European Defence Matters - Research & Technology: the European option - European Defence Agency

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European Defence Matters - Research & Technology: the European option - European Defence Agency
2015 Issue 07   A magazine of


Research &
the European

    Interview: VADM          The benefits   “Enhancing
    Matthieu Borsboom,       of maritime     cooperation” –
    Defence Material         surveillance    Raimonds Vējonis,
    Organisation Director,   data sharing    Latvia’s Minister
    the Netherlands                          of Defence
European Defence Matters - Research & Technology: the European option - European Defence Agency
European Defence Matters - Research & Technology: the European option - European Defence Agency

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  © DLR

Publishing Director
Eric Platteau
                                                              Welcome                                                                              Programmes and Industry
Guillaume Steuer                                        5     Publishing Director Eric Platteau and                                         18     New wings for Europe’s strategic tanker fleet
Editorial Contributor                                         Editor-In-Chief Guillaume Steuer introduce this                                      Three European nations have agreed to move
Philip Butterworth-Hayes                                      edition of European Defence Matters                                                  forward and enter negotiations with Airbus
Simon Smith Associates
                                                                                                                                            20     Future capabilities: a long-term vision
                                                              European Defence News                                                                The EDA recently updated its Capability
Drukkerij Hendrix NV                                                                                                                               Development Plan, a reference document for
                                                         6    News
                                                                                                                                                   defence planners in Europe
Kiezel Kleine-Brogel 55,
B-3990 Peer
                                                              New EDA Chief Executive Jorge Domecq takes
Belgium                                                       office                                                                        22     Demand grows for non-lethal capabilities
                                                                                                                                                   A ten-nation EDA project team is developing a new
This document is published on behalf of the EDA          7    EU Affairs
                                                                                                                                                   range of non-lethal capabilities
by PMI Media Ltd in the interests of exchange of              Successful RPAS deployment in support of
                                                              Operation Atalanta, EUFOR RCA brings ‘Unity Bridge’
Front cover image; © Airbus
Other images; EDA                                             to Bangui, Joint anti-piracy exercise carried out in                                 In the Spotlight
                                                              the Seychelles
                                                                                                                                            24     “We need to look at an increased interdependence
                                                        8     Industry News                                                                        with our EU allies”
Contacts                                                      Thales and Rheinmetall to upgrade Tiger helicopter                                   The Netherlands has been at the forefront of
Eric Platteau
                                                              flight simulators, Complex live-firing test for                                      European Pooling & Sharing initiatives
Head of Media and Communication                               European surface-to-air missile, France signs first
                                                              Rafale export contract with Egypt, Saab teams up
Guillaume Steuer
Media and Communication Officer                               with Damen to address submarine market
                                                                                                                                                   Operations and projects
European Defence Agency                                                                                                                     26     Maritime surveillance: a European challenge
Rue des Drapiers 17-23                                                                                                                             Surveillance of Europe’s vast maritime areas is a
B-1050 Brussels                                               Cover Story:                                                                         key element of the Maritime Security Strategy
Contact:                                   Research and Technology                                                       28     A greener future for Europe’s armed forces?
                                                        10    Preparing the future: European research at a                                         Through a wide portfolio of projects, European
  Advertising                                                 crossroads                                                                           countries are trying to expand the use of
  Diana Scogna, Commercial Manager                            Experts from the European Commission and the                                         renewable energy in their armed forces
  145 bis, Blvd. Voltaire, Bâtiment 9                         European Defence Agency sit down with European
  75011 Paris, France
  T: +336 62 52 25 47
                                                              Defence Matters to provide their viewpoint on the
                                                              way ahead
                                                                                                                                            30     “The prerequisite for improving our security will be
                                                        13    “EU-funded research must lead to concrete                                            enhancement of cooperation”
                                                              procurement projects”                                                                Latvia holds the presidency of the European Union
                                                              Eric Trappier, Chairman of the Defence Business                                      for the first six months of 2015
                                                              Unit of the Aerospace and Defence Industries
                                                              Association of Europe                                                         34     “Shepherding Europe’s defence establishments
                                                                                                                                                   towards more effective programmes”
                                                        14    Challenging times for the defence industry                                           Nick Witney, Senior Policy Fellow at the European
                                                              Fabio Liberti, EDA Project Officer in charge of                                      Council on Foreign Relations
                                                              defence and industry analysis
                                                                                                                                            36     “Collaboration in defence investment should be
                                                        16    Trends in European defence spending                                                  the default option”
                                                              In times of constant pressure on defence budgets                                     Airbus Group Chief Executive Tom Enders shares its
                                                              in the European Union, the European Defence                                          long-term vision for European defence
                                                              Agency has taken a close look at spending trends
                                                              among Member States to produce its annual
EDA is a member of the
European Military Press
                                                              Defence Data booklet                                                                 Key Quotes
Association                                                                                                                                 38     Key quotes and facts, index to advertisers

Catalogue number QU-AC-15-001-EN-C
ISSN (1977-5059)
                                                       © The European Defence Agency (EDA) February 2015. All rights reserved. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. No part of this
                                                       publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
                                                       otherwise, without the prior permission of the EDA. The reproduction of advertisements in this publication does not in any way imply endorsement of their content
                                                       by PMI Media Ltd or the EDA. The views expressed in the articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policy of the EDA.

E U R O P E A N D E F E N C E M AT T E R S         Issue 7 2015                                                                                                                                                               3
European Defence Matters - Research & Technology: the European option - European Defence Agency
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European Defence Matters - Research & Technology: the European option - European Defence Agency

                                                                                                  © Luftwaffe

                   European defence
                   matters now – more
                       than ever
              European defence is at a turning point. With a rapidly changing security
             environment and a constant pressure on defence budgets in the European
                   Union, the need for cooperation has never been more pressing

                      he tasks issued to the European Defence              well be the best way to achieve this. Ongoing work on a
                      Agency by Heads of State and Government in           Preparatory Action for research programmes related to the
                      December 2013 provided a robust roadmap for          Common Security and Defence Policy is meant to unlock
                      the implementation of key capability-                the financial potential of the EU in that regard. In this
                      development programmes. Progress has been            magazine, experts from the European Commission,
           made on most of them, and the recent decision by three          industry and the EDA share their views on this topic of
           countries to move forward with the procurement of a             critical importance for the future of European defence.
           pooled fleet of A330 MRTT air-to-air refuelling and transport        Nominations at the top of the European defence
           aircraft (see our article page 18) is only one example of       ecosystem also promise to bring a renewed impetus for
           the Agency’s achievements since then.                           cooperation. Federica Mogherini, appointed High
                Only a few months from now, during the next European       Representative/Vice-President and Head of Agency late
           Council, European Union leaders will meet once again to         last year, will now work hand-in-hand with the new EDA
           discuss defence matters, acknowledging the fact that the        Chief Executive Jorge Domecq, who took office in February.
           topic remains one of paramount importance for Member            Under this new governance, the Agency will look at
           States. This is a promising sign for European defence, and      strengthening existing relations with Member States on
           a rendezvous that should not be missed. Ahead of this           defence issues in order to take cooperation to the next
           important milestone, the Agency will be active and fully        level, and to provide their shareholders with new options
           supportive of its shareholders and stakeholders, working        for cooperation.
           out ways to kick-start new cooperative programmes and                The European Defence Agency has now entered
           to find new synergies with existing projects and initiatives.   its second decade of existence and it will keep doing
                In any case, new programmes will require a robust          what it does best: supporting all Member States,
           European defence technological and industrial base. It has      irrespective of size, in the development of their defence
           become urgent to halt the decrease in defence research          capabilities. But if we want to succeed, we need to do
           and technology spending – and cooperation might be very         even more – starting today.

                                  Eric Platteau Head of Media and Communication   Guillaume Steuer Editor-in-Chief

E U R O P E A N D E F E N C E M AT T E R S   Issue 7 2015                                                                                     5
European Defence Matters - Research & Technology: the European option - European Defence Agency

    New EDA Chief Executive Jorge
    Domecq takes office
           orge Domecq joined the Agency
           on 2 February 2015 from his previous
           position as Ambassador, Permanent
    Representative of Spain to the Organisation of
    Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
    Here he shares his very first impressions of the
    European Defence Agency and outlines some
    of its main priorities for the months ahead.

    Mr Domecq, what have been your initial
    impressions upon joining the Agency?
         It is an honour and privilege to have been
    appointed Chief Executive of the EDA. I am also
    delighted to be working once again on defence
    – something in which I was deeply involved
    earlier in my diplomatic career. I have met the
    staff individually: like me, they are totally
    committed to delivering tangible output and
    dealing with the challenges ahead. The EDA is
    now into its second decade. I want to
    congratulate my predecessors for the
    tremendous amount they have achieved. The
    EDA is a reference body at the disposal of          in the EU is under continuing pressure: the        technology, including in dual-use projects, is
    Member States. We are there to support their        case for increased cooperation has never been      also a key part of what we do, not only to
    efforts to improve capabilities in a pragmatic      so compelling.                                     ensure that we invest today in the capabilities
    and flexible manner. European security and                                                             of tomorrow, but also to support a strong,
    defence are at the top of the political agenda.     What are your expectations for the                 technologically advanced and innovative
    Under the authority of the Head of Agency and       upcoming 2015 European Council?                    European defence industrial and technological
    High Representative Federica Mogherini, I am             The December 2013 European Council            base.
    committed to delivering and taking European         provided us with many tasks, all of which have          The June European Council will provide
    defence cooperation to the next level.              either been fulfilled or are well on-track. We     Heads of State and Government with an
                                                        have seen progress in the four main capability     opportunity to confirm their willingness to see
    What are your priorities?                           priorities: air-to-air refuelling, governmental    act together on defence matters. Public
         The initial contacts I have had with our       satellite communications, remotely piloted         opinion is expecting a renewed impulse in
    shareholders have confirmed that the EDA’s          aircraft systems and cyber defence. In terms       defence cooperation in the face of the present
    expertise and operational output is not only        of fiscal incentives to make cooperation more      security environment. We need to exploit all
    recognised but also deeply appreciated. The         attractive, projects run in the framework of the   available EU instruments and exploit synergies
    level of engagement from Member States is           Agency are now exempt from VAT. And we will        with the civil security sector: after all, the line
    positive. But we cannot rest on our laurels. I      present further proposals on incentives,           between security and defence is becoming
    am determined further to strengthen our             specifically a pooled procurement mechanism.       increasingly blurred, as Hybrid warfare has
    relations with and support to them. In the          New projects are vital, not just because they      demonstrated beyond any doubt. Under the
    coming weeks, I intend to visit each and every      will fill current capability gaps, but also        guidance of the Head of Agency, Federica
    Member State in order to gather their views         because they will boost the European defence       Mogherini, and in close cooperation with our
    first hand and hear their priorities. We all need   industry. So we will be making some proposals,     Member States and the European Commission,
    to be on the same wavelength. This is all the       perhaps in areas such as maritime, missile         we will prepare a set of substantive proposals
    more important because defence expenditure          defence or space observation. Research and         for this key rendezvous.

European Defence Matters - Research & Technology: the European option - European Defence Agency

EU Affairs
Successful RPAS
deployment in
support of
Operation Atalanta
      rom 4 September 2014 to 5 February                    been known to
      2015, an Italian MQ-1 Predator remotely               operate and to give
      piloted aircraft system (RPAS) operated               an early warning of a
                                                                                                                                                     © EUNAVFOR
from Djibouti in support of the European Union              possible attack.
(EU) mission. This was a first for Operation                    During the five-month deployment, 28            airbase in Djibouti as well as from Amendola
Atalanta, led by the European Union Naval                   missions were conducted for a total of more         airbase in Italy through a satellite link.
Force (EUNAVFOR) off the coast of Somalia to                than 300 hours flown over areas such the                 This marked the first time a medium
fight piracy in the India Ocean.                            northern coast of Somalia, the Bab-el-              altitude long endurance (MALE) RPAS was
    The objective was to provide real-time                  Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. The MQ-1        deployed in direct support of Operation
video surveillance of areas where pirates have              Predator was controlled from Chabelley              Atalanta.

EUFOR RCA brings ‘Unity
Bridge’ to Bangui
        s part of its mandate to improve the                built by the EU and should be ready
        security situation in Central African               later this year.
                                                                                                                                                     © EUFOR RCA
        Republic, EU mission EUFOR RCA                           Several European countries
recently contributed to the installation of a               took part in this truly multinational initiative:   were assembled in less than 48 hours.
temporary bridge in the country to facilitate               the Czech Republic donated the 24-metre                 Dubbed the ‘Unity Bridge’, the construction
communication between three different                       bridge upon EUFOR RCA request, Sweden               was formally inaugurated in January 2015.
districts of the capital city Bangui.                       chartered a cargo flight to bring it on-site        During the ceremony, EUFOR RCA Operation
     The initiative was launched as part of the             while Italy’s engineers stationed in Bangui         Commander Major General Philippe Pontiès
European Union’s Comprehensive Approach                     assembled it under Czech technical                  stressed that the bridge “highly symbolizes
and was meant to provide a temporary                        supervision and with the assistance of              the importance of the European Union
alternative to the concrete bridge that is being            German-led engineers. Over 1.000 metal parts        commitment in Central African Republic”.

Joint anti-piracy exercise carried out
in the Seychelles
       joint counter-piracy exercise was                    entities. The exercise was also designed to             Over the past few years, EUCAP Nestor
       staged earlier this year in the                      test common procedures and tactics for the          has provided training to local forces on
       Seychelles involving EU Naval Force                  effective processing of suspected pirates as        evidence-handling and investigation
Somalia (Operation Atalanta), the EU’s                      well as evidence-handling at sea. The               techniques related to the anti-piracy
civilian maritime security capacity building                exercise involved Italian destroyer ITS             mission. Even if the number of pirate attacks
mission EUCAP Nestor as well as local Coast                 Andrea Doria working closely with the               has decreased in the region, lack of
Guard, Air Force and Police units to practice               Seychelles Coast Guard and maritime                 evidence often remains an obstacle when it
cooperation between maritime security                       police patrol units.                                comes to prosecution of the pirates.

E U R O P E A N D E F E N C E M AT T E R S   Issue 7 2015                                                                                                          7
European Defence Matters - Research & Technology: the European option - European Defence Agency

    Industry News
    Thales and
    Rheinmetall to
    upgrade Tiger
         he Organisation for Joint Armament
         Cooperation      (OCCAR)      recently
         awarded Thales and Rheinmetall
    Defence Electronics (RDE) an upgrade
                                                                                                                                  © Airbus Helicopters
    contract for 18 Tiger helicopter simulation
    systems.                                            The simulators will be installed in the      namely the Tigre HAD (Hélicoptère Appui
        The agreement covers the upgrade of        Franco-German Tiger training school located       Destruction) in France and the Tiger UHT
    eight full mission simulators (FMS), ten       in Luc-en-Provence and Phalsbourg in              (Unterstützungshubschrauber Tiger) in
    cockpit procedures trainer (CPT) as well as    France, as well as Fritzlar in Germany. They      Germany. These will notably include
    the purchase of two new CPTs to be provided    will provide the French and German Army           upgraded communication and datalink
    by Thales. These systems will be used by       with new training capabilities in line with the   systems as well as a compatibility with the
    France and Germany for aircrew training.       latest versions of the Tiger helicopter,          Tiger’s helmet-mounted sight TopOwl.

    Complex live-firing test
    for European surface-to-
    air missile
          arlier this year, the missile test       System), a naval air defence system funded
          division of the French defence           by France, Italy and the United Kingdom
          procurement agency (DGA) and the         and developed by European company
    French navy carried out a complex test         MBDA for the missile element. It also
    firing of the Aster 30 air defence missile.    includes a multi-functional radar, a
    Launched from the ‘Chevalier Paul’ air         surveillance radar as well as the associated
    defence frigate, the missile successfully      command and control system.
    engaged an air target which was pursuing a          The      ammunition        procurement
    friendly aircraft.                             programme is managed by OCCAR on behalf
         The objective was to demonstrate the      of the participating states in order to
    missile’s capability to discriminate between   achieve economies of scale. The PAAMS is
    two radar tracks in close proximity.           currently operational with the French and
         The scenario proved the effectiveness     Italian Horizon-class frigates as well as with
                                                                                                                                             © MBDA
    of the PAAMS (Principal Anti-Air Missile       the UK’s Type 45 destroyers.

European Defence Matters - Research & Technology: the European option - European Defence Agency

France signs
first Rafale
with Egypt
      n 16 February 2015, French Minister of
      Defence Jean-Yves Le Drian travelled
      to Cairo to sign the first Rafale export
contract with Egyptian President Abdel
Fattah el-Sisi. The contract, part of a larger
arms deal with Egypt, includes the purchase
                                                                                                                                             © Dassault Aviation
of 24 Rafale combat aircraft to be built in
France by Dassault Aviation and its industrial          equip its air force with the Rafale," the            countries are pursuing a common struggle
partners such as Safran and Thales.                     French manufacturer stated in an official            against terrorism”, French Minister of
    The first aircraft are expected to be               release, adding: “This decision is a                 Defence Jean-Yves Le Drian said during the
delivered to the Egyptian Air Force over the            continuation of our cooperation that dates           signing ceremony.
course of 2015. The Rafale deal also includes           back to the 1970s."                                        The Rafale deal was part of a larger arms
the purchase of air-launched weapons as                     Egypt has indeed been a long-time                package, including a DCNS-built FREMM
well as support and training services for the           operator of French combat aircraft, starting         multi-mission frigate and missiles provided
new aircraft.                                           with the Mirage 5. The country also became           by MBDA, for a total value estimated at €5.2
    "Dassault Aviation is greatly honoured by           the first export customer of the Dassault            billion. Half of the amount will be financed by
the Arab Republic of Egypt’s decision to                Mirage 2000 in the early 1980s. “Our two             French bank loans.

Saab teams up with
Damen to address
submarine market
      wedish defence company Saab and                       company to broaden its
      Dutch shipbuilder Damen Shipyards                     expertise in the design
      Group (DSG) recently signed a                         and manufacture of
partnership agreement aimed at exploring                    submarines as well as
future opportunities in the international                   surface vessels and to
market.                                                     increase its global
    More specifically, this teaming                         competitiveness on the
agreement seeks to address the future                       international market.
                                                                                                                                               © Saab Kockums
replacement programme for the Dutch                              According to an
Walrus-class submarines, which would have                   official release, DSG currently delivers about   which are in service with the Royal
to be phased out during the next decade.                    160 vessels annually, ranging in size from 7m    Netherlands Navy.
    In July last year, Saab acquired                        to over 200m. The teaming agreement with             The two companies also stressed that
ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS),                         Saab will allow both companies to work on a      this partnership could lead to “a successful
which has since been renamed Saab                           successor to the current Walrus-class of         cooperation in more submarine programmes
Kockums. The move allowed the Swedish                       diesel-electric attack submarines, four of       worldwide”.

E U R O P E A N D E F E N C E M AT T E R S   Issue 7 2015                                                                                                          9
European Defence Matters - Research & Technology: the European option - European Defence Agency

               Preparing the
               future: European
               research at a
               At a time when national defence
               research & technology budgets
               are declining, several initiatives
               are on-going to try and tackle
               this important issue through
               increased cooperation at the
               European Union level. Experts
               from the European Commission
               and the European Defence
               Agency sit down with European
               Defence Matters to provide their
               viewpoint on the way ahead

     © ONERA


                          A ‘Preparatory Action for Common Security and Defence             Horizon 2020, which will take place somewhere in 2021.
                          Policy (CSDP)-related research’ is currently being                    In the whole process I see also a very important role
                          explored at European level. What is the end objective?            for the forthcoming June European Council and its
                          Philippe Brunet, Director of Aerospace, Maritime, Security        potential support for the work done so far on the
                          and Defence Industries within the European Commission’s           Preparatory Action and, more generally speaking, for the
                                 Directorate General Enterprise and Industry                idea of future EU funded CSDP related research.
                                      Maybe first a word of explanation. In the
                                 Commission's budgetary jargon a Preparatory Action         What role will the group of personalities play? What
                                 is a generic budgetary term used to describe the           should be the governance of a CSDP-related Preparatory
                                 testing of a new policy approach requiring financial       Action?
                                 resources, outside the existing legal base.                Philippe Brunet
                                 Accordingly, in the case of CSDP-related research, the          Commissioner Bieńkowska has created the group of
   Philippe Brunet, Director     novelty is the link to defence, as the current EU          personalities which will be asked to give strategic advice
   of Aerospace, Maritime,
   Security and Defence          Research Framework Programme (Horizon 2020) has            on the set-up and on the governance of the Preparatory
   Industries within the         an exclusive civil focus. And the end objective of the     Action but also with a view to provide more political
   European Commission’s
   Directorate General
                                 Preparatory Action would be to prove that it makes         legitimacy to the idea of an EU research programme
   Enterprise and Industry       sense to have CSDP related research as a fully-            related to the CSDP. Accordingly, the group's members
                                 fledged component of the next EU Framework                 represent all the potential stakeholders interested in such
                                 Programme, starting in 2021.                               research – chief executive officers from the industry,
                                      This link between the success of the Preparatory      research institutes, European
                                 Action and the inclusion of CSDP-related research in            Parliament, politicians known for their interest in the
                                 the next EU budget (2021-2027) seems crucial to me.        CSDP, European External Action Service (EEAS) and
                                 The Preparatory Action itself will have limited funding    representatives of small and medium sized enterprises.
                                 (possibly €30-40 million) and, accordingly, limited        We expect the group of personalities to present their final
   Denis Roger, EDA              impact on on-going research activities or on the           report by early next year. How the governance for the
   European Synergies and
   Innovation Director           competitiveness of our defence industry. But its real      Preparatory Action should look like is also a matter for a
                                 importance would be to produce successful research         more technical dialogue with Member States, carried             R&T
                                 cases that could underpin our CSDP and that normally       currently jointly by the Commission and the EDA under the

                                                                                                                                                            the future
                                 would not be conducted by Member States acting             form of dedicated seminars. It is too early to draw more
                                 alone. Similarly, we would expect to make a similar        specific conclusions; however, I believe the governance
                                 case on the side of the defence industry, whereby          should follow the model of Horizon 2020, albeit with some
                                 research projects would foster EU-wide collaboration       adaptations to the nature of defence research, in particular
                                 and consolidate the European Defence Technological         in the area of Intellectual Property Rights. We also think
   Inge Ceuppens,                and Industrial Base (EDTIB). If this is indeed what will   that the role played by the EDA in defence research will be
   EDA Project Officer           happen, the discussions on the future EU CSDP              properly reflected in this governance mechanism, in
                                 related research programme can start.                      particular in the area of the implementation.

                              When could the Preparatory Action be launched,                What is the current state-of-play of defence-oriented
                              and what could be the next milestones?                        research in Europe?
                              Philippe Brunet                                               Denis Roger, EDA European Synergies and Innovation
                                   Our intention is to launch the Preparatory Action        Director
                              in 2017. This means that the work shall start with the             Research in support of the Common Security and
   David Chinn, EDA
   R&T coordinator            drafting of the 2017 European Union budget, which             Defence Policy is currently conducted by Member States
                              begins early in 2016 and which will include the               within an EDA framework. It covers a wide variety of
                              funding and a first proposal for the Preparatory              domains such as air or naval systems, electronic
                              Action, approved by the Council and European                  components, materials or sensor technologies to name but
                              Parliament. The next step would be to prepare and             a few. These research activities are driven by innovation and
                              adopt the Commission's decision and                           are based on the Strategic Research Agendas established
                              communication on the launch of the Preparatory                in each technology area. They also link to the Capability
                              Action, and to draft a work programme, so that first          Development Plan (see page 22) which could be compared
   Gerlof de Wilde, EDA       calls can be launched already in the beginning of             to a catalogue of operational priorities for EU armed forces,
   Innovative Research
                              2017. As Preparatory Action can last up to three              in particular for CSDP operations. However, the research
   Head of Unit
                              years, the last calls would be announced in 2019.             done in the EDA suffers from the cuts in Member States’
                        The last milestone would be the start of the discussions            defence research budgets. It is clear that a significant
                        on the next EU budget and the adoption of the next                  budget for CSDP-related research can have a strong
                        research Framework Programme, the successor of                      impact, especially for topics with EU-added value such

E U R O P E A N D E F E N C E M AT T E R S   Issue 7 2015                                                                                                    11

                            as capabilities needed for CSDP operations in the mid- and        national experts who take into account both the military
                            long-term future.                                                 needs as well as the research communities’ capacities. This
                                                                                              is unique and in fact predates the EDA, which inherited the
                            How could the specificities of the defence community be           work achieved in the Western European Armament Group.
                            best taken into account?                                          The EDA promotes, facilitates and manages defence
                            Inge Ceuppens, EDA Project Officer                                research and is fully aware of its specificities. It is very logical
                                It is important to remember that research related to          to use this core of experience, which can bring together the
                            defence and CSDP is different from most civil research. There     necessary knowledge of developing a balanced research
                                                               is no ‘normal’ commercial      programme both for near term research – aiming at new
                                                               market for the research        systems and finally capabilities – as well activities for which
                                                               results to be taken up;        more innovative thinking is required. A new centrally-funded
                                                               the only buyers are            programme could support core key activities with an EU
                                                               governments. Therefore,        added-value; meanwhile, Member States could still decide to
                                                               defence companies need         provide additional funding through an EDA framework (co-
                                                               to have an idea of a           funding), leveraging activities and ensuring complementarity
                                                               government’s needs and         with existing research.
                                                               procurement plans before it
                                                               engages in research for        How should the Preparatory Action be coordinated with
                                                               defence systems. As            national research programmes?
                                                      © Airbus
                                                               a consequence, CSDP-           David Chinn, EDA R&T coordinator
                            research differs significantly from civil research. Modalities         There clearly needs to be a collaborative effort based
                            for the Preparatory Action are discussed in dedicated             on the experience outlined above. Some activities will
                            workshops with the Member States. Important issues to             remain national for good strategic reasons, but the
                            address are how a work programme will be established,             Preparatory Action can provide the stimulus for looking at
                            which selection criteria will apply, who can participate in the   areas of common interest. Centralised funding will clearly
                            research projects, how the research will be funded and last       help, but Member States will be keen to ensure that EU
R&T                         but not least IPR for industry and user rights for governments.   activities complement national ones. For instance, some
                                                                                              activities cannot logically be done at national level or
the future

                            How differentiated or coordinated with existing security          demand a critical mass that can only be reached through
                            and dual-use research should a future CSDP-related                joint funding. EU CSDP-related research must be a
                            Research Programme covering defence-oriented                      complement and not a substitute for national research.
                            research be?                                                           The Preparatory Action will clearly need to be connected
                            Inge Ceuppens                                                     to national research programmes, as ultimately capabilities
                                 Horizon 2020, the seven-year research programme of           are owned at a nation level. Establishing the best
                            the European Commission, already funds some research              mechanisms for complementarity between the national
                            related to CSDP. The programme foresees, within the Secure        programmes and the Preparatory Action is one of the areas
                            Societies challenge, research funding to support the Union's      that needs to be tested.
                            external security policies, including conflict prevention and
                            peace-building. This research is mainly focused on civilian       How could the European Defence Technological and
                            CSDP missions and their needs. In a workshop organised            Industrial Base benefit from a dedicated defence-oriented
                            by the EDA and the Commission, Member States have                 EU research programme?
                            clearly pointed to the need for something new, namely             Denis Roger
                            defence-oriented research designed to avoid overlap with              Over the years the EDA has acquired a strong and solid
                            the existing Horizon 2020 research scope. It cannot be            experience in establishing priorities in the various domains of
                            stressed enough that this defence-oriented research needs         defence research, elaborating a capability development plan
                            to go along with specific rules reflecting the sensitivity of     and launching and managing complex research projects
                            the topic. It also needs to foresee better exploitation of        involving governments and industry. The missing link is a
                            synergies with dual-use technologies.                             central budget: the quality of EDA’s processes in selecting and
                                                                                              managing defence projects is much higher than its capacity
                            The EDA supports the development of defence                       to attract funding for them! A centrally-funded defence-
                            capabilities in the long term, in particular through              oriented research programme will give long-term predictability
                            research projects. What would be the synergies between            on research and capability priorities. This is essential for
                            the Agency’s current activities and a new research                industry since the market is totally dependent on future
                            programme?                                                        acquisition from Ministries of Defence. And this will also help
                            Gerlof de Wilde, EDA Innovative Research Head of Unit             it develop its competitiveness in areas critical for future
                                The EDA has a long experience of bringing together            defence systems and for Europe’s strategic autonomy.


“EU-funded research
 must lead to concrete
 procurement projects”
                                                     In this opinion piece Eric Trappier, Chairman of
                                                     the Defence Business Unit of the Aerospace and
                                                     Defence Industries Association of Europe
                                                     (ASD), shares his views on the potential
                                                     benefits of the Preparatory Action for
                                                     Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)-
                                                     related research

             SD, representing European defence and                and of the governance to be put in place for the PA and its
             aerospace industries, welcomes the European          follow-on defence research programme. Consequently, the
             Commission’s intention to establish a                conditions of the current Framework Programme, as laid out in
             Preparatory Action (‘PA’) for CSDP-related           EU Regulation 1290/2013, need to be modified for CSDP-related        R&T
             research, and views as the strategic goal of the     defence research.

                                                                                                                                       the future
PA the preparation of a fully-fledged CSDP-related defence             Activities under the PA can have various CSDP-related
research programme as part of the next Multi-Annual               objectives: support of military CSDP missions, interoperability
Financial Framework (2021 – 2027).                                and common standards, security of supply at European level
     Key attributes for success of the PA are to demonstrate      for key defence technologies and capabilities, and new
European Union (EU)-added value, and related to this,             technologies (emerging, disruptive, or coming from other
complementarity with existing funding mechanisms                  sectors) with major defence potential. In principle, all these
(national programmes, the European Defence Agency and             objectives will offer EU-added-value, but each of them implies
Horizon 2020). Equally important is to take into account the      a different approach for identifying and managing research
specificities of the defence sector, especially as concerns       projects.
funding levels, Intellectual Property Rights aspects, rules of         Hence we recommend using the PA to test how these
operation, terms and conditions.                                  approaches can best support defence research at EU level.
     There are some specificities in the defence sector,          Consequently, the PA should foresee at least one project for
which impact on defence research:                                 each of these objectives; the experience gained from these
   • The defence market is monopsonic in nature, with only        exercises should then be used to establish a method for the
     one public customer per member state;                        definition of the content of the follow-on programme.
   • National Ministers of Defence (as final customers, and in         Finally, market uptake is crucial in order to ensure that EU-
     charge of providing the necessary technologies to the        funded defence research generates new capabilities for
     final users) determine the capability requirements;          armed forces in Europe and business opportunities for the
   • Very long time scales are involved in the development        European Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB).
     and life cycle of complex defense systems;                        Most important for industry in this context is market
   • Defence activities are by nature sensitive and therefore     uptake: to generate new capabilities and strengthen the EDTIB,
     subject to specific national rules for handling classified   EU-funded research must lead to concrete procurement
     information and export control.                              projects. This is politically and institutionally challenging,
     Any EU defence research programme must take these            since the final customers will be national defence ministries.
specificities into account. To achieve this, the experience            Therefore, the PA must explore ways to bridge this gap
accumulated with the EDA over the past 10 years, together         between EU-funded research and national procurement. This
with the previous EUROPA memorandum of understanding,             issue should be discussed in the Group of Personalities which
should be taken into account in the definition of the scope       will be set up by the European Commission.

E U R O P E A N D E F E N C E M AT T E R S   Issue 7 2015                                                                               13

                                                                                                                                                      © Lockheed Martin

             The United States defence industry continues to compete effectively on a global scale

                                          Challenging times for
                                          the defence industry
                                           Fabio Liberti, EDA Project Officer in charge of defence and industry
                                           analysis, provides us with an assessment of Europe’s defence and
                                           technological industrial base
the future

                                                       he European Council in December 2013                  EU countries can be seriously compromised.
                                                       highlighted the need for a more integrated,               The European defence sector is today composed of
                                                       sustainable, innovative and competitive               world-class, highly-skilled companies, thanks to decades
                                                       defence technological and industrial base, to         of strong public investment in the sector and to the
                                                       develop and sustain defence capabilities. In order    technological excellence of EU Member States. The
                                           to do so, it is important for Member States to have a shared      sector is extremely competent and competitive, while
                                           assessment of the current trends affecting the European           being financially healthy. But not everything can be read
                                           defence technological and industrial base (EDTIB). To assist      and analysed through rose-coloured glasses. Several
                                                              them in this exercise, the European            negative trends are affecting the sector, forcing
                                                              Defence Agency recently carried out an         European defence industries to operate in a very difficult
                                                              analysis of the state of this EDTIB.           environment – and the analysis carried out by the Agency
             “Industries are getting                               Several scientific articles focusing on   sought to identify them.
             more national and more                           the subject have been published over the           First of all, defence investment spending in Europe is
             international, but not                           last decade, sometimes questioning the         constantly decreasing (in real terms, total defence
                                                              definition of a ‘European’ defence industry,   expenditure has decreased by 15% since 2006), while
             more European”                                   calling for industrial consolidation or        increasing elsewhere in the world (such as in the so-called
                                                              comparing the state of the sector with         BRIC countries – Brazil, Russia, India and China).
                                                              third countries. EDA’s analysis is meant to
                                           contribute to this debate at a time when new threats              A lack of programmes
                                           emerge on the international stage and when European                     Secondly, there are no new major defence
                                           armed forces are called to contribute to international            programmes in the pipeline, a situation that will potentially
                                           security and the defence of European borders.                     affect Europe’s ability to design and manufacture complex
                                                                                                             weapon systems in the future. Without new programmes,
                                           World-class, highly-skilled                                       it is increasingly complicate to retain on European soil the
                                               The defence industry develops equipment tailored to           key skills and industrial capacities needed to manufacture
                                           the needs of European Union (EU) armed forces. Without a          and maintain complex defence systems. Also, around one-
                                           strong defence industrial sector, the freedom of action of        third of the European defence industrial workforce is aged


                                                              © UK MOD

Projects, such as the Elizabeth class aircraft carrier are seen as
National rather than European

over 50, with the industry facing a risk for a substantial
loss of expertise when these individuals reach retirement
age. Finally, without new programmes, there is a very
serious risk that the defence industry will lose most of its
attractiveness for young engineers, who might want to
choose a career in the commercial sector.
     It should also be underlined that EDTIB players are
becoming more and more dependent on the export
market, against a backdrop of aggressive global
competition (third countries are investing heavily in the
defence sector, and promoting actively the development                                                                                       R&T
of ‘national champions’) and increasing demand for

                                                                                                                                             the future
technology transfer. Meanwhile, American companies are
becoming more and more competitive on the global stage
(even if they sometimes remain absent in some specific
sectors and markets), thanks inter alia to the International               “The sector is extremely
Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) regulation reform.                       competent and
Need to adapt
                                                                            competitive, while being
    In order to adapt to this changing environment,                         financially healthy. But not
European defence companies are diversifying their                           everything can be read
activities, increasing the share of their turnover generated
from the civilian market and their role as service providers.
                                                                            and analysed through
There also seems to be a growing tendency to see military                   rose-coloured glasses”
activities as a problem for a company rather than an
opportunity.                                                             also to meet the demand for ‘local content’ mandated by
    Eventually, in a sector historically characterised by                the export market). At the same time, EU countries
strong ties between governments and defence                              affected by the economic downturn tried to preserve
contractors (governments funding research &                              ‘jobs at home’. In the end, European defence industries
technology and research & development, granting export                   are getting more national and more international, but not
licences, acting as prime and often sole customer as well                more European.
as key shareholder), a loosening of these ties is visible.                    Against all these backdrops, the European Defence
The risk is a ‘divorce’ between Europe and its defence                   Agency is offering its expertise to help its Member States
industry, with a consequent industrial desertification in                to develop a shared assessment of the defence industry
the European defence sector and serious impact in                        landscape and status. In these times of critical
terms of security of supply and strategic                                importance for Europe’s defence industry, dedicated
autonomy/freedom of action.                                              actions must be taken to strengthen the European
    Again, in the absence of major programmes, the                       defence technological and industrial base. Europe’s
defence industry tried to penetrate third country markets,               ability to launch the programmes of the 2030s and
and had to diversify its supply chain (to cut its costs but              beyond is at stake.

E U R O P E A N D E F E N C E M AT T E R S     Issue 7 2015                                                                                   15

                                   Trends in European
                                   defence spending
                                   In times of constant pressure on defence budgets in the European Union,
                                   the European Defence Agency has taken a close look at spending trends
                                   among Member States to produce its annual Defence Data booklet. Here
                                   we review some of the document’s key findings

                                           or the eighth year in a row, the European Defence        upon by EDA Member States in 2007. According to one of
                                           Agency has published a comprehensive                     these benchmarks, defence R&T expenditure should
                                           document gathering data on Europe’s defence              amount to 2% of total defence spending. The figures for
                                           expenditure. Part of the Agency’s mission to             2013 fall short of this objective: defence R&T spending
                                           monitor and strengthen the European defence              only amount to 1.12% of total expenditure. “The steady
                                   technological and industrial base, this extensive work           reduction in R&T spending as a percentage of total
                                   aims to provide the defence community with an                    defence expenditure is still on-going”, Silvija Guzelyte
                                   overview of defence spending in the EU, both from a              explains, “even if we have witnessed small increases in
                                                     macroeconomic and a collaborative              2011 and 2013”. On the other hand, the benchmark set by
                                                     point of view. The latest issue of the         Member States on the proportion of defence equipment
                                                     Defence Data booklet focused on 2013           procurement and R&D (investment) in the total
R&T                                                  aggregated figures – the most recent           expenditure has been slowly but steadily increasing,
                                                     ones available for participating Member        remaining above the agreed 20% mark since 2007.
the future

                                                     States who voluntarily provide the data
                                                     to the Agency.                                 A worrisome trend
                                                                                                         Since 2012, it has not been possible to provide a
                                                        Trends                                      comprehensive picture of the total EDA Member States’
                                                            “Generally speaking, 2013 didn’t        expenditure on collaborative (including European
               Silvija Guzelyte,
               EDA Project         contradict the trend we have been witnessing in recent           collaboration) defence equipment procurement and R&T
               Officer Defence     years”, Silvija Guzelyte, EDA Project Officer Defence &          projects or programmes, as several Member States were not
               & Industry          Industry Analysis, underlines. “Despite the fact that the        able to provide this data. However, “a glimpse into the partial
                                   number of EDA participating Member States increased in           2012–2013 data reveals a worrisome trend, particularly for
                                   2013 from 26 to 27, the total defence expenditure decreased      defence equipment procurement”, the EDA Project Officer
                                   by €1.7 billion”, she adds. In real terms, the total defence     stresses. Between 2012 and 2013, reported collaborative
                                   expenditure has been declining steadily since 2006. “It has      equipment procurement expenditure decreased by 20.7% to
                                   dropped by over €32 billion or about 15% from 2006 to 2013”,     the lowest level since 2006 of €4.75 billion. In relation to the
                                   the officer in charge of the Defence Data study points out.      total defence equipment procurement, collaborative
                                   Overall, EU Member States spent €186 billion on defence in       expenditure accounted for15.9%, suggesting that over 84%
                                   2013. As a comparison, the United States – which remains         was spent nationally. European collaborative equipment
                                   the world’s biggest defence spender – dedicated                  procurement experienced an even sharper decrease of
                                   approximately €600 billion to its military budget in 2013.       21.6%, and in 2013, amounted to €4.50 billion, accounting for
                                       The situation is slightly different when it comes to         94.6% of the total collaborative equipment procurement.
                                   research and development (R&D) as well as research and                The total collaborative defence R&T expenditure of the
                                   technology (R&T) spending. Breaking a downward trend that        EDA Member States that provided the data also shrank,
                                   had been observed since 2006, defence R&D expenditure            though less dramatically (-0.9%), to €203 million. Its share
                                   increased slightly in 2013 to €7.5 billion, amounting to 4% of   in total defence R&T was 9.7%, the remaining 90.3% being
                                   the total defence expenditure. R&T, which is considered a        regarded as national expenditure. Although the reported
                                   subset of R&D, followed a similar path, increasing by just       European collaborative defence R&T expenditure increased
                                   over 3% from 2012 to 2013 and reaching €2.1 billion.             by 21.4% between 2012 and 2013, with a total of €168 million,
                                       However, these figures need to be analysed against           accounting for 82.5% of the total collaborative defence R&T,
                                   a set of collective benchmarks for investments agreed            it nevertheless remained at a record low.


  Defence expenditure breakdown (billion EUR and % change on previous year)
             110.6                           -4.2%                               +1.1%
                                             106.0                           107.2
                                                                                                                     -8.2%                            +0.3%                              +0.2%
                                                                                                                     98.4                             98.7                               98.8                                -3.1%
  100                                                                                                                                                                                                                        95.7                         -4.1%


                                                     +8.1%                                                                                                                                                                           +0.5%                        +4.4%
                                                     46.9 +7.7%                          -7.8% +0.3%                         +2.0%                            -1.0% +4.8%                       +2.2%                                                             46.8
                     43.4                                                                43.2 42.0                           44.1 -2.6%                       43.7 42.9                         44.6 -10.5%                          44.8 +1.6%
                            38.9                          41.9                                                                    40.9                                                                                                    39.0
   40                                                                                                                                                                                                  38.4                                                               37.5

   20                                                                                                                                        +19.5%                                                                                                                           +19.7%
                                                                  +13.9%                               -4.3%                                                             -21.8%                               -3.4%                               +6.1%
                                                                   9.3                                 8.9                                    10.7                                                             8.1                                8.6                             10.2
                                   8.2                                                                                                                                      8.4

    0                                                                                                                                                                                                   1                                    1
                      2006                             2007                               2008                                2009                              2010                                 2011                              2012                         2013
                     Personnel           Operations and maintenance                                Investment (equivalent procurement and R&D)                                    Other expenditure (including infrastructure/construction)
                  Revised data

  Defence expenditure in current and constant prices (billion EUR)

  220                 218


  205                                         204
                      201                                                  201

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         the future
  195                                                                                                  194                            194

                                                                                                                                                              1902                        190
  190                                                                                                                                                                             1882
                     2006             2007                           2008                          2009                           2010                        2011                       2012                        2013
                     Constant prices (2013)                        Current prices
         1                                                                                                     2
             Data from 2006 to 2012 has been inflated to 2013 economic conditions                                  Revised data               Source of deflator: European Commission ECFIN – based on weight of EU-28

  Defence investment breakdown (billion EUR and % change on previous year)

   45                                                                                                                             +4.8%
                                              +7.7%                      +0.3%                         -2.6%                     42.87
                                             41.90                       42.02                     40.92                                                      -10.5%                     +1.6%
   40                38.92                                                                                                                                   38.37                       38.97                       -3.8%
                                                                         +3.2%                         -2.3%                     34.31
   35                                        +10.7%                      33.27                                                                                                           +3.0%
                                             32.24                                                   32.52                                                    -10.8%
                                                                                                                                                             30.60                       31.50                       -4.9%
                      29.13                                                                                                                                                                                          29.97



                      9.79                    9.66                       -9.5%                         -4.0%                         +1.9%
   10                                                                    8.75                                                                                 -9.2%                      -3.9%                       +0.9%
                                                                                                       8.40                          8.56                     7.77                                                   7.53
    5                                         -4.3%                      -2.5%                         -8.9%                      -8.0%                       +3.4%                      -5.7%                       -3.1%
                      2.66                    2.54                       2.48                          2.26                          2.08                     2.15                       2.03                        2.09
    0                                                                                                                                                                2                           2
                     2006                    2007                        2008                      2009                           2010                       2011                        2012                        2013
                     Total investment                    Equipment procurement                                     R&D                 R&T
         1                               2
         R&T is a subset of R&D          Revised data

E U R O P E A N D E F E N C E M AT T E R S                               Issue 7 2015                                                                                                                                                                                                     17

     New wings for Europe’s
     strategic tanker fleet
     Three European nations have agreed to move forward and enter negotiations
     with Airbus for the purchase of a pooled fleet of new-generation tanker aircraft.
     This initiative will help alleviate some critical capability shortfalls, as we explain
     in this issue of European Defence Matters

                  hey have become absolutely                reached with the decision of the Netherlands,           expected in 2019, participating Member States
                  essential to the success of modern        Poland and Norway to move forward together by           will work on placing a contract at the end of
                  air operations, yet they remain a         entering negotiations with Airbus Defence &             2015 or early in 2016. They will be assisted in this
                  scarce resource in Europe. Air-to-air     Space for the acquisition of a common fleet of          process by the Organisation Conjointe de
                  (AAR) refuelling aircraft, more           A330 MRTT multirole tanker transport aircraft.          Coopération en matière d’ARmement (OCCAR)
     commonly known as tankers, are designed to             Facilitated by the European Defence Agency who          and the NATO Support Agency (NSPA), the former
     provide other air assets with the fuel they need       gathered Member States’ requirements and                providing its expertise in the management of
     to increase their range or to loiter for extended      drafted a Request for Information which was             cooperative programmes and the latter acting
     periods of time over a battlefield. But as all post-   sent to the industry earlier in 2014, this initiative   as the contract holder on behalf of Member
     Cold War operations have shown, European air           was carried out under a Dutch lead.                     States. “This is a model for closer co-operation
     forces are largely dependent on American                    “This project is an example of innovative and      between nations and defence organisations”,
     tankers when they get involved in a coalition          future-oriented cooperation between like-minded         explains Pete Round, EDA Capabilities, Armament
     operation. During the 2011 campaign over Libya,        European countries. It means that the joint             & Technology Director. “This new milestone is
     80% of all AAR missions were flown by US               capability to act is enhanced”, Dutch Minister of       in line with our objective to help increasing
     aircraft, this is no change from what happened in      Defence         Jeanine       Hennis-Plasschaert        the European tanker capability by 2020 and
     the Balkans in 1999. While Europe is able to field     commented right after the 19 December                   beyond through the establishment a
     approximately 40 tanker aircraft, the US has over      announcement. The global AAR capability in              multinational multirole tanker fleet”, he adds.
     550 tankers in its inventory.                          Europe will indeed be strengthened by this new               A single configuration has been selected for
                                                            acquisition: while the Netherlands is looking to        this common fleet of multirole tanker transport
     Addressing the shortfall                               replace its existing fleet of two KDC-10 tanker         aircraft, which should all be equipped with a rigid
         To address this shortfall, AAR was endorsed        aircraft, Poland and Norway currently lack this         boom as well as underwing pods, thus allowing
     as early as 2011 by the European Defence Agency        kind of strategic AAR capability. The joint MRTT        the tanker to refuel all equipped fixed-wing
     Steering Board as one of the initial eleven Pooling    acquisition will aim to procure an initial fleet of     receiver aircraft. They will also meet the users’
     & Sharing projects. During the European Council        four A330 tankers, with potential options for more      requirements in terms of passenger transport,
     meeting of December 2013, the work on AAR was          to be exercised later on.                               cargo transport, and medical evacuation. It is
     recognised as one of the four key capability                                                                   expected that these aircraft will be operated by
     projects for EDA to expend even more effort on.        Joint effort                                            a multinational unit from a main operating base
         On 19 December 2014, a major milestone was             With an initial operating capability (IOC)          located in Eindhoven, Netherlands. They should


                                                                                                                 The A330 MRTT in figures
                                                                                                                 • Overall Length: 58.80 m
                                                                                                                 • Overall Height: 17.40 m
                                                                                                                 • Wing Span: 60.30 m
                                                                                                                 • Maximum Take Off Weight: 233 000 kg
                                                                                                                 • Maximum Cruise Speed: Mach 0.86 (550 kt)
                                                                                                                 • Main Deck Maximum Useable Volume: 335 m3
                                                                                                                 • Internal Fuel Weight: 111 000 kg
                                                                                                                 • Maximum Payload: 45 000 kg
                                                                                                                 • Range with Maximum Payload: 7000 km
                                                                                                                 Source: Airbus

                                                                                                                                                                Images: © Airbus

be placed under the operational control of the          Synergies                                          Training (EART) series of exercises, the first of
European Air Transport Command (EATC) in order               Two other European countries have already which took place in March 2014 in Eindhoven.
to maximise the “Pooling & Sharing” effect of           chosen the A330 MRTT as their next-generation For the first time in Europe, it provided tanker
these new European assets. “This is more than           tanker aircraft: the United Kingdom and France. crews with the opportunity to share and refine
just a tanker”, Philippe Rütz, the EDA Pooling &        Even if these were procured through national their procedures in a realistic training
Sharing project officer, points out. “Thanks to its     programmes, potential synergies can be found environment. It attracted interest from several
modularity, the A330 MRTT will also contribute          in the field of support or training. But Member States including the Netherlands,
to an increase in Member States’ strategic              interoperability between European allies will also Germany and Italy. This first-of-its-kind event
passenger, cargo transport and medical                  be greatly improved. “This could help reduce the offered a great cooperation opportunity for the
evacuation capabilities”.                               European fragmentation in terms of tanker European AAR community and a second one
     Although the project has been kick-started         types”, Philippe Rütz
by a small group of three nations, other                explains. “Today, the 40              “This project is an example
countries could join the initiative later in the        tankers operational in                  of innovative and future-
process, be it through the acquisition or the in-       Europe are of multiple                  oriented cooperation
service phase. While OCCAR and NSPA will                different types, and this               between like-minded
effectively take over from the Agency to conduct        creates problem when it                 European countries. It means
negotiations and contracting with Airbus                comes to interoperability               that the joint capability to act
Defence & Space, this doesn’t mean EDA will             and receiver certification”,            is enhanced”
completely disappear from the radar scope as            he adds. The EDA is active in
far as this activity is concerned. “It is of great      that particular field: several          Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert,
importance to us to try and bring new Member            air-to-air      compatibility           Dutch Minister of Defence
                                                                                                                                           © Dutch Ministry of Defence
States around the table to broaden this project         certification trials with the
to a greater number of nations”, Philippe Rütz          Italian KC767 have already been organised to will take place in April 2015, once again in
underlines. “The Agency has a role to play in           alleviate that shortfall and make sure that tanker Eindhoven. If Member States want to play a
establishing links with other MRTT users in             aircraft will be “cleared” to refuel as many substantial role in future air operations while
Europe in order to yield operational and                European receivers as possible.                    reducing their dependence to the United
economic benefits through a collaborative                    Another Agency work strand focuses on States, there is only one way forward: doing
approach”, he stresses.                                 training, through the European Air Transport more together.

E U R O P E A N D E F E N C E M AT T E R S   Issue 7 2015                                                                                                                19
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