                                                          employment                employment                                               employment
                            services                                                   services                  services                                                 services
                            website                                                     website                   website                                                  website
                       iPadOS                                                           iPadOS                          iPadOS                                                         iPadOS

                            4     1     10                                              4   1     10                4     1   10                                             4     9      1       10

                          iPadOS                                                          iPad
                                                                                         iPadOS                       iPad
                                                                                                                    iPadOS                                                            iPad

                                  5                                                         5                             5                                                        5

                        WiFiiPad                                                          WiFi
                                                                                           iPad                          WiFi
                                                                                                                        iPad                                                      iPadWiFi
                                              Internet           Internet                                                             Internet             Internet
                       router                                                            router                         router                                                         router

                                 WiFi                                                     WiFi 6                         WiFi                                                     WiFi
                        6                        Internet         Internet                                      6                    Internet          Internet                               6
                                router                                                   router                         router                                                   router
                                                   7     8          7       8                                                         7       8            7   8

                   1   GDPR                                                            Aino becomes unemployed      1
                                                                                       Aino searches online for what to do
   2 eIDAS
                                                                                       Aino discovers that she must register as a job-seeker
   3   Bank ID service T&Cs                                                            with the national unemployment office
                                                                                  4    Aino registers as a job-seeker and provides
   4   App Store T&Cs                                                                  basic information about her situation
   5   Apple T&Cs                                                                 5    Aino is directed to the city employment services
                                                                                  6    Aino is contacted by the city employment services
   6   Router manufacturer T&Cs                                                        and assigned a specialist
   7   Internet service provider T&Cs                                             7    Aino participates in an onboarding meeting
                                                                                       with her specialist
   8   Public WiFi T&Cs                                                           8    Aino provides additional information on her background
                                                                                       and situation
   9   City of Helsinki internal data protection policy
                                                                                  9    Aino is given information of the kinds of services available
  10 Finnish Data Protection Act                                                       to her
                                                                                 10 A plan for Aino's subsequent interactions with
  11 Finnish Act on the Secondary Use of Social and Health Data                        employment services is drawn up
                                                                                 11 Aino is directed to a specialized service
                                                                                       (education, coaching, rehabilitation, healtcare)
                                                                                 12 Aino completes tasks described in her employment plan
                                                                                 13 Aino requests a meeting with her specialist through
                                                                                       an online self-service portal
                                                                                 14 Aino's specialist contacts her
Note: Figure based on Obashi methodology data flow mapping (Cloughley and Wallis 2011).
                                                                                 15 Aino is invited to a 3-month interview
                                                                                 16 Aino finds employment

Source: Visualization based on group discussion and input from the City of Helsinki, 2021.

                                                                                                       Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships                              18
2.4 Policy implications

                       Data empowerment can be incorporated into policy           –   Policy should be designed for tussle and
                       design in the following ways:                                  variation in outcome. This enables outcomes
                                                                                      to be different in different places and allows
                       –   Human-centric policy design should aim to                  the tussle to take place within the design,
                           modularize interventions along tussle points               without distorting or violating it. Human-centric
                           and identify tussle boundaries so that one                 policy should assume there will be tensions
                           tussle does not spill over and distort unrelated           in the system and proactively address these
   Effective policy        areas. For example, interventions targeted                 without trying to avoid them. Effective policy will
will consider values       at removing redundant data entry should not                consider values and culturally appropriate norms
                           create legal liabilities due to data requests that         that balance the interests of individuals, and
and culturally
                           are not relevant to the service being provided.            public and private interests (see Figure 1).
appropriate norms          Policy drafted in this respect must therefore be
that balance               challenged to be as specific as possible without       –   The principle of “tussle isolation” suggests
the interests              being overly narrow.                                       that intervention mechanisms should not be
of individuals,                                                                       overloaded into one point but separated.
and public and                                                                        Further, one should consider, within the broad
private interests.                                                                    topic of trust, where there are separable issues.

                                                             Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships   19
3   Designing proactive
    services to be
    Factors to consider when
    experimenting with this type of
    innovative data relationship.

    Providing proactive services in a human-                   This section reviews several examples of proactive
    centric way requires extensive participation               services from around the globe and identifies
    in the data ecosystem. It calls for healthy,               common elements. It then proposes a preliminary
    trusting data relationships, a comprehensive               framework for the factors to consider when
    understanding of data flows, and responsible,              experimenting with this type of innovative data
    targeted policy design.                                    relationship to assure it is carried out in an ethical,
                                                               sustainable, and human-centric way.

3.1 The journey towards data empowerment

    It is the circulation of data in, from and around [generators and
    users of data] – and their curation of and appearance in data –
    that authorizes states’ and international institutions’ governance …
    It is the remote detection of these subjects’ ascribed needs, rather
    than any confluence of wills, claims, grievances, or plans, that is
    seen to underwrite the distribution or withholding of resources
    to or from them.46

    In section 2, we saw through Aino’s journey that           section 1 made clear, whether individuals deploy
    traditional government service delivery often takes        their resources (cognitive, physical, emotional, or
    a “pull” approach, whereby citizens must seek out          economic) towards constructive ends is contingent
    government services.                                       upon the level of trust in a relationship or an
                                                               environment.49 Therefore, the success of proactive
    However, governments around the world, such                services depends on the ability of governments
    as in the City of Helsinki, Finland47 and the              and policy-makers to build for predictability,
    national government of Taiwan,48 have adopted              transparency (or verifiability), agency, and inclusion.
    strategic commitments to offer and deliver
    “proactive service”, following a “push” model              In the context of proactive services, “trust” means
    where governments act first to meet citizens’              adequately addressing concerns around legality,
    needs, preferences, and circumstances. These               data protection, cybersecurity, privacy, and
    governments have recognized the role of data in            morality. When is it legally permissible to process
    offering efficiency gains in public services, improving    and combine data to make accurate predictions?
    the quality of government decision-making, and             What extra cybersecurity measures are needed
    increasing societal and individual wellbeing. An           when giving individuals increased control over the
    important consideration here is also the widening          data that concerns them? How are rights to privacy,
    sustainability gap (i.e. growing demand, diminishing       individual agency, and freedom of choice respected
    resources) in public service provision.                    when designing proactive services, especially
                                                               for those who do not wish to be proactively
    As evidenced by Aino’s journey in section 2,               served? “E-government 1.0”50 is a description of
    the participation of the individual is requisite for       the trend to digitize existing, traditional government
    policy-makers, people, and societies to realize the        processes and services to increase efficiency and
    potential benefits of proactive services. Yet, as          cut costs, both for governments and their citizens.

                                          Empowered Data Societies: A Human-Centric Approach to Data Relationships   20
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