Evaluation of School Zone Improvement Schemes

6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)

    Evaluation of School Zone Improvement Schemes

                                           Lina Izzat Shbeeb, Nael Muwaffaq Alsaleh
                                                    Civil Engineering Department
                                                    Al-Ahliyya Amman University
                                                           Amman, Jordan

Abstract— This research work focused on the impact of                          The area is served with almost all means of public
implementing safety measures in the vicinity of school area as              transportation (busses, service cabs and taxes). Due to the
part of “safer home-zone” program on driving speed and                      closeness of this area to Amman down town, housing projects
behavior of both drivers and pedestrians. Demographic                       have been ever increasing.
characteristics of road users and trip attributed were considered
during the assessment. Implemented measures were carefully
planned and designed along the schools’ main entrances to                       Streets in the area are generally narrow, with many of
encourage active transport. The study area then was segmented               potholes and patches. The area lacks proper lighting system,
into zones to monitor and easily conduct before and after                   adequate traffic lights, and enough directional signs including
analysis. In order to meet the research goals and objective, a set          school zones, residential areas and street name panel signs.
of questions of interest were set forth and answered. Statistical           There are two properly timed traffic lights on Jabal Al Zhour
tests examined significant differences between before and after             streets that are installed in a clear visible location, but with no
the implemented improvements in some zones. Results indicated               pedestrian push button.
that differences in speed were noticed in certain zones. Other
behavioral issues of pedestrians and drivers were examined and
showed significance differences before and after improvements.
                                                                               Sidewalks are lacking, and have varying width (when
Interviewed pedestrians showed their overall satisfaction                   provided). Sidewalks in place are not well maintained and
regarding implemented improvements, although they were not                  they are often occupied by cars and construction materials.
fully informed prior to the implementation of improvements.                 There are also many stairs and stairways, either for houses or
                                                                            schools, which occupies considerable parts of the sidewalks.
    Keywords-component; Active transport; school             zones;         Few pedestrian crossings are in place. Car parking is
residential areas; pedestrian safety; safety evaluation                     permitted on both sides of the street, either at angle or parallel
                                                                            to the curb. However, parking supply is far and less than
                       I.    INTRODUCTION                                   parking demand.
   Residential areas, especially school zones are considered a                   There are seven parks in Ras Al Ein, five of them in Al
challenge when tackling safety issues in Jordan, due mainly to              Rawdeh neighbourhood and only one in Jabal Al zhour. Until
the lack of safety measures in the vicinity of schools. Amman,              2007, half of these parks were in poor condition, which makes
the capital City of Jordan is hosting more than half of Jordan’s            the streets as the only resort for children to play on.
schools. This research is investigating a typical school zone
located in Jabal Al – Zhour in Amman.                                            In 2007, pedestrians compose 17% of all reported
                                                                            accidents in Jabel Al Zhour area. Seven fatalities were
     Jabal Al – Zhour is located within Ras Al-Ein area, which              reported during that year. Children under age of 15 are at high
is one of the old areas formulating the capital City of Amman               risk in traffic. Car ownership is low in this area and walking to
with an area of 6.8 km2 and a population of 92,000 inhabitants              and from school is the main mode of transport, which might
(2010 statistics). Jabal Al – Zhour was developed along the                 expose them to high risk in high speed traffic environment.
main avenue passing through the area comprising 1.8 km2                     Initiatives were made to provide safer school zone. This study
with about 30,000 inhabitants. Al Rawdeh neighborhood,                      will attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of these initiatives in
which hosting the study area, has an overall area of 3.5 km2.               improving safety in school neighborhood.

     Public folk housing style is common as the majority of                                     II.   LITERATURE REVIEW
houses, are categorized as C or D. There is no industrial                       Research in the safety of residential areas and school
activity in the area, and this is due to planning and regulating            zones was approached from different sides: street geometrics;
constraints. Commercial activities in the area are limited to               drivers and pedestrian behavior; crossing style; walking and
small businesses, such as commercial shops and companies                    crossing time; children safety; traffic control and calming
that don't need a high number of employees.                                 measures; and active transport.

6th Annual International Conference on
Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)
Copyright © GSTF 2018
ISSN 2301-394X
doi: 10.5176/2301-394X_ACE18.55                                       460                                               GSTF © 2018
6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)

    The effect of modified signs and flashing beacons on                 and a higher percentage of local roads reduce pedestrian
reducing speeds in school zones was investigated [1]. The                crashes around schools, while higher percentages of highways
average speeds were reduced by 9.3 % (maintained at a 7 %                and commercial uses and higher transit stop densities increase
reduction one year after) when installing an oversized 25 mph            motorist and pedestrian crashes.
speed limit signs and flashing beacons at school zones along
35 mph multilane roadways. Speed compliance around                             Lee, G., Park, Y., Kim, J. and Cho, G.H., [9] examined
schools and playground areas was investigated [2]. The study             how environmental attributes near intersections influence the
found that the rate of compliance was higher in school zones             perceived crash risk among school-aged children, using
compared to playground zones, the study provided                         standard negative binomial and zero-inflated negative
recommendations to improve the effectiveness of speed limits             binomial models. The results showed that a higher number of
within these zones.                                                      student crossings, a wider road width, the presence of
                                                                         crosswalks, student-friendly facilities at the intersection, and
    The influential factors affecting active transportation              four-way intersections were significant and positively
policies were investigated [3]. Authors studied various policy           associated with perceived crash risk among school-aged
actions, such as school speed zone; drop-off; no transport               children. The findings related to building characteristics
zone; varying school hours (start/dismissal time); among                 indicated that a higher number of entrances at an intersection
others. The influential factors included sidewalks; crossings;           increased the perceived crash risk while higher visibility at the
funding; personal safety concerns and others. The paper                  intersection reduced the perception of risk.
concluded that stakeholders need to work together to stimulate
successful action and initiatives.                                                          III.   PROPOSED MEASURES
                                                                             Hikmat Road Safety (HRS) is one of the non-
    A master thesis [4] concluded that children walking to               governmental organizations. Its main goal is to provide
schools increase in urban setting when their school made a               support and assistance of civil society and government
commitment to improve the walking environment (crosswalks;               institutions to reduce the number of injuries and deaths
crossing refuges; and increasing speed monitoring). Also,                resulting from traffic accidents. HRS runs four programs to
chances of children to walk to school increase with age, and in          contribute towards this goal, namely:
favor to boys rather than girls.
                                                                                      •   Safer school
     Abdul Hanan, Suhaila, King, Mark J., and Lewis, Ioni M.,                         •   Safer street
[5] studied speeding in school zones in two countries;                                •   Safer home-zone
Australia and Malaysia. Authors found that school zones in
Australia relay more on driver compliance while in Malaysia                           •   Safer playground
they rely more on engineering countermeasures to force
drivers to slow down. The main findings of a Master thesis in                Two schools are located within Al Zhour area, which are
Dublin [6] showed that about 20% of drivers violating speed              Asma Bint Abi Baker School and Zaid Bin Shaker School,
limits near school zones. Age of drivers was contributing to             which are situated in a heavy populated residential area. The
the noncompliance of speed, where more young drivers violate             area also has a high rate of accidents. Under the Safer home-
speed limit compared to older drivers. And, more speed                   zone Program runs by HRS, Al Zhour has been sponsored by
violations were found during non-school days compared to                 The Land Company in cooperation with Greater Amman
school days.                                                             Municipality (GAM) to improve road safety measures in the
    Yu, C.Y. and Zhu, X., [7] discussed the results of a
before-after speed study conducted at six locations in Calgary              The aim of the project is to turn this home-zone into a
to determine the effectiveness of the Speed Limit Observation            model for safe residential neighborhoods. The project
and Warning System (SLOWS) trailers in reducing speed of                 components are as follows:
vehicles by warning the drivers with the speed display. Results
indicated that average speed during SLOWS trailer                                 •   Provide pedestrian crossing in specific location.
deployment reduced by 1.59 km/h to 5.64 km/h depending on
                                                                                  •   Construct convenient sidewalk.
the location, compared to before installation period. These
results were significantly different at 95% confidence level at                   •   Define proper access to school.
most locations.
                                                                                  •   Pedestrianize the street between the park and
    The impacts of school siting and surrounding built                                 school.
environments on rates of motorist and pedestrian crashes
around public schools was explored [8] in the Austin                              •    Provide means to improve the surface texture on
Independent School District, Texas, by using log-linear                                curves and steep grades.
regressions. The results show that a higher sidewalk coverage
                                                                                  •   Install fences along school areas.

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6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)

•    Widen the sidewalks at school exits.                                 Five streets within the neighborhood received major
                                                                      rehabilitation works as given in Table 1 and illustrated in
•    Encourage children to paint the school walls.                    Fig.1.
•    Install warning signs where required.

                                         Table 1: Implemented Improvements by Street Name

                                             Adopt of
                                             One-way                      Paving the
Street name        Sidewalk      Fence                    street to                         Crossing       Signing           Humps
                                              traffic                    road surface
                               ✓                                                                       (             ✓
 At Dar al-    ✓                                                                        (
                                school                         ✓        ✓                   ✓              ✓         (near crossing by
 Khtabah        both sides
                                 side                                                                                  school gates)
 Malek Bin     ✓                                                                        (
                                            ✓                              ✓
  Dinar         both sides
Elyas Fyyad    ✓                                                       ✓     (rigid
               ✓                                                                        (
Hadetha al-                                                                                                          ✓
               new on both                                                                  ✓              ✓
               ✓                                                                        (                            ✓
Kmal Jaradat   new on both                                                                                 ✓             (near Al Zhour
                  sides                                                                                                   school gates)

                                    Fig.1: Study Area and the Implemented Improvement Work

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                   IV.    STUDY OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this study are:
    • Evaluate the effectiveness of the implement
    • Look into the road user perception and the
        acceptance of the implement measures.

                     V.    METHODOLOGY                                                     Fig.2: The Five Zones of Dar al-Khtabah St.

    A number of field visits were made to the study area to                  •    How do different conditions affect the behavior?
explore the characteristics of the area. Traffic volume data for
each street that received improvement work was collected.                    •    Does the behavior differ when studied at different
Data on traffic mix was reported. Two periods of counting
were considered (morning and evening). The counting was
made in 15 – minute interval. Data on student volume by                      •    How many motorists give priority to pedestrians who
school gate was collected during a two hour of observation
                                                                                  intend to cross the street?
(morning and evening).
                                                                             •    How do the motorists and pedestrian behave in their
    Speed was measured for traffic on the main street to
school (Dar al-Khtabah St.) Speed has been measured                               encounters with each other?
manually, by divided the main street to school to five zones                 •    Is there a difference in the behavior of motorists
depending on section configuration in relation to intersection
location Fig.2. A sample of 30 vehicles (passenger car, trucks,                   and/or pedestrians due to the pedestrian gender, or if
and buses) was considered when collecting data for each zone.                     the crossing is done in groups or not?
The time required by each type of vehicle to traverse a defined
zone length was measured. The speed was calculated by                        •    Does age make a difference?
dividing the defined distance by the elapsed time. The                       •    How long time does it take to cross the street?
measurement has only been done on so-called free vehicles.
Free vehicle is that vehicle with a time gap of at least three               •    What is the waiting time?
seconds from the previous vehicle.
                                                                            When executing the study, pedestrians were chosen at
     The observer is expected to record type of passing                  random. The person in charge of the driver behavior sheet
vehicles, direction of travel, and if pedestrians were presented         would announce to start observing the first pedestrian to show
(or not) when vehicles passing.                                          up at curb. It was also imperative that the observers stand at a
                                                                         place from where all zones were clearly visible.
    Pedestrian volume was also counted by zone to be able to
define the most attractive places for pedestrians for two hours               The main behavioral patterns investigated are the drivers
(7:30 to 9:30 am). Pedestrians were classified into three                behavior (willingness to give way to pedestrian, either
different age categories (Category 1: Age  20 Years) and                    driver behavior) and pedestrian behavior (pedestrian crossing
gender (male and female).                                                style was considered “jogging or walking”, pedestrians as
                                                                         individual or in group, the total time of crossing the street for
    Behavior study was made to investigate the differences of            the pedestrians and the time waiting at the curb and ,
motorist behavior and pedestrian crossing behavior due to the            pedestrian - driver interaction when deciding to cross “there is
implementation of improvement. Furthermore, the study                    enough gap between vehicles, forcing the cars to stop by
investigates if certain behavior is related to other parameters          walking out in the street, or being given way”). To determine
like vehicle speed and risk. The study addressed the following           crossing time, the observer recorded the time from the
questions:                                                               moment when the pedestrian clearly showed a desire to cross
                                                                         the street; mostly when the pedestrian turned her/his head
                                                                         towards the vehicles coming at the near lane(s), until the
                                                                         moment that the pedestrian is out of the last lane. Data on age
                                                                         and gender were collected to enable better understanding of
                                                                         pedestrian behavior.

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    Finally, interviews were made for further understanding
the children perception of risk in traffic and their travel
pattern. It is known that observations study can't give correct
answered about some aspects that reflect the road user
perception, feeling and opinion, instead, interviewing road
user shed light on their understanding, and perception.

  Before and after study was made to addresses all presented
components of the survey.
                         VI.   RESULTS
     There is a variation in hourly pedestrian volume by zone.
The heaviest volume is reported in zone 2, which provide the                  PHF       0.42       0.88      0.43       0.73       0.68
main access to Asma’ Bent Abi Baker school. The traffic
volume in zone 4, which serves the gate of Zaid Bin Shaker                                Fig.3: Hourly Pedestrian Volume Variation by Zone
street, dropped by more than half of what have been recorded
at zone 2 as shown in Fig.3. There is variation within the
hour, particularly in zone 3, which runs parallel to school site.

   Hourly traffic volume is considered to be low (less than
100 vehicles per hour) with considerable variation in traffic
within the hour as indicated by PHF, which has a value of
0.64. The peak 15-minute traffic volume composes 39% of
hourly volume. Trucks compose one-tenth of traffic volume
with the study area as shown in Fig.4.

    Results indicated that there is significant difference in
                                                                          Truck %      0.0%          11.5%          11.1%       4.2%
speed due to improvement. The reduction is high at the school
gates because humps were introduced. The speed dropped by                                Fig.4: Hourly Traffic Volume and Composition
6.37 km/h in zone 2, which is proven to be significant as
shown in Fig.5. The observed reduction in speed is 2.42 km/h
but the study failed to indicate any statistical significance of
the results. The study also shows that speed tends to increase
in the zones that are located away from the gate (zones 1 and

    Looking at speed distribution for before and after
comparison, the study indicated that there is no significant
difference in speed distribution in zones 1, 3, and 5. The speed
distribution before improvement in zone 2, which provides
access to the main gate of Asma’ Bint Abi Baker school, is
significantly different from the speed distribution after
improvement as indicate by Kolmogrov and Smirnov test (k-s                          t=-0.15 t=4.02 t=0.66 t=1.81 t=-1.92
test) results (z=1.68 and p=0.007). Fig.6 shows that there is                       p=0.88 p=0.00 p=0.51 p=0.08 p=0.06
difference in the distribution due to the implementation of
improvement scheme is zone 4, but the data failed to prove                          Fig.5: Average Speed by Zone and Study Case (Before and After)
that the difference is significant.

     To further address the prevailing road user behavior
within the study area, the speed was first investigated in
relation to the presence of pedestrian within the study area and
then by zone.

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                                                              Zone        Statistical-test   Significant

                                                              1           K-S (Z)= 0.52      p=0.95

                                                              2           K-S (Z)=1.68       p=0.01

                                                              3           K-S (Z)=0.52       p=0.95

                                                              4           K-S (Z)=1.16       p=0.13

                                                              5           K-S (Z)=0.90       p=0.39

            Fig. 6: Speed Distribution Before and After Improvements

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     If there is no pedestrian has the intention to cross, the
average vehicle speed in the study area used to be 27km/h as
shown in Fig.7. On the other hand, the average speed can be
dropped by 4km/h if there is any pedestrian plan to cross or
start to cross. The analysis provided an evidence to indicate
that there is significant difference in the speed due to the
presence of pedestrian (t=118.6, p=0.003).          After the
improvement, the average speed slightly increased if there is
pedestrian in the vicinity, the difference is proven to be
insignificant (t=-0.210, p=0.834).

     Before improvement, the largest difference in speed due                Fig.7: The Influnce of Pedestrain Presence on Average Speed (km/h) in
                                                                                    the Study Area Before and After the Improvement
to the presence of pedestrians in the vicinity is reported in
zone 3, which extend along the school area between the two
gates. The reduction could reach up to 10 km/h, which was
found to be significant (t = 4.06, p = 0.000). The second
largest difference in speed was in zone 2 (gate of Asma’ Bint
Abi Baker school) with 6km/h, which was found to be
insignificant. Fig. 8 shows that the difference in speed was
significant at the 3rd zone whereas it was insignificant in the
remaining zones.

     Surprisingly, there was increase in speed at zone 3 after
the improvement when pedestrians were reported in the                            t=-0.49     t=2.06      t=4.06       t=1.10      t=0.33
vicinity. The only significant difference in speed (4 km/h) was                  p=0.63      p=0.05      p=0.000      p=0.28      p=0.75
reported in zone 2. The collected data do not provide
statistically significant differences in the remaining zones as              Fig.8: The Influnce of Pedestrain Presence on Average Speed (km/h)
shown in Fig.9.                                                                              Before the Improvement by Zone

     The study considers pedestrian behavior within the study
area, the study showed that before the improvement, the
highest percent of pedestrians who were observed in the 1st
lane while crossing the street is reported in zone 2 (main gate
of the school). After the improvement, the highest proportion
of crossing made in the first lane was in zone 3 (the zone that
extends between the school gates). However, the collected
data failed to prove if pedestrian selection of crossing zone
changed after improvement (k-s (Z) = - 0.527, P = - 0.94).
The study showed that the pedestrian tends to remain in the
same zone when crossing the second lane of street after the                      t=1.38       t=2.29       t=-0.24      t=0.56      t=0.70
improvement (Figure 9) while this is not the case before the                     p=0.19       p=0.03       p=0.81       p=0.58      p=0.49
improvement. The study showed that there is a high variation
                                                                              Fig.9: The Influnce of Pedestrain Presence on Average Speed (km/h)
in number of crossings made in the second lane by zone before                                 After the Improvement by Zone
the improvement. The variation tends to be less after the
improvement. There is no significant difference in the
selection of second lane crossing zone in the second lane due
to improvement (K-S (Z) = - 1.05, P = - 0.22).
Zigzag is a crossing style that was more frequent before the

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     Fig.10 indicated that fewer numbers of crossings were                     Pedestrian interaction with drivers was observed and the
reported after improvement. The analysis showed that crossing              results showed that before the improvement, pedestrians did
style before the improvement (straight or zigzag) differs                  not have the chance to cross but they forced the driver to give
significantly by crossing zone (2=33.96, p=0.00), which was               way by giving signs to bring the driver attention for their act
not the case after the improvement (2=4.93, p=0.18).                      or by running into the street forcing the driver to give way.
                                                                           After the improvement, more gaps were made available and
    The average waiting before the improvement is 3.33                     less pedestrian were obliged to force the drivers to give way
minutes which is reduced to only 2.6 minute after the                      when crossing. In fact, more drivers were willing to give way.
improvement. But there is no significant difference in waiting             Table 3 shows that there is significant difference in pedestrian
time due to improvements (Table 2). Crossing time was                      behaviour due to the improvements in zone 2 and 3, which is
reduced by 58 seconds due to improvements. The difference in               not the case for zone 4 and 5 as indicated by chi-square test
crossing time was statistically significant.                               results.

                                                                                                K-S (Z)=-1,05, P=-0.216

                                            Fig.10: Pedestrian Crossing Zone Selection by Travelling Lane

                                         Table 2: Waiting and Crossing Time Difference due to Improvement

                   Parameter            Case            Mean           Std. Deviation     Std. Error Mean      T-Test

                  Waiting Time         Before            3.33               1.86               0.277
                                                                                                            t=1.91 p=0.08
                     (min)              After            2.60               1.99               0.297

                 Crossing Time         Before            6.78               1.51               0.224
                                                                                                            t=2.85 p=0.01
                     (min)              After            5.82               1.67               0.249

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6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)

                                    Table 3: Crossing Pedestrian Interaction with Driver before and after Improvement.

                               Before                                                  After
 Zone                       Pedestrian                                         Pedestrian force                            2              Sig.
           Driver give                       Adequate Gap          Driver                            Adequate Gap
                          force driver to                                       driver to give-
              way                              to cross           give way                             to cross
                             give-way                                                way
   1         33.3%            66.7%
   2         57.1%            42.9%                                 8.3%             66.7%                 25.0%          8.63             0.013
   3         16.7%            83.3%                                26.7%             26.7%                 46.7%          10.03            0.007
   4         28.6%            71.4%                                42.9%             14.3%                 42.9%          5.87             0.053
   5         22.2%            77.8%                                36.4%             45.5%                 18.2%          2.83             0.243


    Around one-third of interviewed pedestrians were involved
either in accidents or sever conflicts. The study showed that
44% of the pedestrians cross 5 streets or more to reach the
school from home or vice versa. On average, before the
improvements, more than half of interviewed pedestrians were
forced to leave the sidewalk (step down) about 10 times
during their way home from school. Only 10% of pedestrians                                        Fig.12: Road Safety Improvement Rating by Gender
walk less than 5 minutes to school whereas 54% walk more
than 15 minutes to reach their destinations.
                                                                                               Table 4: Walking Time to and from School Before and After
    One-third of pedestrians believe that none of the drivers do
safe driving. Slightly less than one-quarter of pedestrian
                                                                                     Walking                                        Std.
complain that none of the drivers give them the right of way                          Time         Mean       N
                                                                                                                                   Error          t    Sig
and 58% of pedestrians indicated that many of driver speed up                         (min)                          Deviation
at the intersections as shown in Fig.11.
                                                                                      Before       15.81      69       10.69        1.29
    The interviewed road users rated measures that were taken                                                                                  3.62   0.0006
as highly relevant to improve road safety as shown in Fig.12.                          After       12.87      69       7.89         0.95
Male participants have higher appreciation of the
improvement (94% rated the measure 6 or above compared to
80% for females) as shown in Fig.13.

   Pedestrians reported that there is a reduction in walking
time to and from school after the improvement by 3 minutes
(Table 4). The difference is statistically different (t=3.62 and

   More pedestrian were accompanied by a member of their
family after the improvements and less were walking alone as
shown in Fig.14.

                                                                                                             Fig.13: Arrival Means to School

                                                                                       Pedestrians were satisfied with the improvement as more
                                                                                   than 90% of them consider that the height sidewalks and width
                                                                                   are comfortable. There is an increase in the use of improved
                                                                                   sidewalk that exceeds 80% while 75% of interviewed
              Fig.11: Pedestrian Perception of Driver Behaviour
                                                                                   pedestrians use the marked crossings and the majority of them

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(89%) believe crossing streets become faster and safer after                 Crossing styles (straight or zigzag) dropped after
the improvements and 83% of them suggest that there is                   improvement, analysis showed significant differences in style
decease in waiting time before crossing. Around two-thirds of            by crossing zone before improvements, while no statistical
pedestrians indicated that more drivers are willing to give way          differences can be detected after improvement. No significant
for pedestrian after the improvements and drive at slower                difference can be detected in waiting time before and after
speed, which indicates noticeable change in driver behavior              improvements. While crossing time showed significant
due to the improvement. Although 74% of pedestrians think                differences (reduction) after improvements took place.
that the walking distance to reach the nearest crossing
decrease, but 64% of them still think it is long distance to                 The interaction between pedestrians and drivers showed
walk. Finally, pedestrian receive little information about the           significant differences in zones near the entrances, but failed
improvement before work started.                                         to show that in the zones. Interviewed pedestrians showed
                                                                         their    overall     satisfaction   regarding    implemented
                                                                         improvements, although they were not fully informed prior to
                      VIII. DISCUSSION                                   the implementation of improvements.

    This research work focused on the impact of
implementing safety measures in the vicinity of school area as                                          REFERENCES
part of “safer home-zone” program on driving speed and
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                                                                         [8]   Yu, Chia-Yuan, and Xuemei Zhu. "Planning for Safe Schools: Impacts
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no pedestrians intending crossing.            Surprisingly after               Journal of Planning Education and Research 36, no. 4 (2016): 476-486.
improvements, only one zone (zone 4) showed significant                  [9]   Lee, Gain, Yuna Park, Jeongseob Kim, and Gi-Hyoug Cho. "Association
drop in speed, while all other zone did not show any                           between intersection characteristics and perceived crash risk among
significant differences at 5 % significant level.                              school-aged children." Accident Analysis & Prevention 97 (2016): 111-

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